Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
Efflux pumps that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump arsenite across a membrane. They are primarily found in prokaryotic organisms, where they play a role in protection against excess intracellular levels of arsenite ions.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
Oxidoreductases that specifically reduce arsenate ion to arsenite ion. Reduction of arsenate is a critical step for its biotransformation into a form that can be transported by ARSENITE TRANSPORTING ATPASES or complexed by specific sulfhydryl-containing proteins for the purpose of detoxification (METABOLIC DETOXIFICATION, DRUG). Arsenate reductases require reducing equivalents such as GLUTAREDOXIN or AZURIN.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.
A subgroup of aquaporins that transport WATER; GLYCEROL; and other small solutes across CELL MEMBRANES.
A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.
The type species of gram negative bacteria in the genus ALCALIGENES, found in soil. It is non-pathogenic, non-pigmented, and used for the production of amino acids.
A family in the order Chromatiales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. These are haloalkaliphilic, phototrophic bacteria that deposit elemental sulfur outside their cells.
A plant genus of the family PTERIDACEAE. Members contain entkaurane DITERPENES. The name is similar to bracken fern (PTERIDIUM).
Disorders associated with acute or chronic exposure to compounds containing ARSENIC (ARSENICALS) which may be fatal. Acute oral ingestion is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and an encephalopathy which may manifest as SEIZURES, mental status changes, and COMA. Chronic exposure is associated with mucosal irritation, desquamating rash, myalgias, peripheral neuropathy, and white transverse (Mees) lines in the fingernails. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212)
A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A genus in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, comprised of many species. They are associated with a variety of infections including MENINGITIS; PERITONITIS; and URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.
A family of gram-negative bacteria in the class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA. There are at least eight genera.

Overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) in human heavy metal-selected tumor cells. (1/791)

Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance to cytotoxic heavy metals remain largely to be characterized in mammalian cells. To this end, we have analyzed a metal-resistant variant of the human lung cancer GLC4 cell line that we have selected by a step-wise procedure in potassium antimony tartrate. Antimony-selected cells, termed GLC4/Sb30 cells, poorly accumulated antimony through an enhanced cellular efflux of metal, thus suggesting up-regulation of a membrane export system in these cells. Indeed, GLC4/Sb30 cells were found to display a functional overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, a drug export pump, as demonstrated by Western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and calcein accumulation assays. Moreover, MK571, a potent inhibitor of MRP1 activity, was found to markedly down-modulate resistance of GLC4/Sb30 cells to antimony and to decrease cellular export of the metal. Taken together, our data support the conclusion that overexpression of functional MRP1 likely represents one major mechanism by which human cells can escape the cytotoxic effects of heavy metals.  (+info)

Expression cloning for arsenite-resistance resulted in isolation of tumor-suppressor fau cDNA: possible involvement of the ubiquitin system in arsenic carcinogenesis. (2/791)

Arsenic is a human carcinogen whose mechanism of action is unknown. Previously, this laboratory demonstrated that arsenite acts as a comutagen by interfering with DNA repair, although a specific DNA repair enzyme sensitive to arsenite has not been identified. A number of stable arsenite-sensitive and arsenite-resistant sublines of Chinese hamster V79 cells have now been isolated. In order to gain understanding of possible targets for arsenite's action, one arsenite-resistant subline, As/R28A, was chosen as a donor for a cDNA expression library. The library from arsenite-induced As/R28A cells was transfected into arsenite-sensitive As/S5 cells, and transfectants were selected for arsenite-resistance. Two cDNAs, asr1 and asr2, which confer arsenite resistance to arsenite-hypersensitive As/S5 cells as well as to wild-type cells, were isolated. asr1 shows almost complete homology with the rat fau gene, a tumor suppressor gene which contains a ubiquitin-like region fused to S30 ribosomal protein. Arsenite was previously shown to inhibit ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. These results suggest that the tumor suppressor fau gene product or some other aspect of the ubiquitin system may be a target for arsenic toxicity and that disruption of the ubiquitin system may contribute to the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenite.  (+info)

Protein-damaging stresses activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase via inhibition of its dephosphorylation: a novel pathway controlled by HSP72. (3/791)

Various stresses activate the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which is involved in the regulation of many aspects of cellular physiology, including apoptosis. Here we demonstrate that in contrast to UV irradiation, heat shock causes little or no stimulation of the JNK-activating kinase SEK1, while knocking out the SEK1 gene completely blocks heat-induced JNK activation. Therefore, we tested whether heat shock activates JNK via inhibition of JNK dephosphorylation. The rate of JNK dephosphorylation in unstimulated cells was high, and exposure to UV irradiation, osmotic shock, interleukin-1, or anisomycin did not affect this process. Conversely, exposure of cells to heat shock and other protein-damaging conditions, including ethanol, arsenite, and oxidative stress, strongly reduced the rate of JNK dephosphorylation. Under these conditions, we did not observe any effects on dephosphorylation of the homologous p38 kinase, suggesting that suppression of dephosphorylation is specific to JNK. Together, these data indicate that activation of JNK by protein-damaging treatments is mediated primarily by inhibition of a JNK phosphatase(s). Elevation of cellular levels of the major heat shock protein Hsp72 inhibited a repression of JNK dephosphorylation by these stressful treatments, which explains recent reports of the suppression of JNK activation by Hsp72.  (+info)

Complexes containing activating transcription factor (ATF)/cAMP-responsive-element-binding protein (CREB) interact with the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-ATF composite site to regulate Gadd153 expression during the stress response. (4/791)

