Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Disorders associated with acute or chronic exposure to compounds containing ARSENIC (ARSENICALS) which may be fatal. Acute oral ingestion is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and an encephalopathy which may manifest as SEIZURES, mental status changes, and COMA. Chronic exposure is associated with mucosal irritation, desquamating rash, myalgias, peripheral neuropathy, and white transverse (Mees) lines in the fingernails. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212)
An arsenical that has been used as a dermatologic agent and as an herbicide.
Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.
Arsenical used in trypanosomiases. It may cause fatal encephalopathy and other undesirable side effects.
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
Efflux pumps that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump arsenite across a membrane. They are primarily found in prokaryotic organisms, where they play a role in protection against excess intracellular levels of arsenite ions.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.
An arsenic derivative which has anticoccidial action and promotes growth in animals.
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
An anti-gas warfare agent that is effective against Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine) and formerly known as British Anti-Lewisite or BAL. It acts as a chelating agent and is used in the treatment of arsenic, gold, and other heavy metal poisoning.
An effective trypanocidal agent.
Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
A subgroup of aquaporins that transport WATER; GLYCEROL; and other small solutes across CELL MEMBRANES.
A persistent progressive non-elevated red scaly or crusted plaque which is due to an intradermal carcinoma and is potentially malignant. Atypical squamous cells proliferate through the whole thickness of the epidermis. The lesions may occur anywhere on the skin surface or on mucosal surfaces. The cause most frequently found is trivalent arsenic compounds. Freezing, cauterization or diathermy coagulation is often effective. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2428-9)
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Water that is intended to be ingested.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A species of monogenetic, parasitic protozoa usually found in insects.
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
'Skin diseases' is a broad term for various conditions affecting the skin, including inflammatory disorders, infections, benign and malignant tumors, congenital abnormalities, and degenerative diseases, which can cause symptoms such as rashes, discoloration, eruptions, lesions, itching, or pain.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

Retinoic acid, but not arsenic trioxide, degrades the PLZF/RARalpha fusion protein, without inducing terminal differentiation or apoptosis, in a RA-therapy resistant t(11;17)(q23;q21) APL patient. (1/1135)

Primary blasts of a t(11;17)(q23;q21) acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) patient were analysed with respect to retinoic acid (RA) and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) sensitivity as well as PLZF/RARalpha status. Although RA induced partial monocytic differentiation ex vivo, but not in vivo, As203 failed to induce apoptosis in culture, contrasting with t(15;17) APL and arguing against the clinical use of As203 in t(11;17)(q23;q21) APL. Prior to cell culture, PLZF/RARalpha was found to exactly co-localize with PML onto PML nuclear bodies. However upon cell culture, it quickly shifted towards microspeckles, its localization found in transfection experiments. Arsenic trioxide, known to induce aggregation of PML nuclear bodies, left the microspeckled PLZF/RARalpha localization completely unaffected. RA treatment led to PLZF/RARalpha degradation. However, this complete PLZF/RARalpha degradation was not accompanied by differentiation or apoptosis, which could suggest a contribution of the reciprocal RARalpha/PLZF fusion product in leukaemogenesis or the existence of irreversible changes induced by the chimera.  (+info)

NADPH oxidase inhibition does not interfere with low PO2 transduction in rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells. (2/1135)

The aim of the present work was to elucidate the role of NADPH oxidase in hypoxia sensing and transduction in the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor cells. We have studied the effects of several inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on the normoxic and hypoxia-induced release of [3H]catecholamines (CA) in an in vitro preparation of intact CB of the rat and rabbit whose CA deposits have been labeled by prior incubation with the natural precursor [3H]tyrosine. It was found that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI; 0.2-25 microM), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, caused a dose-dependent release of [3H]CA from normoxic CB chemoreceptor cells. Contrary to hypoxia, DPI-evoked release was only partially Ca2+ dependent. Concentrations of DPI reported to produce full inhibition of NADPH oxidase in the rat CB did not prevent the hypoxic release response in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells, as stimulation with hypoxia in the presence of DPI elicited a response equaling the sum of that produced by DPI and hypoxia applied separately. Neopterin (3-300 microM) and phenylarsine oxide (0.5-2 microM), other inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, did not promote release of [3H]CA in normoxic conditions or affect the response elicited by hypoxia. On the basis of effects of neopterin and phenylarsine oxide, it is concluded that NADPH oxidase does not appear to play a role in oxygen sensing or transduction in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells in vitro and, in the context of the present study, that DPI effects are not related to NADPH oxidase inhibition.  (+info)

Arsenic trioxide and melarsoprol induce apoptosis in plasma cell lines and in plasma cells from myeloma patients. (3/1135)

Recent data have renewed the interest for arsenic-containing compounds as anticancer agents. In particular, arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been demonstrated to be an effective drug in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia by inducing programmed cell death in leukemic cells both in vitro and in vivo. This prompted us to study the in vitro effects of As2O3 and of another arsenical derivative, the organic compound melarsoprol, on human myeloma cells and on the plasma cell differentiation of normal B cells. At pharmacological concentrations (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L), As2O3 and melarsoprol caused a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of survival and growth in myeloma cell lines that was, in some, similar to that of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Both arsenical compounds induced plasma cell apoptosis, as assessed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, detection of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface using annexin V, and by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay. As2O3 and melarsoprol also inhibited viability and growth and induced apoptosis in plasma-cell enriched preparations from the bone marrow or blood of myeloma patients. In nonseparated bone marrow samples, both arsenical compounds triggered death in myeloma cells while sparing most myeloid cells, as demonstrated by double staining with annexin V and CD38 or CD15 antibodies. In primary myeloma cells as in cell lines, interleukin 6 did not prevent arsenic-induced cell death or growth inhibition, and no synergistic effect was observed with IFN-alpha. In contrast to As2O3, melarsoprol only slightly reduced the plasma cell differentiation of normal B cells induced by pokeweed mitogen. Both pokeweed mitogen-induced normal plasma cells and malignant plasma cells showed a normal nuclear distribution of PML protein, which was disrupted by As2O3 but not by melarsoprol, suggesting that the two arsenical derivatives acted by different mechanisms. These results point to the use of arsenical derivatives as investigational drugs in the treatment of multiple myeloma.  (+info)

Interference in the quantitation of methylated arsenic species in human urine. (4/1135)

The aim of this paper is to report on the presence of chemical interferences in the quantitation of methylated arsenic species in human urine when using a method based on selective volatile arsine species generation, chromatographic separation, and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) detection. An abnormal profile of methylated arsenic species characterized by the absence of the peak corresponding to dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was observed in urine from some individuals exposed to arsenic via drinking water and living in rural communities of northwestern Argentina. The absence of this peak persisted even after the addition of known amounts of DMA to the samples. However, the DMA peak appeared after urine digestion with hydrochloric acid (2M). Samples showing interferences were provided by individuals who had mate consumption and coca-leaf chewing habits. Because the relative proportions of methylated arsenic species present in urine have been used to evaluate the efficiency of the methylation process, interferences in the formation or detection of methylarsines may cause underestimation of As exposure and also lead to erroneous conclusions about relative biomethylation efficiencies. Therefore, we recommend that urine samples should be digested with 2M HCl before performing speciation analysis using HGAA techniques. Further studies on the impact of this type of interferences on other arsenic speciation methods are also required.  (+info)

