Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
The anterior and posterior arteries created at the bifurcation of the popliteal artery. The anterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle and lies along the tibia at the distal part of the leg to surface superficially anterior to the ankle joint. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg, ankle, and foot. The posterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, lies behind the tibia in the lower part of its course, and is found situated between the medial malleolus and the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg and foot.
A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.
An alternative to amputation in patients with neoplasms, ischemia, fractures, and other limb-threatening conditions. Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
A non-atherosclerotic, inflammatory thrombotic disease that commonly involves small and medium-sized arteries or veins in the extremities. It is characterized by occlusive THROMBOSIS and FIBROSIS in the vascular wall leading to digital and limb ISCHEMIA and ulcerations. Thromboangiitis obliterans is highly associated with tobacco smoking.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.
The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
A pathological condition caused by impaired blood flow in the basal regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA), such as INFARCTION; HEMORRHAGE; or ISCHEMIA in vessels of this brain region including the lateral lenticulostriate arteries. Primary clinical manifestations include involuntary movements (DYSKINESIAS) and muscle weakness (HEMIPARESIS).
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES, or transplanted BLOOD VESSELS, or other biological material to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.
The tunnel in the lower anterior ABDOMINAL WALL through which the SPERMATIC CORD, in the male; ROUND LIGAMENT, in the female; nerves; and vessels pass. Its internal end is at the deep inguinal ring and its external end is at the superficial inguinal ring.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Comparison of the BLOOD PRESSURE between the BRACHIAL ARTERY and the POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY. It is a predictor of PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Material, usually gauze or absorbent cotton, used to cover and protect wounds, to seal them from contact with air or bacteria. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Pathological conditions involving ARTERIES in the skull, such as arteries supplying the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, the BRAIN STEM, and associated structures. They include atherosclerotic, congenital, traumatic, infectious, inflammatory, and other pathological processes.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.
Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Obstruction of the flow in the SPLANCHNIC CIRCULATION by ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; THROMBOSIS; STENOSIS; TRAUMA; and compression or intrinsic pressure from adjacent tumors. Rare causes are drugs, intestinal parasites, and vascular immunoinflammatory diseases such as PERIARTERITIS NODOSA and THROMBOANGIITIS OBLITERANS. (From Juergens et al., Peripheral Vascular Diseases, 5th ed, pp295-6)
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.
The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
Endovascular procedure in which atheromatous plaque is excised by a cutting or rotating catheter. It differs from balloon and laser angioplasty procedures which enlarge vessels by dilation but frequently do not remove much plaque. If the plaque is removed by surgical excision under general anesthesia rather than by an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ENDARTERECTOMY.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
An amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs and from there redistributed primarily to the brain and liver. It is used in brain radionuclide scanning with I-123.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.
A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.
Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.
Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Protrusion of tissue, structure, or part of an organ through the bone, muscular tissue, or the membrane by which it is normally contained. Hernia may involve tissues such as the ABDOMINAL WALL or the respiratory DIAPHRAGM. Hernias may be internal, external, congenital, or acquired.
Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)
A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.

The evolution of early fibromuscular lesions hemodynamically induced in the dog renal artery. I. Light and transmission electron microscopy. (1/2527)

In view of the important roles of arterial intimal fibromuscular lesions as precursors of atherosclerotic plaque and occlusive lesions in arterial reconstructions, a model has been developed for the rapid hemodynamic induction of these lesions by anastomosis of the dog right renal artery to the inferior vena cava. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations were made on the arterial shunt after periods of rapid flow ranging form 10 minutes to 2 hours to identify initial factor(s) and evolutionary mechanisms in the etiology of the lesions. The sequence of events included aberrations in ruthenium red staining of the endothelial luminal membrane at 10 minutes, multilayered thickening of the subendothelial basement membrane (BM) at 15 minutes, and initial reorientation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into the intima along with the appearance of areas of degeneration of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) at 30 minutes. The endothelial cells were still intact in some areas overlying the SMC migration and IEL degeneration, but they were separating from the surface in other such areas. As subendothelium became exposed, some platelet adherence was noted. By 2 hours, the entire wall reaction was fully developed. Initial observations indicate that in the evolution of this hemodynamically induced lesion visible alteration in the endothelial cells is not prerequisite to degeneration of the underlying IEL and reorientation and migration of medial SMC.  (+info)

Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and associated risk factors in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study. (2/2527)

Studies of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in minority populations provide researchers with an opportunity to evaluate PAD risk factors and disease severity under different types of conditions. Examination 1 of the Strong Heart Study (1989-1992) provided data on the prevalence of PAD and its risk factors in a sample of American Indians. Participants (N = 4,549) represented 13 tribes located in three geographically diverse centers in the Dakotas, Oklahoma, and Arizona. Participants in this epidemiologic study were aged 45-74 years; 60% were women. Using the single criterion of an ankle brachial index less than 0.9 to define PAD, the prevalence of PAD was approximately 5.3% across centers, with women having slightly higher rates than men. Factors significantly associated with PAD in univariate analyses for both men and women included age, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c level, albuminuria, fibrinogen level, fasting glucose level, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and duration of diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict PAD for women and men combined. Age, systolic blood pressure, current cigarette smoking, pack-years of smoking, albuminuria (micro- and macro-), low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and fibrinogen level were significantly positively associated with PAD. Current alcohol consumption was significantly negatively associated with PAD. In American Indians, the association of albuminuria with PAD may equal or exceed the association of cigarette smoking with PAD.  (+info)

Transforming growth factor-alpha acting at the epidermal growth factor receptor reduces infarct volume after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. (3/2527)

Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) is a ligand for the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), and is more abundant than EGF in the brain. The authors studied whether administration of exogenous TGF-alpha into the brain can protect neurons against ischemia in a model of permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in the rat, and whether any effect of TGF-alpha was mediated by EGFR by administering 4,5-dianilinophthalimide (DAPH), a protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor with high selectivity for EGFR. Rats received either TGF-alpha (10 or 25 ng), DAPH (100 ng), DAPH plus TGF-alpha (25 ng), or vehicle in the ipsilateral first ventricle. Drugs were administered twice: 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after MCA occlusion, and infarct volume was evaluated 24 hours later. Transforming growth factor-alpha at the dose of 25 ng caused a statistically significant reduction of infarct volume (60%) in relation to ischemic rats administered vehicle. This reduction was no longer seen when TGF-alpha was administered in combination with DAPH. The present results show that TGF-alpha can protect neurons from ischemic damage, and that this effect is mediated by EGFR. It is suggested that activation of EGFR-mediated intracellular signalling pathways contributes to the survival of neural cells susceptible to ischemic injury.  (+info)

3D angiography. Clinical interest. First applications in interventional neuroradiology. (4/2527)

3D angiography is a true technical revolution that allows improvement in the quality and safety of diagnostic and endovascular treatment procedures. 3D angiography images are obtained by reconstruction of a rotational angiography acquisition done on a C-arm (GE Medical Systems) spinning at 40 degrees per second. The carotid or vertebral selective injection of a total of 15 ml of non-ionic contrast media at 3 ml/sec over 5 seconds allows the selection of the "arterial phase". Four hundred sixty 3D angiographic studies were performed from December 1996 to September 1998 on 260 patients and have been analyzed in MIP (Maximum Intensity Projection) and SSD (Shaded Surface Display) views. The exploration of intracranial aneurysms is simplified and only requires, for each vascular axis, a biplane PA and Lateral run followed by a single rotational angiography run. The 3D angiography image is available on the workstation's screen (Advantage Workstation 3.1, GE Medical Systems) in less than 10 minutes after the acquisition of the rotational run. It therefore allows one to analyze, during the intervention, the aneurysm's angioarchitecture, in particular the neck, and select the best therapeutic technique. When endovascular treatment is the best indication, 3D angiography allows one to define the optimal angle of view and accurately select the microcoils dimensions. 3D angiography replaces the multiple oblique views that used to be required to analyze the complex aneurysms and therefore allows a reduction of the total contrast medium quantity, the patient X-ray dose and the length of the intervention time which is a safety factor. Also, in particular for complex cases, it brings additional elements complementing the results of standard 2D DSA and rotational angiograms. In the cervical vascular pathology, 3D angiography allows for a better assessment of the stenosis level and of dissection lesions. Our current research activities focus on the matching without stereotactic frame between 3D X-ray angiography and volumetric MR acquisition, which should allow us to improve the treatment of intracerebral arterio-venous malformations (AVMs).  (+info)

Inhibition of nitric oxide but not prostacyclin prevents poststenotic dilatation in rabbit femoral artery. (5/2527)

BACKGROUND: Poststenotic dilatation (PSD) occurs in a low-pressure region where recirculation eddies oscillate in size during the cardiac cycle. NO may be an important mediator of PSD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Femoral arteries of 7 adult male New Zealand White rabbits were stenosed bilaterally to achieve a diameter reduction of 70. 9+/-6.7% (n=14). At the time of stenosis, the adventitia of one of the arteries was coated with 1 mmol/L of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in 22% (wt/vol) Pluronic gel, while the contralateral vessel was coated with gel without L-NAME. In stenosed femoral arteries that were treated with gel without L-NAME, a maximum PSD of 30.99+/-7.92% (n=7) was observed in polymer casts at 3 days relative to the mean proximal diameter of 1.57+/-0.25 mm at a position 12 mm upstream of each stenosis. In contrast, the vessels treated with L-NAME exhibited a maximum PSD of only 7.16+/-8.81% (n=7) relative to the mean proximal diameter of 1.55+/-0.16 mm. L-NAME caused a 76. 9% reduction (P<0.001, n=7) of PSD. Similarly, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine 1 mmol/L and NG-nitro-L-arginine 10 micromol/L attenuated PSD by 57.5% (P<0.001, n=6) and 63.9% (P<0.05, n=6), respectively. Indomethacin 10 micromol/L caused no reduction in PSD. Arterial rings obtained from the poststenotic region were more sensitive and responsive to acetylcholine than those obtained proximal to the stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: NO, but not prostacyclin, is a major mediator of PSD.  (+info)

Sites of stenosis in AV fistulae for haemodialysis access. (6/2527)

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of late failures of radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulae are related to the progression of intimal hyperplasia. The aetiology of this process is still unknown but the fistula configuration and resultant haemodynamics have been implicated. This clinical study was devised to identify sites of stenosis in patients with fistulae and relate the findings to various clinical and geometrical parameters. METHOD: Measurement of anastomotic length and angle was made intraoperatively in 25 consecutive fistulae. Post-operative assessment was carried out at regular intervals using duplex and colour-flow ultrasonography. RESULTS: Stenoses were present in all 25 of the fistulae studied at 3 months. The stenoses could be classified to three specific sites: at the anastomosis (Type 1), on the inner wall of the curved region of the cephalic vein (Type 2) and just proximal to this curved segment where the vein straightens out (Type 3). Most of Type 1 and Type 2 stenoses were not progressive while Type 3 stenoses were generally progressive. CONCLUSION: These findings emphasize the need for an effective surveillance programme of AV fistulae.  (+info)

The endovascular management of blue finger syndrome. (7/2527)

OBJECTIVES: To review our experience of the endovascular management of upper limb embolisation secondary to an ipsilateral proximal arterial lesion. DESIGN: A retrospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over 3 years, 17 patients presented with blue fingers secondary to an ipsilateral proximal vascular lesion. These have been managed using transluminal angioplasty (14) and arterial stenting (five), combined with embolectomy (two) and anticoagulation (three)/anti-platelet therapy (14). RESULTS: All the patients were treated successfully. There have been no further symptomatic embolic episodes originating from any of the treated lesions, and no surgical amputations. Complications were associated with the use of brachial arteriotomy for vascular access. CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular techniques are safe and effective in the management of upper limb embolic phenomena associated with an ipsilateral proximal focal vascular lesion.  (+info)

Infrainguinal revascularisation in the era of vein-graft surveillance--do clinical factors influence long-term outcome? (8/2527)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the variables affecting the long-term outcome of infrainguinal vein bypass grafts that have undergone postoperative surveillance. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Details of 299 consecutive infrainguinal vein grafts performed in 275 patients from a single university hospital were collected and analysed. All grafts underwent postoperative duplex surveillance. Factors affecting patency, limb salvage and survival rates were examined. These factors were gender, diabetes, hypertension, aspirin, warfarin, ischaemic heart disease, run-off, graft type, early thrombectomy, level of anastomoses and indication for surgery. RESULTS: The 6-year primary, primary assisted and secondary patency rates were 23, 47, and 57%, respectively. Six-year limb salvage and patient survival were 68 and 45%, respectively. Primary patency was adversely influenced by the use of composite vein grafts. Early thrombectomy was the only factor that significantly influenced secondary patency. Limb salvage was worse in diabetic limbs, limbs with poor run-off and in grafts that required early thrombectomy. Postoperative survival was better in males, claudicants and in patients who took aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: Although co-morbid factors did not influence graft patency rates, diabetes did adversely effect limb salvage. This study, like others before it, confirms that aspirin significantly reduces long-term mortality in patients undergoing infrainguinal revascularisation.  (+info)

Arterial occlusive diseases are medical conditions characterized by the blockage or narrowing of the arteries, which can lead to a reduction in blood flow to various parts of the body. This reduction in blood flow can cause tissue damage and may result in serious complications such as tissue death (gangrene), organ dysfunction, or even death.

