Arsanilic Acid: An arsenical which has been used as a feed additive for enteric conditions in pigs and poultry. It causes blindness and is ototoxic and nephrotoxic in animals.Roxarsone: An arsenic derivative which has anticoccidial action and promotes growth in animals.Arsenicals: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Nisin: A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Campylobacter coli: A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of swine, poultry, and man. It may be pathogenic.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Confined Spaces: A space which has limited openings for entry and exit combined with unfavorable natural ventilation such as CAVES, refrigerators, deep tunnels, pipelines, sewers, silos, tanks, vats, mines, deep trenches or pits, vaults, manholes, chimneys, etc.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Undaria: A genus of BROWN ALGAE, in the family Alariaceae, native to Japan, Korea, and China. The edible SEAWEED Undaria pinnatifida is also called wakame.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Flowmeters: Devices used to measure the flow of fluids (see RHEOLOGY) or the AIR to measure RESPIRATION.

The N-acetylation of arsanilic acid In vitro by mammalian enzymes. (1/11)

The N-acetylation of arsanilic acid was assayed in vitro by modifying a literature method for acetylation of p-aminobenzoic acid. Conditions included final concentrations of 1.0 mM dithiothreitol, 1.0 mM EDTA, 0.45 mM acetyl coenzyme A, an acetyl coenzyme A regenerating system using bacterial phosphotransacetylase and acetyl phosphate, 5.0 mM arsanilate substrate, and 25 mM sodium/potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, in a total volume of 0.5 ml. Incubation was at 37 degrees C, with 0.5- to 2-mg N-acetyltransferase enzyme protein from a preparation of guinea pig liver. The reaction was terminated by heat precipitation. The resulting supernatant was put through a 4 mm 0.45 microm polysulfone membrane syringe filter. The filtrate could then be injected directly onto the HPLC. With arsanilic acid as substrate, the product N-acetylarsanilic acid (NAA) was identified by its retention time (33 min) in the HPLC system of the laboratory. The 33-min fraction collected from the HPLC was scanned and gave the characteristic UV spectrum of NAA, with peaks at 203 and 256 nm. In addition, the product comigrated in the HPLC system with standard NAA. Under comparable assay conditions, the N-acetylation of arsanilate by the guinea pig enzyme preparation is about 24% the rate of that of the model substrate p-aminobenzoic acid. Typical activity for arsanilate acetylation was 0.5 nmol/min/mg enzyme protein. Using the same assay system and HPLC detection method, the supernatant from bacterial lysates containing recombinant human N-acetyltransferase 1 exhibited acetylation activity toward arsanilate of 720 nmol/min/mg enzyme protein.  (+info)

Vestibular information is required for dead reckoning in the rat. (2/11)

Dead reckoning is an on-line form of spatial navigation used by an animal to identify its present location and return directly to a starting location, even after circuitous outward trips. At present, it is not known which of several self-movement cues (efferent copy from movement commands, proprioceptive information, sensory flow, or vestibular information) are used to compute homeward trajectories. To determine whether vestibular information is important for dead reckoning, the impact of chemical labyrinthectomy was evaluated in a test that demanded on-line computation of a homeward trajectory. Rats were habituated to leave a refuge that was visible from all locations on a circular table to forage for large food pellets, which they carried back to the refuge to eat. Two different probe trials were given: (1) the rats foraged from the same spatial location from a hidden refuge in the light and so were able to use visual cues to navigate; (2) the same procedure took place in the dark, constraining the animals to dead reckon. Although control rats carried food directly and rapidly back to the refuge on both probes, the rats with vestibular lesions were able to do so on the hidden refuge but not on the dark probe. The scores of vestibular reflex tests predicted the dead reckoning deficit. The vestibular animals were also impaired in learning a new piloting task. This is the first unambiguous demonstration that vestibular information is used in dead reckoning and also contributes to piloting.  (+info)

Strong galvanic vestibular stimulation obscures arterial pressure response to gravitational change in conscious rats. (3/11)

Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is known to create an imbalance in the vestibular inputs; thus it is possible that the simultaneously applied GVS obscures adequate gravity-based inputs to the vestibular organs or modifies an input-output relationship of the vestibular system and then impairs the vestibular-mediated response. To examine this, arterial pressure (AP) response to gravitational change was examined in conscious rats with and without GVS. Free drop-induced microgravity and centrifugation-induced hypergravity were employed to elicit vestibular-mediated AP response. GVS itself induced pressor response in an intensity-dependent manner. This pressor response was completely abolished by vestibular lesion, suggesting that the GVS-induced response was mediated by the vestibular system. The pressor response to microgravity (35 +/- 3 mmHg) was significantly reduced by simultaneously applied GVS (19 +/- 1 mmHg), and pressor response to 3-G load was also significantly reduced by GVS. However, GVS had no effect on air jet-induced pressor response. The effects of GVS on pressor response to gravitational change were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that caused by the vestibular lesion, effects of which were demonstrated in our previous studies (Gotoh TM, Fujiki N, Matsuda T, Gao S, Morita H. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 286: R25-R30, 2004; Matsuda T, Gotoh TM, Tanaka K, Gao S, Morita H. Brain Res 1028: 140-147, 2004; Tanaka K, Gotoh TM, Awazu C, Morita H. Neurosci Lett 397: 40-43, 2006). These results indicate that GVS reduced the vestibular-mediated pressor response to gravitational change but has no effect on the non-vestibular-mediated pressor response. Thus GVS might be employed for the acute interruption of the AP response to gravitational change.  (+info)

Vestibular-mediated increase in central serotonin plays an important role in hypergravity-induced hypophagia in rats. (4/11)


DNA damage and decrease of cellular oxidase activity in piglet Sertoli cells exposed to arsanilic acid. (5/11)

The study was designed to explore the toxic effects of arsanilic acid on piglet Sertoli cells. Sertoli cells were isolated from piglet testes using a two-step enzyme digestion followed by differential plating. Piglet Sertoli cells were cultured and classified into the following five groups: group A, the control without arsanilic acid treatment; group B, cultured with 5 microM arsanilic acid; group C, cultured with 50 microM arsanilic acid; group D, cultured with 0.5 mM arsanilic acid; and group E, cultured with 5 mM arsanilic acid. We found that Sertoli cell growth was inhibited by arsanilic acid at 0.5 mM compared with the control, group A. The oxidase activity of Sertoli cells was decreased by arsanilic acid at 0.5 mM as evidenced by the observations that arsanilic acid increased MDA content but decreased the SOD and GSH-Px activities of Sertoli cells. Moreover, 50 microM of arsanilic acid was observed to cause DNA damage in Sertoli cells. The results of our study suggest that exposure of Sertoli cells to arsanilic acid leads to induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of cell growth at a high concentration, while arsanilic acid causes DNA damage in Sertoli cells at a low concentration.  (+info)

Affinity maturation in the arsonate system: lack of dominance of high-affinity antibody subpopulations. (6/11)

Affinity maturation was studied by the analysis of the kinetics of the appearance of antibody subpopulations with different affinities during the immune response, using an hapten-inhibition ELISA. The immune response in KLH-Ar-immunized A/J mice was used as a model system. Five antibody subpopulations of different affinity (10(3)-10(7) M-1) could be detected, the relative concentrations of which changed during affinity maturation. The high-affinity antibody subpopulations did not represent the major fraction at any stage during affinity maturation. The appearance of the highest affinity subpopulation (10(7) M-1), despite exhibiting relative concentrations no higher than 12%, produced an important increase in average affinity. On the other hand, its disappearance at the end of the maturation process could explain the average affinity decrease observed at this stage. Our results indicate that affinity maturation cannot be explained by the dominance of high-affinity clones, as proposed by Siskind & Benacerraf (1969). The increase in affinity could rather be due to the progressive appearance of low percentages of high-affinity clones, which are not present in the primary response and never become dominant.  (+info)

Feeding sodium arsanilate for exciting diarrhea and identifying carriers of swine dysentery. (7/11)