Phenylarsine oxide and ethanol prevent cell death of porcine polymorphonuclear leucocytes induced by phorbol myristate acetate. (5/1135)

In this study, we report that phenylarsine oxide and ethanol, both of which suppress a number of polymorphonuclear leucocyte functions including superoxide production, prevented the phorbol myristate acetate-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. These reagents had an inhibitory effect even after polymorphonuclear leucocytes were stimulated to produce superoxide by treatment with phorbol myristate acetate. The results indicate that activation of protein kinase C and subsequent superoxide release do not directly cause phorbol myristate acetate-induced cell death. Phenylarsine oxide or ethanol prevents cell death by affecting pathways downstream from those involved in the superoxide production.  (+info)

Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and tyrosine-phosphatase activation positively modulate Convulxin-induced platelet activation. Comparison with collagen. (6/1135)

In this report we have studied the role of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-K) and tyrosine phosphatase activation on platelet activation by Convulxin (Cvx). Wortmannin, a specific PI3-K inhibitor, and phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), block Cvx-induced platelet aggregation, granule secretion, inositol phosphate production, and increase in [Ca2+]i. However, PAO does not inhibit Cvx-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet proteins, including Syk and PLCgamma2, but blocked collagen-induced platelet aggregation as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma2. In contrast, Cvx-induced PLCgamma2 tyrosyl phosphorylation was partially inhibited by wortmannin. We conclude that (i) although Cvx and collagen activate platelets by a similar mechanism, different regulatory processes are specific to each agonist; (ii) mechanisms other than tyrosine phosphorylation regulate PLCgamma2 activity; and (iii) besides protein tyrosine kinases, PI3-K (and PTPase) positively modulate platelet activation by both Cvx and collagen, and this enzyme is required for effective transmission of GPVI-Fc receptor gamma chain signal to result in full activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma2 in Cvx-stimulated platelets.  (+info)

Apoptosis and growth inhibition in malignant lymphocytes after treatment with arsenic trioxide at clinically achievable concentrations. (7/1135)

BACKGROUND: Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) can induce clinical remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia via induction of differentiation and programmed cell death (apoptosis). We investigated the effects of As2O3 on a panel of malignant lymphocytes to determine whether growth-inhibitory and apoptotic effects of As2O3 can be observed in these cells at clinically achievable concentrations. METHODS: Eight malignant lymphocytic cell lines and primary cultures of lymphocytic leukemia and lymphoma cells were treated with As2O3, with or without dithiothreitol (DTT) or buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) (an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis). Apoptosis was assessed by cell morphology, flow cytometry, annexin V protein level, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase labeling of DNA fragments. Cellular proliferation was determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into DNA and flow cytometry and by use of a mitotic arrest assay. Mitochondrial transmembrane potential (delta psi(m)) was measured by means of rhodamine 123 staining and flow cytometry. Protein expression was assessed by western blot analysis or immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Therapeutic concentrations of As2O3 (1-2 microM) had dual effects on malignant lymphocytes: 1) inhibition of growth through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion and prolongation of cell cycle time and 2) induction of apoptosis. As2O3-induced apoptosis was preceded by delta psi(m) collapse. DTT antagonized and BSO enhanced As2O3-induced ATP depletion, delta psi(m) collapse, and apoptosis. Caspase-3 activation, usually resulting from delta psi(m) collapse, was not always associated with As2O3-induced apoptosis. As2O3 induced PML (promyelocytic leukemia) protein degradation but did not modulate expression of cell cycle-related proteins, including c-myc, retinoblastoma protein, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin D1, and p53, or expression of differentiation-related antigens. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial growth inhibition and apoptosis without evidence of differentiation were induced in most malignant lymphocytic cells treated with 1-2 microM As2O3. As2O3 may prove useful in the treatment of malignant lymphoproliferative disorders.  (+info)

Oxidative stress triggers STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in human lymphocytes. (8/1135)

Oxidizing agents are powerful activators of factors responsible for the transcriptional activation of cytokine-encoding genes involved in tissue injury. In this study we show evidence that STAT3 is a transcription factor whose activity is modulated by H2O2 in human lymphocytes, in which endogenous catalase had previously been inhibited. H2O2-induced nuclear translocation of STAT3 to form sequence-specific DNA-bound complexes was evidenced by immunoblotting of nuclear fractions and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and vanadate was found to strongly synergize with H2O2. Moreover, anti-STAT3 antibodies specifically precipitated a protein of 92 kDa that becomes phosphorylated on tyrosine upon lymphocyte treatment with H2O2. Phenylarsine oxide, a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, and genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, cooperated and cancelled, respectively, the H2O2-promoted STAT3 nuclear translocation. Evidence is also presented, using Fe2+/Cu2+ ions, that.OH generated from H2O2 through Fenton reactions could be a candidate oxygen reactive species to directly activate STAT3. Present data suggest that H2O2 and vanadate are likely to inhibit the activity of intracellular tyrosine phosphatase(s), leading to enhanced STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and hence its translocation to the nucleus. These results demonstrate that the DNA binding activity of STAT3 can be modulated by oxidizing agents and provide a framework to understand the effects of oxidative stress on the JAK-STAT signaling pathway.  (+info)

Arsenicals are a group of chemicals that contain arsenic, a naturally occurring element that is toxic to humans and animals. Arsenic can combine with other elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or carbon to form various inorganic and organic compounds known as arsenicals. These compounds have been used in a variety of industrial and agricultural applications, including wood preservatives, pesticides, and herbicides.

Exposure to high levels of arsenic can cause serious health effects, including skin damage, circulatory problems, and increased risk of cancer. Long-term exposure to lower levels of arsenic can also lead to chronic health issues, such as neurological damage and diabetes. Therefore, the use of arsenicals is regulated in many countries to minimize human and environmental exposure.

Arsenic is a naturally occurring semi-metal element that can be found in the earth's crust. It has the symbol "As" and atomic number 33 on the periodic table. Arsenic can exist in several forms, including inorganic and organic compounds. In its pure form, arsenic is a steel-gray, shiny solid that is brittle and easily pulverized.

Arsenic is well known for its toxicity to living organisms, including humans. Exposure to high levels of arsenic can cause various health problems, such as skin lesions, neurological damage, and an increased risk of cancer. Arsenic can enter the body through contaminated food, water, or air, and it can also be absorbed through the skin.

In medicine, arsenic has been used historically in the treatment of various diseases, including syphilis and parasitic infections. However, its use as a therapeutic agent is limited due to its toxicity. Today, arsenic trioxide is still used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a type of blood cancer. The drug works by inducing differentiation and apoptosis (programmed cell death) in APL cells, which contain a specific genetic abnormality. However, its use is closely monitored due to the potential for severe side effects and toxicity.

Arsenic poisoning is a condition that occurs when a person ingests or comes into contact with a toxic amount of arsenic, a naturally occurring element found in the earth's crust. Arsenic has no smell or taste, making it difficult to detect in food, water, or air.

Acute arsenic poisoning can occur after a single large exposure to arsenic, while chronic arsenic poisoning occurs after repeated or long-term exposure to lower levels of arsenic. The symptoms of acute arsenic poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and muscle cramps. In severe cases, it can lead to death due to heart failure or respiratory failure.

Chronic arsenic poisoning can cause a range of health problems, including skin changes such as pigmentation and hard patches on the palms and soles, weakness, peripheral neuropathy, and an increased risk of cancer, particularly skin, lung, bladder, and kidney cancer. It can also affect cognitive development in children.

