Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.
Freedom from activity.
Surgery performed on the heart.
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Difficult or labored breathing.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A measurement of OXYGEN uptake in a sitting, resting person (resting oxygen consumption), varying with age, sex, race, and other factors. In normal adult men, one MET is approximately 3.5 ml O2/kg/min of body weight. Oxygen uptake during activities or work can be measured in METs which can be use to determine health status and exercise prescription.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.
Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Glycogenosis due to muscle phosphorylase deficiency. Characterized by painful cramps following sustained exercise.
ANGINA PECTORIS or angina-like chest pain with a normal coronary arteriogram and positive EXERCISE TEST. The cause of the syndrome is unknown. While its recognition is of clinical importance, its prognosis is excellent. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed, p1346; Jablonski Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed). It is different from METABOLIC SYNDROME X, a syndrome characterized by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA, that has increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.
A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature contractions of the HEART VENTRICLES. It is characterized by the premature QRS complex on ECG that is of abnormal shape and great duration (generally >129 msec). It is the most common form of all cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular complexes have no clinical significance except in concurrence with heart diseases.
Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Glucose in blood.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An autosomal dominant familial disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of skeletal muscle weakness associated with falls in serum potassium levels. The condition usually presents in the first or second decade of life with attacks of trunk and leg paresis during sleep or shortly after awakening. Symptoms may persist for hours to days and generally are precipitated by exercise or a meal high in carbohydrates. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1483)
Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Occurrence of heart arrest in an individual when there is no immediate access to medical personnel or equipment.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)
A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.
A group of conditions in which HEART VENTRICLE activation by the atrial impulse is faster than the normal impulse conduction from the SINOATRIAL NODE. In these pre-excitation syndromes, atrial impulses often bypass the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE delay and travel via ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAYS connecting the atrium directly to the BUNDLE OF HIS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.
Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Methods or programs of physical activities which can be used to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Imaging of a ventricle of the heart after the injection of a radioactive contrast medium. The technique is less invasive than cardiac catheterization and is used to assess ventricular function.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The period following a surgical operation.
A low-molecular-weight fragment of heparin, prepared by nitrous acid depolymerization of porcine mucosal heparin. The mean molecular weight is 4000-6000 daltons. It is used therapeutically as an antithrombotic agent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.
The act of BREATHING out.
The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Cardiac arrest and asystole refer to situations in which no cardiac output occurs at all. Without urgent treatment, these ... CPX testing involves measurement of exhaled oxygen and carbon dioxide during exercise. The peak oxygen consumption (VO2 max) is ... If myocardial infarction is suspected, various cardiac markers may be used. BNP is a better indicator than N-terminal pro-BNP ... Heart failure is not the same as heart attack (in which part of the heart muscle dies) or cardiac arrest (in which blood flow ...
Seven major factors (i.e. history of out of hospital cardiac arrest [score = 4]; smoking, angina at rest, physically ... an individual with a history of angina does not develop angina during treadmill stress testing (variant angina is exercise ... These episodes may be far more frequent than expected, cause myocardial ischemia (i.e. insufficient blood flow to portions of ... cardiac chest pain) in contrast to stable angina which is generally triggered by exertion or intense exercise, commonly occurs ...
... can occur in myocardial infarctions. Cardiac arrest, and atypical symptoms such as palpitations, occur more frequently in women ... One high-sensitivity cardiac troponin is able to rule out a heart attack as long as the ECG is normal. Other tests, such as CK- ... The influenza vaccine also appear to protect against myocardial infarction with a benefit of 15 to 45%. Physical activity can ... high blood pressure or low blood pressure Sudden unexpected cardiac death, including cardiac arrest, where symptoms may suggest ...
If symptoms are associated with exercise, a supervised cardiac stress test may be required to reproduce the abnormality. ... The myocardial scarring that occurs in myocardial infarction and also in the surgical repair of congenital heart disease can ... incidence of sustained ventricular tachycardia or cardiac arrest. Emerging data also suggest that very frequent ventricular ... PVCs may be found incidentally on cardiac tests such as a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG) performed for another reason. In ...
Prevention includes not smoking, physical activity, and maintaining a healthy weight.[79] Treatment for cardiac arrest is ... Significant tests. Blood tests, electrophysiology study, cardiac imaging, ECG, echocardiograms, stress test. ... Cardiac disorders such as coronary heart disease, including myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and ... Cardiac arrestEdit. Main article: Cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest is a sudden stop in effective blood flow due to the failure of ...
... and assess patient prognosis after a myocardial infarction (heart attack). Exercise-induced stressors are most commonly either ... of women present with a heart attack or sudden cardiac arrest as their first symptom of cardiovascular disease. Stress tests, ... A cardiac stress test (also referred to as a cardiac diagnostic test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, or abbreviated CPX test) ... such as exercise testing, stress testing treadmills, exercise tolerance test, stress test or stress test ECG. Alternatively a ...
Prevention includes not smoking, physical activity, and maintaining a healthy weight. Treatment for cardiac arrest is immediate ... A number of tests may help with diagnoses including: electrocardiogram, cardiac stress testing, coronary computed tomographic ... Cardiac disorders such as coronary heart disease, including myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and ... These include the great cardiac vein, the middle cardiac vein, the small cardiac vein and the anterior cardiac veins.[citation ...
... severity of haemodynamic dysfunction during progressive exercise in PAH can be recorded using cardiopulmonary exercise testing ... or cardiac arrest. This decrease in blood flow in the cerebral vascular system can result in a buildup of metabolic wastes ... Severe infections lead to increase myocardial metabolic demands and hypoxia. When neuronal tissue is deprived of adequate ... PAH can be a severe disease, which may lead to decreased exercise tolerance, and ultimately heart failure. It involves ...
... the most accurate way of measuring any single person's HRmax is via a cardiac stress test. In this test, a person is subjected ... Typical duration of the test ranges ten to twenty minutes. Adults who are beginning a new exercise regimen are often advised to ... High levels of calcium ions result in hypercalcemia and excessive levels can induce cardiac arrest. Drugs known as calcium ... "Influence of heart rate on mortality after acute myocardial infarction". The American Journal of Cardiology. 65 (9): 547-53. ...
Cardiac stress test - Testing of the cardiovascular system through controlled exercise or drugs. Auscultation - Listening to ... There are several conditions that can cause cardiac arrest. Treatment of cardiac arrest includes cardiopulmonary resuscitation ... Myocardial infarction (a.k.a. heart attack) - A myocardial infarction is the death of a part of the heart which is typically ... There are several causes of sudden cardiac death and it is distinct from cardiac arrest. The leading cause of SCD in young ...
... the patient usually has a number of tests in the emergency department, such as a chest X-ray, blood tests (including myocardial ... A blood test is generally performed for cardiac troponins twelve hours after onset of the pain. If this is positive, coronary ... If the troponin is negative, a treadmill exercise test or a thallium scintigram may be requested.[citation needed] If there is ... people are at a high risk of developing questionable arrhythmias and even sudden death secondary to cardiopulmonary arrest. ...
Provocation tests, in the form of exercise tolerance tests or direct infusion of adrenaline, can be used to detect these ... or an implantable cardiac defibrillator. For people with LQTS who survive cardiac arrest and remain untreated, the risk of ... This can be exacerbated following a sudden reduction in the blood supply to the heart (myocardial infarction), low levels of ... For people who experience cardiac arrest or fainting caused by LQTS and who are untreated, the risk of death within 15 years is ...
These tests suggest the diagnosis of MR and may indicate to the physician that further testing is warranted. For instance, the ... In general, mitral valve surgery requires "open-heart" surgery in which the heart is arrested and the patient is placed on a ... Garg P, Walton AS (June 2008). "The new world of cardiac interventions: a brief review of the recent advances in non-coronary ... Individuals in the chronic compensated phase may be asymptomatic and have normal exercise tolerances.[citation needed] An ...
Screening tests include: Echocardiogram EKG Signal averaged EKG Holter monitoring Cardiac MRI Exercise stress test There is a ... Indications for ICD placement in the setting of ACM include: Cardiac arrest due to VT or VF Symptomatic VT that is not ... Myocardial atrophy is due to injury and apoptosis. This leads to thinning of the RV free wall (to < 3 mm thickness) Myocytes ... cardiac stimulants (i.e.: caffeine, nicotine, pseudoephedrine) and alcohol. Regarding physical activity and exercise, ARVC ...
V-fib is considered a form of cardiac arrest. An individual suffering from it will not survive unless cardiopulmonary ... or lifestyle changes to have less stress and exercise. Automaticity refers to a cardiac muscle cell firing off an impulse on ... A number of tests can help with diagnosis, including an electrocardiogram (ECG) and Holter monitor. Most arrhythmias can be ... so the myocardial cells are unable to activate the fast sodium channel, part of the impulse will arrive late and potentially be ...
Goldberg SJ, Comerci GD, Feldman L (January 1988). "Cardiac output and regional myocardial contraction in anorexia nervosa". ... Liver Function Test: A series of tests used to assess liver function some of the tests are also used in the assessment of ... Some exercise excessively, force themselves to vomit, or use laxatives to lose weight. Complications may include osteoporosis, ... Anorexia nervosa can also result in pubertal delay or arrest. Both height gain and pubertal development are dependent on the ...
Electrophysiology testing enables a detailed analysis of the underlying mechanism of the cardiac arrhythmia as well as the site ... The link between anxiety and palpitation may also explain why many panic attacks involve an impending sense of cardiac arrest. ... Social history, including exercise habits, caffeine consumption, alcohol and illicit drug use, should also be determined. Also ... The presence of Q waves may indicate a prior myocardial infarction as the etiology of the palpitations, and a prolonged QT ...
... massive increase in blood pressure and cardiac strain leading to cardiac arrest, and panic); another 50% die within 15-30 ... Hypoglycemia is a frequent complication and needs to be tested for and treated. Intravenous thiamine and glucose is often ... The treatment of mild hypothermia involves warm drinks, warm clothing, and physical activity. In those with moderate ... The Osborn J may look very similar to those of an acute ST elevation myocardial infarction. Thrombolysis as a reaction to the ...
Cardiac sarcoidosis may also cause congestive heart failure when granulomas cause myocardial fibrosis and scarring. Congestive ... In absolute numbers, birth defects and other complications such as maternal death, cardiac arrest, placental abruption or ... Morell F, Levy G, Orriols R, Ferrer J, De Gracia J, Sampol G (April 2002). "Delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity tests and ... Key aspects are avoiding exercise intolerance and muscle weakness. Low or moderate-intensity physical training has been shown ...
