Oxidoreductases that specifically reduce arsenate ion to arsenite ion. Reduction of arsenate is a critical step for its biotransformation into a form that can be transported by ARSENITE TRANSPORTING ATPASES or complexed by specific sulfhydryl-containing proteins for the purpose of detoxification (METABOLIC DETOXIFICATION, DRUG). Arsenate reductases require reducing equivalents such as GLUTAREDOXIN or AZURIN.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
Efflux pumps that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump arsenite across a membrane. They are primarily found in prokaryotic organisms, where they play a role in protection against excess intracellular levels of arsenite ions.
A plant genus of the family PTERIDACEAE. Members contain entkaurane DITERPENES. The name is similar to bracken fern (PTERIDIUM).
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.
A family of thioltransferases that contain two active site CYSTEINE residues, which either form a disulfide (oxidized form) or a dithiol (reduced form). They function as an electron carrier in the GLUTHIONE-dependent synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides by RIBONUCLEOTIDE REDUCTASES and may play a role in the deglutathionylation of protein thiols. The oxidized forms of glutaredoxins are directly reduced by the GLUTATHIONE.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A FLAVOPROTEIN oxidoreductase that occurs both as a soluble enzyme and a membrane-bound enzyme due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of a single mRNA. The soluble form is present mainly in ERYTHROCYTES and is involved in the reduction of METHEMOGLOBIN. The membrane-bound form of the enzyme is found primarily in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and outer mitochondrial membrane, where it participates in the desaturation of FATTY ACIDS; CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis and drug metabolism. A deficiency in the enzyme can result in METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.
An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.
A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.
A species of ANABAENA that can form SPORES called akinetes.
A genus (and common name) in the AGAVACEAE family. It is known for SAPONINS in the root that are used in SOAPS.
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
Reproductive sterilization without the consent of the patient.
Facilities in which WARFARE or political prisoners are confined.

Studies on the ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase subfamily of the nudix hydrolases and tentative identification of trgB, a gene associated with tellurite resistance. (1/35)

Four Nudix hydrolase genes, ysa1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, orf209 from Escherichia coli, yqkg from Bacillus subtilis, and hi0398 from Hemophilus influenzae were amplified, cloned into an expression vector, and transformed into E. coli. The expressed proteins were purified and shown to belong to a subfamily of Nudix hydrolases active on ADP-ribose. Comparison with other members of the subfamily revealed a conserved proline 16 amino acid residues downstream of the Nudix box, common to all of the ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase subfamily. In this same region, a conserved tyrosine designates another subfamily, the diadenosine polyphosphate pyrophosphatases, while an array of eight conserved amino acids is indicative of the NADH pyrophosphatases. On the basis of these classifications, the trgB gene, a tellurite resistance factor from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, was predicted to designate an ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase. In support of this hypothesis, a highly specific ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase gene from the archaebacterium, Methanococcus jannaschii, introduced into E. coli, increased the transformant's tolerance to potassium tellurite.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of ACR2p, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae arsenate reductase. (2/35)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of the ACR2 and ACR3 genes confers arsenical resistance. Acr2p is the first identified eukaryotic arsenate reductase. It reduces arsenate to arsenite, which is then extruded from cells by Acr3p. In this study, we demonstrate that ACR2 complemented the arsenate-sensitive phenotype of an arsC deletion in Escherichia coli. ACR2 was cloned into a bacterial expression vector and expressed in E. coli as a C-terminally histidine-tagged protein that was purified by sequential metal chelate affinity and gel filtration chromatography. Acr2p purified as a homodimer of 34 kDa. The purified protein was shown to catalyze the reduction of arsenate to arsenite. Enzymatic activity as a function of arsenate concentration exhibited an apparent positive cooperativity with an apparent Hill coefficient of 2.7. Activity required GSH and glutaredoxin as the source of reducing equivalents. Thioredoxin was unable to support arsenate reduction. However, glutaredoxins from both S. cerevisiae and E. coli were able to serve as reductants. Analysis of grx mutants lacking one or both cysteine residues in the Cys-Pro-Tyr-Cys active site demonstrated that only the N-terminal cysteine residue is essential for arsenate reductase activity. This suggests that during the catalytic cycle, Acr2p forms a mixed disulfide with GSH before being reduced by glutaredoxin to regenerate the active Acr2p reductase.  (+info)

The phosphatase C(X)5R motif is required for catalytic activity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Acr2p arsenate reductase. (3/35)

Acr2p detoxifies arsenate by reduction to arsenite in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This reductase has been shown to require glutathione and glutaredoxin, suggesting that thiol chemistry might be involved in the reaction mechanism. Acr2p has a HC(X)(5)R motif, the signature sequence of the phosphate binding loop of the dual-specific and protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. In Acr2p these are residues His-75, Cys-76, and Arg-82, respectively. Acr2p has another sequence, (118)HCR, that is absent in phosphatases. Acr2p also has a third cysteine residue at position 106. Each of these cysteine residues was changed individually to serine residues, whereas the histidine and arginine residues were altered to alanines. Cells of Escherichia coli heterologously expressing the majority of the mutant ACR2 genes retained wild type resistance to arsenate, and the purified altered Acr2p proteins exhibited normal enzymatic properties. In contrast, cells expressing either the C76S or R82A mutations lost resistance to arsenate, and the purified proteins were inactive. These results suggest that Acr2p utilizes a phosphatase-like Cys(X)(5)Arg motif as the catalytic center to reduce arsenate to arsenite.  (+info)

Bacillus subtilis arsenate reductase is structurally and functionally similar to low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases. (4/35)

Arsenate is an abundant oxyanion that, because of its ability to mimic the phosphate group, is toxic to cells. Arsenate reductase (EC; encoded by the arsC gene in bacteria) participates to achieve arsenate resistance in both prokaryotes and yeast by reducing arsenate to arsenite; the arsenite is then exported by a specific transporter. The crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis arsenate reductase in the reduced form with a bound sulfate ion in its active site is solved at 1.6-A resolution. Significant structural similarity is seen between arsenate reductase and bovine low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase, despite very low sequence identity. The similarity is especially high between their active sites. It is further confirmed that this structural homology is relevant functionally by showing the phosphatase activity of the arsenate reductase in vitro. Thus, we can understand the arsenate reduction in the light of low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase mechanism and also explain the catalytic roles of essential residues such as Cys-10, Cys-82, Cys-89, Arg-16, and Asp-105. A "triple cysteine redox relay" is proposed for the arsenate reduction mechanism.  (+info)

Arsenate reductases in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (5/35)

The ubiquity of arsenic in the environment has led to the evolution of enzymes for arsenic detoxification. An initial step in arsenic metabolism is the enzymatic reduction of arsenate [As(V)] to arsenite [As(III)]. At least three families of arsenate reductase enzymes have arisen, apparently by convergent evolution. The properties of two of these are described here. The first is the prokaryotic ArsC arsenate reductase of Escherichia coli. The second, Acr2p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is the only identified eukaryotic arsenate reductase. Although unrelated to each other, both enzymes receive their reducing equivalents from glutaredoxin and reduced glutathione. The structure of the bacterial ArsC has been solved at 1.65 A. As predicted from its biochemical properties, ArsC structures with covalent enzyme-arsenic intermediates that include either As(V) or As(III) were observed. The yeast Acr2p has an active site motif HC(X)(5)R that is conserved in protein phosphotyrosine phosphatases and rhodanases, suggesting that these three groups of enzymes may have evolved from an ancestral oxyanion-binding protein.  (+info)

Directed evolution of a yeast arsenate reductase into a protein-tyrosine phosphatase. (6/35)

Arsenic, which is ubiquitous in the environment and comes from both geochemical and anthropogenic sources, has become a worldwide public health problem. Every organism studied has intrinsic or acquired mechanisms for arsenic detoxification. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae arsenate is detoxified by Acr2p, an arsenate reductase. Acr2p is not a phosphatase but is a homologue of CDC25 phosphatases. It has the HCX5R phosphatase motif but not the glycine-rich phosphate binding motif (GXGXXG) that is found in protein-tyrosine phosphatases. Here we show that creation of a phosphate binding motif through the introduction of glycines at positions 79, 81, and 84 in Acr2p resulted in a gain of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity and a loss of arsenate reductase activity. Arsenate likely achieved geochemical abundance only after the atmosphere became oxidizing, creating pressure for the evolution of an arsenate reductase from a protein-tyrosine phosphatase. The ease by which an arsenate reductase can be converted into a protein-tyrosine phosphatase supports this hypothesis.  (+info)

An arsenate reductase from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 exhibits a novel combination of catalytic characteristics. (7/35)

The deduced protein product of open reading frame slr0946 from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, SynArsC, contains the conserved sequence features of the enzyme superfamily that includes the low-molecular-weight protein-tyrosine phosphatases and the Staphylococcus aureus pI258 ArsC arsenate reductase. The recombinant protein product of slr0946, rSynArsC, exhibited vigorous arsenate reductase activity (V(max) = 3.1 micro mol/min. mg), as well as weak phosphatase activity toward p-nitrophenyl phosphate (V(max) = 0.08 micro mol/min. mg) indicative of its phosphohydrolytic ancestry. pI258 ArsC from S. aureus is the prototype of one of three distinct families of detoxifying arsenate reductases. The prototypes of the others are Acr2p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and R773 ArsC from Escherichia coli. All three have converged upon catalytic mechanisms involving an arsenocysteine intermediate. While SynArsC is homologous to pI258 ArsC, its catalytic mechanism exhibited a unique combination of features. rSynArsC employed glutathione and glutaredoxin as the source of reducing equivalents, like Acr2p and R773 ArsC, rather than thioredoxin, as does the S. aureus enzyme. As postulated for Acr2p and R773 ArsC, rSynArsC formed a covalent complex with glutathione in an arsenate-dependent manner. rSynArsC contains three essential cysteine residues like pI258 ArsC, whereas the yeast and E. coli enzymes require only one cysteine for catalysis. As in the S. aureus enzyme, these "extra" cysteines apparently shuttle a disulfide bond to the enzyme's surface to render it accessible for reduction. SynArsC and pI258 ArsC thus appear to represent alternative branches in the evolution of their shared phosphohydrolytic ancestor into an agent of arsenic detoxification.  (+info)