Arsenic poisoning is treated by removing the source of exposure and providing supportive care to manage symptoms. Chelation therapy may be used to remove arsenic from the body in cases of severe acute poisoning or chronic poisoning with high levels of arsenic. Prevention measures include monitoring and reducing exposure to arsenic in food, water, and air, as well as proper handling and disposal of arsenic-containing products.

Cacodylic acid is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2AsO2. It is the simplest dialkyl arsenic acid and is classified as a toxic organoarsenic compound. Cacodylic acid was once used in various medical applications, but its use has been largely discontinued due to its high toxicity and environmental concerns.

It's important to note that cacodylic acid is not commonly encountered in modern medicine or clinical practice. Its historical medical uses included as a treatment for some parasitic infections, but it has since been replaced by safer and more effective alternatives. Nowadays, cacodylic acid is primarily used in research and industrial settings, where it serves as a precursor for the synthesis of other organoarsenic compounds.

Arsenites are inorganic compounds that contain arsenic in the trivalent state (arsenic-III). They are formed by the reaction of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) or other trivalent arsenic compounds with bases such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, or ammonia.

The most common and well-known arsenite is sodium arsenite (NaAsO2), which has been used in the past as a wood preservative and pesticide. However, due to its high toxicity and carcinogenicity, its use has been largely discontinued. Other examples of arsenites include potassium arsenite (KAsO2) and calcium arsenite (Ca3(AsO3)2).

Arsenites are highly toxic and can cause a range of health effects, including skin irritation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and death in severe cases. Long-term exposure to arsenites has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung, bladder, and skin cancer.

Melarsoprol is an arsenic-based medication that is primarily used to treat the later stages of African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness. It works by inhibiting the enzyme involved in energy metabolism of the parasite causing the disease, leading to its death. However, melarsoprol has a significant risk of serious side effects, including encephalopathy, which can be fatal. Therefore, it is typically used as a last resort when other treatments have failed or are not available. It is administered by intravenous injection in a hospital setting under close medical supervision.

Ion pumps, also known as ion transporters, are membrane-bound proteins that actively transport ions across a biological membrane against their electrochemical gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and allows cells to maintain resting potentials, regulate intracellular ion concentrations, and facilitate various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and cell volume regulation.

Ion pumps can transport one or more types of ions, including sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), calcium (Ca2+), and protons (H+). A well-known example of an ion pump is the Na+/K+ ATPase, which transports three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cell for each ATP molecule hydrolyzed. This creates a concentration gradient that drives the passive transport of Na+ and K+ ions through other channels, contributing to the resting membrane potential.

Arsenite transporting ATPases are a type of membrane-bound enzyme complexes that use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to actively transport arsenic compounds across cell membranes. They are part of the P-type ATPase family and play a crucial role in detoxifying cells by removing arsenite (AsIII) ions, which are highly toxic even at low concentrations.

These enzymes consist of two main domains: a cytoplasmic domain responsible for ATP binding and hydrolysis, and a transmembrane domain that contains the ion transport pathway. The transport process involves several conformational changes in the protein structure, driven by ATP hydrolysis, which ultimately result in the movement of arsenite ions against their concentration gradient from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space or into organelles like vacuoles and endosomes.

In humans, there are two main isoforms of arsenite transporting ATPases: ACR3 (also known as ARS-A) and ACR2 (or ARS-B). Both isoforms have been identified in various tissues, including the liver, kidney, and intestine. Mutations in these genes can lead to impaired arsenic detoxification and increased susceptibility to arsenic toxicity.

Overall, arsenite transporting ATPases are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and protecting organisms from the harmful effects of environmental arsenic exposure.

Antimony is a toxic metallic element with the symbol Sb and atomic number 51. It exists in several allotropic forms and can be found naturally as the mineral stibnite. Antimony has been used for centuries in various applications, including medicinal ones, although its use in medicine has largely fallen out of favor due to its toxicity.

In a medical context, antimony may still be encountered in certain medications used to treat parasitic infections, such as pentavalent antimony compounds (e.g., sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate) for the treatment of leishmaniasis. However, these drugs can have significant side effects and their use is typically reserved for severe cases that cannot be treated with other medications.

It's important to note that exposure to antimony in high concentrations or over prolonged periods can lead to serious health issues, including respiratory problems, skin irritation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and even neurological damage. Therefore, handling antimony-containing substances should be done with caution and appropriate safety measures.

Arsenates are salts or esters of arsenic acid (AsO4). They contain the anion AsO4(3-), which consists of an arsenic atom bonded to four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. Arsenates can be found in various minerals, and they have been used in pesticides, wood preservatives, and other industrial applications. However, arsenic is highly toxic to humans and animals, so exposure to arsenates should be limited. Long-term exposure to arsenic can cause skin lesions, cancer, and damage to the nervous system, among other health problems.

Roxarsone is a type of arsenic-based drug that was previously used in the treatment and prevention of certain parasitic infections in animals, particularly in poultry. It belongs to a class of drugs known as antimicrobials. However, its use has been discontinued or restricted in many countries due to concerns about the potential for arsenic residues in food products and environmental contamination. Please note that this drug is not used in human medicine.

Trypanocidal agents are a type of medication specifically used for the treatment and prevention of trypanosomiasis, which is a group of diseases caused by various species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. These agents work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the parasites in the human body.

There are two main types of human trypanosomiasis: African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, which is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; and American trypanosomiasis, also known as Chagas disease, which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.

Trypanocidal agents can be divided into two categories:

1. Drugs used to treat African trypanosomiasis: These include pentamidine, suramin, melarsoprol, and eflornithine. Pentamidine and suramin are used for the early stages of the disease, while melarsoprol and eflornithine are used for the later stages.
2. Drugs used to treat American trypanosomiasis: The main drug used for Chagas disease is benznidazole, which is effective in killing the parasites during the acute phase of the infection. Another drug, nifurtimox, can also be used, although it has more side effects than benznidazole.

It's important to note that trypanocidal agents have limited availability and are often associated with significant toxicity, making their use challenging in some settings. Therefore, prevention measures such as avoiding insect vectors and using vector control methods remain crucial in controlling the spread of these diseases.

Dimercaprol is a chelating agent, which means it can bind to and help remove certain toxic substances from the body. It is primarily used in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning, such as lead, mercury, or arsenic poisoning. Dimercaprol works by forming stable complexes with these toxic metals, allowing them to be excreted from the body through urine and bile.

The chemical name for dimercaprol is British Anti-Lewisite (BAL), as it was initially developed during World War II as an antidote against the chemical warfare agent Lewisite, a type of arsenic-based blistering agent. Dimercaprol is administered parenterally, usually by intramuscular injection, and its use requires medical supervision due to potential side effects, including hypertension, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, and pain at the injection site.

Diminazene is an antiparasitic drug, primarily used in veterinary medicine to treat and prevent infections caused by trypanosomes, which are protozoan parasites that can affect both animals and humans. The drug works by inhibiting the protein synthesis of the parasite, leading to its death.

In human medicine, diminazene is used as an alternative treatment for acute African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in areas where other treatments are not available or have failed. It is usually given by intramuscular injection and is often used in combination with suramin.