The most common cause of arterial occlusive diseases is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this plaque can harden and narrow the arteries, restricting blood flow. Other causes of arterial occlusive diseases include blood clots, emboli (tiny particles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), inflammation, trauma, and certain inherited conditions.

Symptoms of arterial occlusive diseases depend on the location and severity of the blockage. Common symptoms include:

* Pain, cramping, or fatigue in the affected limb, often triggered by exercise and relieved by rest (claudication)
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb
* Coldness or discoloration of the skin in the affected area
* Slow-healing sores or wounds on the toes, feet, or legs
* Erectile dysfunction in men

Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet. Medications to lower cholesterol, control blood pressure, prevent blood clots, or manage pain may also be prescribed. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow.

Peripheral Vascular Diseases (PVD) refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels outside of the heart and brain. These diseases are characterized by a narrowing or blockage of the peripheral arteries, which can lead to reduced blood flow to the limbs, particularly the legs.

The primary cause of PVD is atherosclerosis, a buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the walls of the arteries, forming plaques that restrict blood flow. Other risk factors include smoking, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol levels, and a family history of vascular disease.

Symptoms of PVD can vary depending on the severity of the condition but may include leg pain or cramping during exercise (claudication), numbness or tingling in the legs, coldness or discoloration of the feet, sores or wounds that heal slowly or not at all, and in severe cases, gangrene.

PVD can increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, so it is essential to diagnose and treat the condition as early as possible. Treatment options include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy diet, medications to control symptoms and reduce the risk of complications, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to restore blood flow.

The popliteal artery is the continuation of the femoral artery that passes through the popliteal fossa, which is the area behind the knee. It is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg and foot. The popliteal artery divides into the anterior tibial artery and the tibioperoneal trunk at the lower border of the popliteus muscle. Any damage or blockage to this artery can result in serious health complications, including reduced blood flow to the leg and foot, which may lead to pain, cramping, numbness, or even tissue death (gangrene) if left untreated.

The tibial arteries are three major arteries that supply blood to the lower leg and foot. They are branches of the popliteal artery, which is a continuation of the femoral artery. The three tibial arteries are:

1. Anterior tibial artery: This artery runs down the front of the leg and supplies blood to the muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg, as well as to the foot. It becomes the dorsalis pedis artery as it approaches the ankle.
2. Posterior tibial artery: This artery runs down the back of the leg and supplies blood to the muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg. It then branches into the fibular (peroneal) artery and the medial and lateral plantar arteries, which supply blood to the foot.
3. Fibular (peroneal) artery: This artery runs down the outside of the leg and supplies blood to the muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg. It also provides branches that anastomose with the anterior and posterior tibial arteries, forming a network of vessels that helps ensure adequate blood flow to the foot.

Together, these arteries play a critical role in providing oxygenated blood and nutrients to the lower leg and foot, helping to maintain their health and function.

Intermittent claudication is a medical condition characterized by pain or cramping in the legs, usually in the calf muscles, that occurs during exercise or walking and is relieved by rest. This symptom is caused by insufficient blood flow to the working muscles due to peripheral artery disease (PAD), a narrowing or blockage of the arteries in the limbs. As the individual walks, the muscle demands for oxygen and nutrients increase, but the restricted blood supply cannot meet these demands, leading to ischemia (lack of oxygen) and pain. The pain typically subsides after a few minutes of rest, as the muscle's demand for oxygen decreases, allowing the limited blood flow to compensate. Regular exercise and medications may help improve symptoms and reduce the risk of complications associated with PAD.

In medical terms, the leg refers to the lower portion of the human body that extends from the knee down to the foot. It includes the thigh (femur), lower leg (tibia and fibula), foot, and ankle. The leg is primarily responsible for supporting the body's weight and enabling movements such as standing, walking, running, and jumping.

The leg contains several important structures, including bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, nerves, and joints. These structures work together to provide stability, support, and mobility to the lower extremity. Common medical conditions that can affect the leg include fractures, sprains, strains, infections, peripheral artery disease, and neurological disorders.

The iliac arteries are major branches of the abdominal aorta, the large artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The iliac arteries divide into two branches, the common iliac arteries, which further bifurcate into the internal and external iliac arteries.

The internal iliac artery supplies blood to the lower abdomen, pelvis, and the reproductive organs, while the external iliac artery provides blood to the lower extremities, including the legs and feet. Together, the iliac arteries play a crucial role in circulating blood throughout the body, ensuring that all tissues and organs receive the oxygen and nutrients they need to function properly.

The femoral artery is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower extremity of the human body. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus muscle of the thigh.

The femoral artery is located in the femoral triangle, which is bound by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the adductor longus muscle medially, and the biceps femoris muscle posteriorly. It can be easily palpated in the groin region, making it a common site for taking blood samples, measuring blood pressure, and performing surgical procedures such as femoral artery catheterization and bypass grafting.

The femoral artery gives off several branches that supply blood to the lower limb, including the deep femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery, and the profunda femoris artery. These branches provide blood to the muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues of the leg, ankle, and foot.

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is a medical condition characterized by the narrowing or blockage of arteries that supply blood to the extremities, most commonly the legs. This results in reduced blood flow, leading to symptoms such as leg pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness during physical activity, and in severe cases, tissue damage or gangrene. PAD is often indicative of widespread atherosclerosis, which is the hardening and narrowing of arteries due to the buildup of fatty deposits called plaques. It's important to note that early detection and management can help prevent serious complications.

Limb salvage is a medical term used to describe the surgical procedures and treatments aimed at preserving and restoring the functionality of a severely injured or diseased limb, rather than amputating it. The goal of limb salvage is to improve the patient's quality of life by maintaining their mobility, independence, and overall well-being.

Limb salvage may involve various surgical techniques such as vascular reconstruction, bone realignment, muscle flap coverage, and external fixation. These procedures aim to restore blood flow, stabilize bones, cover exposed tissues, and prevent infection. Additionally, adjuvant therapies like hyperbaric oxygen treatment, physical therapy, and pain management may be employed to support the healing process and improve functional outcomes.

Limb salvage is typically considered when a limb is threatened by conditions such as severe trauma, tumors, infections, or peripheral arterial disease. The decision to pursue limb salvage over amputation depends on factors like the patient's overall health, age, and personal preferences, as well as the extent of the injury or disease, potential for recovery, and likelihood of successful rehabilitation.

Ischemia is the medical term used to describe a lack of blood flow to a part of the body, often due to blocked or narrowed blood vessels. This can lead to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients in the tissues, which can cause them to become damaged or die. Ischemia can affect many different parts of the body, including the heart, brain, legs, and intestines. Symptoms of ischemia depend on the location and severity of the blockage, but they may include pain, cramping, numbness, weakness, or coldness in the affected area. In severe cases, ischemia can lead to tissue death (gangrene) or organ failure. Treatment for ischemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blocked blood flow, such as through medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Vascular patency is a term used in medicine to describe the state of a blood vessel (such as an artery or vein) being open, unobstructed, and allowing for the normal flow of blood. It is an important concept in the treatment and management of various cardiovascular conditions, such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and deep vein thrombosis.

Maintaining vascular patency can help prevent serious complications like tissue damage, organ dysfunction, or even death. This may involve medical interventions such as administering blood-thinning medications to prevent clots, performing procedures to remove blockages, or using devices like stents to keep vessels open. Regular monitoring of vascular patency is also crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and adjusting care plans accordingly.

Thromboangiitis obliterans, also known as Buerger's disease, is a rare inflammatory disease that affects the small and medium-sized arteries and veins, most commonly in the legs and feet but sometimes in the arms and hands. The condition is characterized by the formation of blood clots (thrombi) and inflammation in the affected blood vessels, leading to their obstruction and damage.

The exact cause of thromboangiitis obliterans is not known, but it is strongly associated with tobacco use, particularly smoking. The condition primarily affects young men, although women can also develop the disease. The symptoms include pain and cramping in the affected limbs, especially during exercise, skin discoloration, ulcers, and in severe cases, gangrene.

The diagnosis of thromboangiitis obliterans is based on a combination of clinical presentation, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. There is no cure for the disease, but quitting smoking and other tobacco products can help slow its progression and reduce the risk of complications. Treatment typically involves medications to manage symptoms, improve blood flow, and prevent further clotting. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or bypass blocked blood vessels.

Angioplasty, balloon refers to a medical procedure used to widen narrowed or obstructed blood vessels, particularly the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This procedure is typically performed using a catheter-based technique, where a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into an artery, usually through the groin or wrist, and guided to the site of the narrowing or obstruction in the coronary artery.

Once the catheter reaches the affected area, a small balloon attached to the tip of the catheter is inflated, which compresses the plaque against the artery wall and stretches the artery, thereby restoring blood flow. The balloon is then deflated and removed, along with the catheter.

Balloon angioplasty is often combined with the placement of a stent, a small metal mesh tube that helps to keep the artery open and prevent it from narrowing again. This procedure is known as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary angioplasty and stenting.

Overall, balloon angioplasty is a relatively safe and effective treatment for coronary artery disease, although complications such as bleeding, infection, or re-narrowing of the artery can occur in some cases.

Angiography is a medical procedure in which an x-ray image is taken to visualize the internal structure of blood vessels, arteries, or veins. This is done by injecting a radiopaque contrast agent (dye) into the blood vessel using a thin, flexible catheter. The dye makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray image, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat various medical conditions such as blockages, narrowing, or malformations of the blood vessels.

There are several types of angiography, including:

* Cardiac angiography (also called coronary angiography) - used to examine the blood vessels of the heart
* Cerebral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels of the brain
* Peripheral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels in the limbs or other parts of the body.

Angiography is typically performed by a radiologist, cardiologist, or vascular surgeon in a hospital setting. It can help diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease, aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease, among others.

Pathological constriction refers to an abnormal narrowing or tightening of a body passage or organ, which can interfere with the normal flow of blood, air, or other substances through the area. This constriction can occur due to various reasons such as inflammation, scarring, or abnormal growths, and can affect different parts of the body, including blood vessels, airways, intestines, and ureters. Pathological constriction can lead to a range of symptoms and complications depending on its location and severity, and may require medical intervention to correct.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

The term "lower extremity" is used in the medical field to refer to the portion of the human body that includes the structures below the hip joint. This includes the thigh, lower leg, ankle, and foot. The lower extremities are responsible for weight-bearing and locomotion, allowing individuals to stand, walk, run, and jump. They contain many important structures such as bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels.

The ankle, also known as the talocrural region, is the joint between the leg and the foot. It is a synovial hinge joint that allows for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements. The ankle is composed of three bones: the tibia and fibula of the lower leg, and the talus of the foot. The bottom portion of the tibia and fibula, called the malleoli, form a mortise that surrounds and articulates with the talus.

The ankle joint is strengthened by several ligaments, including the medial (deltoid) ligament and lateral ligament complex. The ankle also contains important nerves and blood vessels that provide sensation and circulation to the foot.

Damage to the ankle joint, such as sprains or fractures, can result in pain, swelling, and difficulty walking. Proper care and rehabilitation are essential for maintaining the health and function of the ankle joint.

Basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease refers to a type of stroke or brain injury that affects the basal ganglia, which are clusters of nerve cells located deep within the brain. These structures play a crucial role in controlling movement and coordination.

Cerebrovascular disease occurs when blood flow to the brain is disrupted due to blockage or rupture of blood vessels. In the case of basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease, this disruption specifically affects the blood supply to the basal ganglia. This can result in damage to the nerve cells in this region and lead to various symptoms, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

Symptoms of basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease may include:

* Hemiplegia or weakness on one side of the body
* Rigidity or stiffness of muscles
* Tremors or involuntary movements
* Difficulty with coordination and balance
* Speech and language difficulties
* Changes in cognitive function, such as memory loss or difficulty with problem-solving

Treatment for basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the disrupted blood flow, such as through medication to control blood pressure or cholesterol levels, surgery to remove blockages or repair ruptured blood vessels, or rehabilitation therapy to help manage symptoms and improve function.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, and Duplex are diagnostic medical techniques that use sound waves to create images of internal body structures and assess their function. Here are the definitions for each:

1. Ultrasonography: Also known as ultrasound, this is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of internal organs and tissues. A small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the skin surface, which emits and receives sound waves. The returning echoes are then processed to create real-time visual images of the internal structures.
2. Doppler: This is a type of ultrasound that measures the velocity and direction of blood flow in the body by analyzing the frequency shift of the reflected sound waves. It can be used to assess blood flow in various parts of the body, such as the heart, arteries, and veins.
3. Duplex: Duplex ultrasonography is a combination of both gray-scale ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound. It provides detailed images of internal structures, as well as information about blood flow velocity and direction. This technique is often used to evaluate conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, and peripheral arterial disease.

In summary, ultrasonography is a diagnostic imaging technique that uses sound waves to create images of internal structures, Doppler is a type of ultrasound that measures blood flow velocity and direction, and duplex is a combination of both techniques that provides detailed images and information about blood flow.

Amputation is defined as the surgical removal of all or part of a limb or extremity such as an arm, leg, foot, hand, toe, or finger. This procedure is typically performed to remove damaged or dead tissue due to various reasons like severe injury, infection, tumors, or chronic conditions that impair circulation, such as diabetes or peripheral arterial disease. The goal of amputation is to alleviate pain, prevent further complications, and improve the patient's quality of life. Following the surgery, patients may require rehabilitation and prosthetic devices to help them adapt to their new physical condition.

The abdominal aorta is the portion of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body, that runs through the abdomen. It originates from the thoracic aorta at the level of the diaphragm and descends through the abdomen, where it branches off into several smaller arteries that supply blood to the pelvis, legs, and various abdominal organs. The abdominal aorta is typically divided into four segments: the suprarenal, infrarenal, visceral, and parietal portions. Disorders of the abdominal aorta can include aneurysms, atherosclerosis, and dissections, which can have serious consequences if left untreated.

Vascular grafting is a surgical procedure where a vascular graft, which can be either a natural or synthetic tube, is used to replace or bypass a damaged or diseased portion of a blood vessel. The goal of this procedure is to restore normal blood flow to the affected area, thereby preventing tissue damage or necrosis due to insufficient oxygen and nutrient supply.

The vascular graft can be sourced from various locations in the body, such as the saphenous vein in the leg, or it can be made of synthetic materials like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. The choice of graft depends on several factors, including the size and location of the damaged vessel, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's preference.

Vascular grafting is commonly performed to treat conditions such as atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease, aneurysms, and vasculitis. This procedure carries risks such as bleeding, infection, graft failure, and potential complications related to anesthesia. However, with proper postoperative care and follow-up, vascular grafting can significantly improve the patient's quality of life and overall prognosis.

Angioplasty is a medical procedure used to open narrowed or blocked blood vessels, often referred to as coronary angioplasty when it involves the heart's blood vessels (coronary arteries). The term "angio" refers to an angiogram, which is a type of X-ray image that reveals the inside of blood vessels.

The procedure typically involves the following steps:

1. A thin, flexible catheter (tube) is inserted into a blood vessel, usually through a small incision in the groin or arm.
2. The catheter is guided to the narrowed or blocked area using real-time X-ray imaging.
3. Once in place, a tiny balloon attached to the tip of the catheter is inflated to widen the blood vessel and compress any plaque buildup against the artery walls.
4. A stent (a small mesh tube) may be inserted to help keep the blood vessel open and prevent it from narrowing again.
5. The balloon is deflated, and the catheter is removed.

Angioplasty helps improve blood flow, reduce symptoms such as chest pain or shortness of breath, and lower the risk of heart attack in patients with blocked arteries. It's important to note that angioplasty is not a permanent solution for coronary artery disease, and lifestyle changes, medications, and follow-up care are necessary to maintain long-term cardiovascular health.

The inguinal canal is a narrow passage in the lower abdominal wall. In males, it allows for the spermatic cord and blood vessels to travel from the abdomen to the scrotum. In females, it provides a pathway for the round ligament of the uterus to pass through. The inguinal canal is located in the groin region, and an inguinal hernia occurs when a portion of the intestine protrudes through this canal.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood vessels and blood flow within the body. It combines the use of X-ray technology with digital image processing to produce detailed images of the vascular system.

In DSA, a contrast agent is injected into the patient's bloodstream through a catheter, which is typically inserted into an artery in the leg and guided to the area of interest using fluoroscopy. As the contrast agent flows through the blood vessels, X-ray images are taken at multiple time points.

The digital subtraction process involves taking a baseline image without contrast and then subtracting it from subsequent images taken with contrast. This allows for the removal of background structures and noise, resulting in clearer images of the blood vessels. DSA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various vascular conditions, such as aneurysms, stenosis, and tumors, and can also guide interventional procedures such as angioplasty and stenting.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used as a substitute for a damaged or diseased natural blood vessel. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, Dacron, or ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and is designed to mimic the function of a native blood vessel by allowing the flow of blood through it.

Blood vessel prostheses are used in various surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and the creation of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. The choice of material and size of the prosthesis depends on several factors, such as the location and diameter of the vessel being replaced, the patient's age and overall health status, and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while blood vessel prostheses can be effective in restoring blood flow, they may also carry risks such as infection, thrombosis (blood clot formation), and graft failure over time. Therefore, careful patient selection, surgical technique, and postoperative management are crucial for the success of these procedures.

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which an artificial blood vessel, also known as a vascular graft or prosthetic graft, is inserted into the body to replace a damaged or diseased native blood vessel. The prosthetic graft can be made from various materials such as Dacron (polyester), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or bovine/human tissue.

The implantation of a blood vessel prosthesis is typically performed to treat conditions that cause narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, or traumatic injuries. The procedure may be used to bypass blocked arteries in the legs (peripheral artery disease), heart (coronary artery bypass surgery), or neck (carotid endarterectomy). It can also be used to replace damaged veins for hemodialysis access in patients with kidney failure.

The success of blood vessel prosthesis implantation depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the vascular disease, and the type of graft material used. Possible complications include infection, bleeding, graft thrombosis (clotting), and graft failure, which may require further surgical intervention or endovascular treatments.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Carotid stenosis is a medical condition that refers to the narrowing or constriction of the lumen (inner space) of the carotid artery. The carotid arteries are major blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. Carotid stenosis usually results from the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances, on the inner walls of the artery. This process is called atherosclerosis.

As the plaque accumulates, it causes the artery to narrow, reducing blood flow to the brain. Severe carotid stenosis can increase the risk of stroke, as a clot or debris from the plaque can break off and travel to the brain, blocking a smaller blood vessel and causing tissue damage or death.

Carotid stenosis is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT angiography, or MRI angiography. Treatment options may include lifestyle modifications (such as quitting smoking, controlling blood pressure, and managing cholesterol levels), medications to reduce the risk of clots, or surgical procedures like endarterectomy or stenting to remove or bypass the blockage.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the blood vessels or arteries within the body. It is a type of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that focuses specifically on the circulatory system.

MRA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various conditions related to the blood vessels, such as aneurysms, stenosis (narrowing of the vessel), or the presence of plaques or tumors. It can also be used to plan for surgeries or other treatments related to the vascular system. The procedure does not use radiation and is generally considered safe, although people with certain implants like pacemakers may not be able to have an MRA due to safety concerns.

The Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) is a medical test used to diagnose and evaluate peripheral artery disease (PAD), a condition characterized by narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels outside of the heart. The ABI measures the ratio of blood pressure in the ankles to the blood pressure in the arms, which can indicate whether there is reduced blood flow to the legs due to PAD.

To perform the test, healthcare professionals measure the blood pressure in both arms and ankles using a blood pressure cuff and a Doppler ultrasound device. The systolic blood pressure (the higher number) is used for the calculation. The ABI value is obtained by dividing the highest ankle pressure by the highest arm pressure.

In healthy individuals, the ABI values typically range from 0.9 to 1.3. Values below 0.9 suggest that there may be narrowed or blocked blood vessels in the legs, indicating PAD. The lower the ABI value, the more severe the blockage is likely to be. Additionally, an ABI of 1.4 or higher may indicate calcification of the arteries, which can also affect blood flow.

In summary, the Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) is a medical test that measures the ratio of blood pressure in the ankles to the blood pressure in the arms, providing valuable information about peripheral artery disease and overall circulatory health.

The internal carotid artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It originates from the common carotid artery and passes through the neck, entering the skull via the carotid canal in the temporal bone. Once inside the skull, it branches into several smaller vessels that supply different parts of the brain with blood.

The internal carotid artery is divided into several segments: cervical, petrous, cavernous, clinoid, and supraclinoid. Each segment has distinct clinical significance in terms of potential injury or disease. The most common conditions affecting the internal carotid artery include atherosclerosis, which can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), and dissection, which can cause severe headache, neck pain, and neurological symptoms.

It's important to note that any blockage or damage to the internal carotid artery can have serious consequences, as it can significantly reduce blood flow to the brain and lead to permanent neurological damage or even death. Therefore, regular check-ups and screening tests are recommended for individuals at high risk of developing vascular diseases.

A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries by inflating a tiny balloon inside the blocked artery to widen it.

The stent is then inserted into the widened artery to keep it open. The stent is usually made of metal, but some are coated with medication that is slowly and continuously released to help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the artery. This can reduce the chance of the artery narrowing again.

Stents are also used in other parts of the body, such as the neck (carotid artery) and kidneys (renal artery), to help maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. They can also be used in the urinary system to treat conditions like ureteropelvic junction obstruction or narrowing of the urethra.

Arteriosclerosis is a general term that describes the hardening and stiffening of the artery walls. It's a progressive condition that can occur as a result of aging, or it may be associated with certain risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle.

The process of arteriosclerosis involves the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances, in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this buildup can cause the artery walls to thicken and harden, reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body's organs and tissues.

Arteriosclerosis can affect any of the body's arteries, but it is most commonly found in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, the cerebral arteries that supply blood to the brain, and the peripheral arteries that supply blood to the limbs. When arteriosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, it can lead to heart disease, angina, or heart attack. When it affects the cerebral arteries, it can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). When it affects the peripheral arteries, it can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the limbs, and in severe cases, gangrene and amputation.

Aortic diseases refer to conditions that affect the aorta, which is the largest and main artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Aortic diseases can weaken or damage the aorta, leading to various complications. Here are some common aortic diseases with their medical definitions:

1. Aortic aneurysm: A localized dilation or bulging of the aortic wall, which can occur in any part of the aorta but is most commonly found in the abdominal aorta (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the thoracic aorta (thoracic aortic aneurysm). Aneurysms can increase the risk of rupture, leading to life-threatening bleeding.
2. Aortic dissection: A separation of the layers of the aortic wall due to a tear in the inner lining, allowing blood to flow between the layers and potentially cause the aorta to rupture. This is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
3. Aortic stenosis: A narrowing of the aortic valve opening, which restricts blood flow from the heart to the aorta. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms. Severe aortic stenosis may require surgical or transcatheter intervention to replace or repair the aortic valve.
4. Aortic regurgitation: Also known as aortic insufficiency, this condition occurs when the aortic valve does not close properly, allowing blood to leak back into the heart. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and palpitations. Treatment may include medication or surgical repair or replacement of the aortic valve.
5. Aortitis: Inflammation of the aorta, which can be caused by various conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, or vasculitides. Aortitis can lead to aneurysms, dissections, or stenosis and may require medical treatment with immunosuppressive drugs or surgical intervention.
6. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue, including the aorta. People with Marfan syndrome are at risk of developing aortic aneurysms and dissections, and may require close monitoring and prophylactic surgery to prevent complications.