Transcriptional activation of metalloid tolerance genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the AP-1-like proteins Yap1p and Yap8p. (8/35)

All organisms are equipped with systems for detoxification of the metalloids arsenic and antimony. Here, we show that two parallel pathways involving the AP-1-like proteins Yap1p and Yap8p are required for acquisition of metalloid tolerance in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae. Yap8p is demonstrated to reside in the nucleus where it mediates enhanced expression of the arsenic detoxification genes ACR2 and ACR3. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show that Yap8p is associated with the ACR3 promoter in untreated as well as arsenic-exposed cells. Like for Yap1p, specific cysteine residues are critical for Yap8p function. We further show that metalloid exposure triggers nuclear accumulation of Yap1p and stimulates expression of antioxidant genes. Yap1p mutants that are unable to accumulate in the nucleus during H(2)O(2) treatment showed nearly normal nuclear retention in response to metalloid exposure. Thus, our data are the first to demonstrate that Yap1p is being regulated by metalloid stress and to indicate that this activation of Yap1p operates in a manner distinct from stress caused by chemical oxidants. We conclude that Yap1p and Yap8p mediate tolerance by controlling separate subsets of detoxification genes and propose that the two AP-1-like proteins respond to metalloids through distinct mechanisms.  (+info)

Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Arsenic atom in PDB 1j9b: Arsenate Reductase+0.4M Arsenite From E. Coli
Molybdenum cofactor is a cofactor required for the activity of enzymes such as sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidoreductase, and aldehyde oxidase. It is a coordination complex formed between molybdopterin (which, despite the name, does not contain molybdenum) and an oxide of molybdenum. Molybdopterins, in turn, are synthesized from guanosine triphosphate. Molybdenum cofactor functions directly in ethylbenzene dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and respiratory arsenate reductase. In animals and plants these enzymes use molybdenum bound at the active site in a tricyclic molybdenum cofactor. All molybdenum-using enzymes so far identified in nature use this cofactor The simplest structure of molybdopterin contains a pyranopterin coordinated to molybdenum. The pyranopterin structure is a fused ring system containing a pyran fused to pterin. In addition, the pyran ring is substituted with two thiols and an alkyl phosphate. In molybdopterin, the thiols coordinate to ...
Villadangos, A. F., K. Van Belle, K. Wahni, V. Tamu Dufe, S. Freitas, H. Nur, S. De Galan, J. A. Gil, J-F. Collet, L. M. Mateos, et al., Corynebacterium glutamicum survives arsenic stress with arsenate reductases coupled to two distinct redox mechanisms., Mol Microbiol, vol. 82, issue 4, pp. 998-1014, 2011 Nov. ...
Villadangos, A. F., K. Van Belle, K. Wahni, V. Tamu Dufe, S. Freitas, H. Nur, S. De Galan, J. A. Gil, J-F. Collet, L. M. Mateos, et al., Corynebacterium glutamicum survives arsenic stress with arsenate reductases coupled to two distinct redox mechanisms., Mol Microbiol, vol. 82, issue 4, pp. 998-1014, 2011 Nov. ...
Microbiome research encompasses sample types as diverse as the human gut, Antarctic soil, ocean water and acidic hot spring biofilms. These samples are challenging because they are difficult to lyse, with some microbes containing a tough extracellular matrix. Incomplete lysis of a microbial community results in an inaccurate representation of the microbial content of the sample. Additionally, PCR inhibitors present in these samples, especially humic acids, polysaccharides, polyphenolics, lipids and heavy metals, result in inaccurate quantitation of nucleic acids and may cause false negatives in qPCR. ...
Natural pollution of groundwater by arsenic adversely affects the health of tens of millions of people worldwide, with the deltaic aquifers of SE Asia being particularly polluted. The pollution is caused primarily by, or as a side reaction of, the microbial reduction of sedimentary Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides, but the organism(s) responsible for As release have not been isolated. Here we report the first isolation of a dissimilatory arsenate reducer from sediments of the Bengal Basin in West Bengal. The bacterium, here designated WB3, respires soluble arsenate and couples its reduction to the oxidation of acetate; WB3 is therefore implicated in the process of arsenic pollution of groundwater, which is largely by arsenite. The bacterium WB3 is also capable of reducing dissolved Fe(III) citrate, solid Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide, and elemental sulfur, using acetate as the electron donor. It is a member of the Desulfuromonas genus and possesses a dissimilatory arsenate reductase that was identified using ...
1JL3: Bacillus subtilis arsenate reductase is structurally and functionally similar to low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases.
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The arsR-type HTH domain is a DNA-binding, winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH) domain present in transcription regulators of the arsR/smtB family, involved in stress-response to heavy metal ions. This family of prokaryotic metal-sensing transcription repressors is named after Escherichia coli arsR, an arsenic-responsive repressor of the ars operon for arsenate reductase and metal ion extrusion, and after Synechococcus PCC 7942 smtB, a Zn(II)-responsive repressor of the smtA gene for a Zn sequestering metallothionein [ (PUBMED:12829264) ]. ArsR/smtB-like repressors of metal resistance operons specifically bind to the operator/promoter and seem to dissociate from the DNA in the presence of metal ions, permitting transcription of proteins involved in metal-ions efflux and/or detoxification. The crystal structure of the cyanobacterial smtB shows a fold of five alpha-helices (H) and a pair of antiparallel beta-strands (B) in the topology H1-H2-H3-H4-B1-B2-H5. Helices 3 and 4 comprise the helix-turn-helix ...
The Mono Lake State Reserve, California wall mural by Alain Thomas will add a distinctive touch to any room. Choose from standard sizes or get a custom size to perfectly fit your wall.
Note: The information on this page has been researched and summarized from various sources by Mono Lake Committee staff and is not from the perspective of
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Business Directory for Ammonium Arsenate Suppliers in Mumbai - Get contact details of Ammonium Arsenate Manufacturers, Wholesale Ammonium Arsenate Exporters, Best Ammonium Arsenate Traders & Distributors Across the Mumbai.
November 19, 2020. Warning: this blog contains some hardcore plant science. Look away now if this is a bit much! This blog celebrates the publication in the Journal of Experimental Botany of a new paper about arsenate reductase in plants. Dr. Sina Fischer of the Future Food Beacon is the first author on the study and performed much of the work, assisted by a number of co-authors. including Dr Paulina Flis who leads Prof. Salts Ionomics Facility. Prof. David E. …. ...
Search Indian Sodium Arsenate Manufacturers and Suppliers Details - Contact to Sodium Arsenate Exporters in India, Sodium Arsenate Wholesalers, Sodium Arsenate Distributors and Traders from India.
We couldnt find a conversion between moles Sodium Arsenate and kilomol Do a quick conversion: 1 moles Sodium Arsenate = 1 kilomol using the online calculator for metric conversions.
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0L1M4 (UBIE_SHESA), Ubiquinone/menaquinone biosynthesis C-methyltransferase UbiE. Shewanella sp (strain ANA-3)
Arsenic is a toxic metalloid which is widely distributed in nature. It is normally present as arsenate under oxic conditions while arsenite is predominant under reducing condition. The major discharges of arsenic in the environment are mainly due to natural sources such as aquifers and anthropogenic sources. It is known that arsenite salts are more toxic than arsenate as it binds with vicinal thiols in pyruvate dehydrogenase while arsenate inhibits the oxidative phosphorylation process. The common mechanisms for arsenic detoxification are uptaken by phosphate transporters, aquaglyceroporins, and active extrusion system and reduced by arsenate reductases via dissimilatory reduction mechanism. Some species of autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms use arsenic oxyanions for their regeneration of energy. Certain species of microorganisms are able to use arsenate as their nutrient in respiratory process. Detoxification operons are a common form of arsenic resistance in microorganisms. Hence, the use of
Volume 73, no. 16, p. 5130-5137, 2007. Page 5134: A miscalculation was made during the conversion of units for the measured N2O concentrations in sediment denitrification bioassays reported in Fig. 4B and the associated discussion in the text. The reported N2O production rates are too high by a factor of 1/0.028, or 36-fold, as they were not corrected for the headspace volume of the bioassay serum bottles (28 ml). The correct ranges of N2O production rates are 0.001 to 1.8 μmol cm−3 day−1 for Mono Lake samples and 0.01 to 0.5 μmol cm−3 day−1 for Searles Lake samples. Our observations regarding the effects of salinity on denitrification, as well as the other major implications of the study, however, are not affected by this correction.. ...
Arsenate minerals usually refer to the naturally occurring orthoarsenates, possessing the (AsO4)3− anion group and, more rarely, other arsenates with anions like AsO3(OH)2− (also written HAsO42−) (example: pharmacolite Ca(AsO3OH).2H2O) or (very rarely) [AsO2(OH)2]− (example: andyrobertsite). Arsenite minerals are much less common.[1] Both the Dana[2] and the Strunz[3] mineral classifications place the arsenates in with the phosphate minerals. Example arsenate minerals include: ...
Shop The CYMA MOSFET Enhanced 8mm Gearbox is a high performance and high quality release from CYMA which has been proven by their release in the popular rifles. Need to replace your gearbox or just looking for something new to upgrade your old AEG? Look no further than the CYMA 8mm Gearbox. Features: ... , Internal Parts, Gearbox, M4 / M16 Series
Raw Material India (RMI) is a new startup - an online platform Only For Industrial Raw Materials of all types. This is Indias First-Of-Its-Kind Exclusive B2B Raw Materials website.. ...
TRIVENI INTERCHEM PVT. LTD. - Exporter, Manufacturer, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company of Chromated copper arsenate based in Vapi, India