EMTs saved few, if any, victims of sudden cardiac arrest, largely because cardiac arrest occurred mostly in people's homes. The ... In 1966, it was assumed that most cardiac deaths in the community were the result of acute myocardial infarction. It was not ... Further advanced technologies to supplement CPR are being tested. These include the use of drones to deliver defibrillators to ... exercise facilities, etc.) and finally home AED including the opportunity to purchase AEDs over the counter without a ...
With the prime causes of cardiac arrest being ischemic heart disease, efforts to promote a healthy diet, exercise, and smoking ... Myocardial infarction) - Heart attack Thromboembolism (Pulmonary embolism) - A blood clot in the lung Traumatic cardiac arrest ... autopsy or postmortem molecular testing which uses a set of molecular techniques to find the ion channels that are cardiac ... In those with cardiac arrest due to local anesthetic, lipid emulsion may be used. Cooling adults after cardiac arrest who have ...
Some types of arrhythmia result in cardiac arrest, or sudden death. Medical assessment of the abnormality using an ... The simplest specific diagnostic test for assessment of heart rhythm is the electrocardiogram (abbreviated ECG or EKG). A ... Increased heart rate is a normal response to physical exercise or emotional stress. This is mediated by the sympathetic nervous ... that is myocardial ischemia or a heart attack [11] Approximately 180,000 to 250,000 people die suddenly of this cause every ...
An abnormal heart rate can occur which can result in cardiac arrest and death.[1][3] ... The degree of potassium elevation varies with the degree of exercise, which range from 0.3 meq/L in light exercise to 2 meq/L ... Myocardial excitabilityEdit. Calcium (calcium chloride or calcium gluconate) increases threshold potential through a mechanism ... The normal serum level of potassium is 3.5 to 5 mmol/L. Generally, blood tests for kidney function (creatinine, blood urea ...
The benefit patients seem to derive from exercise does not seem to be a direct cardiac effect but rather is due to changes in ... a b Effect of enalapril on congestive heart failure treated with diuretics in elderly patients with prior myocardial infarction ... Testing during this demanding state may reveal abnormalities that are not as discernible at rest.[42] ... "Cardiac output response to exercise in relation to metabolic demand in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction". ...
"What Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest?". NHLBI. June 22, 2016. Archived from the original on 28 July 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016. " ... This along with unhealthy habits and lack of exercise can be very hazardous to firefighter health. A 2015 retrospective ... and annual hearing tests (based on OSHA hearing maintenance regulations). While NIHL can be a risk that occurs from working as ... tachycardia can cause plaque buildup to break loose and lodge itself is a small part of the heart causing myocardial infarction ...
2011). "Recommendations for the use of genetic testing in the clinical evaluation of inherited cardiac arrhythmias associated ... Major risk factors for sudden death in individuals with HCM include prior history of cardiac arrest or ventricular fibrillation ... Sigwart U (July 1995). "Non-surgical myocardial reduction for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy". Lancet. 346 (8969): 211 ... a comparison of objective hemodynamic and exercise end points". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 34 (1): 191-6. ...
This cardiac stress test involves either direct exercise, or where this is not possible, injection of a drug such as dobutamine ... In the worst case this may cause cardiac arrest, a sudden and utter loss of output from the heart. Obesity, high blood pressure ... myocardial infarction), or to prevent a myocardial infarction from occurring. Medications to improve angina symptoms include ... These tests are considered biomarkers because they are highly specific for cardiac disease. Testing for the MB form of creatine ...
Exercise stress testing[edit]. Some individuals with atrial fibrillation do well with normal activity but develop shortness of ... American Heart Association Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias Committee and Exercise Cardiac Rehabilitation, and Secondary ... Secondary AF - occurs in the setting of a primary condition that may be the cause of the AF, such as acute myocardial ... An exercise stress test will evaluate the individual's heart rate response to exertion and determine if the AV node blocking ...
Cardiac arrest → 심정지 (E). *Hypoxia (medical) → 저산소증 (D). *Inflammation → 염증 (A). *Myocardial infarction → 심근 경색 (B) ... Blood test → 혈액 검사 (C). *DNA profiling → 법의유전학 (E). *Electrocardiography → 심전도 (B) ... Physical exercise → 운동 (활동) (E). *Hygiene → 위생 (D). *Obesity → 비만증 (C). *Weight loss ...
Blood tests[edit]. A number of labs may be helpful in determining the cause of shortness of breath. D-dimer, while useful to ... Cardiac tamponade presents with dyspnea, tachycardia, elevated jugular venous pressure, and pulsus paradoxus.[16] The gold ... Zainuldin, Rahizan; Mackey, Martin G.; Alison, Jennifer A. (2011-11-09). "Optimal intensity and type of leg exercise training ... myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, or pneumothorax. Patients with COPD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have a ...
... a class of medication used to manage cardiac arrhythmias, and to protect the heart muscle after a myocardial infarction against ... Dean Kohlhoff, Amchitka and the Bomb: Nuclear Testing in Alaska (University of Washington Press, 2002) p58 ... "Operation Desert Strike", the largest American military exercise since the end of World War II, began in an 18,000 square mile ... with the arrest of Viet Minh agent Nguyen Van Troi. Troi, who would be celebrated as a martyr in North Vietnam after his ...
... , especially when sudden (acute), can lead to respiratory failure or cardiac arrest due to hypoxia. It is a ... Blood tests are performed for electrolytes (sodium, potassium) and markers of renal function (creatinine, urea). Liver enzymes ... It is most often precipitated by acute myocardial infarction or mitral regurgitation, but can be caused by aortic regurgitation ... Exercise-induced. Bronchiectasis. unspecified. Bronchitis. Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis obliterans. Diffuse panbronchiolitis. ...
Coronary artery spasm may occur with subsequent myocardial infarction, dysrhythmia, or cardiac arrest.[3][13] Those with ... Skin allergy testing is available for certain foods and venoms.[17] Blood testing for specific IgE can be useful to confirm ... Physical factors such as exercise (known as exercise-induced anaphylaxis) or temperature (either hot or cold) may also act as ... However these tests are of limited use if the cause is food or if the person has a normal blood pressure,[3] and they are not ...
This can be misinterpreted by medical personnel as signs of myocardial infarction, or cardiac dysfunction. In these clinical ... Exercise testing: Coordinating exercise tests in order to measure body compositions, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular ... Rossen R, Kabat H, Anderson JP (1943). "Acute arrest of cerebral circulation in man". Arch Neurol Psychiat. 50 (5): 510-28. doi ... "Careers in Exercise Physiology".. *^ American College of Sports Medicine (2010). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and ...
Exercise radioisotope test (nuclear stress test, myocardial scintigraphy). *Echocardiography (including stress echocardiography ... A number of tests may help with diagnoses including: electrocardiogram, cardiac stress testing, coronary computed tomographic ... Electrocardiogram, cardiac stress test, coronary computed tomographic angiography, coronary angiogram[8]. Prevention. Healthy ... In the absence of ST-segment elevation, heart damage is detected by cardiac markers (blood tests that identify heart muscle ...
Cardiac stress test Bruce protocol. Electrophysiology study. Cardiac imaging. Angiocardiography. Echocardiography TTE. TEE. ... Myocardial perfusion imaging. Cardiovascular MRI. Ventriculography Radionuclide ventriculography. Cardiac catheterization/ ... "EKGs and exercise stress tests: When you need them for heart disease - and when you don't" (PDF), Choosing Wisely, Consumer ... Sinus pause and sinoatrial arrest. *Sick sinus syndrome: bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome. *Supraventricular tachycardia * ...
Cardiac arrestEdit. Cardiac arrest may occur in the ED/A&E or a patient may be transported by ambulance to the emergency ... Advanced diagnostic testing may be conducted at this stage, including laboratory testing of blood and/or urine, ultrasonography ... Main article: Myocardial infarction. Patients arriving to the emergency department with a myocardial infarction (heart attack) ... Physical exercise, sleep and the company of family and friends were the most frequent coping strategies cited by those surveyed ...
Cardiac arrest. *Headache. *Hypoxia (medical). *Inflammation. *Myocardial infarction. *Respiratory failure. *Shock (circulatory ...
Infrequent ADRs associated with the use of lidocaine include: hypotension, bradycardia, arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, muscle ... for acute myocardial infarction, digoxin poisoning, cardioversion, or cardiac catheterization) if amiodarone is not available ... "Revision Bulletin: Lidocaine and Prilocaine Cream-Revision to Related Compounds Test". The United States Pharmacopeial ... Exercise caution in patients with any of these: *Hypotension not due to arrhythmia ...
These deaths were due to cardiac arrest caused by hypocalcemia during chelation therapy. In two of the cases hypocalcemia ... In addition to being ineffective, chelation therapy prior to heavy metal testing can artificially raise urinary heavy metal ... "The Effect of an EDTA-based Chelation Regimen on Patients With Diabetes Mellitus and Prior Myocardial Infarction in the Trial ... Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for ...
... causes of cardiac arrest IS PATH WARM? - suicide risk factors OPQRST - onset, provocation, quality, region, severity, time ( ... Myocardial infarction A = Aortic dissection C = Cardiac tamponade Under 8, intubate. 4 C's: Comatose Convulsing Corrosive ... "COPD Assessment Test" (PDF). "PULMONARY EDEMA" (PDF). Retrieved 19 May 2015. Burchum, Jacqueline (2014-12-02). Lehne's ... Cough Home-leaving confidence Exercise tolerance (uphill/ 1 flight of stairs) Sputum (phlegm/ mucus) Tightness of chest Sleep ...
Outcomes are often difficult to predict following poisoning, especially people who have symptoms of cardiac arrest, coma, ... Hypotension requires treatment with intravenous fluids; vasopressors may be required to treat myocardial depression. Cardiac ... He tested the effect of carbon monoxide on his own body in a closed chamber, describing the results of his slow poisoning. In ... even when a normal subject engages in light or moderate exercise: 100 mg/m3 (87 ppm) for 15 min 60 mg/m3 (52 ppm) for 30 min 30 ...