Collateral circulation refers to the alternate blood supply routes that bypass an obstructed or narrowed vessel and reconnect with the main vascular system. These collateral vessels can develop over time as a result of the body's natural adaptation to chronic ischemia (reduced blood flow) caused by various conditions such as atherosclerosis, thromboembolism, or vasculitis.

The development of collateral circulation helps maintain adequate blood flow and oxygenation to affected tissues, minimizing the risk of tissue damage and necrosis. In some cases, well-developed collateral circulations can help compensate for significant blockages in major vessels, reducing symptoms and potentially preventing the need for invasive interventions like revascularization procedures. However, the extent and effectiveness of collateral circulation vary from person to person and depend on factors such as age, overall health status, and the presence of comorbidities.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, color is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to produce visual images of blood flow in vessels and the heart. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave. In this context, it refers to the change in frequency of the ultrasound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells.

In color Doppler ultrasonography, different colors are used to represent the direction and speed of blood flow. Red typically represents blood flowing toward the transducer (the device that sends and receives sound waves), while blue represents blood flowing away from the transducer. The intensity or brightness of the color is proportional to the velocity of blood flow.

Color Doppler ultrasonography is often used in conjunction with grayscale ultrasound imaging, which provides information about the structure and composition of tissues. Together, these techniques can help diagnose a wide range of conditions, including heart disease, blood clots, and abnormalities in blood flow.

Occlusive dressings are specialized bandages or coverings that form a barrier over the skin, preventing air and moisture from passing through. They are designed to create a moist environment that promotes healing by increasing local blood flow, reducing wound desiccation, and encouraging the growth of new tissue. Occlusive dressings can also help to minimize pain, scarring, and the risk of infection in wounds. These dressings are often used for dry, necrotic, or hard-to-heal wounds, such as pressure ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, and burns. It is important to monitor the wound closely while using occlusive dressings, as they can sometimes lead to skin irritation or maceration if left in place for too long.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

The term "extremities" in a medical context refers to the most distant parts of the body, including the hands and feet (both fingers and toes), as well as the arms and legs. These are the farthest parts from the torso and head. Medical professionals may examine a patient's extremities for various reasons, such as checking circulation, assessing nerve function, or looking for injuries or abnormalities.

The brachial artery is a major blood vessel in the upper arm. It supplies oxygenated blood to the muscles and tissues of the arm, forearm, and hand. The brachial artery originates from the axillary artery at the level of the shoulder joint and runs down the medial (inner) aspect of the arm, passing through the cubital fossa (the depression on the anterior side of the elbow) where it can be palpated during a routine blood pressure measurement. At the lower end of the forearm, the brachial artery bifurcates into the radial and ulnar arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply the hand and fingers.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Endarterectomy is a surgical procedure in which the inner lining of an artery (the endothelium) that has become thickened, damaged, or narrowed due to the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques, is removed. This process helps restore normal blood flow through the artery and reduces the risk of serious complications such as stroke or limb loss.

The procedure typically involves making an incision in the affected artery, carefully removing the plaque and inner lining, and then closing the artery with sutures or a patch graft. Endarterectomy is most commonly performed on the carotid arteries in the neck, but it can also be done on other arteries throughout the body, including the femoral artery in the leg and the iliac artery in the pelvis.

Endarterectomy is usually recommended for patients with significant narrowing of their arteries who are experiencing symptoms such as pain, numbness, or weakness in their limbs, or who have a high risk of stroke due to carotid artery disease. The procedure is generally safe and effective, but like any surgery, it carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and damage to nearby nerves or tissues.

Medical science often defines and describes "walking" as a form of locomotion or mobility where an individual repeatedly lifts and sets down each foot to move forward, usually bearing weight on both legs. It is a complex motor activity that requires the integration and coordination of various systems in the human body, including the musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiovascular systems.

Walking involves several components such as balance, coordination, strength, and endurance. The ability to walk independently is often used as a measure of functional mobility and overall health status. However, it's important to note that the specific definition of walking may vary depending on the context and the medical or scientific field in question.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Intracranial arterial diseases refer to conditions that affect the blood vessels within the brain. These diseases can include stenosis (narrowing) or occlusion (blockage) of the intracranial arteries, aneurysms (bulging or weakened areas in the artery wall), and vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessel walls).

These conditions can lead to serious complications such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA or "mini-stroke"), bleeding in the brain, and cognitive decline. Risk factors for intracranial arterial diseases include age, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, high cholesterol, and a history of heart disease.

Diagnosis of intracranial arterial diseases may involve imaging tests such as magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), computed tomographic angiography (CTA), or digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Treatment options may include medications to manage risk factors, endovascular procedures such as angioplasty and stenting, or surgical intervention in some cases.

Carotid artery diseases refer to conditions that affect the carotid arteries, which are the major blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the head and neck. The most common type of carotid artery disease is atherosclerosis, which occurs when fatty deposits called plaques build up in the inner lining of the arteries.

These plaques can cause the arteries to narrow or become blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain and increasing the risk of stroke. Other carotid artery diseases include carotid artery dissection, which occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining of the artery, and fibromuscular dysplasia, which is a condition that affects the muscle and tissue in the walls of the artery.

Symptoms of carotid artery disease may include neck pain or pulsations, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or "mini-strokes," and strokes. Treatment options for carotid artery disease depend on the severity and type of the condition but may include lifestyle changes, medications, endarterectomy (a surgical procedure to remove plaque from the artery), or angioplasty and stenting (procedures to open blocked arteries using a balloon and stent).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Netherlands" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Western Europe, known for its artistic heritage, elaborate canal system, and legalized marijuana and prostitution. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is not inherently a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with significant uses in the medical field. Medically, PTFE is often referred to by its brand name, Teflon. It is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in various medical applications due to its unique properties such as high resistance to heat, electrical and chemical interaction, and exceptional non-reactivity with body tissues.

PTFE can be found in medical devices like catheters, where it reduces friction, making insertion easier and minimizing trauma. It is also used in orthopedic and dental implants, drug delivery systems, and sutures due to its biocompatibility and non-adhesive nature.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyethylene Terephthalates" is not a medical term. It is a type of polymer used in the manufacturing of various products, such as plastic bottles and textile fibers. Medically, you might encounter the abbreviation "PET" or "PET scan," which stands for "Positron Emission Tomography." A PET scan is a type of medical imaging that provides detailed pictures of the body's interior. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Cerebral arterial diseases refer to conditions that affect the blood vessels supplying the brain. These diseases can result in reduced blood flow, blockages, or bleeding in the brain. The most common cerebral arterial diseases include:

1. Atherosclerosis: A buildup of plaque made up of fat, cholesterol, and other substances in the inner lining of an artery, which can lead to narrowing or blockage of the artery.
2. Embolism: A blood clot or other particle that forms elsewhere in the body and travels to the brain, where it blocks a cerebral artery.
3. Thrombosis: The formation of a blood clot within a cerebral artery.
4. Aneurysm: A weakened area in the wall of an artery that bulges out and can rupture, causing bleeding in the brain.
5. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM): An abnormal tangle of blood vessels in the brain that can cause bleeding or reduced blood flow to surrounding tissue.
6. Vasculitis: Inflammation of the blood vessels in the brain, which can lead to narrowing, blockage, or weakening of the vessel walls.

These conditions can lead to serious complications such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or vascular dementia. Treatment options include medications, surgery, and lifestyle changes to manage risk factors.

Acetazolamide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. It works by decreasing the production of bicarbonate in the body, which helps to reduce the amount of fluid in the eye and brain, making it useful for treating conditions such as glaucoma and epilepsy.

In medical terms, acetazolamide can be defined as: "A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used to treat glaucoma, epilepsy, altitude sickness, and other conditions. It works by decreasing the production of bicarbonate in the body, which helps to reduce the amount of fluid in the eye and brain."

Acetazolamide may also be used for other purposes not listed here, so it is important to consult with a healthcare provider for specific medical advice.

An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized dilatation or bulging of the abdominal aorta, which is the largest artery in the body that supplies oxygenated blood to the trunk and lower extremities. Normally, the diameter of the abdominal aorta measures about 2 centimeters (cm) in adults. However, when the diameter of the aorta exceeds 3 cm, it is considered an aneurysm.

AAA can occur anywhere along the length of the abdominal aorta, but it most commonly occurs below the renal arteries and above the iliac bifurcation. The exact cause of AAA remains unclear, but several risk factors have been identified, including smoking, hypertension, advanced age, male gender, family history, and certain genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

The main concern with AAA is the risk of rupture, which can lead to life-threatening internal bleeding. The larger the aneurysm, the greater the risk of rupture. Symptoms of AAA may include abdominal or back pain, a pulsating mass in the abdomen, or symptoms related to compression of surrounding structures such as the kidneys, ureters, or nerves. However, many AAAs are asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other reasons.

Diagnosis of AAA typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options depend on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health status. Small AAAs that are not causing symptoms may be monitored with regular imaging studies to assess for growth. Larger AAAs or those that are growing rapidly may require surgical repair, either through open surgery or endovascular repair using a stent graft.

Life tables are statistical tools used in actuarial science, demography, and public health to estimate the mortality rate and survival rates of a population. They provide a data-driven representation of the probability that individuals of a certain age will die before their next birthday (the death rate) or live to a particular age (the survival rate).

Life tables are constructed using data on the number of deaths and the size of the population in specific age groups over a given period. These tables typically include several columns representing different variables, such as:

1. Age group or interval: The age range for which the data is being presented (e.g., 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years, etc.).
2. Number of people in the population: The size of the population within each age group.
3. Number of deaths: The number of individuals who died during the study period within each age group.
4. Death rate: The probability that an individual in a given age group will die before their next birthday. It is calculated as the number of deaths divided by the size of the population for that age group.
5. Survival rate: The probability that an individual in a given age group will survive to a specific age or older. It is calculated using the death rates from earlier age groups.
6. Life expectancy: The average number of years a person is expected to live, based on their current age and mortality rates for each subsequent age group.

Life tables are essential in various fields, including insurance, pension planning, social security administration, and healthcare policy development. They help researchers and policymakers understand the health status and demographic trends of populations, allowing them to make informed decisions about resource allocation, program development, and public health interventions.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

The axillary artery is a major blood vessel in the upper limb. It is the continuation of the subclavian artery and begins at the lateral border of the first rib, where it becomes the brachial artery. The axillary artery supplies oxygenated blood to the upper extremity, chest wall, and breast.

The axillary artery is divided into three parts based on the surrounding structures:

1. First part: From its origin at the lateral border of the first rib to the medial border of the pectoralis minor muscle. It lies deep to the clavicle and is covered by the scalene muscles, the anterior and middle scalene being the most important. The branches arising from this portion are the superior thoracic artery and the thyrocervical trunk.
2. Second part: Behind the pectoralis minor muscle. The branches arising from this portion are the lateral thoracic artery and the subscapular artery.
3. Third part: After leaving the lower border of the pectoralis minor muscle, it becomes the brachial artery. The branches arising from this portion are the anterior circumflex humeral artery and the posterior circumflex humeral artery.

The axillary artery is a common site for surgical interventions such as angioplasty and stenting to treat peripheral arterial disease, as well as for bypass grafting in cases of severe atherosclerosis or occlusion.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Mesenteric vascular occlusion refers to the blockage or obstruction of the blood vessels that supply the intestines, specifically the mesenteric arteries and veins. This condition can result in insufficient blood flow to the intestines, leading to ischemia (inadequate oxygen supply) and potential necrosis (tissue death).