ID A0KYP4_SHESA Unreviewed; 549 AA. AC A0KYP4; DT 12-DEC-2006, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 12-DEC-2006, sequence version 1. DT 07-JUN-2017, entry version 59. DE SubName: Full=Pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABK48913.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Shewana3_2686 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABK48913.1}; OS Shewanella sp. (strain ANA-3). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Alteromonadales; OC Shewanellaceae; Shewanella. OX NCBI_TaxID=94122 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABK48913.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002589}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002589} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ANA-3 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002589}; RA Copeland A., Lucas S., Lapidus A., Barry K., Detter J.C., RA Glavina del Rio T., Hammon N., Israni S., Dalin E., Tice H., RA Pitluck S., Chertkov O., Brettin T., Bruce D., Han C., Tapia R., RA Gilna P., Schmutz J., Larimer F., Land M., Hauser L., Kyrpides N., RA Kim E., Newman D., Salticov C., Konstantinidis K., Klappenback ...
Polyphysa peniculus growing in artificial seawater methylates arsenate to produce a dimethylarsenic derivative, probably dimethylarsinate. When L-methionine-methyl-d3 is added to the culture the CD3 label is incorporated intact in the dimethylarsenic compound to a considerable extent, indicating that S-adenosylmethionine, or some related sulphonium compound, is involved in the biological methylation. Conclusive evidence of the CD3 incorporation was provided by using a specially developed hydride generation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology.. ...
LEE VINING, Mono Co. - After Id managed to descend the steepest part of the 9,945-foot Tioga Pass, loosened fingers that had been cramped tightly around the steering wheel, and quit peering nervously at the yawning abyss on my right, I became aware of a mighty blue-green sweep of salty water before me. [...] several thousand feet above it, I could appreciate its lonely setting, a sharp contrast with the alpine lakes surrounded by meadows and forests that Id just left behind in Yosemite National Park. Besides water, it contains copious amounts of salts, detergents and baking soda. Years of court battles had persuaded the city fathers and mothers of perpetually thirsty Los Angeles to stop, after half a century, from diverting four of five streams that pour down the same slopes on which my elderly car now soared toward the shores of Mono Lake. After checking in at a surprisingly busy motel, grateful Id made reservations, I walked north a few doors to the headquarters of the Mono Lake Committee to
John, I cant tell you how inspired I am by your gallery - it is breathtaking in its originality, beauty and mood. What youve done here is captured a very, very special aspect of Mono Lake which few others have obtained. Your use of shooting into the light here is so effectively done in this gallery...your vision here is wonderfully refreshing. Who needs the sun when so much can be done in the twilight! Thank you for sharing ...
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Olivenite Group. Structurally distinct, intermediate member of the solid solution series between Olivenite and Adamite with a Zn:Cu ratio of (ideally) ...
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In molecular biology, the ars operon is an operon found in several bacterial taxon. It is required for the detoxification of arsenate, arsenite, and antimonite. This system transports arsenite and antimonite out of the cell. The pump is composed of two polypeptides, the products of the arsA and arsB genes. This two-subunit enzyme produces resistance to arsenite and antimonite. Arsenate, however, must first be reduced to arsenite before it is extruded. A third gene, arsC, expands the substrate specificity to allow for arsenate pumping and resistance. ArsC is an approximately 150-residue arsenate reductase that uses reduced glutathione (GSH) to convert arsenate to arsenite with a redox active cysteine residue in the active site. ArsC forms an active quaternary complex with GSH, arsenate, and glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1). The three ligands must be present simultaneously for reduction to occur. ArsA and ArsB form an anion-translocating ATPase. The ArsB protein is distinguished by its overall hydrophobic ...
Mesoporous pellet adsorbent developed from mixing at an appropriate ratio of natural clay, iron oxide, iron powder, and rice bran was used to investigate the optimization process of batch adsorption parameters for treating aqueous solution coexisting with arsenate and arsenite. Central composite design under response surface methodology was applied for optimizing and observing both individual and interactive effects of four main influential adsorption factors such as contact time (24-72 h), initial solution pH (3-11), adsorbent dosage (0-20 g/L) and initial adsorbate concentration (0.25-4.25 mg/L). Analysis of variance suggested that experimental data were better fitted by the quadratic model with the values of regression coefficient and adjusted regression coefficient higher than 95%. The model accuracy was supported by the correlation plot of actual and predicted adsorption efficiency data and the residual plots. The Pareto analysis suggested that initial solution pH, initial adsorbate concentration,
Concurrent occurrence of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative in aquatic ecosystems demands that their joint-actions in eliciting toxic effects be assessed for adequate understanding of the health risk they may pose to biota. Clarias gariepinus was exposed to As2O3 , CrO3 and CuO and their composite mixtures (1:1
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increasing the arsenate adsorption capacity of neutralized red mud (Bauxsol). AU - Genc Fuhrman, Hülya. AU - Tjell, Jens Christian. AU - McConchie, D.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. M3 - Journal article. VL - 271. SP - 313. EP - 320. JO - Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. JF - Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. SN - 0021-9797. ER - ...
Scientists have found a microbe in Mono Lake, California, that uses arsenic as a fundamental building block, changing the definition of life as we know it and the search for extraterrestrial life.
Scientists at the Harvard Smithsonian centre for Astrophysics say that have isolated arsenic tolerant bacteria from mono lake an ancient alkaline lake in California. They were fed arsenic instead of phosphorous an element essential for life and they gradually replaced the phosphorous with arsenic atoms. This, say scientists, will change the way we view adaptability of life forms.
LEBANON, Ohio (AP) - A 5-year-old Ohio boy with cerebral palsy became wedged between furniture and suffocated to death while playing at his …
We report the isolation of a pinnacle-forming cyanobacterium isolated from a microbial mat covering the sediment surface at Little Salt Spring-a flooded sinkhole in Florida with a perennially microoxic and sulfidic water column. The draft genome of the isolate encodes all of the enzymatic machinery necessary for both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis, as well as genes for methylating hopanoids at the C-2 position. The physiological response of the isolate to H2S is complex: (i) no induction time is necessary for anoxygenic photosynthesis; (ii) rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are regulated by both H2S and irradiance; (iii) O2 production is inhibited by H2S concentrations as low as 1 μM and the recovery rate of oxygenic photosynthesis is dependent on irradiance; (iv) under the optimal light conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis, rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are nearly double those of oxygenic photosynthesis ...
Pueraria tuberose Linn. is an inexpensive and efficient source to provide all the required nutrients and medicinal benefits for a healthy and rejuvenating body. The present investigation has been undertaken to evaluate the role of Pueraria tuberosa Linn. in modifying the sodium arsenate induced biochemical alterations in albino rats. Administration of sodium arsenate in rats induces oxidative stress, which leads to the generation of free radicals in the body. These free radicals interact with tissue leading to tissue damage i.e, kidney damage. Animals were divided into 6 groups, Group I (control group) rats were treated with normal saline (1mg/kg), Group II ( Positive Control) rats were treated with sodium arsenate (1mg/kg).Group III rats were treated with sodium arsenate (1mg/kg) and Vitamin E (100 mg/kg).Group IV rats were treated with sodium arsenate (1mg/kg) and Pueraria tuberosa linn. extract (50 mg/kg), Group V rats were treated with sodium arsenate (1mg/kg) and Pueraria tuberosa linn.
using it instead of phosphorus in their biochemistry. To determine this, Dr. Wolfe-Simon took samples of the microbes, adding more and more arsenic while decreasing the amount of phosphorus in their environment to essentially zero. This would kill almost everything known to man, yet these little critters thrived. Even weirder, the bacteria were able to survive when either the phosphorus or the arsenic was reduced, but not both. So somehow, its able to use both of these elements as needed to survive.. Amazingly, using radioisotope-tagged molecules containing arsenic, they were able to find that the microbes incorporated the arsenic into their very DNA! Its hard to stress how shocking this is; as I understand it, saying something like that to a microbiologist without evidence wouldve had them slowly backing away from you and looking for weapons or an escape route.. That is seriously freaky. So what does this mean in the scale of things?. For one thing, it means that life, as Jeff Goldblum so ...
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The article explains why it was that standards of proof that were acceptable to different degrees to geologists, physicists and biologists were unacceptable to chemists. The answer pertains to what we call background knowledge. In this case, chemists were compelled to ask how DNA with arsenic replacing phosphorus in its backbone could possibly be stable given everything they knew about the instability of arsenate esters. The latter had been studied for several decades, and while arsenic DNA itself had not been synthesized before, simpler arsenate esters were known to be highly unstable in water. The chemists were quite confident in extrapolating from these simple cases to questioning the stable existence of arsenic DNA; if arsenic DNA indeed were so stable, then almost everything they had known about arsenate esters for fifty years would have been wrong, a possibility that was highly unlikely. Thus for chemists, arsenic DNA was an extraordinary claim. And as Carl Sagan said, they needed to see ...
