Arsenate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that specifically reduce arsenate ion to arsenite ion. Reduction of arsenate is a critical step for its biotransformation into a form that can be transported by ARSENITE TRANSPORTING ATPASES or complexed by specific sulfhydryl-containing proteins for the purpose of detoxification (METABOLIC DETOXIFICATION, DRUG). Arsenate reductases require reducing equivalents such as GLUTAREDOXIN or AZURIN.Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.Ion Pumps: A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.Arsenite Transporting ATPases: Efflux pumps that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump arsenite across a membrane. They are primarily found in prokaryotic organisms, where they play a role in protection against excess intracellular levels of arsenite ions.Pteris: A plant genus of the family PTERIDACEAE. Members contain entkaurane DITERPENES. The name is similar to bracken fern (PTERIDIUM).Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Arsenites: Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.Glutaredoxins: A family of thioltransferases that contain two active site CYSTEINE residues, which either form a disulfide (oxidized form) or a dithiol (reduced form). They function as an electron carrier in the GLUTHIONE-dependent synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides by RIBONUCLEOTIDE REDUCTASES and may play a role in the deglutathionylation of protein thiols. The oxidized forms of glutaredoxins are directly reduced by the GLUTATHIONE.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Nitrate Reductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Ribonucleotide ReductasesCysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cytochrome-B(5) Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN oxidoreductase that occurs both as a soluble enzyme and a membrane-bound enzyme due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of a single mRNA. The soluble form is present mainly in ERYTHROCYTES and is involved in the reduction of METHEMOGLOBIN. The membrane-bound form of the enzyme is found primarily in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and outer mitochondrial membrane, where it participates in the desaturation of FATTY ACIDS; CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis and drug metabolism. A deficiency in the enzyme can result in METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.FMN Reductase: An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cytochrome ReductasesAcinetobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.Acinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Anabaena variabilis: A species of ANABAENA that can form SPORES called akinetes.NevadaGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)New JerseyHeterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Yucca: A genus (and common name) in the AGAVACEAE family. It is known for SAPONINS in the root that are used in SOAPS.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Sterilization, Involuntary: Reproductive sterilization without the consent of the patient.Concentration Camps: Facilities in which WARFARE or political prisoners are confined.History of DentistryRestaurantsPathology, Clinical: A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Russia (Pre-1917)Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Colubridae: The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)Receptors, Oxytocin: Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.

Studies on the ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase subfamily of the nudix hydrolases and tentative identification of trgB, a gene associated with tellurite resistance. (1/35)

Four Nudix hydrolase genes, ysa1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, orf209 from Escherichia coli, yqkg from Bacillus subtilis, and hi0398 from Hemophilus influenzae were amplified, cloned into an expression vector, and transformed into E. coli. The expressed proteins were purified and shown to belong to a subfamily of Nudix hydrolases active on ADP-ribose. Comparison with other members of the subfamily revealed a conserved proline 16 amino acid residues downstream of the Nudix box, common to all of the ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase subfamily. In this same region, a conserved tyrosine designates another subfamily, the diadenosine polyphosphate pyrophosphatases, while an array of eight conserved amino acids is indicative of the NADH pyrophosphatases. On the basis of these classifications, the trgB gene, a tellurite resistance factor from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, was predicted to designate an ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase. In support of this hypothesis, a highly specific ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase gene from the archaebacterium, Methanococcus jannaschii, introduced into E. coli, increased the transformant's tolerance to potassium tellurite.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of ACR2p, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae arsenate reductase. (2/35)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of the ACR2 and ACR3 genes confers arsenical resistance. Acr2p is the first identified eukaryotic arsenate reductase. It reduces arsenate to arsenite, which is then extruded from cells by Acr3p. In this study, we demonstrate that ACR2 complemented the arsenate-sensitive phenotype of an arsC deletion in Escherichia coli. ACR2 was cloned into a bacterial expression vector and expressed in E. coli as a C-terminally histidine-tagged protein that was purified by sequential metal chelate affinity and gel filtration chromatography. Acr2p purified as a homodimer of 34 kDa. The purified protein was shown to catalyze the reduction of arsenate to arsenite. Enzymatic activity as a function of arsenate concentration exhibited an apparent positive cooperativity with an apparent Hill coefficient of 2.7. Activity required GSH and glutaredoxin as the source of reducing equivalents. Thioredoxin was unable to support arsenate reduction. However, glutaredoxins from both S. cerevisiae and E. coli were able to serve as reductants. Analysis of grx mutants lacking one or both cysteine residues in the Cys-Pro-Tyr-Cys active site demonstrated that only the N-terminal cysteine residue is essential for arsenate reductase activity. This suggests that during the catalytic cycle, Acr2p forms a mixed disulfide with GSH before being reduced by glutaredoxin to regenerate the active Acr2p reductase.  (+info)

The phosphatase C(X)5R motif is required for catalytic activity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Acr2p arsenate reductase. (3/35)

Acr2p detoxifies arsenate by reduction to arsenite in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This reductase has been shown to require glutathione and glutaredoxin, suggesting that thiol chemistry might be involved in the reaction mechanism. Acr2p has a HC(X)(5)R motif, the signature sequence of the phosphate binding loop of the dual-specific and protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. In Acr2p these are residues His-75, Cys-76, and Arg-82, respectively. Acr2p has another sequence, (118)HCR, that is absent in phosphatases. Acr2p also has a third cysteine residue at position 106. Each of these cysteine residues was changed individually to serine residues, whereas the histidine and arginine residues were altered to alanines. Cells of Escherichia coli heterologously expressing the majority of the mutant ACR2 genes retained wild type resistance to arsenate, and the purified altered Acr2p proteins exhibited normal enzymatic properties. In contrast, cells expressing either the C76S or R82A mutations lost resistance to arsenate, and the purified proteins were inactive. These results suggest that Acr2p utilizes a phosphatase-like Cys(X)(5)Arg motif as the catalytic center to reduce arsenate to arsenite.  (+info)

Bacillus subtilis arsenate reductase is structurally and functionally similar to low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases. (4/35)

Arsenate is an abundant oxyanion that, because of its ability to mimic the phosphate group, is toxic to cells. Arsenate reductase (EC; encoded by the arsC gene in bacteria) participates to achieve arsenate resistance in both prokaryotes and yeast by reducing arsenate to arsenite; the arsenite is then exported by a specific transporter. The crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis arsenate reductase in the reduced form with a bound sulfate ion in its active site is solved at 1.6-A resolution. Significant structural similarity is seen between arsenate reductase and bovine low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase, despite very low sequence identity. The similarity is especially high between their active sites. It is further confirmed that this structural homology is relevant functionally by showing the phosphatase activity of the arsenate reductase in vitro. Thus, we can understand the arsenate reduction in the light of low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase mechanism and also explain the catalytic roles of essential residues such as Cys-10, Cys-82, Cys-89, Arg-16, and Asp-105. A "triple cysteine redox relay" is proposed for the arsenate reduction mechanism.  (+info)