Sodium arsanilate was fed to nondiarrhetic swine, previously exposed to and treated for swine dysentery, for the purpose of inducing them into developing a swine dysentery diarrhea. From 40 to 100% of these swine in each pen had previously had a swine dysentery diarrhea. The isolate of Treponema hyodysenteriae in the diced colon which was used to expose the swine was resistant to sodium arsanilate. After an interim of no treatment for swine dysentery, sodium arsanilate was fed at a level of 220 parts per million for 21 days. Of the 14 pens containing swine fed sodium arsanilate, ten pens had one or more swine that developed a swine dysentery diarrhea while being fed sodium arsanilate. This was significantly (P less than 0.05) greater than the three pens that each had one pig that developed a swine dysentery diarrhea of 13 pens containing similar swine not fed sodium arsanilate during a comparable period. In the 14 pens containing swine fed sodium arsanilate, 14 swine were the first to develop a swine dysentery diarrhea since in four pens, two swine in each pen developed diarrhea within 24 hours of each other. This also was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than the three swine in the ten pens not fed sodium arsanilate. From these results, it was theorized that sodium arsanilate excited the nondiarrhetic carrier into developing a swine dysentery diarrhea and that this phenomenon may have potential in identifying the carrier state.  (+info)

Probable elimination of swine dysentery after feeding ronidazole, carbadox or lincomycin and verification by feeding sodium arsanilate. (8/11)

Swine dysentery did not recur during a nine week period after withdrawal of medication in swine fed ronidazole at a level of 60 parts per million of feed for ten weeks or fed either carbadox at 55 ppm or lincomycin at 110 ppm of feed for six weeks. During this period swine dysentery was neither transmitted to accompanying sentinels after the withdrawal of the above medication or was Treponema hyodysenteriae isolated and cultured or observed in stained smears from rectal swabs and feces or from colonic scrapings at necropsy. Beginning three weeks after the withdrawal of medication, all swine were fed sodium arsanilate at a concentration of 220 ppm of feed for three weeks in an attempt to excite the carrier of swine dysentery into developing a swine dysentery diarrhea. A swine dysentery diarrhea did recur during the feeding of sodium arsanilate in swine previously fed ronidazole at a level of 60 ppm of feed for only six weeks. It was concluded: that swine dysentery was probably eliminated with the feeding of ronidazole for the longer duration and with the feeding of carbadox and lincomycin and that sodium arsanilate was of value in identifying the carrier state.  (+info)