Gadd153, also known as chop, encodes a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) transcription factor family and is transcriptionally activated by cellular stress signals. We recently demonstrated that arsenite treatment of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells results in the biphasic induction of Gadd153 mRNA expression, controlled in part through binding of C/EBPbeta and two uncharacterized protein complexes to the C/EBP-ATF (activating transcription factor) composite site in the Gadd153 promoter. In this report, we identified components of these additional complexes as two ATF/CREB (cAMP-responsive-element-binding protein) transcription factors having differential binding activities dependent upon the time of arsenite exposure. During arsenite treatment of PC12 cells, we observed enhanced binding of ATF4 to the C/EBP-ATF site at 2 h as Gadd153 mRNA levels increased, and enhanced binding of ATF3 complexes at 6 h as Gadd153 expression declined. We further demonstrated that ATF4 activates, while ATF3 represses, Gadd153 promoter activity through the C/EBP-ATF site. ATF3 also repressed ATF4-mediated transactivation and arsenite-induced activation of the Gadd153 promoter. Our results suggest that numerous members of the ATF/CREB family are involved in the cellular stress response, and that regulation of stress-induced biphasic Gadd153 expression in PC12 cells involves the ordered, sequential binding of multiple transcription factor complexes to the C/EBP-ATF composite site.  (+info)

Teratogen-induced cell death in postimplantation mouse embryos: differential tissue sensitivity and hallmarks of apoptosis. (5/791)

Teratogen-induced cell death is a common event in the pathogenesis associated with tissues destined to be malformed. Although the importance of this cell death is recognized, little information is available concerning the biochemistry of teratogen-induced cell death. We show that three teratogens, hyperthermia, cyclophosphamide and sodium arsenite induce an increase in cell death in day 9.0 mouse embryos with concurrent induction of DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-3 and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Teratogen-induced cell death is also selective, i. e., some cells within a tissue die while others survive. In addition, cells within some tissues die when exposed to teratogens while cells in other tissues are relatively resistant to teratogen-induced cell death. An example of the latter selectivity is seen in the cells of the developing heart, which are resistant to the cytotoxic potential of many teratogens. We show that the absence of cell death in the heart is accompanied by the complete lack of DNA fragmentation, activtion of caspase-3 and the cleavage of PARP.  (+info)

Pathways of As(III) detoxification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/791)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two independent transport systems for the removal of arsenite from the cytosol. Acr3p is a plasma membrane transporter that confers resistance to arsenite, presumably by arsenite extrusion from the cells. Ycf1p, a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, catalyzes the ATP-driven uptake of As(III) into the vacuole, also producing resistance to arsenite. Vacuolar accumulation requires a reductant such as glutathione, suggesting that the substrate is the glutathione conjugate, As(GS)3. Disruption of either the ACR3 or YCF1 gene results in sensitivity to arsenite and disruption of both genes produces additive hypersensitivity. Thus, Acr3p and Ycf1p represent separate pathways for the detoxification of arsenite in yeast.  (+info)

Sodium arsenite enhances copper accumulation in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. (7/791)

In this report, we found that arsenite-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells, CL3R15, were more susceptible to CuCl2 than the parental CL3 cells. With the aid of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, we observed that CL3R15 cells accumulated more copper than CL3 cells. We further demonstrated that sodium arsenite treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase of copper accumulation in the parental CL3 cells. In contrast, copper did not alter the levels of intracellular arsenite in CL3 cells treated in combination with sodium arsenite and CuCl2. Pretreatment of CL3 cells with sodium arsenite resulted in a significant increase of copper accumulation and cytotoxicity. These results indicate that intracellular copper accumulation is enhanced by arsenite. However, arsenite-enhanced copper accumulation was not observed in two fibroblastic cells, GM00220 and GM03700, derived from Menkes patients. The Menkes gene encodes a membrane pump responsible for copper exportation. Our results suggest that Menkes protein is a potential target of arsenite.  (+info)

Asp45 is a Mg2+ ligand in the ArsA ATPase. (8/791)

The ATPase activity of ArsA, the catalytic subunit of the plasmid-encoded, ATP-dependent extrusion pump for arsenicals and antimonials in Escherichia coli, is allosterically activated by arsenite or antimonite. Magnesium is essential for ATPase activity. To examine the role of Asp45, mutants were constructed in which Asp45 was changed to Glu, Asn, or Ala. Cells expressing these mutated arsA genes lost arsenite resistance to varying degrees. Purified D45A and D45N enzymes were inactive. The purified D45E enzyme exhibited approximately 5% of the wild type activity with about a 5-fold decrease in affinity for Mg2+. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence was used to probe Mg2+ binding. ArsA containing only Trp159 exhibited fluorescence enhancement upon the addition of MgATP, which was absent in D45N and D45A. As another measure of conformation, limited trypsin digestion was used to estimate the surface accessibility of residues in ArsA. ATP and Sb(III) synergistically protected wild type ArsA from trypsin digestion. Subsequent addition of Mg2+ increased trypsin sensitivity. D45N and D45A remained protected by ATP and Sb(III) but lost the Mg2+ effect. D45E exhibited an intermediate Mg2+ response. These results indicate that Asp45 is a Mg2+-responsive residue, consistent with its function as a Mg2+ ligand.  (+info)

Arsenites are inorganic compounds that contain arsenic in the trivalent state (arsenic-III). They are formed by the reaction of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) or other trivalent arsenic compounds with bases such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, or ammonia.

The most common and well-known arsenite is sodium arsenite (NaAsO2), which has been used in the past as a wood preservative and pesticide. However, due to its high toxicity and carcinogenicity, its use has been largely discontinued. Other examples of arsenites include potassium arsenite (KAsO2) and calcium arsenite (Ca3(AsO3)2).

Arsenites are highly toxic and can cause a range of health effects, including skin irritation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and death in severe cases. Long-term exposure to arsenites has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung, bladder, and skin cancer.

Sodium compounds are chemical substances that contain the element sodium (Na) combined with one or more other elements. Sodium is an alkali metal and is highly reactive, so it rarely exists in its pure form in nature. Instead, it is typically found combined with other elements in the form of various sodium compounds.