Arsenate reductases in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (5/35)

The ubiquity of arsenic in the environment has led to the evolution of enzymes for arsenic detoxification. An initial step in arsenic metabolism is the enzymatic reduction of arsenate [As(V)] to arsenite [As(III)]. At least three families of arsenate reductase enzymes have arisen, apparently by convergent evolution. The properties of two of these are described here. The first is the prokaryotic ArsC arsenate reductase of Escherichia coli. The second, Acr2p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is the only identified eukaryotic arsenate reductase. Although unrelated to each other, both enzymes receive their reducing equivalents from glutaredoxin and reduced glutathione. The structure of the bacterial ArsC has been solved at 1.65 A. As predicted from its biochemical properties, ArsC structures with covalent enzyme-arsenic intermediates that include either As(V) or As(III) were observed. The yeast Acr2p has an active site motif HC(X)(5)R that is conserved in protein phosphotyrosine phosphatases and rhodanases, suggesting that these three groups of enzymes may have evolved from an ancestral oxyanion-binding protein.  (+info)

Directed evolution of a yeast arsenate reductase into a protein-tyrosine phosphatase. (6/35)

Arsenic, which is ubiquitous in the environment and comes from both geochemical and anthropogenic sources, has become a worldwide public health problem. Every organism studied has intrinsic or acquired mechanisms for arsenic detoxification. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae arsenate is detoxified by Acr2p, an arsenate reductase. Acr2p is not a phosphatase but is a homologue of CDC25 phosphatases. It has the HCX5R phosphatase motif but not the glycine-rich phosphate binding motif (GXGXXG) that is found in protein-tyrosine phosphatases. Here we show that creation of a phosphate binding motif through the introduction of glycines at positions 79, 81, and 84 in Acr2p resulted in a gain of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity and a loss of arsenate reductase activity. Arsenate likely achieved geochemical abundance only after the atmosphere became oxidizing, creating pressure for the evolution of an arsenate reductase from a protein-tyrosine phosphatase. The ease by which an arsenate reductase can be converted into a protein-tyrosine phosphatase supports this hypothesis.  (+info)

An arsenate reductase from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 exhibits a novel combination of catalytic characteristics. (7/35)

The deduced protein product of open reading frame slr0946 from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, SynArsC, contains the conserved sequence features of the enzyme superfamily that includes the low-molecular-weight protein-tyrosine phosphatases and the Staphylococcus aureus pI258 ArsC arsenate reductase. The recombinant protein product of slr0946, rSynArsC, exhibited vigorous arsenate reductase activity (V(max) = 3.1 micro mol/min. mg), as well as weak phosphatase activity toward p-nitrophenyl phosphate (V(max) = 0.08 micro mol/min. mg) indicative of its phosphohydrolytic ancestry. pI258 ArsC from S. aureus is the prototype of one of three distinct families of detoxifying arsenate reductases. The prototypes of the others are Acr2p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and R773 ArsC from Escherichia coli. All three have converged upon catalytic mechanisms involving an arsenocysteine intermediate. While SynArsC is homologous to pI258 ArsC, its catalytic mechanism exhibited a unique combination of features. rSynArsC employed glutathione and glutaredoxin as the source of reducing equivalents, like Acr2p and R773 ArsC, rather than thioredoxin, as does the S. aureus enzyme. As postulated for Acr2p and R773 ArsC, rSynArsC formed a covalent complex with glutathione in an arsenate-dependent manner. rSynArsC contains three essential cysteine residues like pI258 ArsC, whereas the yeast and E. coli enzymes require only one cysteine for catalysis. As in the S. aureus enzyme, these "extra" cysteines apparently shuttle a disulfide bond to the enzyme's surface to render it accessible for reduction. SynArsC and pI258 ArsC thus appear to represent alternative branches in the evolution of their shared phosphohydrolytic ancestor into an agent of arsenic detoxification.  (+info)

Transcriptional activation of metalloid tolerance genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the AP-1-like proteins Yap1p and Yap8p. (8/35)

All organisms are equipped with systems for detoxification of the metalloids arsenic and antimony. Here, we show that two parallel pathways involving the AP-1-like proteins Yap1p and Yap8p are required for acquisition of metalloid tolerance in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae. Yap8p is demonstrated to reside in the nucleus where it mediates enhanced expression of the arsenic detoxification genes ACR2 and ACR3. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show that Yap8p is associated with the ACR3 promoter in untreated as well as arsenic-exposed cells. Like for Yap1p, specific cysteine residues are critical for Yap8p function. We further show that metalloid exposure triggers nuclear accumulation of Yap1p and stimulates expression of antioxidant genes. Yap1p mutants that are unable to accumulate in the nucleus during H(2)O(2) treatment showed nearly normal nuclear retention in response to metalloid exposure. Thus, our data are the first to demonstrate that Yap1p is being regulated by metalloid stress and to indicate that this activation of Yap1p operates in a manner distinct from stress caused by chemical oxidants. We conclude that Yap1p and Yap8p mediate tolerance by controlling separate subsets of detoxification genes and propose that the two AP-1-like proteins respond to metalloids through distinct mechanisms.  (+info)

Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Arsenic atom in PDB 1j9b: Arsenate Reductase+0.4M Arsenite From E. Coli
Molybdenum cofactor is a cofactor required for the activity of enzymes such as sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidoreductase, and aldehyde oxidase. It is a coordination complex formed between molybdopterin (which, despite the name, does not contain molybdenum) and an oxide of molybdenum. Molybdopterins, in turn, are synthesized from guanosine triphosphate. Molybdenum cofactor functions directly in ethylbenzene dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and respiratory arsenate reductase. In animals and plants these enzymes use molybdenum bound at the active site in a tricyclic molybdenum cofactor. All molybdenum-using enzymes so far identified in nature use this cofactor The simplest structure of molybdopterin contains a pyranopterin coordinated to molybdenum. The pyranopterin structure is a fused ring system containing a pyran fused to pterin. In addition, the pyran ring is substituted with two thiols and an alkyl phosphate. In molybdopterin, the thiols coordinate to ...
Villadangos, A. F., K. Van Belle, K. Wahni, V. Tamu Dufe, S. Freitas, H. Nur, S. De Galan, J. A. Gil, J-F. Collet, L. M. Mateos, et al., Corynebacterium glutamicum survives arsenic stress with arsenate reductases coupled to two distinct redox mechanisms., Mol Microbiol, vol. 82, issue 4, pp. 998-1014, 2011 Nov. ...
Villadangos, A. F., K. Van Belle, K. Wahni, V. Tamu Dufe, S. Freitas, H. Nur, S. De Galan, J. A. Gil, J-F. Collet, L. M. Mateos, et al., Corynebacterium glutamicum survives arsenic stress with arsenate reductases coupled to two distinct redox mechanisms., Mol Microbiol, vol. 82, issue 4, pp. 998-1014, 2011 Nov. ...
Microbiome research encompasses sample types as diverse as the human gut, Antarctic soil, ocean water and acidic hot spring biofilms. These samples are challenging because they are difficult to lyse, with some microbes containing a tough extracellular matrix. Incomplete lysis of a microbial community results in an inaccurate representation of the microbial content of the sample. Additionally, PCR inhibitors present in these samples, especially humic acids, polysaccharides, polyphenolics, lipids and heavy metals, result in inaccurate quantitation of nucleic acids and may cause false negatives in qPCR. ...
1JL3: Bacillus subtilis arsenate reductase is structurally and functionally similar to low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases.
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
The Mono Lake State Reserve, California wall mural by Alain Thomas will add a distinctive touch to any room. Choose from standard sizes or get a custom size to perfectly fit your wall.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Business Directory for Ammonium Arsenate Suppliers in Mumbai - Get contact details of Ammonium Arsenate Manufacturers, Wholesale Ammonium Arsenate Exporters, Best Ammonium Arsenate Traders & Distributors Across the Mumbai.
Search Indian Sodium Arsenate Manufacturers and Suppliers Details - Contact to Sodium Arsenate Exporters in India, Sodium Arsenate Wholesalers, Sodium Arsenate Distributors and Traders from India.
We couldnt find a conversion between moles Sodium Arsenate and kilomol Do a quick conversion: 1 moles Sodium Arsenate = 1 kilomol using the online calculator for metric conversions.
Arsenic is a toxic metalloid which is widely distributed in nature. It is normally present as arsenate under oxic conditions while arsenite is predominant under reducing condition. The major discharges of arsenic in the environment are mainly due to natural sources such as aquifers and anthropogenic sources. It is known that arsenite salts are more toxic than arsenate as it binds with vicinal thiols in pyruvate dehydrogenase while arsenate inhibits the oxidative phosphorylation process. The common mechanisms for arsenic detoxification are uptaken by phosphate transporters, aquaglyceroporins, and active extrusion system and reduced by arsenate reductases via dissimilatory reduction mechanism. Some species of autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms use arsenic oxyanions for their regeneration of energy. Certain species of microorganisms are able to use arsenate as their nutrient in respiratory process. Detoxification operons are a common form of arsenic resistance in microorganisms. Hence, the use of
Volume 73, no. 16, p. 5130-5137, 2007. Page 5134: A miscalculation was made during the conversion of units for the measured N2O concentrations in sediment denitrification bioassays reported in Fig. 4B and the associated discussion in the text. The reported N2O production rates are too high by a factor of 1/0.028, or 36-fold, as they were not corrected for the headspace volume of the bioassay serum bottles (28 ml). The correct ranges of N2O production rates are 0.001 to 1.8 μmol cm−3 day−1 for Mono Lake samples and 0.01 to 0.5 μmol cm−3 day−1 for Searles Lake samples. Our observations regarding the effects of salinity on denitrification, as well as the other major implications of the study, however, are not affected by this correction.. ...
Arsenate minerals usually refer to the naturally occurring orthoarsenates, possessing the (AsO4)3− anion group and, more rarely, other arsenates with anions like AsO3(OH)2− (also written HAsO42−) (example: pharmacolite Ca(AsO3OH).2H2O) or (very rarely) [AsO2(OH)2]− (example: andyrobertsite). Arsenite minerals are much less common.[1] Both the Dana[2] and the Strunz[3] mineral classifications place the arsenates in with the phosphate minerals. Example arsenate minerals include: ...
Shop The CYMA MOSFET Enhanced 8mm Gearbox is a high performance and high quality release from CYMA which has been proven by their release in the popular rifles. Need to replace your gearbox or just looking for something new to upgrade your old AEG? Look no further than the CYMA 8mm Gearbox. Features: ... , Internal Parts, Gearbox, M4 / M16 Series
TRIVENI INTERCHEM PVT. LTD. - Exporter, Manufacturer, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company of Chromated copper arsenate based in Vapi, India
ID A0KYP4_SHESA Unreviewed; 549 AA. AC A0KYP4; DT 12-DEC-2006, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 12-DEC-2006, sequence version 1. DT 07-JUN-2017, entry version 59. DE SubName: Full=Pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABK48913.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Shewana3_2686 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABK48913.1}; OS Shewanella sp. (strain ANA-3). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Alteromonadales; OC Shewanellaceae; Shewanella. OX NCBI_TaxID=94122 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABK48913.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002589}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002589} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ANA-3 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002589}; RA Copeland A., Lucas S., Lapidus A., Barry K., Detter J.C., RA Glavina del Rio T., Hammon N., Israni S., Dalin E., Tice H., RA Pitluck S., Chertkov O., Brettin T., Bruce D., Han C., Tapia R., RA Gilna P., Schmutz J., Larimer F., Land M., Hauser L., Kyrpides N., RA Kim E., Newman D., Salticov C., Konstantinidis K., Klappenback ...