The befitting capping capabilities of AsO43− provide a stable Cu2O nanocatalyst from a galvanic reaction between a Cu(ii) precursor salt and As(0) nanoparticles. This stable Cu2O hydrosol appears to be a suitable catalyst for the one-electron transfer reversible redox reaction between Eosin Y and NaBH4. The
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on small chemical compounds.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The importance of glutathione and phytochelatins on the selenite and arsenate detoxification in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Aborode, Fatai Adigun. AU - Raab, Andrea. AU - Voigt, Matthias. AU - Costa, Leticia Malta. AU - Krupp, Eva M. AU - Feldmann, Joerg. N1 - This study was supported by the Tesla Research Funds. L.M.C. thanks CNPq (201969/2010-6) for her research visit to Aberdeen and M.V. thanks the European Erasmus Exchange programme. PY - 2016/11. Y1 - 2016/11. N2 - We investigated the role of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) on the detoxification of selenite using Arabidopsis thaliana. The wild-type (WT) of Arabidopsis thaliana and its mutants (glutathione deficient Cad 2-1 and phytochelatins deficient Cad 1-3) were separately exposed to varying concentrations of selenite and arsenate and jointly to both toxicants to determine their sensitivities. The results of the study revealed that, the mutants were about 20-fold more sensitive to arsenate than the WT, an ...
Historically, Mono Lake contained numerous types of wetland habitats to support the large numbers of migratory waterfowl that used the lake.Today the wetland habitats of the pre-diversion days have declined or changed because declining water levels have caused the degradation and loss of large areas of wetlands.It is estimated that before the diversions began, lagoons, fresh water marshes, and creek deltas accounted for approximately 900 acres of wetland habitat.This estimate does not include the speculative one mile long lagoon at Simmons Point. The diversions that began in 1941 did not have an immediate impact on the vegetation and habitats of Mono Lake.The first noticeable effect of the diversions occurred when the lake level fell below 6,405 feet above sea level.When the lake fell below this level, the large lagoons that were on the northeastern shore of the lake disappeared. The level below 6,405 was reached in 1957 or 16 years after the diversions began. Throughout the 1960 s as the lake ...
Microorganisms play an important role in arsenic (As) cycling in the environment. Microbes mobilize As directly or indirectly, and natural/geochemical processes such as sulphate and iron reduction, oxidative sulphide mineral dissolution, arsenite (AsO33?) oxidation and arsenate (AsO43?) respiration further aid in As cycle in the environment. Arsenate serves as an electron donor for the microbes during anaerobic conditions in the sediment. The present work reviews the recent development in As contamination, various As-metabolizing microbes and their phylogenetic diversity, to understand the role of microbial communities in As respiration and mobilization. It also summarizes the contemporary understanding of the intricate biochemistry and molecular biology of natural As metabolisms. Some successful examples of engineered microbes by harnessing these natural mechanisms for effective remediation are also discussed. The study indicates that there is an exigent need to have a clear understanding of ...
This list contains biological and chemical agents, in accordance with Art. 7 and points 2 and 3 of the Annex to Directive 94/33/EC, to which young persons (under 18 years of age) may not be exposed at the workplace. The database represents a non-exhaustive list of such substances based on: 1) agents of risk groups 3 and 4 under Directive 2000/54/EC; 2) Table 3 of Annex VI to the CLP Regulation; 3) and Annex I of Directive 2004/37/EC.. ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A1RK88 (Y2259_SHESW), YcgL domain-containing protein Sputw3181_2259. Shewanella sp (strain W3-18-1)
Development of KTiOAsO4 and isostructural arsenates as new electrooptic materials. This involves (a) the growth of crystals of suitable size and quality for research, (b) investigation of their structural, optical and physical properties: the establishment of structure/property relationships, (c) development of waveguide fabrication methods in KTiOAsO4, (d) investigation of crystal twinning and poling methods for its elimination. ...
2016:12:05 15:02:50-05:00, 2016:12:05 15:09:37-05:00, 2016:12:05 15:09:49-05:00, 2016:12:05 15:11:09-05:00, 2016:12:05 15:11:09-05: ...
2017:04:28 09:00:01-04:00, 2017:04:28 09:08:07-04:00, 2017:04:28 09:08:15-04:00, 2017:04:28 09:10:02-04:00, 2017:04:28 09:10:02-04: ...
"The respiratory arsenate reductase fromBacillus selenitireducensstrain MLS10". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 226 (1): 107-112. doi ...
"Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 382 (2): 298- ...
The enzymes involved are known as arsenate reductases. In 2008, bacteria were discovered that employ a version of ... IUPAC have recommended that arsenite compounds are to be named as arsenate(III), for example ortho-arsenite is called ... Some species of bacteria obtain their energy by oxidizing various fuels while reducing arsenates to form arsenites. ... researchers conjectured that historically these photosynthesizing organisms produced the arsenates that allowed the arsenate- ...
Ordóñez E, Van Belle K, Roos G, De Galan S, Letek M, Gil JA, Wyns L, Mateos LM, Messens J (May 2009). "Arsenate reductase, ... mycothiol-mycoredoxin disulfide Reduction of arsenate is part of a defense mechanism of the cell against toxic arsenate. ...
ArsC is an approximately 150-residue arsenate reductase that uses reduced glutathione (GSH) to convert arsenate to arsenite ... Liu J, Rosen BP (August 1997). "Ligand interactions of the ArsC arsenate reductase". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (34): 21084-9. doi: ... and mechanism of ArsC arsenate reductase, a novel arsenic detoxification enzyme". Structure. 9 (11): 1071-81. doi:10.1016/S0969 ... Arsenate, however, must first be reduced to arsenite before it is extruded. A third gene, arsC, expands the substrate ...
Localization of the dissimilatory arsenate reductase in Sulfurospirillum Barnesi strain SeS-3. Am. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 7: 97- ...
... has an arsenate reductase, Acr2p, that uses glutathione as the electron donor. Pteris vittata has an arsenate reductase with ... Gui-Lan Duan; Y.-G. Zhu; Y.-P. Tong; C. Cai; R. Kneer (2005). "Characterization of Arsenate Reductase in the Extract of Roots ... No P for 8 days increases the arsenate's maximum net influx by 2.5-fold; the plants then absorbs 10 times more arsenate than ... More arsenate decreases the P concentration in the roots, but not in the fronds. P in the uptake solution markedly decreases ...
Guo X, Li Y, Peng K, Hu Y, Li C, Xia B, Jin C (Nov 2005). "Solution structures and backbone dynamics of arsenate reductase from ... Bacillus subtilis: reversible conformational switch associated with arsenate reduction". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
The enzymes involved are known as arsenate reductases (Arr). In 2008, bacteria were discovered that employ a version of ... Synthetic arsenates include Scheele's Green (cupric hydrogen arsenate, acidic copper arsenate), calcium arsenate, and lead ... Arsenite (AsO3− 3) is more soluble than arsenate (AsO3− 4) and is more toxic; however, at a lower pH, arsenate becomes more ... In the second half of the 20th century, monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA) and disodium methyl arsenate (DSMA) - less toxic ...
... may refer to: Arsenate reductase (cytochrome c) Arsenate reductase (azurin) This disambiguation page lists ...
... sphaericus strain CBAM5 showed resistance to 200 mM of arsenic which may be explained by the presence of the arsenate reductase ...
... respiratory arsenate reductase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase. Prosthetic group of: formate dehydrogenase, ... Molybdopterin is a: Cofactor of: xanthine oxidase, DMSO reductase, sulfite oxidase, nitrate reductase, ethylbenzene ... Enzymes that contain the molybdopterin cofactor include xanthine oxidase, DMSO reductase, sulfite oxidase, and nitrate ... DMSO reductase, the metal is bound to two molybdopterin cofactors. Models for the active sites of enzymes molybdopterin- ...
5] Gui-Lan Duan, Yong-Guan Zhu, Yi-Ping Tong, Chao Cai et Ralf Kneer Characterization of Arsenate Reductase in the Extract of ... Plant Physiology 138:461-469 (2005). Acr2p, un arsenate reductase de la levure de bière (Saccharomyces c.), utilise le ...
... reductase". Chemical Research in Toxicology. 12 (12): 1278-83. doi:10.1021/tx9901231. PMID 10604879. Zakharyan RA, Ayala-Fierro ... dimethylarsinate An enzyme of the biotransformation pathway that forms dimethylarsinate from inorganic arsenite and arsenate. ...
These genes include a putative arsenite efflux pump and an arsenate reductase, as well as genes similar to those found in ...
EC 1.20.4 Arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) EC 1.20.4.1 Glutaredoxin Category:EC 1.20.9 Category:EC 1.20.99 Category:EC 1.21.1 ... reductase EC 1.17.4.1 Ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase EC 1.17.4.2 Vitamin K epoxide reductase Vitamin-K-epoxide reductase ... Nitrite reductase EC 1.7.99.3 Nitrate reductase EC 1.7.99.4 Category:EC 1.8.1 (with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor) Glutathione ... Dihydrofolate reductase EC 1.5.1.3 Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase EC 1.5.1.20 Category:EC 1.5.3 (with oxygen as acceptor) ...
Ordóñez E, Van Belle K, Roos G, De Galan S, Letek M, Gil JA, Wyns L, Mateos LM, Messens J (May 2009). "Arsenate reductase, ... Arsenate-mycothiol transferase (EC 2.8.4.2, ArsC1, ArsC2, mycothiol:arsenate transferase) is an enzyme with systematic name ... H2O Reduction of arsenate is part of a defence mechanism of the cell against toxic arsenate. ... Arsenate-mycothiol+transferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ...