There are two primary types of mesenteric vascular occlusion:

1. Mesenteric arterial occlusion: This occurs when the mesenteric artery, which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the intestines, becomes blocked. The most common causes include atherosclerosis (plaque buildup in the arteries), embolism (a clot or particle that travels from another part of the body and lodges in the artery), and thrombosis (a blood clot forming directly in the artery).
2. Mesenteric venous occlusion: This happens when the mesenteric vein, which returns deoxygenated blood from the intestines to the heart, becomes obstructed. The most common causes include thrombophlebitis (inflammation and clot formation in the vein), tumors, or abdominal trauma.

Symptoms of mesenteric vascular occlusion may include severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bloody stools. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent intestinal tissue damage and potential life-threatening complications such as sepsis or shock. Treatment options typically involve surgical intervention, anticoagulation therapy, or endovascular procedures to restore blood flow.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

Cerebrovascular disorders are a group of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain. These disorders can be caused by narrowing, blockage, or rupture of the blood vessels, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the brain. The most common types of cerebrovascular disorders include:

1. Stroke: A stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked or bursts, causing a lack of oxygen and nutrients to reach brain cells. This can lead to permanent damage or death of brain tissue.
2. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA occurs when blood flow to the brain is temporarily blocked, often by a blood clot. Symptoms may last only a few minutes to a few hours and typically resolve on their own. However, a TIA is a serious warning sign that a full-blown stroke may occur in the future.
3. Aneurysm: An aneurysm is a weakened or bulging area in the wall of a blood vessel. If left untreated, an aneurysm can rupture and cause bleeding in the brain.
4. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM): An AVM is a tangled mass of abnormal blood vessels that connect arteries and veins. This can lead to bleeding in the brain or stroke.
5. Carotid stenosis: Carotid stenosis occurs when the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, become narrowed or blocked due to plaque buildup. This can increase the risk of stroke.
6. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency: This condition occurs when the vertebral and basilar arteries, which supply blood to the back of the brain, become narrowed or blocked. This can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, and difficulty swallowing.

Cerebrovascular disorders are a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Risk factors for these conditions include age, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, and family history. Treatment may involve medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of further complications.

The brachiocephalic trunk, also known as the brachiocephalic artery or innominate artery, is a large vessel that branches off the aorta and divides into the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery. It supplies blood to the head, neck, and arms on the right side of the body.

The celiac artery, also known as the anterior abdominal aortic trunk, is a major artery that originates from the abdominal aorta and supplies oxygenated blood to the foregut, which includes the stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas, and upper part of the duodenum. It branches into three main branches: the left gastric artery, the splenic artery, and the common hepatic artery. The celiac artery plays a crucial role in providing blood to these vital organs, and any disruption or damage to it can lead to serious health consequences.

The subclavian artery is a major blood vessel that supplies the upper limb and important structures in the neck and head. It arises from the brachiocephalic trunk (in the case of the right subclavian artery) or directly from the aortic arch (in the case of the left subclavian artery).

The subclavian artery has several branches, including:

1. The vertebral artery, which supplies blood to the brainstem and cerebellum.
2. The internal thoracic artery (also known as the mammary artery), which supplies blood to the chest wall, breast, and anterior mediastinum.
3. The thyrocervical trunk, which gives rise to several branches that supply the neck, including the inferior thyroid artery, the suprascapular artery, and the transverse cervical artery.
4. The costocervical trunk, which supplies blood to the neck and upper back, including the posterior chest wall and the lower neck muscles.

The subclavian artery is a critical vessel in maintaining adequate blood flow to the upper limb, and any blockage or damage to this vessel can lead to significant morbidity, including arm pain, numbness, weakness, or even loss of function.

Atherectomy is a medical procedure in which the accumulated plaque or deposits in the inner lining of the artery (the endothelium) are removed using a specialized catheter with a cutting device on its tip. The goal of this procedure is to improve blood flow through the artery by physically removing the obstruction, as opposed to other procedures like angioplasty and stenting which use balloons and/or metal scaffolds to open up the artery.

There are several types of atherectomy devices available, including:

1. Directional atherectomy (DA): A rotating blade cuts and removes plaque from the artery wall into a collection chamber within the catheter.
2. Rotational atherectomy (RA): A high-speed burr-like device abrades and pulverizes the plaque, which is then carried away by blood flow.
3. Laser atherectomy: A laser beam vaporizes the plaque, turning it into gas that is absorbed or removed through irrigation.
4. Orbital atherectomy: A high-speed spinning diamond-coated crown abrades and removes plaque while minimizing the risk of damaging the artery wall.

Atherectomy can be an effective treatment option for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and coronary artery disease (CAD), particularly in cases where angioplasty and stenting are not feasible or have failed. However, like any medical procedure, atherectomy carries certain risks, such as bleeding, infection, perforation of the artery, and distal embolization (the release of plaque particles downstream). Proper patient selection, careful technique, and close follow-up are essential for successful outcomes.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Iofetamine is a radiopharmaceutical agent used in myocardial perfusion imaging, a type of nuclear stress test. It is a derivative of the amphetamine family and functions as a vasoconstrictor when administered. Iofetamine is labeled with technetium-99m (^99mTc) before use, which allows for the detection and imaging of the heart's blood flow and function during rest and stress conditions. This information helps physicians diagnose and assess coronary artery disease and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments.

The medical definition of Iofetamine is:

A radiopharmaceutical agent, (^99mTc)Tc-sestamibi or (^99mTc)Tc-MIBI, used in myocardial perfusion imaging for the assessment of coronary artery disease. Iofetamine is a lipophilic cation that accumulates in myocardial cells in proportion to regional blood flow. The technetium-99m label enables gamma camera detection and imaging, providing information about the heart's blood flow and function during rest and stress conditions.

Graft occlusion in the context of vascular surgery refers to the complete or partial blockage of a blood vessel that has been surgically replaced or repaired with a graft. The graft can be made from either synthetic materials or autologous tissue (taken from another part of the patient's body).

Graft occlusion can occur due to various reasons, including:

1. Thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot within the graft, which can obstruct blood flow.
2. Intimal hyperplasia: Overgrowth of the inner lining (intima) of the graft or the adjacent native vessel, causing narrowing of the lumen and reducing blood flow.
3. Atherosclerosis: Deposition of cholesterol and other substances in the walls of the graft, leading to hardening and narrowing of the vessel.
4. Infection: Bacterial or fungal infection of the graft can cause inflammation, weakening, and ultimately occlusion of the graft.
5. Mechanical factors: Kinking, twisting, or compression of the graft can lead to obstruction of blood flow.

Graft occlusion is a significant complication following vascular surgery, as it can result in reduced perfusion to downstream tissues and organs, leading to ischemia (lack of oxygen supply) and potential tissue damage or loss.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

Cerebral angiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels in the brain after injecting a contrast dye into them. This procedure helps doctors to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels).

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and threaded through the body to the blood vessels in the neck or brain. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow through the brain's blood vessels.

Cerebral angiography provides detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, allowing doctors to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be causing symptoms or increasing the risk of stroke. Based on the results of the cerebral angiography, doctors can develop a treatment plan to address these issues and prevent further complications.

Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) is a medical condition characterized by inadequate blood flow to the vertebral and basilar arteries, which supply oxygenated blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. These arteries arise from the subclavian arteries and merge to form the basilar artery, which supplies critical structures in the posterior circulation of the brain.

VBI is often caused by atherosclerosis, or the buildup of plaque in the arterial walls, leading to narrowing (stenosis) or occlusion of these vessels. Other causes include embolism, arterial dissection, and vasculitis. The decreased blood flow can result in various neurological symptoms, such as dizziness, vertigo, imbalance, difficulty swallowing, slurred speech, visual disturbances, and even transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or strokes.

Diagnosis of VBI typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies like MRA or CTA, and sometimes cerebral angiography to assess the extent and location of vascular narrowing or occlusion. Treatment options may include lifestyle modifications, medications to manage risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes, or high cholesterol), antiplatelet therapy, or surgical interventions like endarterectomy or stenting in severe cases.

Moyamoya Disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the narrowing or occlusion (blockage) of the internal carotid artery and its main branches. The name "moyamoya" means "puff of smoke" in Japanese and describes the look of the tangle of tiny vessels formed to compensate for the blockage. Over time, these fragile vessels can become less effective or rupture, leading to transient ischemic attacks (mini-strokes), strokes, bleeding in the brain, or cognitive decline. The exact cause of moyamoya disease is unknown, but it may be associated with genetic factors and certain medical conditions such as Down syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, and sickle cell anemia. Treatment options include surgical procedures to improve blood flow to the brain.

Gangrene is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a loss of blood flow to a specific area of the body, resulting in tissue death. It can be caused by various factors such as bacterial infections, trauma, diabetes, vascular diseases, and smoking. The affected tissues may become discolored, swollen, and emit a foul odor due to the accumulation of bacteria and toxins.

Gangrene can be classified into two main types: dry gangrene and wet (or moist) gangrene. Dry gangrene develops slowly and is often associated with peripheral arterial disease, which reduces blood flow to the extremities. The affected area turns black and shriveled as it dries out. Wet gangrene, on the other hand, progresses rapidly due to bacterial infections that cause tissue breakdown and pus formation. This type of gangrene can spread quickly throughout the body, leading to severe complications such as sepsis and organ failure if left untreated.

Treatment for gangrene typically involves surgical removal of the dead tissue (debridement), antibiotics to control infections, and sometimes revascularization procedures to restore blood flow to the affected area. In severe cases where the infection has spread or the damage is irreversible, amputation of the affected limb may be necessary to prevent further complications and save the patient's life.

Retinal artery occlusion (RAO) is a medical condition characterized by the blockage or obstruction of the retinal artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the retina. This blockage typically occurs due to embolism (a small clot or debris that travels to the retinal artery), thrombosis (blood clot formation in the artery), or vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels).

There are two types of retinal artery occlusions:

1. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO): This type occurs when the main retinal artery is obstructed, affecting the entire inner layer of the retina. It can lead to severe and sudden vision loss in the affected eye.
2. Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion (BRAO): This type affects a branch of the retinal artery, causing visual field loss in the corresponding area. Although it is less severe than CRAO, it can still result in noticeable vision impairment.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for both types of RAO to improve the chances of recovery and minimize potential damage to the eye and vision. Treatment options may include medications, laser therapy, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition.

A Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary period of symptoms similar to those you'd get if you were having a stroke. A TIA doesn't cause permanent damage and is often caused by a temporary decrease in blood supply to part of your brain, which may last as little as five minutes.

Like an ischemic stroke, a TIA occurs when a clot or debris blocks blood flow to part of your nervous system. However, unlike a stroke, a TIA doesn't leave lasting damage because the blockage is temporary.

Symptoms of a TIA can include sudden onset of weakness, numbness or paralysis in your face, arm or leg, typically on one side of your body. You could also experience slurred or garbled speech, or difficulty understanding others. Other symptoms can include blindness in one or both eyes, dizziness, or a severe headache with no known cause.

Even though TIAs usually last only a few minutes, they are a serious condition and should not be ignored. If you suspect you or someone else is experiencing a TIA, seek immediate medical attention. TIAs can be a warning sign that a full-blown stroke is imminent.

Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain tissue, and remove waste products. It includes the internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, circle of Willis, and the intracranial arteries that branch off from them.

The internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries merge to form the circle of Willis, a polygonal network of vessels located at the base of the brain. The anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, and communicating arteries are the major vessels that branch off from the circle of Willis and supply blood to different regions of the brain.

Interruptions or abnormalities in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to various neurological conditions such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and vascular dementia.

A hernia is a protrusion of an organ or tissue through a weakened area in the abdominal wall, often appearing as a bulge beneath the skin. This condition can occur in various parts of the body such as the groin (inguinal hernia), navel (umbilical hernia), or site of a previous surgical incision (incisional hernia). Hernias may cause discomfort or pain, especially when straining, lifting heavy objects, or during bowel movements. In some cases, they may lead to serious complications like intestinal obstruction or strangulation, requiring immediate medical attention.

Amaurosis fugax is a medical term that describes a temporary loss of vision in one eye, which is often described as a "shade or curtain falling over the field of vision." It's usually caused by a temporary interruption of blood flow to the retina or optic nerve. This condition is often associated with conditions such as giant cell arteritis, carotid artery stenosis, and cardiovascular disease.