Some common examples of sodium compounds include:

* Sodium chloride (NaCl), also known as table salt, which is a compound formed from the reaction between sodium and chlorine.
* Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), also known as baking soda, which is used as a leavening agent in baking and as a household cleaner.
* Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, which is a strong alkali used in industrial applications such as the manufacture of soap and paper.
* Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), also known as washing soda, which is used as a water softener and cleaning agent.

Sodium compounds have a variety of uses in medicine, including as electrolytes to help maintain fluid balance in the body, as antacids to neutralize stomach acid, and as laxatives to relieve constipation. However, it is important to use sodium compounds as directed by a healthcare professional, as excessive intake can lead to high blood pressure and other health problems.

Arsenite transporting ATPases are a type of membrane-bound enzyme complexes that use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to actively transport arsenic compounds across cell membranes. They are part of the P-type ATPase family and play a crucial role in detoxifying cells by removing arsenite (AsIII) ions, which are highly toxic even at low concentrations.

These enzymes consist of two main domains: a cytoplasmic domain responsible for ATP binding and hydrolysis, and a transmembrane domain that contains the ion transport pathway. The transport process involves several conformational changes in the protein structure, driven by ATP hydrolysis, which ultimately result in the movement of arsenite ions against their concentration gradient from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space or into organelles like vacuoles and endosomes.

In humans, there are two main isoforms of arsenite transporting ATPases: ACR3 (also known as ARS-A) and ACR2 (or ARS-B). Both isoforms have been identified in various tissues, including the liver, kidney, and intestine. Mutations in these genes can lead to impaired arsenic detoxification and increased susceptibility to arsenic toxicity.

Overall, arsenite transporting ATPases are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and protecting organisms from the harmful effects of environmental arsenic exposure.

Arsenates are salts or esters of arsenic acid (AsO4). They contain the anion AsO4(3-), which consists of an arsenic atom bonded to four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. Arsenates can be found in various minerals, and they have been used in pesticides, wood preservatives, and other industrial applications. However, arsenic is highly toxic to humans and animals, so exposure to arsenates should be limited. Long-term exposure to arsenic can cause skin lesions, cancer, and damage to the nervous system, among other health problems.

Arsenic is a naturally occurring semi-metal element that can be found in the earth's crust. It has the symbol "As" and atomic number 33 on the periodic table. Arsenic can exist in several forms, including inorganic and organic compounds. In its pure form, arsenic is a steel-gray, shiny solid that is brittle and easily pulverized.

Arsenic is well known for its toxicity to living organisms, including humans. Exposure to high levels of arsenic can cause various health problems, such as skin lesions, neurological damage, and an increased risk of cancer. Arsenic can enter the body through contaminated food, water, or air, and it can also be absorbed through the skin.

In medicine, arsenic has been used historically in the treatment of various diseases, including syphilis and parasitic infections. However, its use as a therapeutic agent is limited due to its toxicity. Today, arsenic trioxide is still used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a type of blood cancer. The drug works by inducing differentiation and apoptosis (programmed cell death) in APL cells, which contain a specific genetic abnormality. However, its use is closely monitored due to the potential for severe side effects and toxicity.

Ion pumps, also known as ion transporters, are membrane-bound proteins that actively transport ions across a biological membrane against their electrochemical gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and allows cells to maintain resting potentials, regulate intracellular ion concentrations, and facilitate various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and cell volume regulation.

Ion pumps can transport one or more types of ions, including sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), calcium (Ca2+), and protons (H+). A well-known example of an ion pump is the Na+/K+ ATPase, which transports three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cell for each ATP molecule hydrolyzed. This creates a concentration gradient that drives the passive transport of Na+ and K+ ions through other channels, contributing to the resting membrane potential.

Antimony is a toxic metallic element with the symbol Sb and atomic number 51. It exists in several allotropic forms and can be found naturally as the mineral stibnite. Antimony has been used for centuries in various applications, including medicinal ones, although its use in medicine has largely fallen out of favor due to its toxicity.

In a medical context, antimony may still be encountered in certain medications used to treat parasitic infections, such as pentavalent antimony compounds (e.g., sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate) for the treatment of leishmaniasis. However, these drugs can have significant side effects and their use is typically reserved for severe cases that cannot be treated with other medications.

It's important to note that exposure to antimony in high concentrations or over prolonged periods can lead to serious health issues, including respiratory problems, skin irritation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and even neurological damage. Therefore, handling antimony-containing substances should be done with caution and appropriate safety measures.

Teratogens are substances, such as certain medications, chemicals, or infectious agents, that can cause birth defects or abnormalities in the developing fetus when a woman is exposed to them during pregnancy. They can interfere with the normal development of the fetus and lead to a range of problems, including physical deformities, intellectual disabilities, and sensory impairments. Examples of teratogens include alcohol, tobacco smoke, some prescription medications, and infections like rubella (German measles). It is important for women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant to avoid exposure to known teratogens as much as possible.

Arsenate reductases are enzymes that catalyze the reduction of arsenate (As(V)) to arsenite (As(III)). This reaction is a critical step in the detoxification process of arsenic compounds in many organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. The enzyme typically uses thioredoxin or glutaredoxin as an electron donor to reduce arsenate.

The medical significance of arsenate reductases lies in their role in arsenic detoxification and resistance. Exposure to high levels of arsenic can lead to a variety of health issues, including skin lesions, cancer, and neurological disorders. Understanding the mechanisms of arsenate reduction and detoxification may provide insights into new strategies for treating arsenic poisoning and developing environmental remediation technologies.

Arsenicals are a group of chemicals that contain arsenic, a naturally occurring element that is toxic to humans and animals. Arsenic can combine with other elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or carbon to form various inorganic and organic compounds known as arsenicals. These compounds have been used in a variety of industrial and agricultural applications, including wood preservatives, pesticides, and herbicides.

Exposure to high levels of arsenic can cause serious health effects, including skin damage, circulatory problems, and increased risk of cancer. Long-term exposure to lower levels of arsenic can also lead to chronic health issues, such as neurological damage and diabetes. Therefore, the use of arsenicals is regulated in many countries to minimize human and environmental exposure.