... derive their energy from reducing arsenate (As(+5)) to arsenite (As(+3)) via arsenate reductase ... a membrane-bound or periplasmic respiratory arsenate reductase and a cytoplasmic arsenate reductase. The anaerobic respiratory ... It appears that arsenate reduction by the Desulfovibrio strain Ben-RA is catalyzed by an arsenate reductase that is encoded by ... Arsenate-reducing bacteria are bacteria which reduce arsenates. Arsenate-reducing bacteria are ubiquitous in arsenic- ...
... (EC 1.20.4.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arsenate + glutaredoxin ⇌ {\ ... reduction of arsenate to arsenite by human liver arsenate reductase". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 13 (1): 26-30. doi:10.1021/tx990115k ... Gladysheva T, Liu J, Rosen BP (1996). "His-8 lowers the pKa of the essential Cys-12 residue of the ArsC arsenate reductase of ... Silver S; Garber, Eric A. E.; Armes, L. Gene; Chen, Chih-Ming; Fuchs, James A.; Silver, Simon (1994). "Arsenate reductase of ...
... (EC 1.20.9.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arsenite + H2O + 2 azurinox ⇌ {\ ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } arsenate + 2 azurinred + 2 H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are arsenite, water, and ... oxidised azurin, whereas its 3 products are arsenate, reduced azurin, and hydrogen ion. This enzyme belongs to the family of ...
... arsenate + 2 reduced cytochrome c + 2 H+ Arsenate reductase is a molybdoprotein isolated from alpha-proteobacteria that ... Arsenate reductase (cytochrome c) (EC 1.20.2.1, arsenite oxidase) is an enzyme with systematic name arsenite:cytochrome c ... Arsenate+reductase+(cytochrome+c) at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ...
... may refer to: Arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) Arsenate reductase (azurin) Arsenate reductase (donor) This ...
... significant Glutathione Reductase inhibition by sodium arsenate has only been at 10 mg/kg/day. Glutathione reductase is also ... In vitro, glutathione reductase is inhibited by low concentrations of sodium arsenite and methylated arsenate metabolites, but ... Glutathione reductase (GR) also known as glutathione-disulfide reductase (GSR) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... In particular, glutathione reductase appears to be a good target for anti-malarials, as the glutathione reductase of the ...
... reduction of arsenate to arsenite by human liver arsenate reductase". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 13 (1): 26-30. doi:10.1021/tx990115k ... Arsenate reductase (donor) (EC 1.20.99.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arsenite + acceptor ⇌ {\ ... Krafft T, Macy JM (1998). "Purification and characterization of the respiratory arsenate reductase of Chrysiogenes arsenatis". ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is arsenate:acceptor oxidoreductase. This enzyme is also called arsenate:(acceptor) ...
DMSO reductase. Category:EC 1.1 (act on the CH-OH group of donors)Edit. *Category:EC 1.1.1 (with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor) * ... Arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) EC 1.20.4.1. *Glutaredoxin. *Category:EC 1.20.9. *Category:EC 1.20.99 ...
... by the enzymes nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, nitric oxide reductase, and nitrous oxide reductase, respectively. Protons ... Arsenate (AsO3− 4) reduction to arsenite (AsO3− 3) Uranyl ion ion (UO2+ 2) reduction to uranium dioxide (UO 2) A number of ... The APS is then reduced by the enzyme APS reductase to form sulfite (SO2− 3) and AMP. In organisms that use carbon compounds as ... Some organisms (e.g. E. coli) only produce nitrate reductase and therefore can accomplish only the first reduction leading to ...
The replacement of phosphate by arsenate is initiated when arsenate reacts with glucose and gluconate in vitro. This reaction ... glutathione reductase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and thioredoxin reductase. Arsenic is a cause of mortality throughout the world ... "Absence of Detectable Arsenate in DNA from Arsenate-Grown GFAJ-1 Cells". Science. 337 (6093): 470-3. arXiv:1201.6643. Bibcode: ... Although phosphate and arsenate are structurally similar, there is no evidence that arsenic replaces phosphorus in DNA or RNA. ...
March 2005). "Glutathione reductase inhibition and methylated arsenic distribution in Cd1 mice brain and liver". Toxicological ... MRP1-overexpressing lung tumor GLC4/Sb30 cells poorly accumulate arsenite and arsenate. This is mediated through MRP-1 ... Jan 2000). "Isolation and characterization of arsenate-sensitive and resistant mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii". Plant ... Gresser MJ (June 1981). "ADP-arsenate. Formation by submitochondrial particles under phosphorylating conditions". The Journal ...
"Absence of Detectable Arsenate in DNA from Arsenate-Grown GFAJ-1 Cells". Science. 337 (6093): 470-3. arXiv:1201.6643. Bibcode: ... "Arsenicals inhibit thioredoxin reductase in cultured rat hepatocytes". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14 (3): 305-11. doi:10.1021/ ... The replacement of phosphate by arsenate is initiated when arsenate reacts with glucose and gluconate in vitro.[40] This ... Although phosphate and arsenate are structurally similar, there is no evidence that arsenic replaces phosphorus in DNA or RNA.[ ...
... arsenate-mycothiol transferase EC 2.9.1.1: L-seryl-tRNASec selenium transferase EC 2.9.1.2: O-phospho-L-seryl-tRNASec:L- ... NAD+-dinitrogen-reductase ADP-D-ribosyltransferase EC 2.4.2.38: glycoprotein 2-b-D-xylosyltransferase EC 2.4.2.39: xyloglucan 6 ... reductase kinase) kinase EC 2.7.11.4: (3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring)) kinase EC 2.7.11.5: ( ... hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)) kinase EC 2.7.11.32: (pyruvate, phosphate dikinase) kinase EC 2.7.11.33: (pyruvate ...
Kertulis-Tartar GM, Rathinasabapathi B, Ma LQ (October 2009). "Characterization of glutathione reductase and catalase in the ... the poison cyanide is a noncompetitive inhibitor of catalase at high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide.Arsenate acts as an ...
Arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) (EC 1.20.4.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arsenate + glutaredoxin ⇌ {\ ... reduction of arsenate to arsenite by human liver arsenate reductase". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 13 (1): 26-30. doi:10.1021/tx990115k ... Gladysheva T, Liu J, Rosen BP (1996). "His-8 lowers the pKa of the essential Cys-12 residue of the ArsC arsenate reductase of ... Silver S; Garber, Eric A. E.; Armes, L. Gene; Chen, Chih-Ming; Fuchs, James A.; Silver, Simon (1994). "Arsenate reductase of ...
Arsenate reductase (azurin) (EC 1.20.9.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arsenite + H2O + 2 azurinox ⇌ {\ ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } arsenate + 2 azurinred + 2 H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are arsenite, water, and ... oxidised azurin, whereas its 3 products are arsenate, reduced azurin, and hydrogen ion. This enzyme belongs to the family of ...
Characterization of the Arsenate Respiratory Reductase from Shewanella sp. Strain ANA-3 Davin Malasarn, Jennifer R. Keeffe, ... Regulation of Arsenate Resistance in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 by an arsRBCC Operon and an arsC Gene Xiangkai Li, Lee R. ... The cymA Gene, Encoding a Tetraheme c-Type Cytochrome, Is Required for Arsenate Respiration in Shewanella Species Julie N. ... The Glutathione/Glutaredoxin System Is Essential for Arsenate Reduction in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 Luis López-Maury, ...
Arsenate reductaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ... tr,I0B8K4,I0B8K4_9BACI Arsenate reductase (Fragment) OS=uncultured Bacillus sp. OX=83428 GN=arsC PE=3 SV=1 ...
tr,A0A0W8FA01,A0A0W8FA01_9ZZZZ Arsenate reductase OS=hydrocarbon metagenome OX=938273 GN=ASZ90_012621 PE=4 SV=1 ...
Structural and mechanistic analysis of the arsenate respiratory reductase provides insight into environmental arsenic ... Structural and mechanistic analysis of the arsenate respiratory reductase provides insight into environmental arsenic ... Structural and mechanistic analysis of the arsenate respiratory reductase provides insight into environmental arsenic ... Structural and mechanistic analysis of the arsenate respiratory reductase provides insight into environmental arsenic ...
Ive some proteins which have molecular weight in range of phytochelatin synthase and Arsenate reductase.Is there any known ... Antibody for Phytochelatin synthase or Arsenate reductase. Discussion of all aspects of biological molecules, biochemical ...
IPR006659 Arsenate_reductase. IPR006660 Arsenate_reductase-like. IPR036249 Thioredoxin-like_sf. Pfami. View protein in Pfam. ... tr,A0A427LFT4,A0A427LFT4_9GAMM Arsenate reductase OS=Acinetobacter variabilis OX=70346 GN=arsC PE=3 SV=1 ... IPR006659 Arsenate_reductase. IPR006660 Arsenate_reductase-like. IPR036249 Thioredoxin-like_sf. Pfam protein domain database ...
Arginine 60 in the ArsC arsenate reductase of E. coli plasmid R773 determines the chemical nature of the bound As(III) product. ... Arsenate reductase Chain: A Molecule details › Chain: A. Length: 141 amino acids. Theoretical weight: 15.82 KDa. Source ... Arginine 60 in the ArsC arsenate reductase of E. coli plasmid R773 determines the chemical nature of the bound As(III) product. ... Arginine 60 in the ArsC arsenate reductase of E. coli plasmid R773 determines the chemical nature of the bound As(III) product. ...
Arsenate Reductase+0.4M Arsenite From E. Coli ... Arsenic in the structure of Arsenate Reductase+0.4M Arsenite ... The binding sites of Arsenic atom in the structure of Arsenate Reductase+0.4M Arsenite From E. Coli (pdb code 1j9b). This ...
Arsenate reductase gene; Arsenic-dependent growth; Horizontal gene transfer (HGT); Operon; Tetrathionate ... After subjecting strain As3-1 to medium containing arsenate (AsV), AsV reduction occurred and an AsV-enhanced bacterial growth ... Polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic analysis showed that strain As3-1 harbored a typical AsV reductase gene (arsC) on ...
Arsenate reductase. A. 131. Staphylococcus aureus. Mutation(s): 3 Gene Names: arsC, SAP018. EC: 1.20.4.1 (PDB Primary Data), ... The structure of a triple mutant of pI258 arsenate reductase from Staphylococcus aureus and its 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid ... oxidized pI258 arsenate reductase (ArsC) from S. aureus. In the absence of the crystal structure of an ArsC-thioredoxin complex ...
Arsenate reductase, putative. A. 142. Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus COL. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: SACOL0876. ...