... or nausea before cardiac arrest. If not treated within minutes, it typically leads to death. Cardiac catheterization - (heart ... Weber test - is a screening test for hearing performed with a tuning fork. It can detect unilateral (one-sided) conductive ... CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other ... Physical Therapies in Sport and Exercise. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 420-39. ISBN 978-0-443-10351-3. del Castillo, Jorge ( ...
Acute myocardial infarction. Myocardial ischaemia. Exercise tolerance testing. Conditions affecting the right side of the heart ... Cardiac arrest rhythms. Pacemakers and electrocardiography. Pericarditis, myocarditis, drug effects, and congenital heart ...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the diagnostic test setting-inpatient versus outpatient-on adverse cardiac events (ACEs) ... Acute cardiac events at six months were defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, cardiac arrest, or ... Diagnostic testing included exercise treadmill, angiography, stress echocardiography, or stress thallium scans. ... OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the diagnostic test setting-inpatient versus outpatient-on adverse cardiac events (ACEs) ...
Methods and Results Sixty consecutive survivors of cardiac arrest caused by old myocardial infarction were randomly assigned ... Therapy in each patient was always guided by ECG monitoring, exercise testing, and programmed electrical stimulation (PES). ... recurrent cardiac arrest, and cardiac transplantation), number of invasive procedures and antiarrhythmic therapy changes, and ... implantation as first choice is preferable to the conventional approach in survivors of cardiac arrest caused by old myocardial ...
... a history of cardiac arrest, greater than 50% coronary artery stenosis by angiography, ischemia on exercise tolerance testing ... smoked at least 15 cigarettes per day and had one of 11 cardiovascular disorders: history of myocardial infarction, coronary ... The ROSCAP Study was a randomized controlled trial in heart disease patients to test the effect of a smoking reduction ... Nicotine Dependence Tobacco Dependence Cardiac Disease Behavioral: smoking reduction intervention (including NRT) ...
NIOSH offers the following recommendations to reduce the risk of heart attacks and sudden cardiac arrest among fire fighters at ... 2. Perform symptom-limiting exercise stress tests on fire fighters at increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and ... myocardial infarction, cardiomegaly, and left ventricular hypertrophy. ... Region-2; Fire-fighters; Emergency-responders; Cardiac-function; Cardiovascular-system; Cardiovascular-system-disorders; ...
NIOSH offers the following recommendations to reduce the risk of heart attacks and sudden cardiac arrest among fire fighters at ... 2. Perform symptom-limiting exercise stress tests on fire fighters at increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and ... myocardial infarction, cardiomegaly, and left ventricular hypertrophy. ... Volunteer fire captain suffers sudden cardiac death while responding to a call - New York. ...
Acute cardiac events at six months were defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, cardiac arrest, or ... Diagnostic testing included exercise treadmill, angiography, stress echocardiography, or stress thallium scans. ... Point-of-care testing reduces time to cardiac marker results in patients evaluated for acute coronary syndromes, yet evidence ... We have evaluated a number of novel cardiac markers and point-of-care testing in clinical practice. Current projects also ...
Surveys have shown that 0-6 deaths or cardiac arrests occur per 10,000 tests and 2-10 myocardial infractions per 10,000 tests ... Acute cardiovascular response to aerobic exercise used in an exercise stress test. EST incorporates acute aerobic exercise, ... 2015) Systolic Blood Pressure Response During Exercise Stress Testing: The Henry Ford ExercIse Testing (FIT) Project. J Am ... The diagnostic variables of exercise stress test. 1. The ECG changes during exercise stress test ...
Accurate and reliable identification of those survivors of acute myocardial infarction who are at high risk of sudden death ... Electrophysiological testing in the management of survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Am J Cardiol 51: 85-9PubMed ... Weld FM, Chu K, Bigger JT Jr, Rolnitzky L (1981) Risk stratification with low-level exercise testing 2 weeks after myocardial ... Low-level exercise testing after myocardial infarction: usefulness in enchancing clinical risk stratification. Circulation 71: ...
... a history of myocardial infarction and/or an episode of cardiac arrest), the incidence of proarrhythmic events was 13% when ... and ventricular fibrillation have been reported in two of 12 CAF patients undergoing maximal exercise tolerance testing. ... cardiac failure, and cardiac arrest. The spectrum of events observed in fatal cases was much the same as that seen in the non- ... An excessive mortality or non-fatal cardiac arrest rate was seen in patients treated with TAMBOCOR (flecainide) compared with ...
Acute myocardial infarction. Myocardial ischaemia. Exercise tolerance testing. Conditions affecting the right side of the heart ... Cardiac arrest rhythms. Pacemakers and electrocardiography. Pericarditis, myocarditis, drug effects, and congenital heart ...
Name: Professor Sanjay Sharma Position: Professor of Inherited Cardiac Diseases and Sports Cardiology Clinical roles: ... Treat the patient not the blood test: the implications of an increase in cardiac troponin after prolonged endurance exercise ... Global and regional cardiac function in lifelong endurance athletes with and without myocardial fibrosis. Eur J Sport Sci. 2017 ... DSilva A, Papadakis M, Sharma S Cardiac Arrest during Competitive Sports. N Engl J Med. 2018 Apr 12;378(15):1461-2 ...
4. Incorporate exercise stress tests into the Fire Departments medical evaluation program. 5. Provide exercise equipment in ... measures that have been recommended by other agencies to reduce the risk of on-the-job heart attacks and sudden cardiac arrest ... certificate and the coroners report listed "acute myocardial infarction" as the immediate cause of death. The following ...
... a history of myocardial infarction and/or an episode of cardiac arrest), the incidence of proarrhythmic events was 13% when ... and ventricular fibrillation have been reported in two of 12 CAF patients undergoing maximal exercise tolerance testing. ... cardiac failure and cardiac arrest. The spectrum of events observed in fatal cases was much the same as that seen in the non- ... An excessive mortality or non-fatal cardiac arrest rate was seen in patients treated with flecainide compared with that seen in ...
... sudden cardiac arrest, or other abnormal results from tests such as an ECG of the heart or an exercise stress test. Generally, ... and myocardial biopsy will hamper the adoption rates of an echocardiogram.. The study was conducted using an objective ... Increasing prevalence of cardiac disorders. - For a full, detailed list, view the full report Market challenges. - High initial ... In addition, the availability of traditional diagnostic methods such as chest X-ray, ECG, stress test, CT scan, MRI scan, ...
28) Asymptomatic ST-segment depression during exercise testing and the risk of sudden cardiac death in middle-aged men: a ... Cardiac arrest (ventricular fibrillation). Atrial fibrillation. Sustained ventricular tachycardia. Myocardial ischemia. Family ... 4) Guidelines for cardiac pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy. The Task Force for Cardiac Pacing and Cardiac ... Holter monitoring and exercise testing to look for arrhythmias and assess exercise capacity is recommended (24). Genetic ...
History of cardiac arrest or stroke. * Normal exercise treadmill testing (ETT). *Negative thallium or echo ETT required for ... No contraindications for treadmill testing or entry into a training program, including any of the following:. *Myocardial ... It is not yet known whether a low-calorie diet and/or exercise program are more effective than no diet or exercise program in ... Exercise Intervention Participants exercise 3 days per week under the supervision of a physiologist and 2 days per week ...
Visit us often for drug therapy testing results, patient care information and more. Download our FREE app today. ... Contemporary exercise-based CR programs report a risk of any major cardiovascular complication (cardiac arrest, death or MI) as ... Safety of exercise. The risk of sudden death or acute myocardial infarction during exercise in patients with coronary disease ... Symptom-limited exercise testing may be helpful before enrollment in an exercise-based CR program, with exercise test ...
Cardiac Arrest: Cardiac arrest is not a heart attack. With cardiac arrest, a persons heart stops beating. It can be due to a ... Comfort Keepers® can help. As part of our care, we can help promote a heart-healthy diet and exercise that is appropriate for ... Blood tests will show the presence of enzymes that indicate damage to the heart muscle. ... STEMI is short for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Sometimes called a massive heart attack or a widowmaker heart ...
The Myocardial Infarction or Cardiac Arrest Risk Calculator offers the advantage of easier complications but can only be used ... did not demonstrate the incremental value of the additional burden of cardiopulmonary exercise testing for predicting cardiac ... Additionally, the Myocardial Infarction or Cardiac Arrest and American College of Surgeons Risk Calculator have not been ... and Gupta Myocardial Infarction or Cardiac Arrest Risk Index and found that the three prediction models disagreed 29% of the ...
Here is how air pollution can cause myocardial infarction. - ... exercise stress test, cardiac CT scan or MRI. During a heart ... The damage can lead to complications like abnormal heart rhythms and sudden cardiac arrest. ... The myocardial infarction can be diagnosed by tests like electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood tests. You may also have to go ... lack of physical activity, stress, etc. can potentially increase your likelihood of suffering from a myocardial infarction. ...
Acute myocardial infarction. Myocardial ischaemia. Exercise tolerance testing. What you dont get in this free version, but can ... Cardiac arrest rhythms. Pacemakers and electrocardiography. Pericarditis, myocarditis, drug effects, and congenital heart ...
... is one of the simplest and fastest tests used to evaluate the heart. For this test, electrodes (small, plastic patches that ... Cardiac arrest. *Serious heart rhythm problems.. It may be uncomfortable when the sticky electrodes are taken off. If the ... myocardial infarction, or MI) or heart surgery ... Exercise duration is an important part of the stress test ... An exercise ECG is done to assess the hearts response to stress or exercise. In this test, the ECG is recorded while you are ...
Exercise Stress Testing 6. Ambulatory ECG monitors 7. Echocardiography 8. Nuclear Cardiology 9. Cardiac PET 10. Cardiac MRI 11 ... Implanatable Cardiac Defibrillators 40. Cardiac Arrest. VI. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY PREVENTION 41. Hypertension 42. ... ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction 18. Cardiogenic Shock 19. Percutaneous Coronary Interventions and Coronary Stents 20. ... Exercise and the Heart. VII. THE HEART IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS AND CONDITIONS 46. Cardiac Manifestations of AIDS 47. Cardiac ...
Predictive value of the exercise test after uncomplicated myocardial infarction. lansoprazole 30 mg cost uk universities 2010- ... Trends in traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Perth, Western Australia from 1997 to 2014. We developed a method for ... We tested this suggestion on the NO-resistant (ECV-304) and NO-sensitive (HeLa) cells, which were treated with L-NAME or ... Based on the PCr and pH time-dependent changes during exercise and recovery, the rates of ATP production from PCr hydrolysis, ...