Polyphysa peniculus growing in artificial seawater methylates arsenate to produce a dimethylarsenic derivative, probably dimethylarsinate. When L-methionine-methyl-d3 is added to the culture the CD3 label is incorporated intact in the dimethylarsenic compound to a considerable extent, indicating that S-adenosylmethionine, or some related sulphonium compound, is involved in the biological methylation. Conclusive evidence of the CD3 incorporation was provided by using a specially developed hydride generation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology.. ...
LEE VINING, Mono Co. - After Id managed to descend the steepest part of the 9,945-foot Tioga Pass, loosened fingers that had been cramped tightly around the steering wheel, and quit peering nervously at the yawning abyss on my right, I became aware of a mighty blue-green sweep of salty water before me. [...] several thousand feet above it, I could appreciate its lonely setting, a sharp contrast with the alpine lakes surrounded by meadows and forests that Id just left behind in Yosemite National Park. Besides water, it contains copious amounts of salts, detergents and baking soda. Years of court battles had persuaded the city fathers and mothers of perpetually thirsty Los Angeles to stop, after half a century, from diverting four of five streams that pour down the same slopes on which my elderly car now soared toward the shores of Mono Lake. After checking in at a surprisingly busy motel, grateful Id made reservations, I walked north a few doors to the headquarters of the Mono Lake Committee to
John, I cant tell you how inspired I am by your gallery - it is breathtaking in its originality, beauty and mood. What youve done here is captured a very, very special aspect of Mono Lake which few others have obtained. Your use of shooting into the light here is so effectively done in this gallery...your vision here is wonderfully refreshing. Who needs the sun when so much can be done in the twilight! Thank you for sharing ...
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Olivenite Group. Structurally distinct, intermediate member of the solid solution series between Olivenite and Adamite with a Zn:Cu ratio of (ideally) ...
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In molecular biology, the ars operon is an operon found in several bacterial taxon. It is required for the detoxification of arsenate, arsenite, and antimonite. This system transports arsenite and antimonite out of the cell. The pump is composed of two polypeptides, the products of the arsA and arsB genes. This two-subunit enzyme produces resistance to arsenite and antimonite. Arsenate, however, must first be reduced to arsenite before it is extruded. A third gene, arsC, expands the substrate specificity to allow for arsenate pumping and resistance. ArsC is an approximately 150-residue arsenate reductase that uses reduced glutathione (GSH) to convert arsenate to arsenite with a redox active cysteine residue in the active site. ArsC forms an active quaternary complex with GSH, arsenate, and glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1). The three ligands must be present simultaneously for reduction to occur. ArsA and ArsB form an anion-translocating ATPase. The ArsB protein is distinguished by its overall hydrophobic ...
Mesoporous pellet adsorbent developed from mixing at an appropriate ratio of natural clay, iron oxide, iron powder, and rice bran was used to investigate the optimization process of batch adsorption parameters for treating aqueous solution coexisting with arsenate and arsenite. Central composite design under response surface methodology was applied for optimizing and observing both individual and interactive effects of four main influential adsorption factors such as contact time (24-72 h), initial solution pH (3-11), adsorbent dosage (0-20 g/L) and initial adsorbate concentration (0.25-4.25 mg/L). Analysis of variance suggested that experimental data were better fitted by the quadratic model with the values of regression coefficient and adjusted regression coefficient higher than 95%. The model accuracy was supported by the correlation plot of actual and predicted adsorption efficiency data and the residual plots. The Pareto analysis suggested that initial solution pH, initial adsorbate concentration,
Concurrent occurrence of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative in aquatic ecosystems demands that their joint-actions in eliciting toxic effects be assessed for adequate understanding of the health risk they may pose to biota. Clarias gariepinus was exposed to As2O3 , CrO3 and CuO and their composite mixtures (1:1
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increasing the arsenate adsorption capacity of neutralized red mud (Bauxsol). AU - Genc Fuhrman, Hülya. AU - Tjell, Jens Christian. AU - McConchie, D.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. M3 - Journal article. VL - 271. SP - 313. EP - 320. JO - Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. JF - Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. SN - 0021-9797. ER - ...
Scientists have found a microbe in Mono Lake, California, that uses arsenic as a fundamental building block, changing the definition of life as we know it and the search for extraterrestrial life.
Scientists at the Harvard Smithsonian centre for Astrophysics say that have isolated arsenic tolerant bacteria from mono lake an ancient alkaline lake in California. They were fed arsenic instead of phosphorous an element essential for life and they gradually replaced the phosphorous with arsenic atoms. This, say scientists, will change the way we view adaptability of life forms.
LEBANON, Ohio (AP) - A 5-year-old Ohio boy with cerebral palsy became wedged between furniture and suffocated to death while playing at his …
We report the isolation of a pinnacle-forming cyanobacterium isolated from a microbial mat covering the sediment surface at Little Salt Spring-a flooded sinkhole in Florida with a perennially microoxic and sulfidic water column. The draft genome of the isolate encodes all of the enzymatic machinery necessary for both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis, as well as genes for methylating hopanoids at the C-2 position. The physiological response of the isolate to H2S is complex: (i) no induction time is necessary for anoxygenic photosynthesis; (ii) rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are regulated by both H2S and irradiance; (iii) O2 production is inhibited by H2S concentrations as low as 1 μM and the recovery rate of oxygenic photosynthesis is dependent on irradiance; (iv) under the optimal light conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis, rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are nearly double those of oxygenic photosynthesis ...
Pueraria tuberose Linn. is an inexpensive and efficient source to provide all the required nutrients and medicinal benefits for a healthy and rejuvenating body. The present investigation has been undertaken to evaluate the role of Pueraria tuberosa Linn. in modifying the sodium arsenate induced biochemical alterations in albino rats. Administration of sodium arsenate in rats induces oxidative stress, which leads to the generation of free radicals in the body. These free radicals interact with tissue leading to tissue damage i.e, kidney damage. Animals were divided into 6 groups, Group I (control group) rats were treated with normal saline (1mg/kg), Group II ( Positive Control) rats were treated with sodium arsenate (1mg/kg).Group III rats were treated with sodium arsenate (1mg/kg) and Vitamin E (100 mg/kg).Group IV rats were treated with sodium arsenate (1mg/kg) and Pueraria tuberosa linn. extract (50 mg/kg), Group V rats were treated with sodium arsenate (1mg/kg) and Pueraria tuberosa linn.