The Crystal Structure of A Possible Arsenate Reductase From Streptococcus Mutans UA159 ... Sodium in the structure of The Crystal Structure of A Possible Arsenate Reductase From Streptococcus Mutans UA159 (pdb 3fz4). ... The binding sites of Sodium atom in the structure of The Crystal Structure of A Possible Arsenate Reductase From Streptococcus ...
Arsenate reductases. Protein crystallography. Interleukin-22. Laminarinase. Protein tyrosine phosphatases. Statistical coupling ... It was also possible to present a method to distinguish between low molecular weight phosphatases and arsenate reductases, ...
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The Escherichia coli arsC gene encodes arsenate reductase (ArsC), which catalyzes the glutathione (GSH)-coupled electrochemical ... The Escherichia coli arsC gene encodes arsenate reductase (ArsC), which catalyzes the glutathione (GSH)-coupled electrochemical ... The Escherichia coli arsC gene encodes arsenate reductase (ArsC), which catalyzes the glutathione (GSH)-coupled electrochemical ... The Escherichia coli arsC gene encodes arsenate reductase (ArsC), which catalyzes the glutathione (GSH)-coupled electrochemical ...
Dissimilatory arsenate reductase activity and arsenate-respiring bacteria in bovine rumen fluid, hamster feces, and the termite ... The respiratory arsenate reductase from Bacillus selenitireducens strain MLS10.. Afkar E, Lisak J, Saltikov C, Basu P, Oremland ... Respiratory Selenite Reductase from Bacillus selenitireducens Strain MLS10.. Wells M, McGarry J, Gaye MM, Basu P, Oremland RS, ... Dissimilatory arsenate reduction with sulfide as electron donor: experiments with mono lake water and Isolation of strain MLMS- ...
Cluster: Arsenate reductase. 4. A0A009E034. A0A2K8UT59. A0A427LFT4. N8PZE0. Acinetobacter baumannii 348935. Acinetobacter ...
Different transporters have been reported in assisting the accumulation of arsenic in plant cells; for example, arsenate (AsV) ... Shi, S.; Wang, T.; Chen, Z.; Tang, Z.; Wu, Z.; Salt, D.E. OsHAC1; 1 and OsHAC1; 2 function as arsenate reductases and regulate ... Researchers have identified different arsenate reductases in rice, like, OsHAC1;1, OsHAC1;2, [56], and OsHAC4 [57], which ... OsPT1 mediates arsenate transport from root to shoot [40]. Whereas, OsPT8 is a key transporter protein for arsenate uptake into ...
2003) Genetic identification of a respiratory arsenate reductase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(19):10983-10988. ... 2009) Kinetic characterization of OmcA and MtrC, terminal reductases involved in respiratory electron transfer for ...
arsenate reductase (azurin);. arsenite oxidase (ambiguous). Class. Oxidoreductases;. Acting on phosphorus or arsenic in donors; ... arsenite + H2O + 2 oxidized azurin = arsenate + 2 reduced azurin + 2 H+ [RN:R05751]. ...
2002. Dissimilatory arsenate reductase activity and arsenate-respiring bacteria in bovine rumen fluid, hamster feces, and the ... Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 382: 298 - 302. ... 2003. The respiratory arsenate reductase from Bacillus selenitireducens strain MLS10. FEMS Microbiology Lett. 226: 107 - 112. ... 127. Hoeft, S.E., T.R. Kulp, J.F. Stolz, J.T. Hollibaugh, and R.S. Oremland. 2004. Dissimilatory arsenate reduction with ...
2014). Natural variation in arsenate tolerance identifies an arsenate reductase in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nat. Commun. 5:4617. ... Arsenate reductase (AR) is a crucial enzyme in plants regulating the conversion of As(V) to As(III). Several AR genes have been ... FIGURE 3. The arsenate reductases in roots are involved in reduction of As(V) to As(III) and hence, influence both efflux of As ... 2016). OsHAC1; 1 and OsHAC1; 2 function as arsenate reductases and regulate arsenic accumulation. Plant Physiol. 172, 1708-1719 ...
"What this means is that wherever we find arsenite, we can expect to find microbes with arsenate reductase genes and vice versa ... The new primer - a short strand of DNA that targets the arsenate reductase gene - helps researchers identify which bacteria in ... Of interest are the bacteria species equipped with arsenate reductase genes. The genes enable bacteria to transform naturally ... new primer successfully amplified the reductase genes and made it possible for his team to see a broad diversity of arsenate- ...
Arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) activity. Specific Function. Reduction of arsenate [As(V)] to arsenite [As(III)]. This ... UArsenate reductase. Not Available. Escherichia coli. Absorption. Not Available. Volume of distribution. Not Available. Protein ... Catalyzes the extrusion of the oxyanions arsenite, antimonite and arsenate. Maintenance of a low intracellular concentration of ... protein expands the substrate specificity of ArsAB pump which can extrude arsenite and antimonite to allow for arsenate pumping ...
... arsenate and selenate anaerobic respiration are expressed in the rhizosphere, underscoring that the rhizosphere environment is ... Richey, C., Chovanec, P., Hoeft, S. E., Oremland, R. S., Basu, P., and Stolz, J. F. (2009). Respiratory arsenate reductase as a ... and selenate reductase activity of both membrane-bound nitrate reductase (NAR) and periplasmic nitrate reductase (NAP) has been ... Afkar, E., Lisak, J., Saltikov, C., Basu, P., Oremland, R. S., and Stolz, J. F. (2003). The respiratory arsenate reductase from ...
Arsenate reductase from Thermus thermophilus conjugated to polyethylene glycol-stabilized gold nanospheres allow trace sensing ...
Arsenate------ Arsenite. reductase, addition. Graphic (16k). Atrazine --- Hydroxyatrazine. hydrolase, dechlorination, s- ... reductase, molybdopterin. Graphic (12k). 2,3-Epoxybenzoyl-CoA ------ 3,4-Dehydroadipyl-CoA semialdehyde. aromatic epoxide ... reductase, flavoprotein, disulfide. Graphic (20k). 2-Nitropropane ------ Acetone oxidoreductases, iron flavoprotein. Graphic ...
... arsenate reductase/pseudogene); and in one pseudogene yedN ←; (iapH/yopM family). Two additonal significant intergenic ... Changes in activation of hypothalamic control centres (via reduced 5α-reductase activity) could provide a mechanism for changes ... Repressed genes include Srd5a1 (encoding the enzyme 5α-reductase), down-regulation of which (through increased methylation) ... and biliverdin reductase (BVR) were determined by Western blot analysis and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. ...
  • Microbial arsenate respiration enhances the mobility of arsenic and contributes to the poisoning of tens of millions of people worldwide. (pnas.org)
  • Our ability to quantitatively predict how microbial activities shape arsenic geochemistry depends on a detailed understanding of how the enzymes that catalyze arsenate reduction work under environmentally relevant conditions. (pnas.org)
  • These observations, combined with knowledge of typical sedimentary arsenate and phosphate concentrations and known rates of arsenate desorption from minerals in the presence of phosphate, suggest that ( i ) arsenate desorption limits microbiologically induced arsenate reductive mobilization and ( ii ) phosphate enhances arsenic mobility by stimulating arsenate desorption rather than by inhibiting it at the enzymatic level. (pnas.org)
  • We have developed a genetics-based phytoremediation strategy for arsenic in which the oxyanion arsenate is transported aboveground, reduced to arsenite, and sequestered in thiol-peptide complexes. (elsevier.com)
  • Arsenic exists in the environment in several inorganic and organic forms with arsenate [As(V)] and arsenite [As(III)] being the most prevalent inorganic and toxic forms of As (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The authors explain that various bacteria transform, or reduce, arsenic V - known as arsenate - into arsenic III - known as arsenite. (eurekalert.org)
  • In arsenic-laden environments, the compound can exist in three different oxidation states, including As(V) (arsenate), As(III) (arsenite), and As(−III) (arsine) ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • A novel arsenic (As)-resistant, arsenate-respiring, alkane-metabolizing bacterium KAs 5-22 T , isolated from As-rich groundwater of West Bengal was characterized by physiological and genomic properties. (springer.com)
  • The common mechanisms for arsenic detoxification are uptaken by phosphate transporters, aquaglyceroporins, and active extrusion system and reduced by arsenate reductases via dissimilatory reduction mechanism. (hindawi.com)
  • Arsenic usually exists in four oxidation states: As −3 (arsine), As° (arsenic), As +3 (arsenite), and As +5 (arsenate) [ 4 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In soil environment, arsenic is generally present in two oxidation states which are As +3 (arsenite) and As +5 (arsenate) and normally present as a mixture of As +3 (arsenite) and As +5 (arsenate) in air [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Arsenite has been reported as the most toxic and soluble form of arsenic when compared to arsenate, and it can bind with reactive sulfur atoms present in many enzymes, including enzymes which are involved in respiration [ 4 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Sequence analysis of a clone conferring resistance to both sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate revealed homologues to the arsR (regulatory repressor), arsB (membrane located arsenite pump), arsC (arsenate reductase), arsD (second regulatory repressor and a metallochaperone) and arsA (ATPase) genes from known arsenic resistance operons. (scielo.org.za)
  • Arsenic can also be associated with FA, predominantly as arsenate, 1 usually complexed with carbonates or iron-manganese oxides. (scielo.org.za)
  • 6 In soils, arsenic is present in two oxidation states: As(III) (arsenite) and As(V) (arsenate). (scielo.org.za)
  • Insights into the structure, solvation, and mechanism of ArsC arsenate reductase, a novel arsenic detoxification enzyme. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli ) isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4-2,048 μg/mL), roxarsone (4-2048 μg/mL), arsenate (16-8,192 μg/mL) and arsenite (4-2,048 μg/mL). (mdpi.com)
  • The presence of arsC and acr3 did not significantly increase arsenic resistance with the exception of conferring resistance to higher concentrations of arsenate to some Campylobacter isolates. (mdpi.com)
  • The toxic effect of arsenic was also indicated by significantly decreased activities of membrane bound ATPases, enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase along with non-enzymatic antioxidants like reduced glutathione, total sulfhydryl groups, vitamins C and E. Administration of THC exhibited a significant reversal of arsenic-induced toxicity in hepatic tissue. (omicsonline.org)