Aquaglyceroporins are a subfamily of aquaporin water channels that also transport glycerol and other small solutes across biological membranes. They play important roles in various physiological processes, including osmoregulation, skin hydration, and fat metabolism. In humans, there are three known aquaglyceroporins: AQP3, AQP7, and AQP9.

Antimony potassium tartrate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KSbC4H4O7. It is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water and has been used historically in medical treatments, most notably in the treatment of leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease. However, due to its potential toxicity and the availability of safer alternatives, it is no longer commonly used in modern medicine.

*Alcaligenes faecalis* is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is commonly found in the environment, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. It is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can grow in both aerobic (with oxygen) and anaerobic (without oxygen) conditions.

The bacteria are generally not harmful to healthy individuals, but they have been associated with various types of infections in people with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. These infections can include urinary tract infections, wound infections, pneumonia, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections).

*Alcaligenes faecalis* is resistant to many antibiotics, which can make treating infections caused by this bacteria challenging. It is important to identify the specific species of bacteria causing an infection so that appropriate antibiotic therapy can be administered.

Ectothiorhodospiraceae is a family of purple sulfur bacteria, which are characterized by their ability to perform anoxygenic photosynthesis using bacteriochlorophyll a or b. These bacteria typically contain intracytoplasmic membranes and use reduced sulfur compounds as electron donors during photosynthesis. They are often found in hypersaline environments, such as salt lakes and salt pans, where they play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and carbon.

The name "Ectothiorhodospiraceae" comes from the Greek words "ectos," meaning outside, and "thio," meaning sulfur, and "spirillum," meaning a spiral-shaped bacterium. This reflects the fact that these bacteria form external sulfur deposits during photosynthesis.

It's worth noting that medical professionals may not necessarily be familiar with this term, as it is more commonly used in the fields of microbiology and environmental science.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pteris" is not a medical term. It is the name of a genus of ferns, commonly known as brake ferns or table ferns. If you have any questions about a medical term or concept, please provide it, and I would be happy to help define it for you.

Arsenic poisoning is a condition that occurs when a person ingests or comes into contact with a toxic amount of arsenic, a naturally occurring element found in the earth's crust. Arsenic has no smell or taste, making it difficult to detect in food, water, or air.

Acute arsenic poisoning can occur after a single large exposure to arsenic, while chronic arsenic poisoning occurs after repeated or long-term exposure to lower levels of arsenic. The symptoms of acute arsenic poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and muscle cramps. In severe cases, it can lead to death due to heart failure or respiratory failure.

Chronic arsenic poisoning can cause a range of health problems, including skin changes such as pigmentation and hard patches on the palms and soles, weakness, peripheral neuropathy, and an increased risk of cancer, particularly skin, lung, bladder, and kidney cancer. It can also affect cognitive development in children.

Arsenic poisoning is treated by removing the source of exposure and providing supportive care to manage symptoms. Chelation therapy may be used to remove arsenic from the body in cases of severe acute poisoning or chronic poisoning with high levels of arsenic. Prevention measures include monitoring and reducing exposure to arsenic in food, water, and air, as well as proper handling and disposal of arsenic-containing products.

Cadmium chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CdCl2. It is a white crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water and has a bitter, metallic taste. Cadmium chloride is a toxic compound that can cause serious health effects, including kidney damage, respiratory problems, and bone degeneration. It is classified as a hazardous substance and should be handled with care.

Cadmium chloride is used in various industrial applications, such as electroplating, soldering, and as a stabilizer in plastics. It is also used in some research settings as a reagent in chemical reactions.

It's important to note that exposure to cadmium chloride should be avoided, and appropriate safety measures should be taken when handling this compound. This includes wearing protective clothing, such as gloves and lab coats, and working in a well-ventilated area or under a fume hood. In case of accidental ingestion or inhalation, seek medical attention immediately.

"Ralstonia" is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in soil and water. Some species of Ralstonia are known to cause healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients with compromised immune systems. These infections can include pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. One notable species, Ralstonia solanacearum, is a plant pathogen that causes bacterial wilt in a wide range of plants.

Ralstonia bacteria are known for their ability to form biofilms, which can make them resistant to antibiotics and disinfectants. They can also survive in harsh environments, such as those with low nutrient availability and high salt concentrations. These characteristics make Ralstonia a challenging organism to control in healthcare settings and in the environment.

It's important to note that while Ralstonia bacteria can cause serious infections, they are not typically considered highly virulent or contagious. Instead, infections are often associated with contaminated medical equipment or solutions, such as intravenous fluids, respiratory therapy equipment, and contaminated water sources. Proper infection control practices, including environmental cleaning and disinfection, can help prevent the spread of Ralstonia in healthcare settings.

Oxalobacteraceae is a family of gram-negative, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria within the order Burkholderiales. The bacteria in this family are known for their ability to metabolize oxalate, a compound that is commonly found in many plant-based foods and can be harmful in large amounts. The type genus of this family is Oxalobacter, which includes species such as Oxalobacter formigenes, which is normally found in the human gut and helps to break down oxalates in the digestive system. Other genera in this family include Massilia, Janthinobacterium, and Herbaspirillum, among others.