using it instead of phosphorus in their biochemistry. To determine this, Dr. Wolfe-Simon took samples of the microbes, adding more and more arsenic while decreasing the amount of phosphorus in their environment to essentially zero. This would kill almost everything known to man, yet these little critters thrived. Even weirder, the bacteria were able to survive when either the phosphorus or the arsenic was reduced, but not both. So somehow, its able to use both of these elements as needed to survive.. Amazingly, using radioisotope-tagged molecules containing arsenic, they were able to find that the microbes incorporated the arsenic into their very DNA! Its hard to stress how shocking this is; as I understand it, saying something like that to a microbiologist without evidence wouldve had them slowly backing away from you and looking for weapons or an escape route.. That is seriously freaky. So what does this mean in the scale of things?. For one thing, it means that life, as Jeff Goldblum so ...
Founded in 2007, Jiangxi Qianhua Industry Co., Ltd. is a specialized production and trade enterprise. Now, we are mainly engaged in the research and manufacturing of fine chemicals.
The article explains why it was that standards of proof that were acceptable to different degrees to geologists, physicists and biologists were unacceptable to chemists. The answer pertains to what we call "background knowledge". In this case, chemists were compelled to ask how DNA with arsenic replacing phosphorus in its backbone could possibly be stable given everything they knew about the instability of arsenate esters. The latter had been studied for several decades, and while arsenic DNA itself had not been synthesized before, simpler arsenate esters were known to be highly unstable in water. The chemists were quite confident in extrapolating from these simple cases to questioning the stable existence of arsenic DNA; if arsenic DNA indeed were so stable, then almost everything they had known about arsenate esters for fifty years would have been wrong, a possibility that was highly unlikely. Thus for chemists, arsenic DNA was an extraordinary claim. And as Carl Sagan said, they needed to see ...
The befitting capping capabilities of AsO43− provide a stable Cu2O nanocatalyst from a galvanic reaction between a Cu(ii) precursor salt and As(0) nanoparticles. This stable Cu2O hydrosol appears to be a suitable catalyst for the one-electron transfer reversible redox reaction between Eosin Y and NaBH4. The
TY - JOUR. T1 - The importance of glutathione and phytochelatins on the selenite and arsenate detoxification in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Aborode, Fatai Adigun. AU - Raab, Andrea. AU - Voigt, Matthias. AU - Costa, Leticia Malta. AU - Krupp, Eva M. AU - Feldmann, Joerg. N1 - This study was supported by the Tesla Research Funds. L.M.C. thanks CNPq (201969/2010-6) for her research visit to Aberdeen and M.V. thanks the European Erasmus Exchange programme. PY - 2016/11. Y1 - 2016/11. N2 - We investigated the role of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) on the detoxification of selenite using Arabidopsis thaliana. The wild-type (WT) of Arabidopsis thaliana and its mutants (glutathione deficient Cad 2-1 and phytochelatins deficient Cad 1-3) were separately exposed to varying concentrations of selenite and arsenate and jointly to both toxicants to determine their sensitivities. The results of the study revealed that, the mutants were about 20-fold more sensitive to arsenate than the WT, an ...
Historically, Mono Lake contained numerous types of wetland habitats to support the large numbers of migratory waterfowl that used the lake.Today the wetland habitats of the pre-diversion days have declined or changed because declining water levels have caused the degradation and loss of large areas of wetlands.It is estimated that before the diversions began, lagoons, fresh water marshes, and creek deltas accounted for approximately 900 acres of wetland habitat.This estimate does not include the speculative one mile long lagoon at Simmons Point. The diversions that began in 1941 did not have an immediate impact on the vegetation and habitats of Mono Lake.The first noticeable effect of the diversions occurred when the lake level fell below 6,405 feet above sea level.When the lake fell below this level, the large lagoons that were on the northeastern shore of the lake disappeared. The level below 6,405 was reached in 1957 or 16 years after the diversions began. Throughout the 1960 s as the lake ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A1RK89 (MINC_SHESW), Probable septum site-determining protein MinC. Shewanella sp (strain W3-18-1)
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A1RK88 (Y2259_SHESW), YcgL domain-containing protein Sputw3181_2259. Shewanella sp (strain W3-18-1)
Development of KTiOAsO4 and isostructural arsenates as new electrooptic materials. This involves (a) the growth of crystals of suitable size and quality for research, (b) investigation of their structural, optical and physical properties: the establishment of structure/property relationships, (c) development of waveguide fabrication methods in KTiOAsO4, (d) investigation of crystal twinning and poling methods for its elimination. ...
To further characterized the Drosophila bioassay as a screen to detect developmental toxicants, sodium arsenate heptahyrdrate (SAH; CAS 7631-89-2), a documented animal teratogen and developmental toxicant, was evaluated. SAH concentrations ranging from 263-1528 ug/vial were investigated in a series of three experiments using our published protocol (Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 11
Connective tissue diseases are characterized by typical autoantibody profiles, all detectable with SeraSpot® ANA-12 IgG.. Principle of the test:. SeraSpot® ANA-12 IgG is a solid phase immunoassay based on the use of recombinant or purified native proteins / protein complexes and dsDNA as capture antigens printed in array arrangement (microspot array) on the bottom of the wells of 96-well microtiter plates. The antigens serve as capture molecules for autoantibodies to nuclear antigens (ANA). Bound antibodies are detected by Horseradish Peroxidase-(HRP)-labeled antibodies against human antibodies of IgG-type by substrate reaction with hydrogen peroxide and 3,3,5,5-Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). At the site of formed immune complexes blue spots are developed by precipitated product from colorless substrate solution. Color intensity is correlated to the antibody concentration. Pale blue to dark blue spots are visible by eye.. Art. No.:. ...
Catalyzes the reductive methylation of 2-deoxyuridine-5-monophosphate (dUMP) to 2-deoxythymidine-5-monophosphate (dTMP) while utilizing 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (mTHF) as the methyl donor and reductant in the reaction, yielding dihydrofolate (DHF) as a by-product. This enzymatic reaction provides an intracellular de novo source of dTMP, an essential precursor for DNA biosynthesis.