Exercise stress testing -- Ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring -- Echocardiography -- Nuclear cardiology -- Cardiac ... Cardiac pacing for bradycardia, heart block, and heart failure -- Implantable cardiac defibrillator -- Cardiac arrest and ... ST-elevation myocardial infarction -- Cardiogenic shock -- Percutaneous coronary intervention -- Coronary artery bypass surgery ... exercise, and the heart -- Cardiac manifestations of HIV/AIDS -- Cardiovascular complications of rheumatic diseases -- Cardio- ...
No deaths, myocardial infarctions, or cardiac arrests occurred during or within 24 hours following testing. Runs of two or more ... No deaths, myocardial infarctions, or cardiac arrests occurred during or within 24 hours following testing. Runs of two or more ... No deaths, myocardial infarctions, or cardiac arrests occurred during or within 24 hours following testing. Runs of two or more ... No deaths, myocardial infarctions, or cardiac arrests occurred during or within 24 hours following testing. Runs of two or more ...
Methods: A symptom-limited maximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer was performed for 68 CAD+T2D patients (age 61 ± 5 years ... Methods: A symptom-limited maximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer was performed for 68 CAD+T2D patients (age 61 ± 5 years ... recovery after exercise was calculated as the slope of HR during the first 60 sec after cessation of exercise (HRRslope). R-R ... recovery after exercise was calculated as the slope of HR during the first 60 sec after cessation of exercise (HRRslope). R-R ...
  • There was no evidence of coronary artery disease of fire fighting and the various components or evidence of a heart attack (myocardial infarction). (
  • Despite CPR (myocardial infarction). (
  • Acute cardiac events at six months were defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, cardiac arrest, or emergent revascularization. (
  • Methods and Results Sixty consecutive survivors of cardiac arrest caused by old myocardial infarction were randomly assigned early ICD implantation (n=29) or conventional therapy (n=31). (
  • Conclusions These data suggest that ICD implantation as first choice is preferable to the conventional approach in survivors of cardiac arrest caused by old myocardial infarction. (
  • The autopsy revealed severe coronary atherosclerosis with a remote (old) myocardial infarction, cardiomegaly, and left ventricular hypertrophy. (
  • My research group focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular emergencies including acute myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome and congestive heart failure. (
  • Accurate and reliable identification of those survivors of acute myocardial infarction who are at high risk of sudden death remain an important and challenging problem. (
  • 1988) First myocardial infarction: are and ejection fraction identify a low risk group. (
  • 1990) The prognostic importance of first myocardial infarction type ( Q wave versus non-Q wave) and Q wave location. (
  • 1992) Prognostic significance of programmed ventricular stimulation in patients surviving complicated myocardial infarction: a prospective study. (
  • Bigger JT, Fliess JL, Kleiger R, Miller JP, Rolinitsky LM (1984) The relationships among ventricular arrhythmias, left ventricular dysfunction, and mortality in the 2 years after myocardial infarction. (
  • Bigger JT Jr, Kleiger R, Fleiss J, Rolinzky L, Steinmann R, Miller J (1988) Components of heart rate variability measured during healing of acute myocardial infarction. (
  • Bourke J, Richards D, Ross D, Wallace E, McGuire M, Uther J (1991) Routine programmed electrical stimulation in survivors of acute myocardial infarction for the prediction of spontaneous ventricular tcahyarrhymias during follow-up: results, optimal stimulation protocol and cost effective screening. (
  • Brown KA, Weiss RM, Clements JP, Wackers FJ (1987) Usefulness of ischaemic myocardium within prior infarct zone for identifying patients at high risk late after acute myocardial infarction. (
  • TAMBOCOR (flecainide) should not be used in patients with recent myocardial infarction . (
  • certificate and the coroner's report listed "acute myocardial infarction" as the immediate cause of death. (
  • When damage or death of part of the heart muscle occurs as a result of ischemia, it is called a heart attack or myocardial infarction (MI). (
  • STEMI is short for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. (
  • NSTEMI stands for non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. (
  • They compared the Revised Cardiac Risk Index, American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Project Risk Calculator, and Gupta Myocardial Infarction or Cardiac Arrest Risk Index and found that the three prediction models disagreed 29% of the time on which patients were low risk. (
  • ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction 18. (
  • Here is how air pollution can cause myocardial infarction. (
  • If yes, you may be at an increased risk of developing myocardial infarction which is also called a heart attack. (
  • This can block the supply of blood to the heart causing a myocardial infarction. (
  • Myocardial infarction is generally characterized by symptoms including shortness of breath, sudden dizziness, nausea, squeezing or aching sensation in the chest, cold sweat, etc. (
  • Certain factors including old age, tobacco exposure, high blood cholesterol level, obesity, suffering from metabolic syndrome, lack of physical activity, stress , etc. can potentially increase your likelihood of suffering from a myocardial infarction. (
  • The myocardial infarction can be diagnosed by tests like electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood tests. (
  • If you suffer from angina you are at increased risk of experiencing a heart attack (acute myocardial infarction or AMI) and should see a doctor right away. (
  • People with unstable angina are at particularly increased risk for experiencing myocardial infarction (MI) , severe cardiac arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat), and cardiac arrest (when the heart stops beating). (
  • Pertinent autopsy results included marked atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD), a small scar consistent with a remote (at least 3 months prior) heart attack (myocardial infarction), an enlarged heart (left ventricular hypertrophy), and no evidence of blood clots (thromboemboli) in his lungs. (
  • The rationale for the ISCHEMIA trial was to build on COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) 6 and BARI 2D (Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation in Type 2 Diabetes) 7 trials, which demonstrated that in patients with stable ischaemic heart disease (SIHD), an initial management strategy of revascularisation plus OMT did not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction (MI) compared with OMT alone. (
  • In case of evidence of physical stress such as exercise testing (EXT), in spite of being considered a safe procedure, there are reports of serious nature, such as myocardial infarction (MI) and death, with studies suggesting from zero to six deaths or cardiac arrest and two to ten MI for 10.000 tests performed. (
  • Tukora Long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction in relation to prescribed dosages of a beta-blocker at hospital discharge. (
  • Functional status and quality of life after emergency revascularization for cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. (
  • Recombinant hirudin lepirudin for the improvement of thrombolysis with streptokinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction: A clinical trial comparing primary coronary angioplasty with tissue plasminogen activator for acute myocardial infarction. (
  • Effect of vasopressin on hemodynamics in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. (
  • Warfarin, aspirin, or both after myocardial infarction. (
  • Thrombolytic treatment of acute myocardial infarction after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. (
  • Tavazzi L, Volpi A. Symptom-limited vs heart-rate-limited exercise testing soon after myocardial infarction. (
  • Anteroseptal or Apical Myocardial Infarction: A multicenter, randomized study of argatroban versus heparin as adjunct to tissue plasminogen activator TPA in acute myocardial infarction: Coronary artery surgery study CASS: A randomized trial of rescue angioplasty versus a conservative approach for failed fibrinolysis in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: Registration procedures, event rates, and case-fatality rates in 38 populations from 21 countries in four continents. (
  • Early work load tests for evaluation of long-term prognosis of acute myocardial infarction. (
  • Long-term reduction in sudden deaths after a multifactorial intervention programme in patients with myocardial infarction: Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: Effects of reviparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin, on mortality, reinfarction, and strokes in patients with acute myocardial infarction presenting with ST-segment elevation. (
  • Risk factors, angiographic patterns, and outcomes in patients with ventricular septal defect complicating acute myocardial infarction. (
  • Primary anterosepta, reduces risk of myocardial rupture compared to thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction. (
  • Mechanisms of early death despite thrombolytic therapy: A double-blind trial to assess long-term oral anticoagulant therapy in elderly patients after myocardial infarction. (
  • Heart rate variability as an index of sympathovagal interaction after acute myocardial infarction. (
  • Is thrombolytic therapy in acute inferior myocardial infarction really better than conventional treatment? (
  • Survival after acute myocardial infarction in Asian and white patients in Birmingham. (
  • Delay between the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction and seeking medical assistance is influenced by left ventricular function at presentation. (
  • Analysis of prognostic significance of ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction: Shortcomings of Lown grading system. (
  • Risk stratification after acute myocardial infarction. (
  • Natural history of left ventricular function during 1 year after acute myocardial infarction: Comparison with clinical, electrocardiographic and biochemical determinations. (
  • In contrast, although ≈33% of patients in the convalescent phase after a large myocardial infarction experience sudden cardiac death in the year thereafter, overall they account for a small number of the total sudden cardiac deaths per year. (
  • Other warnings in the prescribing information include risk of fatal cardiac arrest, ventricular arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, hypotension, and bronchoconstriction and respiratory compromise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma. (
  • Two management goals in this stable group have remained the same for over 50 years: to decrease angina symptoms if any are present and to decrease the likelihood of a subsequent myocardial infarction or cardiac death. (
  • Thus, the number of diseased vessels and the location of disease, which could only be determined with angiography, were critical factors in assessing the future risk of infarction or cardiac death, and these data would importantly inform the value of surgical revascularization. (
  • Men with ED have been reported to have a two-fold higher risk for acute myocardial infarction (MI) after adjusting for covariates such as age, smoking, obesity and use of cardiac medications. (
  • For patients with coronary artery disease, QRS width on electrocardiogram and echocardiographic evidence of heart failure are associated with out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest, regardless of whether they have a history of previous myocardial infarction, according to a study published in the May 1 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology . (
  • also known as an MI or myocardial infarction). (
  • Loss of cardiomyocytes impairs cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). (
  • To evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on psychological symptoms, activity states, and cardiovascular functions in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) of low and moderate risk stratification. (
  • Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an accepted treatment modality following myocardial infarction (MI) [ 2 ]. (
  • Exercise-based CR is known to result in a significantly lower risk of fatal and non-fatal re-infarction by improving cardiac and coronary vascular functions as well as CHD risk factor profiles [ 3 ]. (
  • Varnava A, Sedgwick J, Timmis A. Variations in the length of hospital stay following acute myocardial infarction. (