It's important to note that the use of diminazene in human medicine is limited due to its potential toxicity, and it should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Pentamidine is an antimicrobial drug that is primarily used to treat and prevent certain types of pneumonia caused by the parasitic organisms Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as P. carinii) and Leishmania donovani. It can also be used for the treatment of some fungal infections caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans.

Pentamidine works by interfering with the DNA replication and protein synthesis of these microorganisms, which ultimately leads to their death. It is available as an injection or inhaled powder for medical use. Common side effects of pentamidine include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and changes in blood sugar levels. More serious side effects can include kidney damage, hearing loss, and heart rhythm disturbances.

It is important to note that the use of pentamidine should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to its potential for serious side effects and drug interactions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "oxides" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Oxides are a class of chemical compounds that contain at least one oxygen atom and one other element. They can be formed through the process of oxidation, which involves the combination of oxygen with another substance.

In a broader sense, you might encounter the term "oxide" in a medical context when discussing various materials or substances used in medical devices, treatments, or research. For instance, titanium dioxide is a common ingredient in medical-grade sunscreens due to its ability to block and scatter UV light. However, it's important to note that the term "oxides" itself doesn't have a direct connection to medicine or human health.

Aquaglyceroporins are a subfamily of aquaporin water channels that also transport glycerol and other small solutes across biological membranes. They play important roles in various physiological processes, including osmoregulation, skin hydration, and fat metabolism. In humans, there are three known aquaglyceroporins: AQP3, AQP7, and AQP9.

Bowen's disease is a skin condition that is characterized by the growth of abnormal cells on the outermost layer of the skin (the epidermis). It is also known as squamous cell carcinoma in situ. The affected area often appears as a red, scaly patch or plaque, and it can develop anywhere on the body, but it is most commonly found on sun-exposed areas such as the face, hands, arms, and legs.

Bowen's disease is considered a precancerous condition because there is a risk that the abnormal cells could eventually develop into invasive squamous cell carcinoma, a type of skin cancer. However, not all cases of Bowen's disease will progress to cancer, and some may remain stable or even regress on their own.

The exact cause of Bowen's disease is not known, but it is thought to be associated with exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Treatment options for Bowen's disease include cryotherapy, topical chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, curettage and electrodessication, and surgical excision. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is recommended to monitor the condition and ensure that it does not progress to cancer.

Sodium compounds are chemical substances that contain the element sodium (Na) combined with one or more other elements. Sodium is an alkali metal and is highly reactive, so it rarely exists in its pure form in nature. Instead, it is typically found combined with other elements in the form of various sodium compounds.

Some common examples of sodium compounds include:

* Sodium chloride (NaCl), also known as table salt, which is a compound formed from the reaction between sodium and chlorine.
* Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), also known as baking soda, which is used as a leavening agent in baking and as a household cleaner.
* Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, which is a strong alkali used in industrial applications such as the manufacture of soap and paper.
* Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), also known as washing soda, which is used as a water softener and cleaning agent.

Sodium compounds have a variety of uses in medicine, including as electrolytes to help maintain fluid balance in the body, as antacids to neutralize stomach acid, and as laxatives to relieve constipation. However, it is important to use sodium compounds as directed by a healthcare professional, as excessive intake can lead to high blood pressure and other health problems.

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to consume and meets the health-based standards established by regulatory agencies for human consumption. It is free from harmful levels of contaminants, including microorganisms, chemicals, radiological elements, and aesthetic factors such as taste, odor, and appearance.

Drinking water can come from various sources, including surface water (e.g., rivers, lakes), groundwater (e.g., wells), and treated wastewater that has undergone advanced purification processes. The treatment of drinking water typically involves several steps, such as coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection, to remove or inactivate pathogens and other contaminants.

Access to safe drinking water is essential for human health, as it helps prevent various waterborne diseases and ensures proper hydration. Regular monitoring and testing of drinking water sources and distribution systems are necessary to maintain the quality and safety of the water supply.

Nucleoside transport proteins (NTTs) are membrane-bound proteins responsible for the facilitated diffusion of nucleosides and related deoxynucleosides across the cell membrane. These proteins play a crucial role in the uptake of nucleosides, which serve as precursors for DNA and RNA synthesis, as well as for the salvage of nucleotides in the cell.

There are two main types of NTTs: concentrative (or sodium-dependent) nucleoside transporters (CNTs) and equilibrative (or sodium-independent) nucleoside transporters (ENTs). CNTs mainly facilitate the uptake of nucleosides against a concentration gradient, using the energy derived from the sodium ion gradient. In contrast, ENTs mediate bidirectional transport, allowing for the equalization of intracellular and extracellular nucleoside concentrations.

Nucleoside transport proteins have been identified in various organisms, including humans, and are involved in numerous physiological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Dysregulation of NTTs has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer and viral infections, making them potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

Methylation, in the context of genetics and epigenetics, refers to the addition of a methyl group (CH3) to a molecule, usually to the nitrogenous base of DNA or to the side chain of amino acids in proteins. In DNA methylation, this process typically occurs at the 5-carbon position of cytosine residues that precede guanine residues (CpG sites) and is catalyzed by enzymes called DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs).

DNA methylation plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, and suppression of repetitive elements. Hypermethylation or hypomethylation of specific genes can lead to altered gene expression patterns, which have been associated with various human diseases, including cancer.

In summary, methylation is a fundamental epigenetic modification that influences genomic stability, gene regulation, and cellular function by introducing methyl groups to DNA or proteins.

In the context of medical laboratory reporting, "R factors" refer to a set of values that describe the resistance of certain bacteria to different antibiotics. These factors are typically reported as R1, R2, R3, and so on, where each R factor corresponds to a specific antibiotic or class of antibiotics.

An R factor value of "1" indicates susceptibility to the corresponding antibiotic, while an R factor value of "R" (or "R-", depending on the laboratory's reporting practices) indicates resistance. An intermediate category may also be reported as "I" or "I-", indicating that the bacterium is intermediately sensitive to the antibiotic in question.

It's important to note that R factors are just one piece of information used to guide clinical decision-making around antibiotic therapy, and should be interpreted in conjunction with other factors such as the patient's clinical presentation, the severity of their infection, and any relevant guidelines or recommendations from infectious disease specialists.

Methyltransferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group (-CH3) from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule, which is often a protein, DNA, or RNA. This transfer of a methyl group can modify the chemical and physical properties of the acceptor molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as gene expression, signal transduction, and DNA repair.

In biochemistry, methyltransferases are classified based on the type of donor molecule they use for the transfer of the methyl group. The most common methyl donor is S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a universal methyl group donor found in many organisms. Methyltransferases that utilize SAM as a cofactor are called SAM-dependent methyltransferases.

Abnormal regulation or function of methyltransferases has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of these enzymes is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these conditions.

Trypanosoma brucei brucei is a species of protozoan flagellate parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in animals. This parasite is transmitted through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). The life cycle of T. b. brucei involves two main stages: the insect-dwelling procyclic trypomastigote stage and the mammalian-dwelling bloodstream trypomastigote stage.

The distinguishing feature of T. b. brucei is its ability to change its surface coat, which helps it evade the host's immune system. This allows the parasite to establish a long-term infection in the mammalian host. However, T. b. brucei is not infectious to humans; instead, two other subspecies, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, are responsible for human African trypanosomiasis.

In summary, Trypanosoma brucei brucei is a non-human-infective subspecies of the parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis in animals and serves as an essential model organism for understanding the biology and pathogenesis of related human-infective trypanosomes.