It's important to note that Amaurosis fugax can be a warning sign for a more serious medical event, such as a stroke, so it's essential to seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms of this condition.

The iliac veins are a pair of large veins in the human body that carry deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities and the pelvic area back to the heart. They are formed by the union of the common iliac veins, which receive blood from the lower abdomen and legs, at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra.

The combined iliac vein is called the inferior vena cava, which continues upward to the right atrium of the heart. The iliac veins are located deep within the pelvis, lateral to the corresponding iliac arteries, and are accompanied by the iliac lymphatic vessels.

The left common iliac vein is longer than the right because it must cross the left common iliac artery to join the right common iliac vein. The external and internal iliac veins are the two branches of the common iliac vein, with the external iliac vein carrying blood from the lower limbs and the internal iliac vein carrying blood from the pelvic organs.

It is essential to maintain proper blood flow in the iliac veins to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a condition that can lead to serious complications such as pulmonary embolism.

"Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease". The Merck Manual Home Health Handbook ewebsit. Merck & Co. March 2010. Retrieved 4 ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Neuromuscular diseases or interstitial lung disease Malformed vascular system such ... To counter the effects of high-altitude diseases, the body must return arterial PaO2 toward normal. Acclimatization, the means ... Arterial oxygen tension can be measured by blood gas analysis of an arterial blood sample, and less reliably by pulse oximetry ...
Claudication Peripheral arterial disease F. Charles Brunicardi; Dana K. Andersen; Timothy R. Billiar (5 June 2014). Schwartz's ... In medicine, aortoiliac occlusive disease is a form of central artery disease involving the blockage of the abdominal aorta as ... However, any number of symptoms may present, depending on the distribution and severity of the disease, such as muscle atrophy ... Vascular diseases, Medical triads, Syndromes affecting the aorta). ...
Gold D, Feiner L, Henkind P (September 1977). "Retinal arterial occlusive disease in systemic lupus erythematosus". Arch. ... "Unilateral visual loss in bright light may indicate ipsilateral carotid artery occlusive disease and may reflect the inability ... An unusual symptom of carotid artery occlusive disease". Arch. Neurol. 36 (11): 675-6. doi:10.1001/archneur.1979.00500470045007 ... Newman NJ (1998). "Cerebrovascular disease". In Hoyt WG, Miller N, Walsh F, Newman NJ (eds.). Walsh and Hoyt's Clinical Neuro- ...
"Subintimal angioplasty for peripheral arterial occlusive disease: a systematic review". Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 31 (4): ... "Subintimal Angioplasty for Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease: A Systematic Review". CardioVascular and Interventional ... "How does subintimal angioplasty compare to transluminal angioplasty for the treatment of femoral occlusive disease?". ... Angioplasty Peripheral vascular disease Spinosa DJ, Leung DA, Matsumoto AH, Bissonette EA, Cage D, Harthun NL, Kern JA, Angle ...
Conservative Therapy of Arterial Occlusive Disease]. Stuttgart: Thieme Medical Publishers. pp. 224-226. ISBN 978-3-13-688101-9 ... "Antifibrotic approach in the therapy of arterial occlusive diseases: new considerations". In Gustav Trübestein (ed.). ... Chaldakov GN, Nikolov SD, Vankov VN (1977). "Fine morphological aspects of the secretory process of arterial smooth muscle ... Chaldakov GN, Vankov VN (1986). "Morphological aspects of secretion in the arterial smooth muscle cell, with special reference ...
1991). "Hereditary protein S deficiency in young adults with arterial occlusive disease". Thromb. Haemost. 64 (2): 206-10. PMID ...
Combining segmental systolic pressure and plethysmography to diagnose arterial occlusive disease of the legs. Am J Surg 1979; ... Since it is a simple, low-cost technique it can be repeated as needed, which is useful in disease-process monitoring. It is a ... When an arterial-venous fistulae is transluminated, there are few reflected images because flow velocity is higher and sanguine ... Venous thromboembolic disease: the role of US. Radi- ology 1993;186:619. Darke, SG. The morphology of recurrent varicose veins ...
Ankle and toe systolic pressures comparison of value and limitations in arterial occlusive disease. Int Angiol, 1992;11(4):289- ... because of local stiffening of arterial wall). Feet are often cold and to make sure measurement is not affected by local ... and is often valuable in assessment of severe peripheral artery disease, in particular in patients with diabetes where ...
... both short term and midterm follow-up compared to uncoated balloon angioplasty for femoropopliteal arterial occlusive disease. ... balloon angioplasty versus uncoated balloon angioplasty in patients with femoropopliteal arterial occlusive disease". Journal ... which were first used to treat peripheral arterial disease. On January 16, 1964, Dotter percutaneously dilated a tight, ... "A systematic review of endovascular treatment of extensive aortoiliac occlusive disease". Journal of Vascular Surgery. 52 (5): ...
Montgomery PS, Gardner AW (June 1998). "The clinical utility of a six-minute walk test in peripheral arterial occlusive disease ... "The association between elevated ankle systolic pressures and peripheral occlusive arterial disease in diabetic and nondiabetic ... of experience on the reproducibility of the ankle-brachial systolic pressure ratio in peripheral arterial occlusive disease". ... Novo S (March 2002). "Classification, epidemiology, risk factors, and natural history of peripheral arterial disease". Diabetes ...
He also co-chaired the Transatlantic Consensus on Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease (TASC) in 2005. That same year, he was ... initiative that expanded globally when he co-chaired the first TransAtlantic Consensus on Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease ... Award for Physician Excellence given by the Vascular Disease Foundation. Rutherford served as Senior Editor of the Journal of ... Rutherford emphasized the importance of uniform disease-specific reporting standards for describing vascular interventions, ...
"Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis for adult intracranial arterial steno-occlusive disease: long-term single-center experience ...
Pharmacological stimulation of arteriogenesis, important for the treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, seems feasible with ... caused by the steep pressure gradient between the high pre-occlusive and the very low post-occlusive pressure regions that are ... Neither the extent of coronary disease nor the appearance of the collateral vessels during angiography differed between the two ... Schaper summarizes the status-2009 knowledge of coronary collateral transformation in a recent review: "Following an arterial ...
"Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease - Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders". MSD Manual Consumer Version. Retrieved 2022-03-24. " ... Common diseases of arterial occlusion include Coronary Artery Disease, Peripheral Artery Disease, and Pulmonary Embolism. ... The pathophysiology of diseases of arterial occlusion depends on the type of occlusion, the severity of blockage, and the ... "Coronary heart disease". nhs.uk. 2018-10-03. Retrieved 2022-03-20. Zemaitis MR, Boll JM, Dreyer MA (2022). "Peripheral Arterial ...
... generally associated with nonreconstructable arterial occlusive disease. Although the disease is the basis for this type of ... Early reported neurolysis helped treat vasospastic disorders such as arterial occlusive disease before the introduction of ... Neurolysis is only used when the disease has progressed to a point where no other pain treatments are effective. A neurolytic ... neurolysis, other diseases such as peripheral neuralgia or vasospastic disorders can receive lumbar sympathetic neurolysis for ...
Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease, The Merck Manual Home Health Handbook website, revised and updated March 2010. Retrieved ... Ischemia is a vascular disease involving an interruption in the arterial blood supply to a tissue, organ, or extremity that, if ... It is a disease with high mortality rate and high morbidity. Failure to treat could cause chronic kidney disease and a need for ... Acute arterial occlusion may develop as a result of arterial dissection in the carotid artery or aorta or as a result of ...
Less common causes include vascular occlusive disease, retinal arterial macroaneurysm, hemoglobinopathy, age-related macular ... Certain medical conditions-such as leukemia, hemophilia, Von Willebrand disease, and sickle cell disease-put patients at risk ... but complications are more likely in those with comorbidities such as sickle cell disease or other diseases that lead to an ... Any patient with a hyphema larger than grade II, elevated intraocular pressure, or sickle cell disease-or who is unable to ...
The normal peripheral pulses rule out peripheral arterial occlusive disease, where arterial narrowing limits blood flow to the ... Pernio (Chilblains) Cyanosis Peripheral artery occlusive disease Raynaud's phenomenon Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome ... Acrocyanosis may be a sign of a more serious medical problem, such as connective tissue diseases and diseases associated with ... Other peripheral arterial diseases. In L. Goldman & D. Ausiello (Eds.), Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 22nd Edition. (Vol 1, pp. ...
"Occlusive thrombi arise in mammals but not birds in response to arterial injury: evolutionary insight into human cardiovascular ... This means that a recipient is not exposed to as many different donors and has less risk of transfusion-transmitted disease and ... extending an unstable or ruptured arterial plaque, causing arterial thrombosis; and microcirculatory thrombosis. An arterial ... Platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLAs) found in circulation are typical in sepsis or inflammatory bowel disease, showing the ...
... there is some evidence to suggest that PCH and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease are different forms of a similar disease ... When measured by echocardiography or pulmonary angiography, the pulmonary arterial pressure is typically elevated. Pulmonary ... Chaisson NF, Dodson MW, Elliott CG (2016) Pulmonary Capillary Hemangiomatosis and Pulmonary Veno-occlusive Disease. Clin Chest ... Together with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, PCH comprises WHO Group I' causes for pulmonary hypertension. Indeed, ...
The presence of septic shock and a history of peripheral arterial occlusive disease are independent risk factors for the ... "Diabetes Insipidus". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. October 2015. Retrieved 28 May 2017. " ... the administration of high-dose AVP as a single agent proved to fail to increase mean arterial pressure in the first hour but ... in some forms of von Willebrand disease and in mild haemophilia A) and in extreme cases of bedwetting by children. Terlipressin ...
Failure to fill results from arterial occlusive disease within dorsal or spongiosal arteries, preventing adequate arterial ... leading to difficulties in activating arterial inflow and veno-occlusive processes. Common after urethral stricture surgery. ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Penile erection, Human penis, Urology, Diseases and ... causing an inability to provide compressive pressure on sub-tunical venules and causing veno-occlusive dysfunction (VOD). This ...
"Chelation therapy for peripheral arterial occlusive disease: A systematic review". Circulation. 96 (3): 1031-3. doi:10.1161/01. ... Clarke subsequently administered chelation therapy to patients with angina pectoris and other occlusive vascular disease and ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Dept. of ... He hypothesized that "EDTA could dissolve disease-causing plaques in the coronary systems of human beings." In a series of 283 ...
In contrast, aortoiliac occlusive disease (aortic bifurcation syndrome), which corresponds to the most common localization in ... about one-sixth of cats with heart disease are affected. Heart disease is the most common underlying cause of arterial ... common underlying diseases in dogs are protein-losing nephropathy, diseases of the immune system, tumors, sepsis, heart disease ... Feline arterial thromboembolism is a rare disease, accounting for approximately 0.1-0.3% of the total number of feline patients ...
... a new concept for the treatment of arterial occlusive disease. Cardiovasc Res 49: 543-553, 2001. (Articles lacking in-text ... Arteriogenesis refers to an increase in the diameter of existing arterial vessels. Mechanically, arteriogenesis is linked to ... Arterial adaptions to altered blood flow. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 69: 978-83, 1991. Ito WD, Arrasi M, Winkler B, Scholz D, ...
cit.; G Gudmundsson et al., "Localization of a Gene for Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease to Chromosome 1p31," American ... lung cancer and peripheral arterial disease," Nature, volume 452, pp 638-642, 3 April 2008 F Zink et al., "Clonal hematopoiesis ... lung cancer and peripheral arterial disease," Nature (subscription required), vol 452, pp 638-6423, 3 April 2008; TE ... coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, peripheral artery disease, sick sinus syndrome, and aortic and intracranial aneurysm. ...
... peripheral arterial occlusive disease, arrhythmia or cerebrovascular disease (stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)) Stroke ... particularly other anoretics History of peripheral arterial disease Hypertension that is not sufficiently controlled (e.g., > ... It has been associated with increased cardiovascular diseases and strokes and has been withdrawn from the market in 2010 in ... Rothman RB, Baumann MH (May 2009). "Serotonergic drugs and valvular heart disease". Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 8 (3): 317- ...
... generally derived from the presence of occlusive arterial disease, which causes inadequate blood flow to the limbs. As ... Peripheral arterial disease is more common in these populations: All people who have leg symptoms with exertion (suggestive of ... IC is a common manifestation of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The pain is usually located in the calf muscles of the ... Greater than 80%-90% of patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease are current or former smokers. The risk of ...