  • According to doctors, Michael Clarke Duncan suffered a myocardial infarction early this morning. (
  • Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease including a previous myocardial infarction (heart attack), high blood pressure , atrial fibrillation , valvular heart disease , excess alcohol use , infection , and cardiomyopathy of an unknown cause. (
  • [5] Heart failure is not the same as myocardial infarction (in which part of the heart muscle dies) or cardiac arrest (in which blood flow stops altogether). (
  • There is a weak relationship between severity of pain and degree of oxygen deprivation in the heart muscle (i.e., there can be severe pain with little or no risk of a Myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack), and a heart attack can occur without pain). (
  • As these may herald myocardial infarction (a heart attack), they require urgent medical attention and are, in general, treated as a presumed heart attack. (
  • If the pressure is too high it can damage the heart and this is linked to CHD and it's manifestations including angina, myocardial infarction (heart attack) and sudden cardiac arrest . (
  • Epicardial coronary arteries in khat chewers presenting with myocardial infarction. (
  • We aimed to study the epicardial coronary arteries in khat chewers presenting with myocardial infarction (AMI). (
  • BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) genetic polymorphism and early spontaneous recanalization in patients presenting with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. (
  • METHODS: Patients admitted to our emergency department with ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the first 6 h of symptom onset were included. (
  • Sufferers usually have repeated episodes of unexplained (e.g., in the absence of exertion and occurring at sleep or in the early morning hours) chest pain, light-headedness, excessive sweating, and/or reduced exercise tolerance that, unlike atherosclerosis-related angina pectoris, typically does not progress to myocardial infarction (i.e. heart attack). (
  • As these may herald myocardial infarction (a heart attack), they require urgent medical attention and are, in general, treated in similar fashion to myocardial infarction. (
  • [5] [6] The process starts with atherosclerosis, progresses through inflammation to yield an active unstable plaque, which undergoes thrombosis and results in acute myocardial ischemia, which, if not reversed, results in cell necrosis (infarction). (
  • Exercise testing is used to address residual ischemia. (
  • In particular, for patients with angina - either in the office or following a hospitalization - exercise training may be considered an additional anti-anginal intervention, as exercise training increases the activity threshold before the onset of symptomatic ischemia. (
  • We suggest that the ISCHEMIA trial results are likely to shift clinical practice towards CTCA as the primary diagnostic test for new chest pain. (
  • Recurrent ischemia after thrombolysis: A prospective study using risk indicators and early exercise tests. (
  • These large, international, NIH-funded studies will determine whether an initial invasive strategy of cardiac catheterization and revascularization plus optimal medical therapy will reduce cardiovascular events in patients with and without chronic kidney disease and at least moderate ischemia compared to an initial conservative strategy of optimal medical therapy alone. (
  • Cardiac ischemia is associated with typical alterations in cardiac biosignals that have to be measured, analyzed by mathematical algorithms and allegorized for further clinical diagnostics. (
  • The fast growing fields of biomedical engineering and applied sciences are intensely focused on generating new approaches to cardiac biosignal analysis for diagnosis and risk stratification in myocardial ischemia. (
  • Then, we categorized the state-of-the-art methods and selected new approaches based on their applications in detection and risk stratification of myocardial ischemia. (
  • Heart rate variability and blood pressure variability analyses, microvolt T-wave alternans and signal-averaged ECG mainly serve in detecting and stratifying the risk for lethal arrythmias in patients with myocardial ischemia or previous myocardial infarctions. (
  • There are many promising methods for the exercise-free, non-invasive detection of CAD and myocardial ischemia in the stable and acute phases. (
  • We examined by thallium-201 scintigraphy whether exercise-induced abnormal blood pressure response (BPR) is related to myocardial ischemia. (
  • Exercise-induced abnormal BPRs in patients with HCM are related to subendocardial ischemia during exercise. (
  • Myocardial ischemia commonly occurs in patients with HCM despite normal epicardial coronary arteries. (
  • It is possible that abnormal BPRs are related to myocardial ischemia. (
  • Thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography is a noninvasive method with which we are able to evaluate myocardial ischemia during exercise. (
  • Left ventricular cavity dilatation (LVCD) during exercise on thallium scintigrams indicates subendocardial hypoperfusion and is a marker of diffuse subendocardial ischemia (3,4) . (
  • To assess the relationship between abnormal BPR and subendocardial ischemia in HCM, we therefore performed exercise thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography in patients with HCM who had normal or abnormal BPRs during exercise testing. (
  • The precise mechanism leading to SCD in this condition is yet to be defined, although it is postulated that occlusion or compression of the anomalous vessel during exercise leads to myocardial ischemia and subsequent lethal ventricular arrhythmia (ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation). (
  • Stress testing, including myocardial perfusion imaging, has limitations because current published data indicate studies are rarely positive for ischemia, even in those who suffered SCD. (
  • Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) cause cessation of myocardial blood flow leading to coronary ischemia. (
  • This refers to the more common understanding of angina related to myocardial ischemia. (
  • In recent years, the alleviation of acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury (MI/RI) during myocardial reperfusion has presented a significant clinical challenge. (
  • Effects of ischemic preconditioning and iloprost on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damage in rats. (
  • This study investigates the effects of cardiac ischemic preconditioning and iloprost on reperfusion damage in rats with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. (
  • Myocardial Involvement During Ischemia-Induced Acute Liver Failure in the Pig. (
  • METHODS: Male rabbits were subjected to myocardial ischemia followed by 3-hour reperfusion. (
  • Finally, rare cases may exhibit symptom-free coronary artery spasm that is nonetheless associated with cardiac muscle ischemia (i.e. restricted blood flow and poor oxygenation) along with concurrent ischemic electrocardiographic changes. (
  • Also known as effort angina , this refers to the classic type of angina related to myocardial ischemia. (
  • Amour J, Hageman G, Randall W (1972) Arrhythmias induced by local cardiac nerve stimulation. (
  • In a heart attack, the heart keeps beating, but can cause life-threatening arrhythmias that result in cardiac arrest within a few minutes, because the heart is not pumping blood to the lungs to pick up vital oxygen that circulates back to the heart and to the body. (
  • Following on last week's article reviewing the general approach to screening for inherited cardiac diseases, see here the disorder-specific approach to screening from detecting conduction and structural disorders through to arrhythmias and channelopathies. (
  • This article focuses on the known cardiovascular manifestations of patients with congenital lipodystrophy, including cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, and accelerated atherosclerosis arising from a markedly deranged metabolic milieu. (
  • Frequency and distribution of long-term ECG-recorded cardiac arrhythmias in an elderly population. (
  • Cardiac arrhythmias in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (
  • In people with heart disease, Cardiline reduces myocardial hypertrophy, minimizes the excess amount of subendocardial collagen, stabilizes the isozyme myosin profile and minimizes the frequency of reperfusion arrhythmias. (
  • The diagnosis must also be considered in patients with recurrent rest angina associated with syncope or even cardiac arrest, since patients with variant angina may experience malignant arrhythmias during their ischaemic episodes. (
  • The spectrum of cardiac arrhythmias ranges from innocent extrasystoles to immediately life-threatening conditions such as asystole or ventricular fibrillation. (
  • The key to the successful diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias is the systematic analysis of an electrocardiogram ECG (EKG -US) of optimal quality obtained during the arrhythmia. (
  • More detailed investigation of cardiac arrhythmias is undertaken by invasive cardiac electrophysiological testing. (
  • [1] While angina pectoris can derive from anemia, cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure, its main cause is coronary artery disease (CAD), an atherosclerotic process affecting the arteries feeding the heart. (
  • Cerati D, Schwartz P (1991) Single cardiac nerve fibre activity, acute myocardial ischaemia and sudden death. (
  • This lack of oxygen is also called myocardial ischaemia. (
  • Furthermore, they emphasised that when CTCA is used, and significant coronary stenoses are found (50-90% stenosis), imaging stress tests or CT-FFR are needed to confirm the presence of ischaemia. (
  • Differential autonomic mechanisms underlying early morning and daytime transient myocardial ischaemia in patients with stable coronary artery disease. (
  • High-risk patients need evaluation by specialized tests including echocardiography and exercise or nuclear stress testing to detect inducible myocardial ischaemia. (
  • If you are taking drugs for an arrhythmia, one of the following tests will probably be used to see whether treatment is working: a 24-hour electrocardiogram (ECG) while you are on drug therapy, an exercise ECG, or a special technique to see how easily the arrhythmia can be caused. (
  • 1 2 Such a rapid death is often attributed to a cardiac arrhythmia, but with the advent of monitoring capabilities from implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), it is now well recognized that classifications based on clinical circumstances can be misleading and often impossible, because 40% of sudden deaths can be unwitnessed. (
  • We investigated the association of pregnancy and cardiac function with occurrence of ventricular arrhythmia (VA) in women with TOF. (
  • The term cardiac arrhythmia (or dysrhythmia) is used to describe an abnormality of cardiac rhythm of any type. (
  • Resting blood pressure +/- ambulatory monitoring, exercise testing, Holter monitoring and echocardiography are recommended. (
  • Whilst most have a structurally normal heart it can also be associated with congenital heart disease, rare cardiac tumours or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hence echocardiography should be performed ( 7 ). (
  • We are located just off Mullan Road in Missoula where we see patients for consultation, echocardiography, stress testing, device monitoring and ambulatory monitoring. (
  • EACVI survey on standardization of cardiac chambers quantification by transthoracic echocardiography. (
  • 24. Invasive Tests and Procedures The American Heart Association explains the various invasive tests and cardiac procedures for heart patients such as Blood Tests, Cardiac Catheterization, Transesophageal Echocardiography, TEE and Electrophysiologic Tests. (
  • Transthoracic echocardiography - This test involves placing an ultrasound probe on outside of a person's chest to obtain images of the heart. (
  • Fetal echocardiography - This test is performed on an unborn baby if results from a routine ultrasound or other prenatal test indicate possible heart problems. (
  • Often, coronary angiography and echocardiography are performed to evaluate the aortic valve and root, and identify the need for concomitant cardiac procedures. (
  • Stay abreast of the latest diagnostic and imaging techniques and modalities , such as three-dimensional echocardiography, speckle tracking, tissue Doppler, computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. (
  • Sinus node disease encompasses a wide range of clinical presentations from sinus bradycardia to sinus arrest or bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome ( 4 ). (