Urothelium is the specialized type of epithelial tissue that lines the urinary tract, including the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It is a type of transitional epithelium that can change its shape and size depending on the degree of distension or stretching of the organs it lines.

The main function of urothelium is to provide a barrier against urine, which contains various waste products and potential irritants, while also allowing the exchange of ions and water. The urothelial cells are joined together by tight junctions that prevent the passage of substances through the paracellular space, and they also have the ability to transport ions and water through their cell membranes.

In addition to its barrier function, urothelium is also involved in sensory and immune functions. It contains specialized nerve endings that can detect mechanical and chemical stimuli, such as stretch or irritation, and it expresses various antimicrobial peptides and other defense mechanisms that help protect the urinary tract from infection.

Overall, urothelium plays a critical role in maintaining the health and function of the urinary tract, and its dysfunction has been implicated in various urinary tract disorders, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and bladder cancer.

Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of three amino acids: cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine. It is a vital antioxidant that plays an essential role in maintaining cellular health and function. Glutathione helps protect cells from oxidative stress by neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to aging and diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and dementia. It also supports the immune system, detoxifies harmful substances, and regulates various cellular processes, including DNA synthesis and repair.

Glutathione is found in every cell of the body, with particularly high concentrations in the liver, lungs, and eyes. The body can produce its own glutathione, but levels may decline with age, illness, or exposure to toxins. As such, maintaining optimal glutathione levels through diet, supplementation, or other means is essential for overall health and well-being.

'Crithidia fasciculata' is a species of protozoan parasites belonging to the order Trypanosomatida and family Trypanosomatidae. These unicellular organisms are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of insects, particularly mosquitoes and other blood-sucking dipterans. They are non-pathogenic to humans but have been widely used as a model organism in scientific research, particularly in the fields of molecular biology, genetics, and cell biology.

The cells of 'Crithidia fasciculata' are elongated and slender, typically measuring 15-30 micrometers in length and 2-3 micrometers in width. They possess a single flagellum that emerges from the anterior end of the cell and is used for locomotion. The cells also contain a distinct kinetoplast, a unique structure found within the mitochondrion that contains DNA.

'Crithidia fasciculata' has been used as a model organism to study various aspects of trypanosome biology, including the mechanisms of gene expression, protein trafficking, and cell division. Additionally, it has been used in studies on the development of new drugs and therapies for treating trypanosomiasis, a group of diseases caused by infection with parasites of the genus Trypanosoma.

Trypanosoma is a genus of flagellated protozoan parasites belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae. These microscopic single-celled organisms are known to cause various tropical diseases in humans and animals, including Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) and African sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei).

The life cycle of Trypanosoma involves alternating between an insect vector (like a tsetse fly or kissing bug) and a mammalian host. The parasites undergo complex morphological changes as they move through the different hosts and developmental stages, often exhibiting distinct forms in the insect vector compared to the mammalian host.

Trypanosoma species have an undulating membrane and a single flagellum that helps them move through their environment. They can be transmitted through various routes, including insect vectors, contaminated food or water, or congenital transmission from mother to offspring. The diseases caused by these parasites can lead to severe health complications and may even be fatal if left untreated.

Skin diseases, also known as dermatological conditions, refer to any medical condition that affects the skin, which is the largest organ of the human body. These diseases can affect the skin's function, appearance, or overall health. They can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, allergies, environmental factors, and aging.

Skin diseases can present in many different forms, such as rashes, blisters, sores, discolorations, growths, or changes in texture. Some common examples of skin diseases include acne, eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis, fungal infections, viral infections, bacterial infections, and skin cancer.

The symptoms and severity of skin diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and individual factors. Some skin diseases are mild and can be treated with over-the-counter medications or topical creams, while others may require more intensive treatments such as prescription medications, light therapy, or even surgery.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any unusual or persistent changes in your skin, as some skin diseases can be serious or indicative of other underlying health conditions. A dermatologist is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases.

Organometallic compounds are a type of chemical compound that contain at least one metal-carbon bond. This means that the metal is directly attached to carbon atom(s) from an organic molecule. These compounds can be synthesized through various methods, and they have found widespread use in industrial and medicinal applications, including catalysis, polymerization, and pharmaceuticals.

It's worth noting that while organometallic compounds contain metal-carbon bonds, not all compounds with metal-carbon bonds are considered organometallic. For example, in classical inorganic chemistry, simple salts of metal carbonyls (M(CO)n) are not typically classified as organometallic, but rather as metal carbonyl complexes. The distinction between these classes of compounds can sometimes be subtle and is a matter of ongoing debate among chemists.

Atomic spectrophotometry is a type of analytical technique used to determine the concentration of specific atoms or ions in a sample by measuring the intensity of light absorbed or emitted at wavelengths characteristic of those atoms or ions. This technique involves the use of an atomic spectrometer, which uses a source of energy (such as a flame, plasma, or electrode) to excite the atoms or ions in the sample, causing them to emit light at specific wavelengths. The intensity of this emitted light is then measured and used to calculate the concentration of the element of interest.

Atomic spectrophotometry can be further divided into two main categories: atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrophotometry (AES). In AAS, the sample is atomized in a flame or graphite furnace and the light from a lamp that emits light at the same wavelength as one of the elements in the sample is passed through the atoms. The amount of light absorbed by the atoms is then measured and used to determine the concentration of the element. In AES, the sample is atomized and excited to emit its own light, which is then measured and analyzed to determine the concentration of the element.

Atomic spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as environmental monitoring, clinical chemistry, forensic science, and industrial quality control for the determination of trace elements in a variety of sample types including liquids, solids, and gases.

African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). The disease has two stages: an early hemolymphatic stage characterized by fever, swollen lymph nodes, and skin rashes; and a late neurological stage characterized by sleep disturbances, personality changes, and motor abnormalities. If left untreated, it can be fatal. The disease is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, where an estimated 65 million people are at risk of infection.

In the context of medicine and toxicology, sulfides refer to inorganic or organic compounds containing the sulfide ion (S2-). Sulfides can be found in various forms such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), metal sulfides, and organic sulfides (also known as thioethers).

Hydrogen sulfide is a toxic gas with a characteristic rotten egg smell. It can cause various adverse health effects, including respiratory irritation, headaches, nausea, and, at high concentrations, loss of consciousness or even death. Metal sulfides, such as those found in some minerals, can also be toxic and may release hazardous sulfur dioxide (SO2) when heated or reacted with acidic substances.

Organic sulfides, on the other hand, are a class of organic compounds containing a sulfur atom bonded to two carbon atoms. They can occur naturally in some plants and animals or be synthesized in laboratories. Some organic sulfides have medicinal uses, while others may pose health risks depending on their concentration and route of exposure.

It is important to note that the term "sulfide" has different meanings in various scientific contexts, so it is essential to consider the specific context when interpreting this term.

Traditional medicine (TM) refers to health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral-based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well-being. Although traditional medicine has been practiced since prehistoric times, it is still widely used today and may include:

1. Traditional Asian medicines such as acupuncture, herbal remedies, and qigong from China; Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani and Siddha from India; and Jamu from Indonesia.
2. Traditional European herbal medicines, also known as phytotherapy.
3. North American traditional indigenous medicines, including Native American and Inuit practices.
4. African traditional medicines, such as herbal, spiritual, and manual techniques practiced in various African cultures.
5. South American traditional medicines, like Mapuche, Curanderismo, and Santo Daime practices from different countries.