Some arsenite salts can be prepared from an aqueous solution of As2O3. Examples of these are the meta-arsenite salts and at low ... A number of different arsenite anions are known: AsO3−3 ortho-arsenite, an ion of arsenous acid, with a pyramidal shape (AsO−2) ... Well known examples of arsenites include sodium meta-arsenite which contains a polymeric linear anion, (AsO−2)n, and silver ... IUPAC have recommended that arsenite compounds are to be named as arsenate(III), for example ortho-arsenite is called ...
An arsenate arsenite is a chemical compound or salt that contains arsenate and arsenite anions (AsO33- and AsO43-). These are ... An arsenate arsenite compound may also be called an arsenite arsenate. Some members of this group of materials like mcgovernite ... Most known substances are minerals, but a few artificial arsenate arsenite compounds have been made. Many of the minerals are ... Mixed valence pnictide compounds related to the arsenate arsenites include the nitrite nitrates, and phosphate phosphites. ...
... may refer to: Arsenate reductase (cytochrome c) Arsenate reductase (azurin) This disambiguation page lists ... articles associated with the title Arsenite oxidase. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point ...
... potassium meta-arsenite (KAsO2) and potassium ortho-arsenite (K3AsO3). It is composed of arsenite ions (AsO33− or AsO2−) with ... Potassium arsenite is still, however, used as a rodenticide. The two unique forms of potassium arsenite can be attributed to ... Potassium arsenite also reacts with acids to yield toxic arsine gas. Aqueous potassium arsenite, more commonly known as ... Additionally, arsenite containing compounds have also been labeled carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of potassium arsenite ...
... arsenite As-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (1) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + arsenite ... Arsenite+methyltransferase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC 2.1.1) ... Arsenite methyltransferase (EC, S-adenosyl-L-methionine:arsenic(III) methyltransferase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine: ... and properties of arsenite methyltransferase and monomethylarsonic acid methyltransferase of rabbit liver". Chemical Research ...
The arsenite bromides are mixed anion compounds containing both arsenite and bromide ions. Similar compounds include arsenate ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Arsenites, Bromides, Mixed anion compounds). ... a new exhalative arsenite bromide mineral from the Fan-Yagnob coal deposit, Tajikistan". Mineralogical Magazine. 87 (1): 69-78 ... bromides, arsenite chlorides, antimonite bromides, antimonite chlorides, and ... They are in the category of halide ...
The Arsenite Schism was a conflict dividing the Byzantine Church between 1265 and 1310. The schism began when a church synod ...
65 Satpaevite 04.J Arsenites, Antimonites, Bismuthites, Sulfites 04.JA Arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites; without additional ... Arsenite minerals are very rare oxygen-bearing arsenic minerals. Classical world localities where such minerals occur include ... More complex arsenites include schneiderhöhnite Fe2+Fe3+3[As5O13] and ludlockite PbFe3+4As10O22. IMA-CNMNC proposes a new ... The most often reported arsenite anion in minerals is the AsO33− anion, present for example in reinerite Zn3(AsO3)2. Unique ...
... usually refers to the inorganic compound with the formula NaAsO2. Also called sodium meta-arsenite, it is the ... Sodium ortho-arsenite is Na3AsO3. The compounds are colourless solids. A mixture of sodium meta-arsenite and sodium ortho- ... arsenite is produced by treating arsenic trioxide with sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide. Sodium arsenite is amorphous, ... Sodium arsenite can be used as a reducing agent in organic chemistry, as it is able to reduce a trihaloalkane to a dihaloalkane ...
... s are membrane transporters that pump arsenite or antimonite out of a cell. Antimonite is the ... Arsenite and antimonite can also be pumped out of the cell by members of the ARC3 family, a member of the BART superfamily, ... As of early 2016, there are at least three known families of proteins known to participate in arsenite and antimonite efflux. ... Arsenic toxicity Arsenite-transporting ATPase Solute carrier family Active transport ATP-binding cassette transporter Hasgekar ...
... and arsenite, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and arsenite. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, ... In enzymology, an arsenite-transporting ATPase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + H2O + ... Arsenite-Antimonite efflux Silver S, Misra TK, Laddaga RA (1989). "DNA sequence analysis of bacterial toxic heavy metal ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP phosphohydrolase (arsenite-exporting). As of late 2007, 3 structures have been ...
... has been determined to be part of the vanadate, arsenite, and arsenate groups. Analytical methods were used to ... arsenite)) and decorated by peripheral tetrahedra (As5+O4 (arsenate)). Each peripheral tetrahedra shares three of its four ...
1310 Arsenite Schism of Constantinople is officially ended by the reconciliation of the Arsenites to the Josephites, in a ... 1265-1310 Arsenite Schism of Constantinople, beginning when Patr. Arsenius Autorianus excommunicated emperor Michael VIII ... 18(1948), 202-220.) Alexander P. Kahzdan (Ed). "Arsenites." The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press, 2012. ...
... (EC, arsenite oxidase) is an enzyme with systematic name arsenite:cytochrome c ... vanden Hoven RN, Santini JM (June 2004). "Arsenite oxidation by the heterotroph Hydrogenophaga sp. str. NT-14: the arsenite ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction arsenite + H2O + 2 oxidized cytochrome c ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... "Arsenite oxidase from Ralstonia sp. 22: characterization of the enzyme and its interaction with soluble cytochromes". The ...
Arsenite is the most stable soluble form of arsenic in reducing environments and arsenate, which is less mobile than arsenite, ... Arsenite is more soluble and mobile than arsenate. Many species of bacteria can transform arsenite to arsenate in anoxic ... Chemoautotrophic arsenite oxidizers (CAO) and heterotrophic arsenite oxidizers (HAO) convert As(III) into As(V). CAO combine ... Arsenite of lime and arsenate of lead were used widely as insecticides until the discovery of DDT in 1942. The toxicity of ...