  • Benefits of treatment with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in patients with stable ventricular tachycardia without cardiac arrest. (
  • Holter monitoring or implanted devices detected VA, defined as non-sustained or sustained ventricular tachycardia or aborted cardiac arrest. (
  • Some people with DCM are at increased risk for sudden cardiac arrest , which results from a sudden loss of heart function caused by a fast heart rhythm called ventricular tachycardia. (
  • Finally, patients who might be anticipated to develop symptoms with exercise and those who are anxious about exercise will likely benefit from the surveillance and reassurance a supervised exercise program provides. (
  • In either case, you will exercise until reaching a target heart rate (determined by the healthcare provider based on age and physical status) or until you are unable to continue due to tiredness, shortness of breath, chest pain, or other symptoms. (
  • Participants exercised to 85% to 90% of age-adjusted predicated maximal heart rate unless medical contraindication to continued exercise or limiting symptoms occurred first. (
  • Electrocardiographic data, blood pressure, appearance, and symptoms were monitored at rest and during exercise and recovery. (
  • Diagnosis: symptoms, ischemic ECG changes, biomarkers of myocardial necrosis. (
  • The symptoms may disappear when, for example, exercise is stopped. (
  • A patient with symptoms of a cardiovascular or heart problem will be referred to a cardiologist for testing to determine if they have a problem with their heart or blood vessels. (
  • Predictive use of 24-hour electrocardiography in suspected Adams-Stokes syndrome: Comparison with cardiac rhythm during symptoms. (
  • Sudden cardiac death describes the unexpected natural death from a cardiac cause within a short time period, generally ≤1 hour from the onset of symptoms, in a person without any prior condition that would appear fatal. (
  • 2 hours from the onset of symptoms, 12% of all natural deaths were classified as sudden in one study, and 88% of those were due to cardiac disease. (
  • Sometimes this form of cardiomyopathy causes cardiac arrest (sudden malfunctioning and stopping of the heart) in teenagers and young adults, often in otherwise fit athletes who previously had no symptoms. (
  • The goals of treatment are to manage contributing conditions, reduce risk of sudden cardiac arrest, stop the disease from getting worse and control the symptoms so you can live a normal life. (
  • Medical history: A history of heart failure symptoms including feeding issues, heart rhythm problems, and exercise intolerance. (
  • The primary goal is to improve cardiac function and prevent symptoms. (
  • Why an athlete can exercise intensely for several years without symptoms until the sentinel event occurs remains unknown. (
  • Ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings are of most value when they provide correlation between the patient's symptoms and the cardiac rhythm at that moment. (
  • They could also have a myocardial injury even if they did not have cardiac symptoms during the infection. (
  • The severity of the heart failure is graded by the severity of symptoms with exercise. (
  • Cardiac examination of individuals with variant angina is usually normal in the absence of current symptoms. (
  • We can also use heart screening tests to find heart and circulatory problems that may not be showing any signs or symptoms. (
  • Finally we analyze the components of an EST and potential sensitivities, significances and predictability of the changes in the outcome data that will provide diagnosis overt cardiovascular disease, and for purposes of exercise prescription and evaluation of rehabilitation effects in cardiac patients. (
  • This review identifies the most recent standards, and guidelines of EST, which include the acute physiological response of the cardiovascular system to aerobic exercise, the use of EST in evaluation of coronary artery disease, an updated diagnostic and prognostic variables of EST, and reporting of EST. (
  • Professor Sharma has an international reputation in cardiovascular adaptation in athletes, sudden cardiac death in the young and heart muscle diseases. (
  • His research has been pivotal in characterising the impact of age, sex and ethnicity on cardiovascular adaptation to exercise and in the identification of non-invasive methods of differentiating electrocardiographic and echocardiographic manifestations of cardiomyopathy and ion channel disorders from those representing 'athlete's heart. (
  • Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is generally defined as a medically supervised secondary prevention program for patients with established cardiovascular disease (CVD). (
  • There is increasing evidence that the recovery phase after exercise is a vulnerable phase for various cardiovascular events. (
  • The Alert, Preventing Fire Fighter Fatalities Due to Heart Attacks and Other Sudden Cardiovascular Events , incorporates findings from 131 NIOSH investigations, examines the circumstances of these cardiac events, reviews the current fire service standards, provides case reports, and makes recommendations for preventing injury and death to fire fighters from preventable cardiovascular conditions. (
  • 1 Sudden cardiac death is the most common and often the first manifestation of coronary heart disease and is responsible for ≈50% of the mortality from cardiovascular disease in the United States and other developed countries. (
  • Figure 1B ⇓ shows idealized curves of survival from sudden cardiac death for a population free of major cardiovascular events versus a population that has survived a major cardiovascular event. (
  • Detailed cardiac screening would be more beneficial for patients suffering from ED who are at high risk for Cardiovascular assessment (eg, with multiple CV risk factors and those with ED onset at a younger age). (
  • 4. Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease The American Heart Association explains that the key to preventing heart disease is managing your risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high total cholesterol or high blood glucose and the best way to find out if you have one of these conditions is through screening tests during regular doctor visits. (
  • Publication date: January 2020Source: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): B. PavyIntroductionThere are few data about the follow-up in coronary patients after cardiac rehabilitation (CR). (
  • Disturbed myocardial calcium (Ca(+)) handling is one of the pathophysiologic hallmarks of cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy, and certain types of tachyarrhythmias. (
  • Post-exercise cardiovascular and functional states, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ), metabolic equivalents (METs), 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), and Korean Activity Scale/Index (KASI) scores were significantly improved in the HIIT group compared to those in the MICT group after 18 exercise sessions. (
  • Other agencies have proposed a three-pronged strategy for reducing the risk of on- Although unrelated to this fatality, the Fire duty sudden cardiac death among fire fighters. (
  • On December 29, 1997, NIOSH the sudden cardiac arrest and subsequent death of telephoned the affected Fire Department to initiate this fire fighter. (
  • Background In retrospective studies of sudden cardiac death survivors, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) compares favorably with medical and surgical therapy. (
  • Volunteer fire captain suffers sudden cardiac death while responding to a call - New York. (
  • Therefore, the Captain was assumed to be responding to the emergency call when he suffered a sudden cardiac event. (
  • NIOSH offers the following recommendations to reduce the risk of heart attacks and sudden cardiac arrest among fire fighters at this and other fire departments across the country. (
  • 2. Perform symptom-limiting exercise stress tests on fire fighters at increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and sudden cardiac events. (
  • This list includes some preventive measures that have been recommended by other agencies to reduce the risk of on-the-job heart attacks and sudden cardiac arrest among fire fighters. (
  • Millar L, Sheikh N, Sharma S . Clinical and Genetic Aspects of Sudden Cardiac Death in Sports Medicine (Colloquium Series on Genomic and Molecular Medicine). (
  • The damage can lead to complications like abnormal heart rhythms and sudden cardiac arrest. (
  • In June 2007, NIOSH issued an Alert on the most common cause of fire fighter fatalities-sudden cardiac death. (
  • As illustrated in the Alert, a firefighter's compromised physical fitness combined with work-related exposures and physical demands known to trigger sudden cardiac events can have deadly outcomes. (
  • Affected patients develop a hypertrophic "lipotoxic" cardiomyopathy, with both diastolic and systolic dysfunction, and have a predilection for cardiac dysrhythmias and early sudden cardiac death ( 6 ). (
  • Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and collectively are the leading cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes. (
  • Sudden cardiac death accounts for 300 000 to 400 000 deaths annually in the United States, depending on the definition used. (
  • In less-developed countries, sudden cardiac death rates parallel the rates of ischemic heart disease as a whole and therefore are lower. (
  • Several population-based studies have documented a 15% to 19% decline in the incidence of sudden cardiac deaths caused by coronary heart disease since the early 1980s. (
  • Figure 1 ⇓ places the problem into perspective by expressing the incidence of sudden cardiac death in different subgroups at varying risk while indicating the overall number of events per year for each. (
  • These factors have an impact on the effects of therapeutic interventions because, although it is relatively easy to identify patients in the small high-risk subgroups and then to possibly prevent or reverse a ventricular tachyarrhythmia, the overall impact on the total number of sudden cardiac deaths will be small. (
  • It becomes obvious that, to significantly reduce the incidence of sudden cardiac death, more specific markers are needed for the general population to identify large numbers in subgroups that account for a bigger percentage of the more than 300 000 who die suddenly. (
  • The present risk factors (see below) generally identify the risk of developing the structural heart disease underlying sudden cardiac death rather than the proximate precipitator of the event. (
  • Because the risk of sudden cardiac death does not necessarily equate with the risk of developing structural heart disease, these risk factors have limited ability in identifying specific individuals at risk for sudden cardiac death. (
  • Nevertheless, their control, with concomitant reduction in death from coronary artery disease, is probably at least in part responsible for the reduction in overall sudden cardiac death. (
  • After an initial high attrition rate for the high-risk group in the first 6 to 18 months, the curves then become parallel, illustrating the modulating effects of time on the incidence of sudden cardiac death. (
  • It is the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. (
  • Treatments to prevent sudden cardiac death for those at risk of ventricular fibrillation include medications and implantable devices that can restore a normal heart rhythm. (
  • The most common cause of a sudden cardiac arrest is a life threatening abnormal heart rhythm called ventricular fibrillation (VF), which is where the heart quivers rather than pumping. (
  • A fatal outcome reported was after 250 mg IV chloroquine in a 42-year-old man Diagnosis of Sudden Cardiac Arrest. (
  • A sudden cardiac arrest is different from a heart attack, which occurs when blood flow to a portion of the heart is blocked Cardiac arrest can be caused by anything that causes death. (
  • Getting screenings in your school through the Nick of Time Foundation is fatal chloroquine poisoning a rare cause of sudden cardiac arrest a great way to notice the problem in kids before it's too late Jul 30, 2017 · For survivors who regain their full mental faculties after sudden cardiac arrest, some may remember a brief period of impending loss of consciousness, or weakness before cardiac arrest. (
  • Most cases of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) are due to ventricular fibrillation v-fib). (
  • Heart attacks occur when there is a blockage in one or more of the arteries to the heart, preventing the heart from receiving enough oxygen-rich blood Learn about sudden cardiac arrest causes and risk factors such as drug abuse, abnormal heart rhythms, heart disease, smoking, ventricular fibrillation, high cholesterol, or previous heart attack (not inclusive). (