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II. Cacodylate Buffer (arsenate buffer) pH 5-7.4. Advantages:. 1. Easy to prepare.. 2. Stable during storage for long periods of time.. 3. Does not support growth of microorganisms.. 4. Precipitates usually do not occur. Precipitates do not occur at low concentrations of calcium.. Disadvantages:. 1. Toxic. Contains arsenic.. 2. Unpleasant smell.. Preparation of Buffer:. Stock solutions:. 0.2M sodium cacodylate 1 liter. Na(CH3)2As02*3H20 (MW = 195.92) 42.8 gm. + ddH20 to make 1 liter. 0.2M HC1. Conc. HC1 (36-38%) 10 ml. ddH20 603 ml. Working buffer: 0.1M 100 ml. Adjust 50 ml of 0.2M sodium cacodylate to desired pH with 0.2M HC1. Dilute to 100 ml with ddH20 or dilute 1:1 with fixative.. pH 0.2M HC1 (ml). 6.4 18.3. 6.6 13.3. 6.8 9.3. 7.0 6.3. 7.2 4.2. 7.4 2.7. Buffer may also be made with cacodylic acid.. Stock solutions:. 0.2M cacodylic acid 1 liter. (CH3)2AsO2H (MW = 138.0) 27.6 gm. + ddH20 to make 1 liter. 0.2M NaOH 100 ml. NaOH (MW = 40) 0.8 gm. + ddH20 to make 100 ml. Working buffer: ...
Phosphate minerals WikipediaPhosphate minerals are those minerals that contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate (PO43−) anion along with the freely substituting arsenate (As
"The respiratory arsenate reductase fromBacillus selenitireducensstrain MLS10". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 226 (1): 107-112. doi ...
"Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 382 (2): 298- ...
The enzymes involved are known as arsenate reductases. In 2008, bacteria were discovered that employ a version of ... IUPAC have recommended that arsenite compounds are to be named as arsenate(III), for example ortho-arsenatite is called ... Some species of bacteria obtain their energy by oxidizing various fuels while reducing arsenates to form arsenites. ... researchers conjectured that historically these photosynthesizing organisms produced the arsenates that allowed the arsenate- ...
"Arsenate reductase, mycothiol, and mycoredoxin concert thiol/disulfide exchange". J. Biol. Chem. 284: 15107-15116. doi:10.1074/ ... mycothiol-mycoredoxin disulfide Reduction of arsenate is part of a defense mechanism of the cell against toxic arsenate. ...
ArsC is an approximately 150-residue arsenate reductase that uses reduced glutathione (GSH) to convert arsenate to arsenite ... Liu J, Rosen BP (August 1997). "Ligand interactions of the ArsC arsenate reductase". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (34): 21084-9. doi: ... and mechanism of ArsC arsenate reductase, a novel arsenic detoxification enzyme". Structure. 9 (11): 1071-81. doi:10.1016/S0969 ... Arsenate, however, must first be reduced to arsenite before it is extruded. A third gene, arsC, expands the substrate ...
Localization of the dissimilatory arsenate reductase in Sulfurospirillum Barnesi strain SeS-3. Am. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 7: 97- ...
5] Gui-Lan Duan, Yong-Guan Zhu, Yi-Ping Tong, Chao Cai et Ralf Kneer Characterization of Arsenate Reductase in the Extract of ... Plant Physiology 138:461-469 (2005). Acr2p, un arsenate reductase de la levure de bière (Saccharomyces c.), utilise le ...
... has an arsenate reductase, Acr2p, that uses glutathione as the electron donor. Pteris vittata has an arsenate reductase with ... Gui-Lan Duan; Y.-G. Zhu; Y.-P. Tong; C. Cai; R. Kneer (2005). "Characterization of Arsenate Reductase in the Extract of Roots ... No P for 8 days increases the arsenate's maximum net influx by 2.5-fold; the plants then absorbs 10 times more arsenate than ... More arsenate decreases the P concentration in the roots, but not in the fronds. P in the uptake solution markedly decreases ...
Guo X, Li Y, Peng K, Hu Y, Li C, Xia B, Jin C (Nov 2005). "Solution structures and backbone dynamics of arsenate reductase from ... Bacillus subtilis: reversible conformational switch associated with arsenate reduction". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
... sphaericus strain CBAM5 showed resistance to 200 mM of arsenic which may be explained by the presence of the arsenate reductase ...
... respiratory arsenate reductase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase. Prosthetic group of: formate dehydrogenase, ... Molydopterin is a: Cofactor of: xanthine oxidase, DMSO reductase, sulfite oxidase, nitrate reductase, ethylbenzene ... Enzymes that contain the molybdopterin cofactor include xanthine oxidase, DMSO reductase, sulfite oxidase, and nitrate ... DMSO reductase, the metal is bound to two molybdopterin cofactors. Models for the active sites of enzymes molybdopterin- ...
These genes include a putative arsenite efflux pump and an arsenate reductase, as well as genes similar to those found in ...
The enzymes involved are known as arsenate reductases. In 2008, bacteria were discovered that employ a version of ... The arsenate ion is AsO3− 4. An arsenate (compound) is any compound that contains this ion. Arsenates are salts or esters of ... Arsenates are moderate oxidizers, with an electrode potential of +0.56 V for reduction to arsenites. Arsenates occur naturally ... The arsenic atom in arsenate has a valency of 5 and is also known as pentavalent arsenic or As(V). Arsenate resembles phosphate ...
... reductase". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 12 (12): 1278-1283. doi:10.1021/tx9901231. PMID 10604879. Zakharyan, R.A.; Ayala-Fierro, F.; ... dimethylarsinate An enzyme of the biotransformation pathway that forms dimethylarsinate from inorganic arsenite and arsenate. ...
"Arsenate reductase, mycothiol, and mycoredoxin concert thiol/disulfide exchange". J. Biol. Chem. 284: 15107-15116. doi:10.1074/ ... Arsenate-mycothiol transferase (EC 2.8.4.2, ArsC1, ArsC2, mycothiol:arsenate transferase) is an enzyme with systematic name ... H2O Reduction of arsenate is part of a defence mechanism of the cell against toxic arsenate. Ordonez, E.; Van Belle, K.; Roos, ... Arsenate-mycothiol transferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ...
... derive their energy from reducing arsenate (As(+5)) to arsenite (As(+3)) via arsenate reductase ... a membrane-bound or periplasmic respiratory arsenate reductase and a cytoplasmic arsenate reductase. The anaerobic respiratory ... It appears that arsenate reduction by the Desulfovibrio strain Ben-RA is catalyzed by an arsenate reductase that is encoded by ... Arsenate-reducing bacteria are bacteria which reduce arsenates. Arsenate-reducing bacteria are ubiquitous in arsenic- ...
... (EC 1.20.4.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arsenate + glutaredoxin ⇌ {\ ... reduction of arsenate to arsenite by human liver arsenate reductase". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 13 (1): 26-30. doi:10.1021/tx990115k ... Gladysheva T, Liu J, Rosen BP (1996). "His-8 lowers the pKa of the essential Cys-12 residue of the ArsC arsenate reductase of ... Silver S; Garber, Eric A. E.; Armes, L. Gene; Chen, Chih-Ming; Fuchs, James A.; Silver, Simon (1994). "Arsenate reductase of ...
... (EC 1.20.9.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arsenite + H2O + 2 azurinox ⇌ {\ ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } arsenate + 2 azurinred + 2 H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are arsenite, water, and ... oxidised azurin, whereas its 3 products are arsenate, reduced azurin, and hydrogen ion. This enzyme belongs to the family of ...
... arsenate + 2 reduced cytochrome c + 2 H+ Arsenate reductase is a molybdoprotein isolated from alpha-proteobacteria that ... Arsenate reductase (cytochrome c) (EC 1.20.2.1, arsenite oxidase) is an enzyme with systematic name arsenite:cytochrome c ... Arsenate reductase (cytochrome c) at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ...