Arsenite minerals are much less common. Both the Dana and the Strunz mineral classifications place the arsenates in with the ...
... , also called Schloss Green, is chemically a cupric hydrogen arsenite (also called copper arsenite or acidic ... This produced a sodium arsenite solution. Added to a copper sulfate solution, it produced a green precipitate of effectively ... copper arsenite salt (CuHAsO 3 and Cu(AsO 3) 2·3H 2O)), neutral copper orthoarsenite (3CuO·As 2O 3·2H 2O), copper arsenate ( ... Arsenites, Copper(II) compounds, Inorganic pigments, Inorganic insecticides). ...
Thus, it dissolves readily in alkaline solutions to give arsenites. It is less soluble in acids, although it will dissolve in ... Bulk arsenic-based compounds sodium arsenite and sodium cacodylate are derived from the trioxide.[citation needed] A variety of ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is arsenite:azurin oxidoreductase. This enzyme is also called arsenite oxidase. The ... Ellis PJ, Conrads T, Hille R, Kuhn P (2001). "Crystal structure of the 100 kDa arsenite oxidase from Alcaligenes faecalis in ... Arsenate reductase (azurin) (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arsenite + H2O + 2 azurinox ⇌ {\ ... Anderson GL, Williams J, Hille R (1992). "The purification and characterization of arsenite oxidase from Alcaligenes faecalis, ...
nov., an arsenite-oxidizing bacterium isolated from agricultural soil in Thailand". J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 58 (3): 245-51. ... C. terrae has an arsenite-oxidizing ability. "Genus: Comamonas". Retrieved 2013-05-10. "NBRC 106524 Strain Passport - ...
nov., an arsenate-respiring and arsenite-oxidizing bacterium isolated from hydrothermal sediment". International Journal of ... Marinobacter santoriniensis can metabolize arsenate and arsenite. A.C. Parte. "Marinobacter". LPSN. Retrieved 2016-08-18. " ...
MM-1 isolated from a soil and identification of arsenite oxidase gene". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 262: 997-1003. doi: ... Bahar, Md Mezbaul; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi (2013-11-15). "Kinetics of arsenite oxidation by Variovorax sp. ...
The generalized reaction catalyzed by members of the ACR3 family is: arsenite or antimonite (in) → arsenite or antimonite (out ... The former yeast protein is present in the plasma membrane and pumps arsenite and antimonite, but not arsenate, tellurite, ... Mansour, Nahla M.; Sawhney, Mrinalini; Tamang, Dorjee G.; Vogl, Christian; Saier, Milton H. (2007-02-01). "The bile/arsenite/ ... Aaltonen, Emil K. J.; Silow, Maria (2008-04-01). "Transmembrane topology of the Acr3 family arsenite transporter from Bacillus ...
nov., an arsenite-oxidizing bacterium from Thai soil". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 106 (6): 1239-46. doi:10.1007/s10482-014-0294-1 ... Flavobacterium arsenitoxidans is a Gram-negative, arsenite-oxidizing, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and aerobic bacterium from ...
nov., an arsenite-resistant bacterium isolated from soil". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. ... Xenophilus arseniciresistens is a Gram-negative, aerobic, arsenite-resistant and motile bacterium from the genus Xenophilus ...
Arsenite or Antimonite (out). The overall reaction catalyzed by ArsB-ArsA is: Arsenite or Antimonite (in) + ATP ⇌ Arsenite or ... Arsenic toxicity Arsenite Antimonite Ion transporter Ion transporter superfamily ARC3 family Arsenite-Antimonite efflux ... Arsenite resistance (Ars) efflux pumps of bacteria may consist of two proteins, ArsB (TC# 2.A.45.1.1; the integral membrane ... These pumps actively expel both arsenite and antimonite. Homologues of ArsB are found in Gram-negative and Gram-positive ...
Ceballos-Escalera, A., et al., Electro-bioremediation of nitrate and arsenite polluted groundwater. Water Res, 2021. 190: p. ... or in combination with other co-contaminants such as arsenite. In comparison to traditional denitrification which involves ...
"Oxidation of Arsenite by Agrobacterium albertimagni, AOL15, sp. nov., isolated from Hot Creek, California". Geomicrobiology ...
nov., an arsenite-resistant bacterium isolated from soil". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. ...
... arsenite, hexachlorobenzene, and nickel compounds. Many teratogens exert specific effects on the fetus by epigenetic mechanisms ...
  • IUPAC have recommended that arsenite compounds are to be named as arsenate(III), for example ortho-arsenite is called trioxidoarsenate(III). (
  • NT-26 is a bioenergetic enzyme involved in the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate. (
  • Arsenic is found in mainly in two forms: arsenite and arsenate. (
  • Both forms are toxic: arsenite disrupts sulfhydryl groups of proteins and interferes with enzyme function, whereas arsenate acts as a phosphate analog and can interfere with phosphate uptake and transport. (
  • Resistance to arsenic species in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms results from energy-dependent efflux of either arsenate or arsenite from the cell, mediated by the ars operon [4-6]. (
  • Arsenite (As(III)) is often the predominant valence state at the point of discharge but is rapidly oxidized to arsenate (As(V)) during transport in shallow surface water. (
  • For the first time ever, the dynamic (potentially bioavailable) fraction of inorganic arsenite, As(III), and arsenate, As(V), were quantified in this estuary, using an antifouling gel-integrated gold microelectrode interrogated by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (GIME-SWASV). (
  • In addition, in a study of CD1 beryllium compounds, cadmium senic is now drinking-water, where mice with "whole-life" exposure to and cadmium compounds, chromi- it is found primarily as the inorgan- multiple levels of sodium arsenite in um(VI) compounds, and nickel and ic forms of arsenite and arsenate. (
  • In chemistry, an arsenite is a chemical compound containing an arsenic oxyanion where arsenic has oxidation state +3. (
  • Filtration is only effective if arsenic is present as particulates, if the arsenite is in solution it passes through the filtration membrane. (
  • Organification of arsenite is an effective way for organisms to cope with arsenic toxicity. (
  • Microbial communities are vital contributors to the global arsenic biocycle and represent a promising way to reduce arsenite toxicity. (
  • ICP-MS analysis indicated that arsenite-resistant SK-Mel-28 cells did not accumulate less arsenic than arsenite-sensitive A375 cells, suggesting that resistance was not attributable to reduced arsenic accumulation but rather to intrinsic properties of resistant cell lines. (