  • My wife (who is a nurse) started CPR, Between her and the medics they estimate over 1200 compression's and I was shocked 6 times at home, they said i was clinically dead for around 10 mins Dec 22, 2015 · Sudden cardiac arrest may have warning signs after all It is fatal about 90 percent of the time. (
  • Sudden cardiac arrest is different from a heart attack, Chugh said, which happens when there. (
  • 1. Dec 18, 2018 · Sudden cardiac arrest is the abrupt loss of heart function, breathing and consciousness. (
  • Sudden Cardiac Arrest is the number one cause of death in the United States for student athletes during exercise. (
  • Sudden cardiac arrest occurs when your heart beats so fast it quivers instead of pumping blood to the body and brain. (
  • If you are at risk, an implantable defibrillator from Medtronic can treat dangerously fast heart rhythms and provide ongoing protection against sudden cardiac death. (
  • If untreated, sudden cardiac arrest can lead to death in minutes. (
  • Sudden cardiac arrest is caused by an electrical problem in the heart. (
  • Others who experience sudden cardiac arrest may lose consciousness before they can ask for help. (
  • Only your doctor can tell if you are at risk for sudden cardiac arrest. (
  • Family history: A family tree should be constructed with specific attention to a history of cardiomyopathy, rhythm problems, sudden cardiac or unexplained death, cardiac surgery or presence of other cardiac disease in relatives. (
  • Unless emergency treatments are initiated immediately, including CPR and defibrillation, sudden cardiac death can occur. (
  • For individuals at risk for sudden cardiac arrest, an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) may be recommended. (
  • Without treatment with a defibrillator, sudden cardiac death in unavoidable. (
  • For the purpose of this discussion, the focus will be on AAOCA, reportedly the second most common cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes. (
  • Clinical presentations are variable, but the first manifestation of AAOCA is often a sudden cardiac event. (
  • 3 million people experience sudden cardiac arrest worldwide, and the annual incidence in the United States is 300,000. (
  • Sudden cardiac arrest claims more lives in the United States each year than the combination of deaths from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), breast cancer , lung cancer , and stroke (31). (
  • The combination of any three of these factors increases the risk for sudden cardiac arrest significantly. (
  • The principal indications for active intervention in bradycardia are symptomatic (disturbances of consciousness, fatigue, lethargy, dyspnoea, or bradycardia-induced tachyarrhythmias) or prognostic (prevention of sudden cardiac death). (
  • No flutter atrial, pode-se iniciar com J. Percutaneous coronary intervention after fibrinolysis: Emergency room technetiumm sestamibi imaging to rule out acute myocardial ischemic events in patients with nondiagnostic electrocardiograms. (
  • What is an exercise electrocardiogram? (
  • An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a simple and fast test to evaluate the heart. (
  • Why might I need an exercise electrocardiogram? (
  • What are the risks of an exercise electrocardiogram? (
  • How do I prepare for an exercise electrocardiogram? (
  • The study also found that abnormal electrocardiogram findings were more likely to result in abnormal myocardial perfusion scans. (
  • These tiny variations in the electrocardiogram - measured at one millionth of a volt accuracy - are most commonly measured during a sub-maximal exercise stress test in the doctor's office or hospital outpatient setting. (
  • Other tests may include blood tests, electrocardiogram (EKG), exercise stress echo test, cardiac catheterization and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (
  • Patients with palliated congenital heart disease may present later in life for major, non-cardiac surgical procedures. (
  • Autopsy confirmed the INTRODUCTION presence of triple vessel coronary artery disease, On November 26, 1997, a 69-year-old male listed an enlarged heart (left ventricular hypertrophy), volunteer fire fighter collapsed in cardiac arrest while and found evidence of a remote (old) heart attack directing traffic at a structural fire. (
  • The diagnosis of HCM was based on the typical clinical, electrocardiographic and hemodynamic features with echocardiographic demonstration of a nondilated, asymmetrically hypertrophied left ventricle in the absence of other cardiac or systemic diseases that could produce left ventricular hypertrophy (5) . (
  • Further, the tests used for risk stratification are discussed. (
  • Furthermore, most studies only enrolled low risk patients or they did not suggest risk stratification for cardiac rehabilitation [ 5 6 7 8 9 ]. (
  • RESULTS: The six-month rate of ACEs among 157 subjects was 14%, with 2% cardiac mortality. (
  • The goal was to assess the novel biomarker midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in prediction of mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE).This was a subanalysis of the CHOPIN study, a 16-center prospective trial that enrolled 2,071 patients presenting with chest pain within 6 hours of onset. (
  • In addition to reductions in recurrent MI and mortality, exercise training is likely to enhance functional capacity. (
  • For these reasons, total mortality, rather than classifications of cardiac and arrhythmic mortality, should be used as primary objectives for many outcome studies. (
  • A new mutation of the cardiac troponin T gene causes familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy without hypertrophy. (
  • Cardiopulmonary exercise is a useful method for differentiating physiological hypertrophy of the athlete's heart from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mild hypertrophy. (
  • Direct access exercise electrocardiography: a new service that improves the management of suspected ischaemic heart disease in the community. (
  • Electrocardiography (also called EKG or ECG) is a test used to record electrical activity in the heart. (
  • [4] Blood tests , electrocardiography , and chest radiography may be useful to determine the underlying cause. (
  • The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) updated their guidelines on stable chest pain in 2019, 1 and recommended the use of either imaging stress tests or computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography (CTCA). (
  • Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) agent-This test examines if your arteries are supplying your heart muscle with enough blood. (
  • Although most of the focus for performing an EST traditionally has been on the diagnostic value to identify ST-segment abnormalities, an EST provides other valuable diagnostic and prognostic data including maximal oxygen consumption (predicted or measured), exercise capacity and fatigability, blood pressure and heart rate responses to exercise and recovery. (
  • In particular, the student should be able to define the non-invasive investigation, invasive testing and main prognostic models used for clinical assessment and therapeutic management. (
  • Measurement of autonomic function in the very early phase of recovery after exercise has also provided prognostic information. (
  • The ROSCAP Study was a randomized controlled trial in heart disease patients to test the effect of a smoking reduction intervention on cigarettes per day (cpd) and biochemical and clinical indicators of tobacco exposure. (
  • We have evaluated a number of novel cardiac markers and point-of-care testing in clinical practice. (
  • The design and results of different experimental and clinical studies which utilised these tests are also discussed. (
  • A clinical history of syncope or presyncope is common although milder presentations with fatigue or dyspnoea, reduced exercise capacity, or cognitive impairment are also possible. (
  • Sharma S, Elliott P, Whyte G, Prasad K, Varnava A, McKenna W. Metabolic exercise testing in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: relation of submaximal parameters to clinical features. (
  • If ARUP Consult does not answer your test selection and interpretation questions, or if you'd like to suggest ways to improve content or usability, please leave a message for the ARUP clinical content team. (
  • Diagnosis is based on the clinical presentation, but testing of tryptase, histamine, and other inflammatory markers can support the diagnosis. (
  • In our cardiac catheterization laboratory, 80% of coronary angiograms are performed via an artery in the lower right arm (radial access), with only 20% of angiograms involving a femoral access site in the groin. (
  • balloon angioplasty - a procedure usually done in the cardiac catheterization laboratory that uses a catheter (tube) with a balloon in the tip to open up a narrowed valve or blood vessel. (
  • Occasionally, a myocardial biopsy may be performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory to help determine the cause of the cardiomyopathy. (
  • Long-term adverse effects of the atrial level switch include myocardial dysfunction, rhythm disturbances requiring pacemaker placement, pulmonary hypertension and baffle obstruction. (
  • The outcome of these changes could well be a better enhancement of cardiac performance in hypertension by combined exercise and ACE inhibitor treatment than either of the interventions alone. (
  • This study evaluated the usefulness of speckle tracking imaging (STI) in assessment of myocardial contractility in intra-abdominal hypertension experimentally induced in mini-pigs. (
  • Heart failure (HF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF), (congestive) cardiac failure (CCF), and decompensatio cordis, is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body tissues' needs for metabolism. (
  • Risk of ACE is significantly higher in subjects scheduled for outpatient diagnostic tests. (
  • Inpatient diagnostic testing is justified for subjects at risk for poor compliance. (
  • Professor Sharma has been Consultant Cardiologist for the charitable organisation Cardiac Risk in the Young (CRY) since 2001, and is Cardiologist for several national sporting organisations including the English Institute of Sport , British Rugby League, British Rowing and the British Lawn Tennis Association . (
  • Abrupt loss of pre-excitation (short PR/delta wave) on ECG or exercise ECG indicates a lower risk. (
  • RATIONALE: A low-calorie diet and/or exercise program may help lower an overweight or obese postmenopausal woman's risk of developing breast cancer. (
  • It is not yet known whether a low-calorie diet and/or exercise program are more effective than no diet or exercise program in lowering an overweight or obese postmenopausal woman's risk of developing breast cancer. (
  • The goal of this comprehensive long-term program is to help patients with CVD to recover more quickly after a cardiac event and to reduce the risk of future cardiac illness. (
  • The original Cardiac Risk Index as well as the Revised Cardiac Risk Index were created before the routine use of electronic medical records, and manual data entry and calculation were necessary. (
  • For example, the number of variables needed to predict a perioperative cardiac event may be fewer than the number of nonoverlapping variables required if multiple outcomes are assessed such as both cardiac and respiratory complications as well as length of stay like the American College of Surgeons Risk Calculator. (
  • Preoperative Evaluation for Cardiac Risk 69. (
  • Other agencies have proposed a three-pronged strategy for reducing the risk of on-duty heart attacks and cardiac arrests among fire fighters. (
  • Issues relevant to this Fire Department include: Although there is not consensus on the use of exercise stress tests to detect CAD in asymptomatic fire firefighters, their use could be considered for fire fighters with multiple CAD risk factors and could be incorporated into the Fire Department's annual medical evaluation program. (
  • When measured at presentation, cardiac troponin levels can be used to risk-stratify infected patients, says Allan Jaffe. (
  • High-intensity interval training is shown to increase CRF and reduce the risk of various somatic illnesses [ 21 , 22 ] and is established as a safe and useful exercise method. (
  • When ED occurs in younger males, it is associated with a greater increase in the risk of future cardiac events as compared to its first detection in older males. (
  • It is often challenging because of possible adverse effects of CV medications used to treat ED. It is important to stabilize CV status before initiating treatment for ED. Regular exercise should be practiced by patients suffering from ED so that there is minimum risk of getting a cardiac arrest during or after the exercise. (