  • Bi-inorganic form of As in drinking water are trivalent (As +3 ) such as arsenic trioxide and sodium arsenite and pentavalent (As +5 ) such as arsenic pentoxide and the various arsenates. (omicsonline.org)
  • Anderson CR, Cook GM (2004) Isolation and characterization of arsenate-reducing bacteria from arsenic-contaminated sites in New Zealand. (springer.com)
  • Arsenate (As(V)) is the prevailing arsenic species in aerated soils. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Isolation of an arsenate-respiring bacterium from a redox front in an arsenic-polluted aquifer in West Bengal, Bengal Basin. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Escherichia coli arsR, an arsenic-responsive transcription repressor of the arsenic resistance operon (ars) which encodes an arsenate reductase and metal exporters. (embl.de)
  • Excised plasmids from the cDNA library of P. vittata fronds were introduced into Escherichia coli XL-1 Blue and plated on medium containing 4 mM of arsenate, a common form of arsenic in the environment. (deepdyve.com)
  • Consistent with cTPI's role in arsenate reduction, bacterial cells expressing fern TPI had significantly greater per cent of cellular arsenic as arsenite compared to cells expressing E. coli TPI. (deepdyve.com)
  • Among the toxic arsenic-containing compounds contaminating drinking water are arsenates. (caltech.edu)
  • Polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic analysis showed that strain As3-1 harbored a typical AsV reductase gene (arsC) on the plasmids. (nih.gov)
  • The Escherichia coli arsC gene encodes arsenate reductase (ArsC), which catalyzes the glutathione (GSH)-coupled electrochemical reduction of arsenate to the more toxic arsenite. (elsevier.com)
  • Arabidopsis thaliana plants transformed with the arsC gene expressed from a light-induced soybean rubisco promoter (SRS1p) strongly express ArsC protein in leaves, but not roots, and were consequently hypersensitive to arsenate. (elsevier.com)
  • The new primer - a short strand of DNA that targets the arsenate reductase gene - helps researchers identify which bacteria in a sample have the genes. (eurekalert.org)
  • We observed a significant correlation between reductase gene abundance and arsenite concentrations in the groundwater samples," said Mirza. (eurekalert.org)
  • The GenBank accession numbers for 16S rRNA, molybdopterin-binding site of As 5+ respiratory reductase ( arr A) and putative benzyl succinate synthase ( bss A like) gene are JX173993, KR340465, and KX011179, respectively. (springer.com)
  • We tested the effects of different combinations of gene knockout, including arsenate reductase (HAC1), γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (γ-ECS), phytochelatin synthase (PCS1) and phosphate effluxer (PHO1), and the heterologous expression of the As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata arsenite efflux (PvACR3), on As tolerance, accumulation, translocation and speciation in A. thaliana. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The yffB (PA3664) gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes an uncharacterized protein of 13 kDa molecular weight with a marginal sequence similarity to arsenate reductase from Escherichia coli. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Escherichia coli strains harboring thiosulfate reductase gene phsABC expression constructs show higher thiosulfate reductase activity and produce significantly more sulfide than the control strains under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • In particular, two adjacent and divergently oriented gene clusters include three arsenate reductase genes (1/2/3) involved in resistance mechanisms against As(V). A sequence similarity network (SSN) and phylogenetic analysis of these arsenate reductase genes indicated that two of them (ArsC2/3) are functionally related to thioredoxin (Trx)/thioredoxin reductase (TrxR)-dependent class and one of them (ArsC1) to the mycothiol (MSH)/mycoredoxin (Mrx)-dependent class. (americanelements.com)
  • A targeted transcriptomic analysis performed by RT-qPCR indicated that the arsenate reductase genes as well as other genes included in the gene cluster (possible regulator gene, , and arsenite extrusion genes, , and ) are transcriptionally induced when BCP1 cells were exposed to As(V) supplied at two different sub-lethal concentrations. (americanelements.com)
  • When E. coli tpi gene was expressed in the same vector, bacterial arsenate resistance was not altered, indicating that arsenate tolerance was specific to P. vittata TPI. (deepdyve.com)
  • Arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) (EC 1.20.4.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arsenate + glutaredoxin ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } arsenite + glutaredoxin disulfide + H2O Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are arsenate and glutaredoxin, whereas its 3 products are arsenite, glutaredoxin disulfide, and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is glutaredoxin:arsenate oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Glutathione/Glutaredoxin System Is Essential for Arsenate Reduction in Synechocystis sp. (asm.org)
  • ArsC is a reductase that catalyzes electron transfer from reduced glutathione and glutaredoxin (in E. coli ) ( 18 ) or thioredoxin (in Staphylococcus aureus ) ( 23 , 24 ) to arsenate, reducing it to arsenite, the substrate of the efflux system. (asm.org)
  • Arsenate reductases require reducing equivalents such as GLUTAREDOXIN or AZURIN. (bvsalud.org)
  • In vitro, it is possible via a reaction with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) to make a stable mixed-disulfide complex between thioredoxin from Staphylococcus aureus and one of its substrates, oxidized pI258 arsenate reductase (ArsC) from S. aureus. (rcsb.org)
  • Kinetics and active site dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus arsenate reductase. (ugent.be)
  • In Escherichia coli and other bacteria, arsenate [As(V)] is taken up by phosphate transport systems such as the ATP-coupled Pst pump ( 52 ), a member of the ABC superfamily of transport ATPases (Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Escherichia coli expressing thiosulfate reductase genes (phsABC) from Salmonella typhimurium is able to remove significant amounts of heavy metals from the medium within 24 h: 99% of zinc up to 500 microM, 99% of lead up to 200 microM, 99% of 100 icroM and 91% of 200 icroM cadmium. (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • Additionally, Glasser was able to examine the enzyme as produced by Shewanella bacteria-microbes that actually perform arsenate respiration in the environment-rather than in the organism commonly used in the laboratory for bacterial protein expression, Escherichia coli (E. coli) . (caltech.edu)
  • Through the proteome analysis of Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), we previously identified the stress-responsive protein, arsenate reductase (ArsC), that showed a high cytoplasmic solubility and a folding capacity even in the presence of stress-inducing reagents. (elsevier.com)
  • Molecular cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of periplasmic nitrate reductase from Campylobacter jejuni. (nih.gov)
  • Activities of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS) as well as glutamate synthase (GOGAT) were lowered in the test seedlings. (springer.com)
  • Hageman RH, Reed AJ (1980) Nitrate reductase from higher plants. (springer.com)
  • Enzymes that contain the molybdopterin cofactor include xanthine oxidase, DMSO reductase, sulfite oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of interest are the bacteria species equipped with arsenate reductase genes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now we can simply add the primer into the reaction and we get quantifiable copies of the reductase genes," said Mirza. (eurekalert.org)
  • The copied genes show us which bacteria species are in the sample and tell us new information about the diversity of arsenate-reducing microorganisms. (eurekalert.org)
  • What this means is that wherever we find arsenite, we can expect to find microbes with arsenate reductase genes and vice versa. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mirza said the new primer successfully amplified the reductase genes and made it possible for his team to see a broad diversity of arsenate-reducing microorganisms. (eurekalert.org)
  • Indeed, we provide evidence by performing a BLAST analysis on metatranscriptomic data that genes involved in iron, sulfur, arsenate and selenate anaerobic respiration are expressed in the rhizosphere, underscoring that the rhizosphere environment is suitable for the establishment of anaerobic respiration. (frontiersin.org)
  • The presence of genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr) suggests that DEH could respire oxidized sulfur compounds, although Chloroflexi have never been implicated in this mode of sulfur cycling. (asm.org)
  • DEH-C11 also harbored genes encoding reductases for arsenate, dimethyl sulfoxide, and halogenated organics. (asm.org)
  • For 'As' removal there are 2 bacterial genes that express together Arsenate reductase and Gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (Gamma ECS) [ 6 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • This organism is the first member of the family Geobacteraceae to be shown to reduce As(V) and this activity is supported by the identification of genes potentially encoding a respiratory arsenate reductase. (asmscience.org)
  • Characterization of the Arsenate Respiratory Reductase from Shewanella sp. (asm.org)
  • Arsenate reductase (azurin) (EC 1.20.9.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arsenite + H2O + 2 azurinox ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } arsenate + 2 azurinred + 2 H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are arsenite, water, and oxidised azurin, whereas its 3 products are arsenate, reduced azurin, and hydrogen ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structural and kinetic findings of the Arr enzyme complex reported here both help rationalize its extracytoplasmic localization and allow us to predict that the rate of arsenate release from minerals likely constrains its activity in sedimentary environments. (pnas.org)
  • Arsenate respiration by bacteria was discovered over two decades ago and is catalyzed by diverse organisms using the well-conserved Arr enzyme complex. (pnas.org)
  • Arr is an extraordinarily fast enzyme that approaches the diffusion limit ( K m = 44.6 ± 1.6 μM, k cat = 9,810 ± 220 seconds −1 ), and phosphate is a competitive inhibitor of arsenate reduction ( K i = 325 ± 12 μM). (pnas.org)