... is an occlusive arterial disease most prominently affecting the abdominal aorta and the small- and ... 2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6. v t e (Articles with ...
Carotid artery disease Arterial spasm (TIA) Diabetes mellitus Collagen diseases Venous occlusive disease Thrombosis Use of ... Anemia Cardiovascular diseases Arteriosclerosis Hypertension Pre-eclampsia (toxemia of pregnancy) Occlusive vascular disease ( ... Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Alcoholism Crohn's disease Liver disease Malnutrition Peptic ulcer disease Pancreatic disease ... An ocular manifestation of a systemic disease is an eye condition that directly or indirectly results from a disease process in ...
... peripheral arterial occlusive disease [PAOD]). Claudication occurs during physical activity and is relieved after a short rest. ... is one of the most common manifestations of peripheral vascular disease caused by atherosclerosis ( ... encoded search term (Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease) and Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease What to Read Next on ... Peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Procedures performed during acute admission for peripheral arterial disease in US from ...
... peripheral arterial occlusive disease [PAOD]). Claudication occurs during physical activity and is relieved after a short rest. ... is one of the most common manifestations of peripheral vascular disease caused by atherosclerosis ( ... encoded search term (Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease) and Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease What to Read Next on ... Peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Procedures performed during acute admission for peripheral arterial disease in US from ...
Despite the extensive research demonstrating the benefits of lipid lowering therapy in occlusive arterial disease, there is a ... Abstract: Despite the extensive research demonstrating the benefits of lipid lowering therapy in occlusive arterial disease, ... Rheological effects of gemfibrozil in occlusive arterial disease Article type: Research Article ... effects of gemfibrozil in 50 patients with angiographically documented but stable peripheral occlusive arterial disease. Serum ...
... peripheral arterial occlusive disease [PAOD]). Claudication occurs during physical activity and is relieved after a short rest. ... is one of the most common manifestations of peripheral vascular disease caused by atherosclerosis ( ... encoded search term (Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease) and Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease What to Read Next on ... Peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Procedures performed during the acute admission for peripheral arterial disease in the ...
Lower Limb Arterial Occlusive Disease. How Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease Occurs:. Peripheral arterial occlusive disease ... when vascular stenosis or occlusion occur and in the end patients are suffered from ischemic disease. ...
... peripheral arterial occlusive disease [PAOD]). Claudication occurs during physical activity and is relieved after a short rest. ... is one of the most common manifestations of peripheral vascular disease caused by atherosclerosis ( ... encoded search term (Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease) and Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease What to Read Next on ... Peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Procedures performed during the acute admission for peripheral arterial disease in the ...
... is a very rare disease. It leads to high blood pressure in the lung arteries (pulmonary hypertension). ... Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a very rare disease. It leads to high blood pressure in the lung arteries (pulmonary ... Braunwalds Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 88. ... It may occur as a complication of certain diseases such as lupus, or bone marrow transplantation. ...
Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Prevention of Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease The best way to help prevent occlusive peripheral arterial disease is to ... Symptoms of Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease Symptoms of occlusive peripheral arterial disease vary depending on ... many people with occlusive peripheral arterial disease also have coronary artery disease Overview of Coronary Artery Disease ( ...
Angioplasty versus surgical bypass for subclavian arterial occlusive disease. TA Beckitt, JK Day, FCT Smith, RN Baird, KP ... 2006). Angioplasty versus surgical bypass for subclavian arterial occlusive disease. In Unknown (S1 ed., Vol. 93, pp. 133 - 133 ... Angioplasty versus surgical bypass for subclavian arterial occlusive disease. / Beckitt, TA; Day, JK; Smith, FCT et al. Unknown ... title = "Angioplasty versus surgical bypass for subclavian arterial occlusive disease",. author = "TA Beckitt and JK Day and ...
Do you qualify for these Arterial Occlusive Diseases studies? Were researching treatments for 2023. ... Arterial Occlusive Diseases clinical trials at UCSF 1 in progress, 0 open to eligible people ...
Found up the humanists including the free angiography in cerebro arterial Phil is in his center by giving a else quick request ... Free Angiography In Cerebro Arterial Occlusive Diseases Including Computer Tomography And Radionuclide Methods. by Joachim 4.2 ... is herbal people and free angiography in cerebro arterial occlusive diseases including computer tomography and. Raymond ... For the free angiography in cerebro arterial occlusive diseases including computer tomography and radionuclide download request ...
Angiography of occlusive arterial disease below the inguinal ligament. In: Current problems in surgery. 1991 ; Vol. 28, No. 1. ... Angiography of occlusive arterial disease below the inguinal ligament. / Kozak, Blaine; Rösch, Joseph. In: Current problems in ... title = "Angiography of occlusive arterial disease below the inguinal ligament",. author = "Blaine Kozak and Joseph R{o}sch", ... Kozak B, Rösch J. Angiography of occlusive arterial disease below the inguinal ligament. Current problems in surgery. 1991 Jan; ...
ICD-10 code N52.03 for Combined arterial insufficiency and corporo-venous occlusive erectile dysfunction is a medical ... When do you use n52.1 erectile dysfunction due to diseases classified elsewhere? What diseases do they mean?... [ Read More ] ... Combined arterial insufficiency and corporo-venous occlusive erectile dysfunction N52. Excludes1: psychogenic impotence (F52.21 ... ICD-10-CM Code for Combined arterial insufficiency and corporo-venous occlusive erectile dysfunction N52.03 ICD-10 code N52.03 ...
Arterial Occlusive disease is a severe ailment, which consists of the partial blockage (stenoses) of an artery, leading to a ... In this study, bivariate generalized linear models with Bayesian approach were used for assessing arterial occlusive disease. ... A Bayesian approach for assessing arterial occlusive disease Damar tikanikhǧi tespitinde Bayesci bir yaklaşim ...
"Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease". The Merck Manual Home Health Handbook ewebsit. Merck & Co. March 2010. Retrieved 4 ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Neuromuscular diseases or interstitial lung disease Malformed vascular system such ... To counter the effects of high-altitude diseases, the body must return arterial PaO2 toward normal. Acclimatization, the means ... Arterial oxygen tension can be measured by blood gas analysis of an arterial blood sample, and less reliably by pulse oximetry ...
Evaluation of the Occlusive Arterial Disease and Diabetic Angiopathy Treatment Effects by Hyperbaric Oxygenation. by Sharon ... One of the most severe complications of atherosclerosis is arterial occlusive disease (AOD) and with diabetic angiopathy (DA), ... 40 patients with the arterial occlusive disease and lower-extremity wounds, with sub-group (n=20) treated with HBO therapy on ...
... findings associated with a poor outcome following profundoplasty performed in a patient with femoropopliteal occlusive disease ... Ominous Signs of Sladen and Burgess for a Patient Undergoing Profundoplasty for Femoropopliteal Occlusive Arterial Disease. ... findings associated with a poor outcome following profundoplasty performed in a patient with femoropopliteal occlusive disease ...
Peripheral arterial occlusive disease. C. Yes. Pig farmer, yes. 2167. t011. V. DOX. 47/M. Screening tracheal secretion. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ... the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for ...
... and infrarenal aortic occlusion was managed by inserting an infrarenal bifurcation graft and using one limb as arterial access ... Aortic Diseases* * Aortic Dissection / surgery * Arterial Occlusive Diseases* * Cardiopulmonary Bypass / methods* * Femoral ... In patients with severe aortoiliac occlusive disease, graft replacement can provide access for both cardiopulmonary bypass and ... and infrarenal aortic occlusion was managed by inserting an infrarenal bifurcation graft and using one limb as arterial access ...
Because chronic atherosclerotic disease may result in acute circulatory compromise, acute arterial occlusion is also covered. ... This article reviews chronic infrainguinal atherosclerotic arterial occlusive disease caused by atherosclerosis involving the ... encoded search term (Infrainguinal Occlusive Disease) and Infrainguinal Occlusive Disease What to Read Next on Medscape ... First clinical trial of nitinol self-expanding everolimus-eluting stent implantation for peripheral arterial occlusive disease ...
... we found that vertebrobasilar occlusive disease consists of a variety of different stroke mechanisms and vascular lesions, many ... Arterial Occlusive Diseases / complications * Arterial Occlusive Diseases / mortality* * Arterial Occlusive Diseases / ... Conclusion: In contrast with previous reports, we found that vertebrobasilar occlusive disease consists of a variety of ... Background: Vertebrobasilar disease is generally considered a condition with a poor prognosis because of high rates of ...
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a nearly pandemic condition that has the potential to cause loss of limb or even loss of ... Napoli A, Anzidei M, Zaccagna F, Cavallo Marincola B, Zini C, Brachetti G. Peripheral arterial occlusive disease: diagnostic ... Criqui MH, Ninomiya JK, Wingard DL, Ji M, Fronek A. Progression of peripheral arterial disease predicts cardiovascular disease ... Peripheral arterial disease and progression of coronary atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Mar 8. 57(10):1220-5. [QxMD ...
Initial experience in peripheral occlusive disease and aortic dissection. Journal of Endovascular Therapy, 11(3), 274-280. ... Initial experience in peripheral occlusive disease and aortic dissection, Journal of Endovascular Therapy, vol. 11, no. 3, pp ... Initial experience in peripheral occlusive disease and aortic dissection. Journal of Endovascular Therapy. 2004 Jun;11(3):274- ... Initial experience in peripheral occlusive disease and aortic dissection. Ramin R. Saket, Mahmood K. Razavi, Arash Padidar, ...
LOWER EXTREMITY FUNCTION ASSESSED BY A 4-METER WALK IN PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL OCCLUSIVE DISEASE PATIENTS 46. Montgomery, P. S.; ... THE EFFECTS OF HUNTINGTONS DISEASE ON MIDLINE CROSSING ABILITY 45. Woodard, R. J.; Lewis, C. A.; Surburg, P. R.; More ... STAFFING AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES IN FITNESS CENTERS OFFERING EXERCISE PROGRAMS FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH HEART DISEASE ... THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE TRAINING USING CYCLE ERGOMETRY, STAIRSTEPPING, AND TREADMILL WALKING IN PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE ...
Percutaneous treatment of aneurismal and occlusive arterial disease. *Venous interventions including thrombolysis, pulmonary ...
Post-exercise pulsatility index indicates treatment effects in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). ... Accessed 22 Dec 2020. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Laboratory support for COVID-19 in the EU/EEA. 2020. ... Zurück zum Zitat European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Laboratory support for COVID-19 in the EU/EEA. 2020. https ...
1995) Hyperhomocysteinaemia and endothelial dysfunction in young patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Eur J ... nitroprusside has shown that the local vasodilatory response is reduced in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease ... 2002) Skin microvascular dilatation response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside in peripheral arterial disease. Clin ... In another study of patients with coronary artery disease fifty patients with proven coronary artery disease underwent an ...
Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease (Merck & Co., Inc.) Peripheral Arterial Disease/Specifics ... Peripheral Arterial Disease ...
Categories: Arterial Occlusive Diseases Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...
Chronic PAD is characterized by limb hypoperfusion caused by arterial occlusive disease. It can be asymptomatic or can manifest ... Risk factors for peripheral arterial disease among patients with chronic kidney disease. Am J Cardiol. 2012;110(1):136-141. ... explore the role of tryptophan metabolites in chronic kidney disease-associated (CKD-associated) peripheral arterial disease. ... Impact of severe chronic kidney disease on outcomes of infrainguinal peripheral arterial intervention. J Vasc Surg. 2014;59(2): ...
  • Claudication, which is defined as reproducible ischemic muscle pain, is one of the most common manifestations of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) caused by atherosclerosis. (medscape.com)
  • Peripheral arterial occlusive disease results from the vascular aging, atherosclerosis or thrombosis, when vascular stenosis or occlusion occur and in the end patients are suffered from ischemic disease. (envita.site)
  • Occlusive peripheral arterial disease is blockage or narrowing of an artery in the legs (or rarely the arms), usually due to atherosclerosis and resulting in decreased blood flow. (msdmanuals.com)
  • One of the most severe complications of atherosclerosis is arterial occlusive disease (AOD) and with diabetic angiopathy (DA), is a common chronic problem in clinical practice worldwide. (ahyperbaric.com)
  • In patients with severe aortoiliac occlusive disease, graft replacement can provide access for both cardiopulmonary bypass and intraaortic balloon pump insertion. (nih.gov)
  • Jongkind V, Akkersdijk GJ, Yeung KK, Wisselink W. A systematic review of endovascular treatment of extensive aortoiliac occlusive disease. (goremedical.com)
  • Clinical outcomes of 5358 patients undergoing direct open bypass or endovascular treatment for aortoiliac occlusive disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (goremedical.com)