  • For intermediate- to high-risk patients, CVD management should be prioritised, and they should avoid sexual activity till the cardiac condition is evaluated by detailed cardiac assessment, managed, and stabilized. (
  • This study demonstrates that HIIT can improve cardiac function, psychological, and activity states in low and moderate risk MI patients. (
  • These tests are often used to predict a patient's risk of serious heart-related conditions, such as a heart attack. (
  • A variety of cardiac issues have been described, ranging from dilated cardiomyopathy to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and severe biventricular heart failure. (
  • Myocardial biopsy - a piece of your heart muscle is removed (typically during a cardiac catheterization) and studied under a microscope to determine if you have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (
  • Hemodynamic instabilities during exercise in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are considered to be caused by abnormal reflex control of vascular resistance. (
  • Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have hemodynamic instabilities with abnormal blood pressure response (BPR) during exercise (1,2) . (
  • Cytosine methylation confers instability on the cardiac troponin T gene in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: histopathological features of sudden death in cardiac troponin T disease. (
  • Elliott P, Sharma S, Prasad K, Varnava A, McKenna W. Outcome of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that survive cardiac arrest. (
  • Varnava A, Elliott P, McKenna WJ, Davies M. Correlates of myocardial fibrosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (
  • ischemic cardiac chest pain causes, non-ischemic cardiac chest pain causes, non-cardiac chest pain causes. (
  • A severe infection of COVID-19 means that the child required hospitalization, had abnormal cardiac testing during the infection, and/or had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). MIS-C tends to affect the heart similarly to a myocardial injury or myocarditis. (
  • Superiority of 24-hour outpatient monitoring over multi-stage exercise testing for the evaluation of syncope. (
  • Regadenoson, developed and marketed outside of North America by CV Therapeutics, is an A 2A adenosine receptor agonist that is delivered by 5 mL (0.4 mg of regadenoson) rapid intravenous injection, regardless of body weight, to simulate exercise in radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging. (
  • 20. Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) Test The American Heart Association explains a Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) Test. (
  • Cardiac Pacing for Bradycardia, Atrioventricular Block, and Heart Failure 39. (
  • Inflammation plays a critical role in adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure. (
  • Heart failure is a physiological state in which cardiac output is insufficient to meet the needs of the body and lungs. (
  • No deaths, myocardial infarctions, or cardiac arrests occurred during or within 24 hours following testing. (
  • Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and related deaths spiked while ACS admissions fell, offering lessons for areas yet to surge. (
  • Most of the deaths associated with AAOCA occur unexpectedly in healthy children or young athletes, and may occur immediately after exercise 2,3,4 or at rest. (
  • All patients were admitted to the hospital and underwent negative evaluations for ACS, defined as the absence of diagnostic changes on serial electrocardiograms or cardiac markers (creatine kinase-MB and troponin T), and a negative diagnostic cardiac study. (
  • Adverse cardiac events in emergency department patients with chest pain six months after a negative inpatient evaluation for acute coronary syndrome. (
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the diagnostic test setting-inpatient versus outpatient-on adverse cardiac events (ACEs) after six months in emergency department (ED) patients with chest pain who were admitted to the hospital and subsequently had a negative evaluation for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). (
  • For this test, electrodes (small, plastic patches that stick to the skin) are placed at certain spots on the chest, arms, and legs. (
  • You may also have to go through a chest X-ray, exercise stress test, cardiac CT scan or MRI. (
  • In addition, EST is often used to evaluate the effects of pharmacological medication on whole body function, and for exercise prescription in diseases and conditions that include but are limited to cardiac rehabilitation, obesity, diabetes and various neuropathies. (
  • Which CAD patient should be referred for cardiac rehabilitation? (
  • I. Cardiac Rehabilitation: What every physician needs to know. (
  • Depending on the type of initial cardiac event and the individual circumstances, the rehabilitation process may have different goals for each patient. (
  • Journal of Cardiac Rehabilitation , 2 (5), 395-400. (
  • A report of a working group of the British Cardiac Society: cardiac rehabilitation services in the United Kingdom 1992. (
  • Digital Health Interventions for Cardiac Rehabilitation: Systematic Literature Review. (
  • Despite strong evidence supporting the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), over 80% of eligible patients do not participate in CR. (
  • Pharmacologic treatment of these diseases thus focuses on restoring myocardial Ca(2+) homeostasis by interacting with Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways. (
  • A growing intervention on myocardial test has been in dexterity. (
  • This study was designed to test the possible effects of a combination of physical and pharmacological therapy intervention on myocardial structure of the left ventricle in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). (
  • Ergometric exercise testing and sensitivity of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) in diagnosing asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. (
  • Bi-ventricular (BiV) pacing is an effective therapy for the treatment of cardiac electromechanical (EM) dysfunction. (
  • Primary end points (main outcome events, including death, recurrent cardiac arrest, and cardiac transplantation), number of invasive procedures and antiarrhythmic therapy changes, and duration of hospitalization were compared. (
  • This need for a second test for the assessment of the significance of coronary stenoses is to reduce the need for invasive coronary angiography (ICA), because CTCA can be associated with false-positive results, as it can overestimate the degree of coronary stenosis, compared with ICA. (
  • Most cardiologists are primarily involved in non-invasive diagnostic testing and treatment with medication. (
  • Cardiac catheterization - a minimally invasive procedure that is used to determine if you have vessel blockages and where they are located. (
  • 17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) The American Heart Association explains that Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive test that uses a magnetic field and radiofrequency waves to create detailed pictures of organs and structures inside your body. (
  • Thrombolytic therapy after cardiac arrest and its effect on neurological outcome. (
  • The inpatient phase consists of early graded mobilization of the stable cardiac patient to the level of activity required to perform simple household tasks. (
  • Stable angina is characterised by predictable periods of discomfort that occur during exercise or periods of stress. (
  • He was in stable condition during the two minutes in the ambulance, but upon arrival in the local hospital's emergency department, he had a cardiac arrest. (
  • Resting ECG, particularly suited for detecting ST-elevation myocardial infarctions, and exercise ECG, for the diagnosis of stable CAD, are state-of-the-art methods. (
  • Therapy in each patient was always guided by ECG monitoring, exercise testing, and programmed electrical stimulation (PES). (
  • Beta-Blocker Therapy for Septic Cardiac Shock: Fiction Or Realism? (
  • Although cardiac stem cell therapy is a promising treatment for heart attack patients, directing the cells to the site of an injury - and getting them to stay there - remains challenging. (
  • In some patients with DCM, a pacemaker (cardiac resynchronization therapy) may be combined with the ICD. (
  • The reason(s), however, for therapy non-response in approximately one-third of the subjects remains unclear, especially as it relates to myocardial perfusion and pacing location. (
  • [4] In some moderate or severe cases cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) may be suggested [17] or cardiac contractility modulation may be of benefit. (
  • Because there may not be a build-up of plaque or a blood clot in the artery, a coronary artery spasm may not be discovered by an imaging test called an angiogram that is typically performed to check arteries for blockages. (
  • Graded exercise stress tests in an-giographically documented coronary artery disease. (
  • Plasma levels above 0.7 to 1 mcg/mL are associated with a higher rate of cardiac adverse experiences such as conduction defects or bradycardia. (
  • He is currently Professor of Cardiology, Lead for the Inherited Cardiomyopathies and Sports Cardiology Unit and head of research for the Cardiac Academic Group. (
  • He conducts four large tertiary clinics in inherited cardiac diseases and sports cardiology each week. (
  • Dayton Children's offers the following cardiology tests. (
  • Despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) administered by hospital personnel, the victim died. (
  • The morning was spent performing light duties exercise stress test for applicants under the (paperwork, station maintenance, and inspections). (
  • An exercise stress test (EST) is commonly used for the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiac disease. (
  • PALO ALTO, Calif., April 11 -- The FDA has approved regadenoson (Lexiscan) injection for patients unable to exercise sufficiently for a coronary stress test, the drug maker announced. (
  • Exercise stress test - stress tests while exercising (typically on a treadmill or stationary bike) can evaluate your heart rhythm, blood pressure and breathing. (
  • Optimal evaluation of patients with AAOCA is not established but typically includes assessment of exercise performance (stress test), often with myocardial perfusion and tomographic imaging with computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (
  • A stress test is used to see how well your heart works, especially when it is working hard-as it does during exercise. (
  • A cardiac stress test can show if there is reduced blood supply in the arteries that pump blood to the heart. (
  • You may have a cardiac stress test to diagnose CAD, determine your safe level of exercise or check the effectiveness of a treatment. (
  • A nuclear stress test (thallium stress test) is similar to a cardiac stress test but focuses more on the coronary arteries. (
  • In this test, the ECG is recorded while you are exercising on a treadmill or stationary bike. (
  • Periodically, the incline and treadmill speed will be increased to make exercise more difficult during the test. (
  • Near-maximal graded treadmill exercise tests were performed by 9,464 men and women participants in the Lipid Research Clinics' Prevalence Survey. (
  • Exercise stress testing - This test involves exercising on a treadmill or stationary bicycle while the doctor monitors the patient's blood pressure and heart rhythm. (
  • an EKG test that monitors cardiac activity while elevating the heart rate to certain levels through controlled treadmill exercise. (
  • Exercise training was performed on a treadmill (5m/min. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term cardiac morbidity of patients after a negative ACS evaluation may be higher than previously thought. (
  • 4. Incorporate exercise stress tests into the Fire Department's medical evaluation program. (
  • With respect to specific medical conditions, the evaluation of the patient with cardiac disease was one of the earliest focuses. (
  • Ajmaline testing to diagnose Brugada syndrome (BrS) is routinely used in the evaluation of SUD and UCA, but its yield, limitations, and appropriate dosing have not been studied in a large cohort. (
  • Fundamental to the appropriate evaluation of athletes undergoing ECG is an understanding of the ECG findings that may indicate the presence of an underlying pathological cardiac disorder. (
  • 3,13 Evaluation using stress testing can often lead to both false positive and false negative results, which limits the utility in AAOCA assessment. (
  • The purpose of cardiac arrests among fire fighters. (