  • Cell cycle analysis revealed arsenite-sensitive cells arrested in mitosis whereas arsenite-resistant cells did not, suggesting that induction of mitotic arrest occurs at lower intracellular arsenic concentrations. (
  • Microorganisms have evolved a variety of mechanisms for coping with arsenic toxicity, including minimizing the amount of arsenic that enters the cell (e.g., through increased specificity of phosphate uptake), oxidizing the arsenite (through the activity of arsenite oxidase), or arsenite peroxidation with membrane lipids. (
  • Chen B, Arnold LL, Cohen SM, Thomas DJ, Le XC (2011) Mouse arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects metabolism and tissue dosimetry of arsenicals after arsenite administration in drinking water. (
  • maternal consumption of sodium of which is an arsenic compound of Multiple studies in humans have arsenite in drinking-water during concern. (
  • Well known examples of arsenites include sodium meta-arsenite which contains a polymeric linear anion, (AsO−2)n, and silver ortho-arsenite, Ag3AsO3, which contains the trigonal AsO3−3 anion. (
  • In the present study, we investigated the effect of arsenite on the expression of TF in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. (
  • We hypothesize that chronic exposure of "a physiologically relevant" level of arsenite disrupts the EGFR endocytic trafficking. (
  • In conclusion, the impact of chronic arsenite exposure on the EGFR signaling axis can explain arsenite-induced overexpression of the EGFR. (
  • Arsenite exposure is known to increase the risk of neurological disorders via alteration of dopamine content, but the detailed molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. (
  • In this study, using both dopaminergic neurons of the PC-12 cell line and C57BL/6J mice as in vitro and in vivo models, our results demonstrated that 6 months of arsenite exposure via drinking water caused significant learning and memory impairment, anxiety -like behavior and alterations in conditioned avoidance and escape responses in male adult mice . (
  • Our data demonstrated for the first time that arsenite remarkably increased m6A modification, and FTO possessed the ability to alleviate the deficits in dopaminergic neurotransmission in response to arsenite exposure. (
  • Our findings not only provide valuable insight into the molecular neurotoxic pathogenesis of arsenite exposure, but are also the first evidence that regulation of FTO may be considered as a novel strategy for the prevention of arsenite-associated neurological disorders . (
  • Arsenite exposure potentiates apoptosis-inducing effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha- through reactive oxygen species. (
  • Ingestion is the main route of exposure to other arsenites and arsenates for the general population. (
  • Maternal and early life arsenite exposure impairs neurodevelopment and increases the expression of PSA-NCAM in hippocampus of rat offspring. (
  • These results suggest that arsenite promotes TF synthesis by activating the Nrf2 pathway in HASMCs and that the induction of TF expression by arsenite may be related to the progression of atherosclerosis. (
  • These data suggest that arsenite has potential for treatment of solid tumors but a functional spindle checkpoint is a prerequisite for a positive response to its clinical application. (
  • A375 and SK-Mel-2 cells were sensitive to clinically achievable concentrations of arsenite, whereas SK-Mel-3 and SK-Mel-28 cells required supratherapeutic levels for toxicity. (
  • The concentrations of arsenite in the dynamic fraction, As(III)dyn, ranged from 1.3 to 3.3 nM, contributing almost completely to the dissolved arsenite, As(III)diss, which ranged between 0.9 and 3.1 nM in the 0.2 μm fraction, and between 1.2 and 3.7 nM in the 0.02 μm fraction. (
  • In addition, melatonin was found to prevent arsenite-induced decreases in cytochrome c oxidase levels (a biomarker of mitochondrial mass) and elevation in co-localized fluorescent puncta of autolysosomes and cytochrome c oxidase. (
  • The arsenite oxidase (Aio) from the facultative autotrophic Alphaproteobacterium Rhizobium sp. (
  • The NT-26 Aio, a heterotetramer, shares high overall similarity to the heterodimeric arsenite oxidase from A. faecalis but there are striking differences in the structure surrounding the Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster which we demonstrate explains the difference in the observed redox potentials (+225 mV vs. +130/160 mV, respectively). (
  • Cold-adapted arsenite oxidase from a psychrotolerant Polaromonas species. (
  • GM1 is an aerobic, psychrotolerant, heterotrophic member of the Betaproteobacteria and is the only isolate capable of oxidising arsenite at temperatures below 10 °C. Sequencing of the aio gene cluster in GM1 revealed the presence of the aioB and aioA genes, which encode the arsenite oxidase but the regulatory genes typically found upstream of aioB in other members of the Proteobacteria were absent. (
  • Some species of bacteria obtain their energy by oxidizing various fuels while reducing arsenates to form arsenites. (
  • In 2008, bacteria were discovered that employ a version of photosynthesis with arsenites as electron donors, producing arsenates (just like ordinary photosynthesis uses water as electron donor, producing molecular oxygen). (
  • Do you think your business should also be listed on this page - Arsenates, Arsenites (Formulated) in Greenfield (WI)? (
  • The present study was adopted to evaluate the antioxidant efficacy of medium chain fatty acid (caprylic, capric and lauric) rich rice bran oils in comparison to rice bran oil in terms of altered biochemical parameters of oxidative stress following sodium arsenite treatment in rats. (
  • Bifunctional protein ArsRM contributes to arsenite methylation and resistance in Brevundimonas sp. (
  • M20 with arsenite and roxarsone resistance was isolated from aquaculture sewage. (
  • A 3,011-bp arsenite resistance ars cluster arsHRNBC and a 5649-bp methionine biosynthesis met operon were found on the 3.315-Mb chromosome. (
  • Expression of ArsR M in E. coli increased its arsenite resistance to 1.5 mM. (
  • Inhibition of glutathione synthesis, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter function attenuated arsenite resistance, consistent with studies suggesting that arsenite is extruded from the cell as a glutathione conjugate by MRP-1. (
  • In humans, arsenite inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH complex) in the pyruvate-acetyl CoA reaction, by binding to the -SH group of lipoamide, a participant coenzyme. (