... significant Glutathione Reductase inhibition by sodium arsenate has only been at 10 mg/kg/day. Glutathione reductase is also ... In vitro, glutathione reductase is inhibited by low concentrations of sodium arsenite and methylated arsenate metabolites, but ... Glutathione reductase (GR) also known as glutathione-disulfide reductase (GSR) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... In particular, glutathione reductase appears to be a good target for anti-malarials, as the glutathione reductase of the ...
... reduction of arsenate to arsenite by human liver arsenate reductase". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 13 (1): 26-30. doi:10.1021/tx990115k ... Arsenate reductase (donor) (EC 1.20.99.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arsenite + acceptor ⇌ {\ ... Krafft T, Macy JM (1998). "Purification and characterization of the respiratory arsenate reductase of Chrysiogenes arsenatis". ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is arsenate:acceptor oxidoreductase. This enzyme is also called arsenate:(acceptor) ...
DMSO reductase. Category:EC 1.1 (act on the CH-OH group of donors)Edit. *Category:EC 1.1.1 (with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor) * ... Arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) EC 1.20.4.1. *Glutaredoxin. *Category:EC 1.20.9. *Category:EC 1.20.99 ...
... by the enzymes nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, nitric oxide reductase, and nitrous oxide reductase, respectively. Protons ... Arsenate (AsO3− 4) reduction to arsenite (AsO3− 3) Uranyl ion ion (UO2+ 2) reduction to uranium dioxide (UO 2) A number of ... The APS is then reduced by the enzyme APS reductase to form sulfite (SO2− 3) and AMP. In organisms that use carbon compounds as ... Some organisms (e.g. E. coli) only produce nitrate reductase and therefore can accomplish only the first reduction leading to ...
... diphosphate-arsenate from ADP and arsenate in presence of succinate. Thus, by a variety of mechanisms arsenate leads to an ... Arsenite inhibits members of the disulfide oxidoreductase family like glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase. The ... Arsenate can replace phosphate in many reactions. It is able to form Glc-6-Arsenate in vitro; therefore it has been argued that ... March 2005). "Glutathione reductase inhibition and methylated arsenic distribution in Cd1 mice brain and liver". Toxicological ...
The replacement of phosphate by arsenate is initiated when arsenate reacts with glucose and gluconate in vitro. This reaction ... glutathione reductase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and thioredoxin reductase. Arsenic is a cause of mortality throughout the world ... "Absence of Detectable Arsenate in DNA from Arsenate-Grown GFAJ-1 Cells". Science. 337 (6093): 470-3. arXiv:1201.6643 . Bibcode: ... Although phosphate and arsenate are structurally similar, there is no evidence that arsenic replaces phosphorus in DNA or RNA. ...
"Absence of Detectable Arsenate in DNA from Arsenate-Grown GFAJ-1 Cells". Science. 337 (6093): 470-3. arXiv:1201.6643. Bibcode: ... "Arsenicals inhibit thioredoxin reductase in cultured rat hepatocytes". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14 (3): 305-11. doi:10.1021/ ... The replacement of phosphate by arsenate is initiated when arsenate reacts with glucose and gluconate in vitro.[40] This ... Although phosphate and arsenate are structurally similar, there is no evidence that arsenic replaces phosphorus in DNA or RNA.[ ...
Arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) (EC 1.20.4.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arsenate + glutaredoxin ⇌ {\ ... reduction of arsenate to arsenite by human liver arsenate reductase". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 13 (1): 26-30. doi:10.1021/tx990115k ... Gladysheva T, Liu J, Rosen BP (1996). "His-8 lowers the pKa of the essential Cys-12 residue of the ArsC arsenate reductase of ... Silver S; Garber, Eric A. E.; Armes, L. Gene; Chen, Chih-Ming; Fuchs, James A.; Silver, Simon (1994). "Arsenate reductase of ...
Arsenate reductase (azurin) (EC 1.20.9.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arsenite + H2O + 2 azurinox ⇌ {\ ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } arsenate + 2 azurinred + 2 H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are arsenite, water, and ... oxidised azurin, whereas its 3 products are arsenate, reduced azurin, and hydrogen ion. This enzyme belongs to the family of ...
... arsenate + 2 reduced cytochrome c + 2 H+ Arsenate reductase is a molybdoprotein isolated from alpha-proteobacteria that ... Arsenate reductase (cytochrome c) (EC 1.20.2.1, arsenite oxidase) is an enzyme with systematic name arsenite:cytochrome c ... Arsenate reductase (cytochrome c) at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ...
... reduction of arsenate to arsenite by human liver arsenate reductase". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 13 (1): 26-30. doi:10.1021/tx990115k ... Arsenate reductase (donor) (EC 1.20.99.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arsenite + acceptor ⇌ {\ ... Krafft T, Macy JM (1998). "Purification and characterization of the respiratory arsenate reductase of Chrysiogenes arsenatis". ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is arsenate:acceptor oxidoreductase. This enzyme is also called arsenate:(acceptor) ...
Structural and mechanistic analysis of the arsenate respiratory reductase provides insight into environmental arsenic ... Structural and mechanistic analysis of the arsenate respiratory reductase provides insight into environmental arsenic ... Structural and mechanistic analysis of the arsenate respiratory reductase provides insight into environmental arsenic ... Structural and mechanistic analysis of the arsenate respiratory reductase provides insight into environmental arsenic ...
Arsenate reductaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ... tr,I0B8K4,I0B8K4_9BACI Arsenate reductase (Fragment) OS=uncultured Bacillus sp. OX=83428 GN=arsC PE=3 SV=1 ...
Ive some proteins which have molecular weight in range of phytochelatin synthase and Arsenate reductase.Is there any known ... Antibody for Phytochelatin synthase or Arsenate reductase. Discussion of all aspects of biological molecules, biochemical ...
IPR006659 Arsenate_reductase. IPR006660 Arsenate_reductase-like. IPR036249 Thioredoxin-like_sf. Pfami. View protein in Pfam. ... tr,A0A427LFT4,A0A427LFT4_9GAMM Arsenate reductase OS=Acinetobacter variabilis OX=70346 GN=arsC PE=3 SV=1 ... IPR006659 Arsenate_reductase. IPR006660 Arsenate_reductase-like. IPR036249 Thioredoxin-like_sf. Pfam protein domain database ...
Arsenate Reductase+0.4M Arsenite From E. Coli ... Arsenic in the structure of Arsenate Reductase+0.4M Arsenite ... The binding sites of Arsenic atom in the structure of Arsenate Reductase+0.4M Arsenite From E. Coli (pdb code 1j9b). This ...
The Crystal Structure of A Possible Arsenate Reductase From Streptococcus Mutans UA159 ... Sodium in the structure of The Crystal Structure of A Possible Arsenate Reductase From Streptococcus Mutans UA159 (pdb 3fz4). ... The binding sites of Sodium atom in the structure of The Crystal Structure of A Possible Arsenate Reductase From Streptococcus ...