  • Arsanilic acid, also known as aminophenyl arsenic acid or aminophenyl arsonic acid, is an organoarsenic compound, an amino derivative of phenylarsonic acid whose amine group is in the 4-position. (
  • In Germany, Paul Ehrlich inferred Béchamp's report of Atoxyl's structure incorrect, and Ehrlich with his chief organic chemist Alfred Bertheim found its correct structure-aminophenyl arsenic acid or aminophenyl arsonic acid-which suggested possible derivatives. (
  • Arsonic acid, methyl-, compd. (
  • Polyelectrolytes with arsonic acid groups were synthetized by chemical modification of poly( p -acryloyloxibenzaldehyde) using ortho- and para- aminophenylarsonic acids (PE-1 and PE-2). (
  • Meanwhile, macroelectrolytes with arsonic acid groups were synthesized from hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene using arsanilic acids in ortho- and para- position (ME-1 and ME-2). (
  • Because of the position of arsonic acid groups, the degree of substitution of polyelectrolytes and macroelectrolytes, and the dissociation in liquid media, different nanostructures were obtained with them using the colloidal method. (
  • 5,6 Proanthocyanidins and other compounds such as phenolics, organic acids and sugars contribute to supporting a healthy urinary tract. (
  • Prostaglandins are polyunsaturated fatty acid compounds that are part of the eicosanoid group of fatty acids, which regulate cellular functioning in response to injury. (
  • However, in WWTP2 and WWTP10, PFAS composition differed significantly, with fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide-based substances (FOSAMs), precursor compounds of restricted PFAS, contributing significantly to Σ28 PFAS concentration. (
  • C6H5NH2 + H3AsO4 → H2O3AsC6H4NH2 + H2O Arsanilic acid occurs as a zwitterion, H3N+C6H4AsO3H−, yet is typically represented with the non-zwitterionic formula H2NC6H4AsO3H2. (
  • Acid CAS 96-97-9 Light Yellow Crystalline Powder Quick detail Product Name: 5-Nitrosalicylic acid Synonyms: 2-hydroxy-5-nitro-benzoicaci;AURORA KA-2534;ANILOTIC ACID ;2-HYDROXY-5-NITROBENZOIC ACID ;5-NITROSALICYLIC ACID ;5-NITRO-2-HYDROXY-BENZOIC ACID . (
  • This study was performed to assess the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, arsanilic acid and danofloxacin by quantification of neural-specific proteins in vitro. (
  • The N-acetylation of arsanilic acid In vitro by mammalian enzymes. (
  • Hepatic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and adverse effects of arsanilic acid and acetaminophen during in vitro hepatic developmental stage. (
  • Agents that affect nucleic acid metabolism, such as griseofulvin. (
  • Nucleic Acids Res. (
  • Such reactions are commonly employed in testing biological samples, such as blood or urine, for the determination of a wide range of target substances, especially biological entities such as cells, proteins, nucleic acid sequences, and the like. (
  • Among the receptors determinable via biospecific affinity reactions are antibodies (both polyclonal and monoclonal), antibody fragments, enzymes, nucleic acids, C1q and the like. (
  • Acetylcholinesterase activity was inhibited by relatively low concentrations of methylmercury and arsanilic acid during the differentiating stage while this activity was inhibited only by more than 40 microM of danofloxacin in the differentiated stage. (
  • Abstract Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) of high molecular weight was prepared by chain extending reaction in a micro-compounder. (
  • Phosphites were used as chain extenders to increase the molecular weight of the PLLA prepolymer that was prepared by bulk polycondensation of L-lactic acid. (
  • We are now beginning to get good x-ray photographs of large polypeptides, with fifty or one hundred amino acid residues per molecule, and I think that we shall succeed in making complete structure determinations of these. (
  • I am confident that this method of attack, using synthetic polypeptides of known amino acid composition, which might be called artificial proteins, will lead ultimately to the solution of the protein problem. (
  • In a modified Ehrlich reaction, p-diethylaminobenzaldehyde in conjunction with a color enhancer reacts with urobilinogen in a strongly acid medium to produce a pink-red color. (
  • Detection of p -arsanilic acid ( p -ASA) is significant for environmental risk assessment as it can be converted into highly toxic inorganic arsenic species. (
  • p -Arsanilic acid ( p -ASA), an emerging organoarsenic pollutant, can be converted into highly poisonous inorganic arsenic species (such as arsenate and arsenite) by biological or chemical reactions, causing serious arsenic pollution in groundwater and surface water. (
  • Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid. (
  • We have prepared mouse monoclonal antibodies against idiotypic (Id) determinants on chicken antibodies to N-acetylglucosamine (NAGA) and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) made by inbred line EL 6(3) birds. (
  • The monoclonal anti-NAGA Id antibody, termed CId-1, reacted with affinity purified antibodies to NAGA, but not with antibodies specific for PABA, arsanilic acid (Ars), phosphorylcholine (PC), or with normal chicken IgG and IgM. (
  • Composition of Dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA) reagent NaOH - 10.0 g Phenol - 2.0 g DNSA - 2.0 g Distilled Water - 1000 mL DNSA reagent was stored in an amber bottle at 4 °C till further use. (
  • PFAS concentration varied significantly between locations (5.4-150 µg kg-1) while perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant analyte in 9 of 12 biosolid samples (4.7-86 µg kg-1) contributing 17-93% to the total PFAS concentration. (
  • Considering p -arsanilic acid ( p -ASA) as an organoarsenic pollutant, monitoring concentration of p -ASA is significant to maintain environmental security. (
  • Density Functional Theory Calculations on the Complexation of p-Arsanilic Acid with Hydrated Iron Oxide Clusters: Structures, Reaction Energies and Transition States. (
  • These include 3-Nitro, which is used to increase weight gain, carbarsone, which is used to prevent infection, and arsanilic acid, another weight gainer. (
  • In this paper, a molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) for sarafloxacin was prepared by the use of itaconic acid as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinking monomer. (
  • Abstract The synthesis and evaluation of a molecularly imprinting polymeric monolith (MIPM) as an on-line selective solid-phase extraction column, for the efficient preconcentration and determination of arsanilic acid (PABAA) in water was reported. (