  • A number of different arsenite anions are known: AsO3−3 ortho-arsenite, an ion of arsenous acid, with a pyramidal shape (AsO−2)n meta-arsenite, a polymeric chain anion. (
  • Results showed that activities of antioxidant enzymes in liver, brain and erythrocyte membrane increased with the administration of rice bran oil and MCFA rich rice bran oils both in normal and arsenite treated cases. (
  • Furthermore, melatonin significantly attenuated arsenite-induced elevation in microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II levels, a biomarker of autophagy. (
  • Because 3-methyladenine (an autophagic inhibitor) attenuated the arsenite-reducedα-synuclein levels (a protein essential for the neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity), melatonin via inhibiting autophagy attenuated the arsenite-reduced α-synuclein levels. (
  • At the same time, melatonin ameliorated the arsenite-induced reduction in growth associated protein 43 (a hallmark protein of neurite outgrowth) and discontinuous neurites of rat primary cultured cortical neurons. (
  • The lack of arsenite-induced mitotic arrest in resistant cell lines was associated with a weakened spindle checkpoint resulting from reduced expression of spindle checkpoint protein BUBR1. (
  • The chronic arsenite-treated cells had increased EGFR protein expression levels and activity, increased transcription levels of TGFα, and altered the distribution of the EGFR. (
  • Fowler's solution first introduced in the 18th century was made up from As2O3 as a solution of potassium meta-arsenite, KAsO2. (
  • Note that in fields that commonly deal with groundwater chemistry, arsenite is used generically to identify soluble AsIII anions. (
  • We report that MnO4¯-Fe(III) dosing is an effective technique to improve arsenite [As(III)] removal at groundwater treatment plants. (
  • We conclude that ArsR M promotes arsenite methylation and is able to bind to its own promoter region to regulate transcription. (
  • H3K18 lactylation promotes the progression of arsenite-related idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis via YTHDF1/m6A/NREP. (
  • Additionally, 26 of 33 MAGs also had the potential for iron, manganese and arsenite cycling, suggesting that bacteria represented by these genomes might couple these reactions. (
  • Some arsenite salts can be prepared from an aqueous solution of As2O3. (
  • Examples of these are the meta-arsenite salts and at low temperature, hydrogen arsenite salts can be prepared, such as Na2H2As4O8, NaAsO2·4H2O, Na2HAsO3·5H2O and Na5(HAsO3)(AsO3)·12H2O. (
  • We report on the formation of a molecule-ion adduct of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with sodium arsenite (SA) both in solid state and in aqueous solution. (
  • Ortho-arsenite contrasts to the corresponding anions of the lighter members of group 15, phosphite which has the structure HPO2−3 and nitrite, NO−2 which is bent. (
  • The enzyme from the distantly related heterotroph, Alcaligenes faecalis, which is thought to oxidise arsenite for detoxification, consists of a large α subunit (AioA) with bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide at its active site and a 3Fe-4S cluster, and a small β subunit (AioB) which contains a Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster. (
  • The enzyme contained Mo and Fe as cofactors and had, using the artificial electron acceptor 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, a Km for arsenite of 111.70 ± 0.88 μM and a Vmax of 12.16 ± 0.30 U mg(-1), which is the highest reported specific activity for any known Aio. (
  • We investigated the removal mechanism of arsenite (As(III)) through coprecipitation with ferrihydrite to establish an optimum wastewater treatment method. (
  • The goal of this project is to identify molecular mechanisms and roles of chronic arsenite-induced EGFR overexpression in lung cancer development. (
  • Sodium arsenite is used in the water gas shift reaction to remove carbon dioxide. (
  • Moreover, melatonin prevented arsenite-induced reduction in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 α, a transcriptional co-activator of mitochondrial biosynthesis. (
  • We found that (1) arsenite stimulated TF synthesis and activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in HASMCs, (2) sulforaphane, an Nrf2 activator, also stimulated TF synthesis in HASMCs, and (3) arsenite-induced upregulation of TF synthesis was prevented by Nrf2 knockdown in HASMCs. (
  • The arsenite methylation activity of ArsR M and its ability to bind to its own gene promoter were confirmed. (
  • The temperature-activity profiles of the arsenite oxidases from GM1 and the mesophilic betaproteobacterium Alcaligenes faecalis were compared and showed that the GM1 Aio was more active at low temperatures than that of A. faecalis. (
  • Assessing the role of arsenite in disrupting the EGFR signaling axis. (
  • This metalloid occurs worldwide and many of its forms, especially arsenite [As(III)], cause various diseases including cancer. (
  • In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of melatonin on arsenite-induced neurotoxicity was investigated in rat primary cultured cortical neurons. (
  • We further evaluated the effect of arsenite on the m6A modification and tested if regulation of the m6A modification by demethylase fat mass and obesity -associated (FTO) could affect dopaminergic neurotransmission . (
  • Taken together, melatonin may exert its neuroprotective action via inhibiting arsenite-induced autophagy and enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and thus restoring α-synuclein levels, neuronal integrity, and mitochondrial mass in rat primary cultured cortical neurons. (
  • Melatonin prevented arsenite induced neuronal cell loss in a concentration dependent manner. (
  • The mode of arsenite-induced cell death was apoptosis. (
  • Arsenite-induced apoptosis is associated with cell cycle alterations. (
  • A non-malignant human bronchial epithelial cell line, Beas-2B cells were exposed to 100 nM sodium arsenite for 24 weeks. (
  • Increased susceptibility of H-Ras(G12V)-transformed human urothelial cells to the genotoxic effects of sodium arsenite. (
  • Hawthorne, Frank C. "Schneiderhoehnite, Fe2+ Fe3+ 3As3+ 5O 13, a densely packed arsenite structure. (
  • Lipid peroxidation increased with the administration of sodium arsenite, but again administration of rice bran oil and MCFA rich rice bran oils decreased the lipid peroxidation. (
  • five normal groups and five arsenite treated groups. (