Arsenate reductase gene; Arsenic-dependent growth; Horizontal gene transfer (HGT); Operon; Tetrathionate ... After subjecting strain As3-1 to medium containing arsenate (AsV), AsV reduction occurred and an AsV-enhanced bacterial growth ... Polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic analysis showed that strain As3-1 harbored a typical AsV reductase gene (arsC) on ...
Cluster: Arsenate reductase. 4. A0A009E034. A0A2K8UT59. A0A427LFT4. N8PZE0. Acinetobacter baumannii 348935. Acinetobacter ...
Arsenate reductases. Protein crystallography. Interleukin-22. Laminarinase. Protein tyrosine phosphatases. Statistical coupling ... It was also possible to present a method to distinguish between low molecular weight phosphatases and arsenate reductases, ...
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The Escherichia coli arsC gene encodes arsenate reductase (ArsC), which catalyzes the glutathione (GSH)-coupled electrochemical ... The Escherichia coli arsC gene encodes arsenate reductase (ArsC), which catalyzes the glutathione (GSH)-coupled electrochemical ... The Escherichia coli arsC gene encodes arsenate reductase (ArsC), which catalyzes the glutathione (GSH)-coupled electrochemical ... The Escherichia coli arsC gene encodes arsenate reductase (ArsC), which catalyzes the glutathione (GSH)-coupled electrochemical ...
arsenate reductase (azurin);. arsenite oxidase (ambiguous). Class. Oxidoreductases;. Acting on phosphorus or arsenic in donors; ... arsenite + H2O + 2 oxidized azurin = arsenate + 2 reduced azurin + 2 H+ [RN:R05751]. ...
Dissimilatory arsenate reductase activity and arsenate-respiring bacteria in bovine rumen fluid, hamster feces, and the termite ... The respiratory arsenate reductase from Bacillus selenitireducens strain MLS10.. Afkar E, Lisak J, Saltikov C, Basu P, Oremland ... Respiratory Selenite Reductase from Bacillus selenitireducens Strain MLS10.. Wells M, McGarry J, Gaye MM, Basu P, Oremland RS, ... Dissimilatory arsenate reduction with sulfide as electron donor: experiments with mono lake water and Isolation of strain MLMS- ...
"What this means is that wherever we find arsenite, we can expect to find microbes with arsenate reductase genes and vice versa ... The new primer - a short strand of DNA that targets the arsenate reductase gene - helps researchers identify which bacteria in ... Of interest are the bacteria species equipped with arsenate reductase genes. The genes enable bacteria to transform naturally ... new primer successfully amplified the reductase genes and made it possible for his team to see a broad diversity of arsenate- ...
Different transporters have been reported in assisting the accumulation of arsenic in plant cells; for example, arsenate (AsV) ... Shi, S.; Wang, T.; Chen, Z.; Tang, Z.; Wu, Z.; Salt, D.E. OsHAC1; 1 and OsHAC1; 2 function as arsenate reductases and regulate ... Researchers have identified different arsenate reductases in rice, like, OsHAC1;1, OsHAC1;2, [56], and OsHAC4 [57], which ... OsPT1 mediates arsenate transport from root to shoot [40]. Whereas, OsPT8 is a key transporter protein for arsenate uptake into ...
Saltikov, C. W., and Newman, D. K. (2003). Genetic identification of a respiratory arsenate reductase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U ... Li, X., and Krumholz, L. R. (2007). Regulation of arsenate resistance in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 by an arsRBCC operon ... Macy, J. M., Santini, J. M., Pauling, B. V., ONeill, A. H., and Sly, L. I. (2000). Two new arsenate/sulfate-reducing bacteria ... Lear, G., Song, B., Gault, A. G., Polya, D. A., and Lloyd, J. R. (2007). Molecular analysis of arsenate-reducing bacteria ...
"The respiratory arsenate reductase fromBacillus selenitireducensstrain MLS10". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 226 (1): 107-112. doi ...
"Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 382 (2): 298- ...
Hyperaccumulation of arsenic in the shoots of Arabidopsis silenced for arsenate reductase (ACR2). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103, ... Engineering tolerance and hyperaccumulation of arsenic in plants by combining arsenate reductase and gamma-glutamylcysteine ... Increased cadmium tolerance and accumulation by plants expressing bacterial arsenate reductase. New Phytologist 159, 431-441. ...
2002. Dissimilatory arsenate reductase activity and arsenate-respiring bacteria in bovine rumen fluid, hamster feces, and the ... Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 382: 298 - 302. ... 2003. The respiratory arsenate reductase from Bacillus selenitireducens strain MLS10. FEMS Microbiology Lett. 226: 107 - 112. ... 127. Hoeft, S.E., T.R. Kulp, J.F. Stolz, J.T. Hollibaugh, and R.S. Oremland. 2004. Dissimilatory arsenate reduction with ...
The enzymes involved are known as arsenate reductases. In 2008, bacteria were discovered that employ a version of ... The arsenate ion is AsO3− 4. An arsenate (compound) is any compound that contains this ion. Arsenates are salts or esters of ... Arsenates are moderate oxidizers, with an electrode potential of +0.56 V for reduction to arsenites. Arsenates occur naturally ... The arsenic atom in arsenate has a valency of 5 and is also known as pentavalent arsenic or As(V). Arsenate resembles phosphate ...
  • We also obtained structures bound with the substrate arsenate (1.8 Å), the product arsenite (1.8 Å), and the natural inhibitor phosphate (1.7 Å). (pnas.org)
  • for example, arsenate (As V ) is absorbed with the help of phosphate transporters, and arsenite (As III ) through nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) by the silicon transport pathway and plasma membrane intrinsic protein aquaporins. (mdpi.com)
  • In Escherichia coli and other bacteria, arsenate [As(V)] is taken up by phosphate transport systems such as the ATP-coupled Pst pump ( 52 ), a member of the ABC superfamily of transport ATPases (Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Our study ( 1 ) described the ability of a known microbe, a member of the Gammaproteobacteria (strain GFAJ-1), to survive and grow in the presence of 40 mM arsenate (As) when cultured without deliberately added phosphate (P). We hypothesized that GFAJ-1 incorporates As into biomolecules in place of P, based on evidence ranging from mass spectrometry and x-ray spectroscopy to classical techniques in microbiology. (sciencemag.org)
  • Arsenate can replace inorganic phosphate in the step of glycolysis that produces 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The findings suggest that the bacteria may partially incorporate arsenate in place of phosphate in some biomolecules, including DNA, However, these claims were immediately debated and critiqued in correspondence to the original journal of publication, and have since come to be widely disbelieved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Category:Arsenates Mineralienatlas - Mineralklasse Phosphate, Arsenate, Vanadate. (wikipedia.org)
  • GFAJ-1 Is an Arsenate-Resistant, Phosphate-Dependent Organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • 18 days' hydroponic experiment with varying concentrations of arsenate and P. Within 8 h, 50% to 78% of the As taken up is distributed to the fronds, which take from 1.3 to 6.7 times more As than the roots do. (wikipedia.org)
  • After subjecting strain As3-1 to medium containing arsenate (AsV), AsV reduction occurred and an AsV-enhanced bacterial growth was observed. (nih.gov)
  • Arsenate can also inhibit pyruvate conversion into acetyl-CoA, thereby blocking the TCA cycle, resulting in additional loss of ATP. (wikipedia.org)