It is essential to note that traditional medicine may not follow the scientific principles, evidence-based standards, or quality control measures inherent to conventional (also known as allopathic or Western) medicine. However, some traditional medicines have been integrated into modern healthcare systems and are considered complementary or alternative medicines (CAM). The World Health Organization encourages member states to develop policies and regulations for integrating TM/CAM practices into their healthcare systems, ensuring safety, efficacy, and quality while respecting cultural diversity.

Sulfhydryl compounds, also known as thiol compounds, are organic compounds that contain a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (-SH). This functional group is also called a sulfhydryl group. Sulfhydryl compounds can be found in various biological systems and play important roles in maintaining the structure and function of proteins, enzymes, and other biomolecules. They can also act as antioxidants and help protect cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Examples of sulfhydryl compounds include cysteine, glutathione, and coenzyme A.

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

Multienzyme complexes are specialized protein structures that consist of multiple enzymes closely associated or bound together, often with other cofactors and regulatory subunits. These complexes facilitate the sequential transfer of substrates along a series of enzymatic reactions, also known as a metabolic pathway. By keeping the enzymes in close proximity, multienzyme complexes enhance reaction efficiency, improve substrate specificity, and maintain proper stoichiometry between different enzymes involved in the pathway. Examples of multienzyme complexes include the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, the citrate synthase complex, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.

The urinary bladder is a muscular, hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine before it is released from the body. It expands as it fills with urine and contracts when emptying. The typical adult bladder can hold between 400 to 600 milliliters of urine for about 2-5 hours before the urge to urinate occurs. The wall of the bladder contains several layers, including a mucous membrane, a layer of smooth muscle (detrusor muscle), and an outer fibrous adventitia. The muscles of the bladder neck and urethra remain contracted to prevent leakage of urine during filling, and they relax during voiding to allow the urine to flow out through the urethra.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid, which means that it can be produced by the human body under normal circumstances, but may need to be obtained from external sources in certain conditions such as illness or stress. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH, and it contains a sulfhydryl group (-SH), which allows it to act as a powerful antioxidant and participate in various cellular processes.

Cysteine plays important roles in protein structure and function, detoxification, and the synthesis of other molecules such as glutathione, taurine, and coenzyme A. It is also involved in wound healing, immune response, and the maintenance of healthy skin, hair, and nails.

Cysteine can be found in a variety of foods, including meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, legumes, nuts, seeds, and some grains. It is also available as a dietary supplement and can be used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as liver disease, bronchitis, and heavy metal toxicity. However, excessive intake of cysteine may have adverse effects on health, including gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, vomiting, and headaches.

Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This reaction releases energy, which is used to drive various cellular processes such as muscle contraction, transport of ions across membranes, and synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids.

ATPases are classified into several types based on their structure, function, and mechanism of action. Some examples include:

1. P-type ATPases: These ATPases form a phosphorylated intermediate during the reaction cycle and are involved in the transport of ions across membranes, such as the sodium-potassium pump and calcium pumps.
2. F-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in mitochondria, chloroplasts, and bacteria, and are responsible for generating a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used to synthesize ATP.
3. V-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in vacuolar membranes and endomembranes, and are involved in acidification of intracellular compartments.
4. A-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in the plasma membrane and are involved in various functions such as cell signaling and ion transport.

Overall, ATPases play a crucial role in maintaining the energy balance of cells and regulating various physiological processes.

Biotransformation is the metabolic modification of a chemical compound, typically a xenobiotic (a foreign chemical substance found within an living organism), by a biological system. This process often involves enzymatic conversion of the parent compound to one or more metabolites, which may be more or less active, toxic, or mutagenic than the original substance.

In the context of pharmacology and toxicology, biotransformation is an important aspect of drug metabolism and elimination from the body. The liver is the primary site of biotransformation, but other organs such as the kidneys, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract can also play a role.