  • The ArrAB complex-the enzyme that enables arsenate respiration-solved by X-ray crystallography. (caltech.edu)
  • Though E. coli can perform arsenate respiration and express the Arr enzyme complex, Shewanella can produce much more active protein. (caltech.edu)
  • This work provides helpful information about an enzyme that, as far as we know, is found in every bacterium that respires arsenate. (caltech.edu)
  • for example, arsenate (As V ) is absorbed with the help of phosphate transporters, and arsenite (As III ) through nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) by the silicon transport pathway and plasma membrane intrinsic protein aquaporins. (mdpi.com)
  • arsR (transcriptional repressor), arsC (arsenate reductase) and arsB (arsenite efflux membrane protein). (scielo.org.za)
  • Bacillus subtilis arsenate reductase is structurally and functionally similar to low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Les enzymes antioxidants tels que superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione réductase, et catalase sont moins actifs en présence de cadmium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes of interest for the present study were: glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, the tolerant cultivar tolerated As stress by producing more antioxidants, such as proline, sustaining the ratio of ascorbate, dehydroascorbate, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity as well as As detoxifying enzymes arsenate reductase, whereas these respective metabolic activities declined in sensitive cultivar, resulting in greater susceptibility to As toxicity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A arsenate reductase that can use azurin as a donor-acceptor. (bvsalud.org)
  • Respiratory Selenite Reductase from Bacillus selenitireducens Strain MLS10. (nih.gov)
  • Afkar E, Lisak J, Saltikov C, Basu P, Oremland RS, Stolz JF (2003) The respiratory arsenate reductase from Bacillus selenitireducens strain MLS10. (springer.com)
  • Selenodiglutathione is a highly efficient oxidant of reduced thioredoxin and a substrate for mammalian thioredoxin reductase. (wikipathways.org)
  • Methylseleninate is a substrate rather than an inhibitor of mammalian thioredoxin reductase. (wikipathways.org)
  • We also obtained structures bound with the substrate arsenate (1.8 Å), the product arsenite (1.8 Å), and the natural inhibitor phosphate (1.7 Å). (pnas.org)
  • Our study ( 1 ) described the ability of a known microbe, a member of the Gammaproteobacteria (strain GFAJ-1), to survive and grow in the presence of 40 mM arsenate (As) when cultured without deliberately added phosphate (P). We hypothesized that GFAJ-1 incorporates As into biomolecules in place of P, based on evidence ranging from mass spectrometry and x-ray spectroscopy to classical techniques in microbiology. (sciencemag.org)
  • Molybdenum cofactor functions directly in ethylbenzene dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and respiratory arsenate reductase. (hmdb.ca)
  • Because of the similarity to phosphate, sometimes arsenate is mistaken for phosphate, which is how it is introduced into living organisms, including E. coli , by the phosphate uptake system. (igem.org)
  • The reason arsenate is toxic to humans is because it is chemically similar to phosphate, a necessary compound for cells to make ATP, the energy currency of the cell. (caltech.edu)
  • If there is too much arsenate present, the cell starts taking that up instead of phosphate, destroying the cell's ability to make ATP. (caltech.edu)
  • Contrary to what one might expect, phosphate likely stimulates arsenate respiration rather than inhibiting it in typical sedimentary environments in contact with groundwater. (caltech.edu)
  • YeAs showed no detectable respiratory arsenate reductase but did display significant detoxification arsenate reductase activity. (asm.org)
  • Meanwhile, the reduction of arsenate into arsenite in the transition from aerobic to anoxic pore waters is often mediated by microbial activity, which includes detoxification and metabolic mechanisms [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Reduction of arsenate is a critical step for its biotransformation into a form that can be transported by ARSENITE TRANSPORTING ATPASES or complexed by specific sulfhydryl-containing proteins for the purpose of detoxification (METABOLIC DETOXIFICATION, DRUG). (bvsalud.org)
  • All intermediates of the arsenate reductase mechanism, including an intramolecular dynamic disulfide cascade. (ugent.be)
  • Arginine 60 in the ArsC arsenate reductase of E. coli plasmid R773 determines the chemical nature of the bound As(III) product. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Identification of a triad of arginine residues in the active site of the ArsC arsenate reductase of plasmid R773. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Rue61a to arsenate and Pb 2+ , whereas the linear plasmid confers the ability to convert quinaldine to anthranilate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we report the first isolation of a dissimilatory arsenate reducer from sediments of the Bengal Basin in West Bengal. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • It is a member of the Desulfuromonas genus and possesses a dissimilatory arsenate reductase that was identified using degenerate polymerase chain reaction primers. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • An arsenate-reducing and alkane-metabolizing novel bacterium, Rhizobium arsenicireducens sp. (springer.com)
  • PV4-8 expression improved arsenate resistance in E. coli WC3110, a strain deficient in arsenate reductase but not in AW3110 deficient for the whole ars operon. (deepdyve.com)
  • This is consistent with the hypothesis that PV4-8 TPI increased arsenate resistance in E. coli by directly or indirectly functioning as an arsenate reductase. (deepdyve.com)
  • Paradoxically, P. vittata TPI activity was not more resistant to inhibition by arsenate in vitro than its bacterial counterpart suggesting that arsenate resistance of conventional TPI reaction was not the basis for the cellular arsenate resistance. (deepdyve.com)
  • Oxidoreductases that specifically reduce arsenate ion to arsenite ion. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is known that arsenite salts are more toxic than arsenate as it binds with vicinal thiols in pyruvate dehydrogenase while arsenate inhibits the oxidative phosphorylation process. (hindawi.com)
  • McLean said a complete picture of the diversity of arsenate-reducing bacteria in a particular environment could lead to improved land use practices and awareness of human activities that may exacerbate the problem. (eurekalert.org)
  • O. anthropi es una bacteria emergente en infecciones intrahospitalarias con notable resistencia antimicrobiana, y es un patógeno inusual en humanos.A case report of bacteraemia by Ochrobactrum anthropi probably associated with bacterial hepatitis, in a inmuno competent patient, who was admitted to the hospital with the diagnostic impression of cholangitis and biliary obstruction. (worldwidescience.org)
  • When bacteria in these environments run out of oxygen, they can enter into an anaerobic mode and turn to respiring arsenate. (caltech.edu)
  • The results showed that 20 percent of the wells surveyed had arsenate and arsenite concentrations above the drinking water limit of 10 micrograms per liter. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers then tested whether the samples containing high arsenite concentrations also had an abundance of the arsenate reductase genetic material. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cadmium sulphate, sodium arsenate and lead chloride in concentrations from 10 to 500 µM were administered to plants. (springer.com)
  • Experimental design was completely randomized with different arsenate concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 100 μM) with or without 5 mM silicate. (springer.com)
  • Most of the 552 Campylobacter isolates were able to survive at higher concentrations of arsanilic acid (512-2,048 μg/mL), roxarsone (512-2,048 μg/mL), and arsenate (128-1,024 μg/mL), but at lower concentrations for arsenite (4-16 μg/mL). (mdpi.com)
  • The most effecitve expression construct produces thiosulfate reductase at the highest level and removes the most cadmium from solution under anaerobic conditions: 98% of all concentrations up to 150 microM and 91% of 200 microM. (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • Prosthetic group of: formate dehydrogenase, purine hydroxylase, thiosulfate reductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • I've some proteins which have molecular weight in range of phytochelatin synthase and Arsenate reductase.Is there any known antibody for any of it by which I can do western blotting? (biology-online.org)
  • It was also possible to present a method to distinguish between low molecular weight phosphatases and arsenate reductases, which are derived by the former by divergent evolution. (usp.br)
  • Adaptaci n Molecular en Cianobacterias: Interacci n entre el Metabolismo del Nitr geno y el Carbono con el Estado Redox Celular Via la Acci n de Metales Pesados. (us.es)
  • An international team of researchers led by former Caltech graduate student Nathaniel Glasser (PhD '17) has now determined the enzyme's physical structure and the precise molecular locations where it chemically interacts with arsenate. (caltech.edu)
  • Here, we report the structure of an Arr complex (solved by X-ray crystallography to 1.6-Å resolution), which was enabled by an improved Arr expression method in the genetically tractable arsenate respirer Shewanella sp. (pnas.org)
  • It is known that ferric iron phase plays an important role for the sorption of dissolved arsenate in oxic groundwater [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In this form, arsenates are not likely to dissolve into the groundwater that flows through these geological deposits. (caltech.edu)
  • Arr activity assays using methyl viologen as the electron donor and arsenate as the electron acceptor display two-site ping-pong kinetics. (pnas.org)
  • Certain species of microorganisms are able to use arsenate as their nutrient in respiratory process. (hindawi.com)
  • Strain WP30 is a chemoorganoheterotroph and requires elemental sulfur and/or arsenate as an electron acceptor. (asm.org)
  • Growth in the presence of elemental sulfur and arsenate resulted in the formation of thioarsenates and polysulfides. (asm.org)
  • In doing so, the microbes change arsenate into arsenite, a similar compound which is much more soluble in water. (caltech.edu)