  • We conducted a clinical prospective study and included a total of 80 patients, divided into two groups: 40 patients with the arterial occlusive disease and lower-extremity wounds, with sub-group (n=20) treated with HBO therapy on the top of the standard therapy and 40 patients with diabetic angiopathy and diabetic lower-extremity wounds, with sub-group (n=20) treated with HBO therapy on top of the standard therapy. (ahyperbaric.com)
  • His clinical and research interests include carotid stenosis and lower extremity arterial occlusive disease. (umms.org)
  • ESC Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral artery diseases: document covering atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteries: the Task Force on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Artery Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). (goremedical.com)
  • However, patients with PVDs in Europe are managed by a variety of specialists, according to the affected territory e.g. venous diseases, lower-extremity arterial disease (LEAD) or carotid disease, and the country. (medscape.com)
  • Although ischemic findings in the face of absent pulses clearly pinpoint arterial insufficiency as the culprit, intermittent claudication, even when associated with absent pulses, is not always due to arterial insufficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Although noncontrast studies can be useful for imaging calcification and arteriosclerosis, contrast studies are most useful for imaging arterial insufficiency. (medscape.com)
  • A patient with type I aortic dissection, ascending aortic aneurysm, and infrarenal aortic occlusion was managed by inserting an infrarenal bifurcation graft and using one limb as arterial access for cardiopulmonary bypass. (nih.gov)
  • Severe ischemia of the toes with absent pedal pulses but normal proximal pulses in a man aged 35-50 years who smokes cigarettes may be the result of thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease) . (medscape.com)
  • In the first part of my talk, I discussed colon ischemia and now in the second part of my talk, I'm going to discuss a variety of topics including acute mesenteric ischemia, focal segmental ischemia, mesenteric arterial occlusive disease, mesenteric venous thrombosis, and chronic mesenteric ischemia or intestinal angina. (hstalks.com)
  • I'm now going to talk about acute mesenteric ischemia, which also is a spectrum of disease. (hstalks.com)
  • As a board-certified vascular surgeon, he specializes in the treatment of aortic disease including aneurysms and dissection, venous occlusive disease, carotid artery disease, and peripheral arterial disease including critical limb ischemia and claudication through the use of endovascular and open surgical techniques. (medstarhealth.org)
  • Central venous occlusion is a debilitating disease, which, if left untreated, results in limb laceration and chronic limb ischemia. (medstarhealth.org)
  • Antiplatelet agents are effective in primary and secondary prevention of arterial thrombosis (cardiovascular events, ischaemic stroke, and peripheral arterial occlusive disease). (hindawi.com)
  • Angiography is the criterion standard arterial imaging study for the diagnosis of PAOD. (medscape.com)
  • Various disease processes mimic claudication symptoms and must be excluded before a diagnosis of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) can be made. (medscape.com)
  • Arterial Occlusive disease is a severe ailment, which consists of the partial blockage (stenoses) of an artery, leading to a diminished flow of blood and corresponding pain. (omu.edu.tr)
  • Vertebrobasilar disease is generally considered a condition with a poor prognosis because of high rates of mortality and severe disability. (nih.gov)
  • Acute ischemic lesion was not detected on diffusion MRI, and severe stenotic or occlusive lesion was also not detected on TOF-MRA (Figure 1(b) ). (hindawi.com)
  • All participants completed a checklist certain, it is of increasing interest that less consisting of questions covering demo- severe abnormalities of methionine metabo- graphic data, current disease, disease histo- lism may predispose to the development of ry, eye trauma and consumption of drugs. (who.int)
  • Systematic data are not available for safety and efficacy of IV artesunate for treatment of severe P . falciparum malaria outside disease-endemic areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Severe malaria is rare outside disease-endemic regions. (cdc.gov)
  • The date parameters were identified as the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 disease and the declaration of a national emergency in the United States. (bvsalud.org)
  • Other individuals have a multitude of the most severe symptoms of end-stage liver disease and a limited chance for survival. (medscape.com)
  • Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense vessels (FHVs) can be seen in ischemic stroke patients with arterial occlusion or significant stenosis and in patients with cerebral arterial occlusion but without infarction, such as those with moyamoya disease [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Factors such as emotional status and associated systemic disease may play a role in predisposition of retinal vascular occlusion, so more-precise studies are needed to determine the possible risk factors of hyperhomocysteinaemia in retinal vascular occlusion. (who.int)
  • Specific medical therapies may be applied to many liver diseases in an effort to diminish symptoms and to prevent or forestall the development of cirrhosis. (medscape.com)
  • Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with macrovascular and microvascular complications (coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, and retinopathy) [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • One Sampling-based free angiography in cerebro arterial occlusive diseases including computer tomography is to let nationwide problem about the love, page, and HOW of elastic over too as own settings as a type for future typesetting in images high-resolution. (subjectmatters.com.ph)
  • For the free angiography in cerebro arterial occlusive diseases including computer tomography and radionuclide download request, are Internal Revenue Code way. (subjectmatters.com.ph)
  • Kozak, B & Rösch, J 1991, ' Angiography of occlusive arterial disease below the inguinal ligament ', Current problems in surgery , vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 56-92. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Peripheral Vascular Disease Committee for the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. (goremedical.com)
  • Platelets have a "key role" in atherogenesis and its thrombotic complications in subjects with DM [ 3 ], and the concomitant presence of multiple "classical" cardiovascular risk factors (arterial hypertension, cigarette smoking, and hyperlipidemia) in diabetic subjects contributes to enhanced atherothrombotic risk. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we report application of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (HUCMSC)-derived therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). (nature.com)
  • Compared to the active firefighters, the CHD victims had a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate regression models: age >or= 45 years (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.6-15.9), current smoking (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.8-17.4), hypertension (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0-11.1), and a prior diagnosis of arterial-occlusive disease (OR 15.6, 95% CI 3.5-68.6). (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical conditions such as hypertension, respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases seem to be important risk factors for the severity of covid-19 5 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Smoking, smoking status, and risk for symptomatic peripheral artery disease in women: a cohort study. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Neuromuscular diseases or interstitial lung disease Malformed vascular system such as an anomalous coronary artery[citation needed] Hypoxemic hypoxia is a lack of oxygen caused by low oxygen tension in the arterial blood, due to the inability of the lungs to sufficiently oxygenate the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Criqui MH, Aboyans V. Epidemiology of peripheral artery disease. (goremedical.com)
  • Her research interests include peripheral artery disease, fibromuscular dysplasia, and cardiovascular disease prevention among firefighters. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Inter-Society consensus for the management of peripheral arterial disease (TASC II). (goremedical.com)
  • The management of peripheral vascular diseases (PVDs, including arterial and venous diseases) is part of the ESC core curriculum. (medscape.com)
  • Most common is what used to be called superior mesenteric arterial thrombus. (hstalks.com)
  • It is now called, more accurately, mesenteric arterial occlusive disease. (hstalks.com)
  • FDA approves first drug-coated angioplasty balloon catheter to treat vascular disease [press release]. (medscape.com)
  • The US FDA has approved the first drug-coated balloon (DCB) for the treatment of peripheral arterial vascular disease, the Lutonix 035 Drug Coated Balloon Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty Catheter (Lutonix DCB). (medscape.com)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • In the United States, use of IV artesunate is monitored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA, USA) under an investigational new drug protocol ( 12 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast with previous reports, we found that vertebrobasilar occlusive disease consists of a variety of different stroke mechanisms and vascular lesions, many with a good prognosis. (nih.gov)
  • We have investigated the rheological effects of gemfibrozil in 50 patients with angiographically documented but stable peripheral occlusive arterial disease. (iospress.com)
  • The vascular and biochemical effects of cilostazol in patients with peripheral arterial disease. (medscape.com)
  • Causalgia (from Greek kausos ["heat"] and algos ["pain"]) was first described in patients with arterial and nerve injuries sustained during the American Civil War. (medscape.com)
  • The role of chronic administration of antiplatelet drugs in primary prevention of arterial vascular events is known to be less clear than in secondary prevention, and, also in diabetic patients, the decision to give primary prophylaxis should be taken on an individual-patient basis, after a careful evaluation of the balance between the expected benefits and the risk of major bleedings. (hindawi.com)
  • Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Patients with ACVRL1 mutations who do develop PAH 7 are particularly young, have often rapid disease progression and have a worse prognosis than patients with BMPR2 mutations 10 . (nature.com)
  • The incidence of AIOD is increasing, 1 leaving more patients vulnerable to a disease that, untreated, can cause pain, tissue loss and amputation. (goremedical.com)
  • Dr. Abramowitz is the only physician at MedStar Washington Hospital Center performing endovascular iliocaval reconstruction, a two-stage minimally invasive reconstructive technique that has been paramount in the treatment of patients diagnosed with vena caval stenosis and central venous occlusive disease. (medstarhealth.org)
  • I create life-long treatment plans for my patients because there is no quick fix for vascular disease. (medstarhealth.org)
  • Patients were classified into 3 clusion is a major cause of retinal vascular major categories of retinal vascular occlu- disease, second only to diabetic retinopathy sion based on their first episode: CRVO, [ 3 ]. (who.int)
  • An elevated arterial or free venous serum ammonia level is the classic laboratory abnormality reported in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. (medscape.com)
  • This year, with the publication of the 2017 ESC Guidelines on Peripheral Arterial Diseases, the Council of Cardiology Practice together with the Working Group on Aorta and Peripheral Vascular Disease attempted to better understand the commitment of cardiologists in the management of patients with PVDs. (medscape.com)
  • Overall these results show the important role of cardiologists in the management of patients with vascular diseases in our continent. (medscape.com)
  • Screening for peripheral arterial diseases by cardiologists. (medscape.com)
  • Ratchford EV, Carson KA, Jones SR, Ashen MD. Usefulness of coronary and carotid imaging rather than traditional atherosclerotic risk factors to identify firefighters at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • MMP´s are also involved in the pathophysiological processes underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (gu.se)
  • 146 disease terms (MeSH) has been reported with SELE gene. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, surgical sympathectomy-perfected decades ago by vascular surgeons to manage nonreconstructible arterial disease (a common situation at the time)-was once the mainstay for treatment of the CRPSs. (medscape.com)
  • Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a very rare disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A reduced V/Q ratio can be caused by impaired ventilation, which may be a consequence of conditions such as bronchitis, obstructive airway disease, mucus plugs, or pulmonary edema, which limit or obstruct the ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathobiology of pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) and PAH is complex, multifactorial and driven by inflammation and metabolic dysfunction 1 . (nature.com)
  • Signs of peripheral vascular disease depend on which tissues are ischaemic and its severity. (dermnetnz.org)
  • SCAI expert consensus statement for infrapopliteal arterial intervention appropriate use. (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Abramowtiz's clinical interests include central venous occlusive disease, aortic aneurysmal disease, vascular access for hemodialysis, peripheral vascular disease, and limb salvage. (medstarhealth.org)
  • Despite the extensive research demonstrating the benefits of lipid lowering therapy in occlusive arterial disease, there is a paucity of data on the rheological effects of such treatment. (iospress.com)
  • Risk factors for the development of vascular disease (lipid profile, coagulation tests) can also be evaluated, though not necessarily in the emergency department (ED) setting. (medscape.com)
  • Our vascular and endovascular surgeons provide comprehensive, leading-edge treatment for the entire spectrum of vascular disease. (ucsd.edu)
  • Rossi M, Iezzi R. Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe guidelines on endovascular treatment in aortoiliac arterial disease. (goremedical.com)