Biotransformation can occur in two phases: phase I reactions involve functionalization of the parent compound through oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis, while phase II reactions involve conjugation of the metabolite with endogenous molecules such as glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetate to increase its water solubility and facilitate excretion.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Disulfides are a type of organic compound that contains a sulfur-sulfur bond. In the context of biochemistry and medicine, disulfide bonds are often found in proteins, where they play a crucial role in maintaining their three-dimensional structure and function. These bonds form when two sulfhydryl groups (-SH) on cysteine residues within a protein molecule react with each other, releasing a molecule of water and creating a disulfide bond (-S-S-) between the two cysteines. Disulfide bonds can be reduced back to sulfhydryl groups by various reducing agents, which is an important process in many biological reactions. The formation and reduction of disulfide bonds are critical for the proper folding, stability, and activity of many proteins, including those involved in various physiological processes and diseases.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Arsenicals are chemical compounds that contain arsenic. In a military context, the term arsenical refer to toxic arsenic ... Look up arsenical in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. v t e (Arsenic compounds, Chemical weapons, Poisons, All stub articles, ... "Arsenicals - MeSH - NCBI". Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd ed.). CRC Press. 24 August 2007. ISBN ...
Arsenical bronze Arsenical brass Rollason, EC (1949). Metallurgy for Engineers (2nd ed.). London: Arnold. "IBR - 1950 : Reg. ... Arsenical copper contains up to 0.5% arsenic which, at elevated temperatures, imparts higher tensile strength and a reduced ... Copper with a larger percentage of arsenic is called arsenical bronze, which can be work-hardened much harder than copper. ...
Arsenical copper Arsenical brass Charles, J. A. (January 1967). "Early Arsenical Bronzes - A Metallurgical view". American ... Arsenical bronze has seen little use in the modern period. It appears that the closest equivalent goes by the name of arsenical ... saw the use of arsenical bronze. Indeed, it seems that arsenical bronze was the most common alloy in use in the Mediterranean ... to be traded and used to make arsenical bronze elsewhere by addition to molten copper. Artifacts made of arsenical bronze cover ...
An arsenical keratosis is a growth of keratin on the skin caused by arsenic,: 725 which occurs naturally in the Earth's crust ... Arsenical keratoses may persist indefinitely, and some may develop into invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Metastatic arsenic ... ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. Yerebakan O, Ermis O, Yilmaz E, Basaran E (February 2002). "Treatment of arsenical keratosis and Bowen's ... Topical 5-fluorouracil cream or 5% imiquimod cream may be useful in treating arsenical keratoses and Bowen's disease. Freedberg ...
These organic arsenicals were in turn phased out in the United States by 2013 in all agricultural activities except cotton ... "Organic Arsenicals; Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel or to Amend to Terminate Uses of Certain Pesticide ... However, arsenicals such as melarsoprol are still used for the treatment of trypanosomiasis, since although these drugs have ... "Phosphorus Deoxidized Arsenical Copper" with an arsenic content of 0.3% has an increased corrosion stability in certain ...
Inorganic Arsenicals; Intent to Cancel Registrations for Pesticide Products Registered for Non-Wood Preservative Use; ... Herrick, Glenn Washington (1910). "The Snow-white Linden Moth". Sunset Western Garden Book (1954), p.69 Historic Arsenical ... Lead arsenate was the most extensively used arsenical insecticide. Two principal formulations of lead arsenate were marketed: ...
Suchard, Jeffrey R. (March 2006). "CBRNE - Arsenicals, Arsine". EMedicine. Archived from the original on 2006-06-23. Retrieved ...
... the arsenical constituent of the Western Rock Lobster Panulirus longipes cygnus George". Tetrahedron Letters. 18 (18): 1543- ... "Commonalities in metabolism of arsenicals". Environmental Chemistry. 2 (3): 161-166. doi:10.1071/EN05054. Högberg, A. G. S. ( ...
... the Arsenical Constituent of the Western Rock Lobster Panulirus longipes cygnus George". Tetrahedron Letters. 18 (18): 1543- ... "Commonalities in Metabolism of Arsenicals". Environmental Chemistry. 2 (3): 161-166. doi:10.1071/EN05054. Ng, J. C. (2005). " ...
"Arsenical Beer". The Times. London. February 13, 1901. p. 9. "Twelve-Inch Gun a Wonder". The New York Times. November 16, 1900 ...
Organic Arsenical Compounds. 1923. "Scientific Worthies" (PDF). 28 April 1881. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-12-12. ... Seyferth D (2001). "Cadet's Fuming Arsenical Liquid and the Cacodyl Compounds of Bunsen". Organometallics. 20 (8): 1488-1498. ...
Neubauer, O (1947). "Arsenical Cancer: A Review". British Journal of Cancer. 1 (2): 192-251. doi:10.1038/bjc.1947.22. ISSN 0007 ...
Gebel TW (March 2001). "Genotoxicity of arsenical compounds". International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 203 (3 ... fictional murder by arsenical rat poison "A Woman's Face is Her Fortune (advertisement)". The Helena Independent. November 9, ... "Inhibition of insulin-dependent glucose uptake by trivalent arsenicals: possible mechanism of arsenic-induced diabetes". ...
Lin, Lin S.; Thomas, D. J.; Cullen, W. R.; Wang, C.; Styblo, M.; Del Razo, L. M. (2001). "Arsenicals inhibit thioredoxin ... Chouchane, S.; Snow, E. T.; Snow, E. T. (2001). "In vitro effect of arsenical compounds on glutathione-related enzymes". Chem. ... Kitchin, K.T; Wallace, K (2008). "Evidence against the nuclear in situ binding of arsenicals-Oxidative stress theory of arsenic ... Nesnow, S; Roop, B.C (2002). "DNA damage induced by methylated trivalent arsenicals is mediated by reactive oxygen species". ...
... is an arsenical. It causes antibody formation and delayed hypersensitivity when bound to aromatic amino ...
Arsenical bronze artefacts are present. Their settlements were of pit houses and they buried their dead in stone cists covered ... webpage: Arsenical soap. Chrystal, Paul (2016). Leeds in 50 Buildings: 9. Leeds City Museum 1819 Park Row. ... as the Victorians will have preserved it with arsenical soap. For over a century it has sagged somewhat, as can be seen in the ...
One, which reprocessed waste oil, may have discharged wastes to a nearby stream; another company produced arsenical pesticides ...
Antimoine arsenical dans le commerce. Metz, Antoine, September 1820. Second mémoire sur les alliages du potassium et sur ...
"Organic Arsenical Products Task Force". National Library of Medicine. "Sodium Methanearsonate". HSDB Database. Specific ...
ISBN 0-8493-0474-1. Jolliffe, D. M. (1993). "The history of the use of arsenicals in man". Journal of the Royal Society of ...
Fitzgerald GM, Vollmer T (2006-06-19). "CBRNE - Vesicants, Organic Arsenicals: L, ED, MD, PD, HL". WebMD. Retrieved 2008-12-23 ... Arsenical vesicants, Organoarsenic chlorides, World War I chemical weapons, Arsenic(III) compounds). ...
... is an arsenical vesicant which can be mixed with mustard agents for use in chemical warfare. PD was ... Phenyldichloroarsine, also known by its wartime name phenyl Dick and its NATO abbreviation PD, is an organic arsenical vesicant ... Fitzgerald GM, Vollmer T (19 June 2006). "CBRNE - Vesicants, Organic Arsenicals: L, ED, MD, PD, HL". emedicine. WebMD. ... Phenyldichloroarsine is one of four organic arsenicals, the other three are lewisite (L), methyldichloroarsine (MD), and ...
Jolliffe DM (1993). "A history of the use of arsenicals in man". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 86 (5): 287-9. doi: ... Since at least 2000 BC, arsenic and inorganic arsenical compounds were both medicine and poison. In the 19th century, inorganic ... In the late 1940s, Salvarsan was replaced in most regions by penicillin, yet organic arsenicals remained in use for ... For poultry and swine, arsanilic acid was among four arsenical veterinary drugs, along with carbarsone, nitarsone, roxarsone, ...
Fowler's solution: an arsenical compound sold in the 19th century for various ailments including treatment of leukemia. ... Jolliffe, D. M. (1993). "A history of the use of arsenicals in man". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 86 (5): 287-289 ...
"A history of the use of arsenicals in man". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 86 (5): 287-289. PMC 1294007. PMID ...
From 1905, inorganic arsenicals like Fowler's solution saw diminished use as attention turned to organic arsenicals, starting ... As arsenical compounds are notably toxic and carcinogenic-with side effects such as cirrhosis of the liver, idiopathic portal ... "A history of the use of arsenicals in man". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 86 (5): 287-289. doi:10.1177/ ...
Wheeled vehicle representation Arsenical bronze ox figurines from Bytyń, Poland, 4th mill. BC. Copper axe from Lüstringen, ... wielkopolskie, Poland; it is made of arsenical bronze. The figurines were found together with six flat axes near a large stone ...
Webster, D.; Sparkes, M. J.; Dixon, H B F. (1978). "An arsenical analogue of adenosine diphosphate". Biochemical Journal. 169 ( ...
In 1873 a unique arsenical bronze treasure from the Funnelbeaker culture, dating from the second half of the 4th millennium BC ... wielkopolskie, Poland; it is made of arsenical bronze. The figurines were found together with six flat axes near a large stone ...
Arsenicals are chemical compounds that contain arsenic. In a military context, the term arsenical refer to toxic arsenic ... Look up arsenical in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. v t e (Arsenic compounds, Chemical weapons, Poisons, All stub articles, ... "Arsenicals - MeSH - NCBI". Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd ed.). CRC Press. 24 August 2007. ISBN ...
Another type of arsenical keratosis seen in most patients with arsenical cancers manifests as scaly erythematous or pigmented ... encoded search term (Arsenical Keratosis) and Arsenical Keratosis What to Read Next on Medscape ... arsenical keratosis in 7.1%, and skin cancers in 1.5%. Of the 428 people with skin cancer, 72% also presented with arsenical ... Arsenical keratosis is not a fatal disease, but it may persist indefinitely and can become bothersome over time because of pain ...
Arsenical. Arsenical is a selective type of contact herbicide that is foliar-applied. Examples include Weed-e-Rad and Weed-Hoe. ...
Component Uses of Arsenicals. Discontinued arsenic-containing pesticides may still be found in some U.S. farms and homes [ATSDR ... Use of arsenicals in chemical warfare.. *Chlorovinyl dichloroarsine (also known as lewisite) was developed as a chemical ... Wood treated with CCA is known as "pressure treated wood". In response to consumer concerns, U.S. manufacturers of arsenical ... Arsine gas, the most toxic arsenical (acute exposures), is used commercially in the microelectronics industry, and it is ...
No growth hormones, tranquilizers, arsenicals or antibiotics are ever administered.. Our chickens are also free-range. In order ... Organic free-range chicken, raised humanely, with no antibiotics, hormones, or arsenicals. Our farmers give the chickens non- ...
Peripheral neuropathy caused by arsenical intoxication. A study of 41 cases with observations on the effects of BAL (2,3 ...
Peripheral neuropathy caused by arsenical intoxication. A study of 41 cases with observations on the effects of BAL (2,3 ...
Categories: Arsenicals Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 9 images ...
Washing arsenical residues from the skin or eyes usually reduces the irritant effect. If arsenic trioxide is swallowed, ... Arsenicals can react violently with strong oxidizing materials and active metals (HSDB 2007; NIOSH 2005). Hydrogen gas can ... Hepatocellular injury after acute exposure to inorganic arsenicals is uncommon, but fatty infiltration of the liver, central ...
Arsenical pesticide use • Battery manufacture • Art restoration ...
Arsenical Pesticides. *Chapter 16. Fungicides. *Chapter 17. Fumigants. *Chapter 18. Rodenticides *Chapter 19. Miscellaneous ...
Early treatments, in the age of modern management, included prescription mercury, iodides, guaiacum, or arsenicals with bismuth ...
Chalcolithic (arsenical)-copper production.. System: Cu production, Composition: Not specified. Reflected light microscopy. 500 ...
Peripheral neuropathy caused by arsenical intoxication. A study of 41 cases with observations on the effects of BAL (2,3 ...
Oxidative Electrolysis Leaching of an Arsenical Copper Sulfide Concentrate. Authors. Lei-KPV; Carnahan TG ...
Arsenical keratoses with squamous cell carcinoma. Year: 2022, Volume: 88, Issue: 3, May-June ...
Cutaneous exposure to arsenicals is associated with development of constrictive bronchitis in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ...
These arsenical keratotic lesions had formed over the last two years.. High Resolution:. Click here for hi-resolution image ( ... The patient, a 20-year-old male, displayed numerous cutaneous arsenical keratoses. Under histologic examination, this lesion ...
ATCP 29.11(1)(b)1. 1. Solely labeled for use on wood and contains pentachlorophenol, coal tar creosote, or inorganic arsenical ...
Facts and Inferences Prefacing a Book of Specimens of Arsenical Wall Papers is an 1874 book by Dr. Robert […] ... Shadows from the Walls of Death: Facts and Inferences Prefacing a Book of Specimens of Arsenical Wall Papers is an 1874 book by ... Shadows from the Walls of Death: Facts and Inferences Prefacing a Book of Specimens of Arsenical Wall Papers is an 1874 book by ... Read Online) Shadows from the walls of death: facts and inferences prefacing a book of specimens of arsenical wall papers ...
4) Thiol-reactive (co)polymer scaffolds comprised of organic arsenical acrylamides Charlotte Footman, Patrick A.J.M. de Jongh, ... 6) Synthesis, aggregation and responsivity of block copolymers containing organic arsenicals Joji Tanaka, Seiji Tani, Raoul ...
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also approved animal feed containing cancer-causing arsenical compounds to increase ...
In conclusion, our data support the development of arsenicals in combination with GSH-depleters to combat abundant Bcr-Abl ...
Arsenical Poisoning Commission Report. 76 words c291 * Alleged Undue Violence at Wandsworth Infirmary. 131 words ...
The effect of arsenical dips on Parafilaria bovicola in artificially infected cattle in South Africa  ... The possible adverse effect of arsenical tick control dips on Parafilaria bovicola infections was investigated in 48 ...
Arsenicals - Preferred Concept UI. M0001724. Scope note. Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic. ...
Facts and Inferences Prefacing a Book of Specimens of Arsenical Wall Papers (1874) by RC Kedzie. ...
Ancylostomidae handseled outside arsenical philtered; run-down, buy generic rybelsus ozempic wegovy semaglutide no prescription ...
... be their battalions and be the scan of the defensive paralysing place for a mortuary jagen on the new armies of the arsenical ...
  • Arsenical keratosis is a cutaneous manifestation of arsenicosis. (
  • Cutaneous exposure to arsenicals is associated with development of constrictive bronchitis in mice. (
  • The patient, a 20-year-old male, displayed numerous cutaneous arsenical keratoses. (
  • Arsenical keratoses are usually multiple and typically occur at sites of friction and trauma, especially on the palms and the soles. (
  • Imaging studies are not recommended in a standard workup for arsenical keratoses unless internal malignancy or metastatic disease is suspected after taking a thorough history and completing a physical examination. (
  • Arsenicals are chemical compounds that contain arsenic. (
  • In a military context, the term arsenical refer to toxic arsenic compounds that are used as chemical warfare agents. (
  • Arsenical compounds are used in industrial, agricultural, and medicinal substances. (
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also approved animal feed containing cancer-causing arsenical compounds to increase animal weight gain, feed efficiency and muscle pigmentation. (
  • Lower levels of inorganic arsenicals are known to be chemical carcinogens. (
  • Pesticide fact sheet : inorganic arsenical pesticides. (
  • In a study of 442 people with skin lesions from arsenic-endemic areas of Bangladesh, Khatun et al found a significant correlation between higher serum periostin levels and degree of arsenical lesions. (
  • In a small study (n=7), patients with arsenical palmar keratosis were noted to have elevated linoleic acid levels in lipid extracts from the lesions when compared to patients with arsenic exposure but no lesions and to a control group with no arsenic exposure. (
  • These arsenical keratotic lesions had formed over the last two years. (
  • The colour of Bronze Age arsenical copper: intended outcome or long-term change? (
  • Chalcolithic (arsenical)-copper production. (
  • Oxidative Electrolysis Leaching of an Arsenical Copper Sulfide Concentrate. (
  • Phosphor arsenical copper bars with enhanced corrosion resistance. (
  • De-oxidised arsenical copper. (
  • C107 phosphorous arsenical copper bar with enhanced corrosion resistance. (
  • C107 is a phosphorous de-oxidised arsenical copper that provides enhanced corrosion resistance and increased tensile strength at elevated operating temperatures up to 300°C. With outstanding formability and joining characteristics, C107 is a perfect material for boiler work, finding particular popularity in the steam locomotive sector for firebox repairs, stay bolts, rivets and renewal. (
  • In response to consumer concerns, U.S. manufacturers of arsenical wood preservative began a voluntary transition from CCA to other wood preservatives for certain residential wood products. (
  • Look up arsenical in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. (
  • Barati AH, Maleki A, Alasvand M. Multi-trace elements level in drinking water and the prevalence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning in residents in the west area of Iran. (
  • Noncirrhotic presinusoidal portal hypertension associated with chronic arsenical intoxication. (
  • Thus, it is suggested that in this patient, presinusoidal portal hypertension was secondary to chronic arsenical intake associated with marked intrahepatic vascular changes seen on portography. (
  • Peripheral neuropathy caused by arsenical intoxication. (
  • Arsenical pesticide runoff also produces elevated arsenic levels in ground water. (
  • With the advent of arsenical pesticides, however, clusters of young paralysis victims became more and more common, especially during the summer and autumn months (when the fruits sprayed with arsenic were being eaten, and children were swimming in creeks and waterholes contaminated by pesticide run-off). (
  • The other as indi¬ arsenical treatment and variation, both the arterioles. (
  • A week after the second injection, the first cases of paralysis appeared - all were in the lower limbs, and all had received arsenical injections. (