Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Inorganic compounds that contain zinc as an integral part of the molecule.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A salt produced by the reaction of zinc oxide with acetic acid and used as an astringent, styptic, and emetic.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A zinc-binding domain defined by the sequence Cysteine-X2-Cysteine-X(9-39)-Cysteine-X(l-3)-His-X(2-3)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine -X(4-48)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine, where X is any amino acid. The RING finger motif binds two atoms of zinc, with each zinc atom ligated tetrahedrally by either four cysteines or three cysteines and a histidine. The motif also forms into a unitary structure with a central cross-brace region and is found in many proteins that are involved in protein-protein interactions. The acronym RING stands for Really Interesting New Gene.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Bones that make up the SKELETON of the FINGERS, consisting of two for the THUMB, and three for each of the other fingers.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A painful disability in the hand affecting the finger or thumb. It is caused by mechanical impingement of the digital flexor tendons as they pass through a narrowed retinacular pulley at the level of the metacarpal head. Thickening of the sheath and fibrocartilaginous metaplasia can occur, and nodules can form. (From Green's Operative Hand Surgery, 5th ed, p2137-58).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.
An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
The study of the patterns of ridges of the skin of the fingers, palms, toes, and soles.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Performance of complex motor acts.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Symmetrical osteitis of the four limbs, chiefly localized to the phalanges and the terminal epiphyses of the long bones of the forearm and leg, sometimes extending to the proximal ends of the limbs and the flat bones, and accompanied by dorsal kyphosis and joint involvement. It is often secondary to chronic conditions of the lungs and heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Loss of a limb or other bodily appendage by accidental injury.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Deformities of the hand, or a part of the hand, acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A ZINC FINGER MOTIF containing transcription factor that was originally identified as one of the IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS. It shuttles between the CYTOPLASM and the CELL NUCLEUS and is involved in destabilization of mRNAs for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Finger millet or raggee (E. coracana) is an important food grain in southern Asia and parts of Africa.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
A transcription factor that plays a role as a key regulator of HEMATOPOIESIS. Aberrant Ikaros expression has been associated with LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The thin, horny plates that cover the dorsal surfaces of the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes of primates.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
CCCH and CCHC zinc fingers bind to an AU-rich RNA element. Different from CCHH zinc figure, the shape of the protein is the ... The strategy used by zinc figure to distinguish these two type of nucleotides may contain distinct structural arrangement of ... Zinc fingers are the domains contain zinc coordinated residues. There are three main types of this domain which are Cys2His2 ( ... When CCHH zinc finger binds to DNA, residues in its recognition α-helix forming hydrogen bonds to Watson-Crick base pairs in ...
... and zinc-finger proteins, which regulate the expression of genes by binding DNA. Tandem repeat proteins frequently function as ... Some well-known examples of proteins with tandem repeats are collagen, which plays a key role in the arrangement of the ...
Zinc finger DNA binding domain (ZnF_GATA): ZnF_GATA domain-containing proteins are typically transcription factors that usually ... Various patterns can be identified in the arrangement of the strands, often giving rise to the identification of recurring ... The shortest domains, such as zinc fingers, are stabilized by metal ions or disulfide bridges. Domains often form functional ... An example is that of the 'fingers' inserted into the 'palm' domain within the polymerases of the Pol I family. Since a domain ...
... is a member of the Zinc finger of the cerebellum (ZIC) protein family. ZIC5 is located on chromosome 13 in a divergently ... It has been suggested that this tandem arrangement allows ZIC2 and ZIC5 to share regulatory elements and causes the two genes ... ZIC5 is classified as a ZIC protein due to conservation of the five C2H2 zinc fingers, which enables the protein to interact ... Furushima, K; Murata, T; Matsuo, I; Aizawa, S (Nov 2000). "A new murine zinc finger gene, Opr". Mechanisms of Development. 98 ( ...
... finger, distinct from other classes of zinc finger motifs, and a hydrophobic and highly conserved domain. The PHD finger shows ... the typical Cys4-His-Cys3 arrangement. PHD finger genes are thought to belong to a diverse group of transcriptional regulators ... PHD finger protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PHF2 gene. This gene encodes a protein which contains a zinc ... "Entrez Gene: PHD finger protein 2". Retrieved 2016-04-09. Sinha S, Singh RK, Alam N, Roy A, Roychoudhury S, Panda CK (2008). " ...
... and a cysteine-rich domain containing 4 motifs resembling a zinc-finger domain (Ohtsuka and Hata, 2000). The protein tyrosine ... a tandem arrangement of two or more nominally unrelated domains that form a single heritable unit. The phosphatase domain ...
... finger which is distinct from other classes of zinc finger motifs and which shows the typical Cys4-His-Cys3 arrangement. PHD ... The encoded protein contains a zinc finger-like PHD (plant homeodomain) ... PHD finger protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PHF1 gene. This gene encodes a protein with significant ... "Entrez Gene: PHF1 PHD finger protein 1". Cao R, Wang H, He J, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Zhang Y (March 2008). "Role of ...
... interaction destabilizes the zinc binding site making it easier for the zinc ion to be withdrawn due to the new arrangement of ... It ejects the zinc from the zinc binding sites in a two steps. The zinc in the carboxyl-terminal zinc finger is released first ... Zinc finger inhibitors, or zinc ejectors, are substances or compounds that interact adversely with zinc fingers and cause them ... This method of using zinc finger inhibitors to target and destabilize zinc fingers represents a new method of fighting HIV. ...
Three zinc fingers are positioned in a semi-circular or C-shaped arrangement. Each zinc finger is made up of anti-parallel beta ... It is possible to synthesize zinc finger nucleotides with zinc finger components that selectively (almost selectively) bind to ... The histidine coordinated to the zinc atom, which is also the seventh residue in the alpha helix of the zinc fingers, ... no intrinsic specificity in its cleavage of DNA and that the zinc finger recognition domain confers selectivity to zinc finger ...
CCHH-type zinc fingers employ two methods of RNA binding. First, the zinc fingers exert non-specific interaction with the ... Diversity enabled eukaryotic cells to utilize RNA exons in various arrangements, giving rise to a unique RNP (ribonucleoprotein ... In addition to CCHH zinc fingers, CCCH zinc fingers were recently discovered to employ sequence-specific recognition of single- ... several zinc fingers are utilized in a modular fashion. Zinc fingers exhibit ββα protein fold in which a β-hairpin and a α- ...
Compare to the English concertina where the thumb holds a strap, the little finger is held on a rest, and the remaining three ... This arrangement resembles that of the Russian accordion, the bayan. "Pearl Queen" 39-button model (Serial Number : 3762, ... and are often fixed in groups of twenty or more to long zinc or aluminum plates, rather than to individual frames. ... it is not clear whether Leppert actually invented the action arrangement. Many American and Italian builders of the 20th ...
DNA-binding domain DNA-binding protein Secondary structure Zinc finger Brennan RG, Matthews BW (February 1989). "The helix-turn ... Several attempts have been made to classify the helix-turn-helix motifs based on their structure and the spatial arrangement of ... Struhl K (April 1989). "Helix-turn-helix, zinc-finger, and leucine-zipper motifs for eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory ...
Transcription factors with zinc finger DNA binding domains, such as the GATA family and glucocorticoid receptor. The zinc ... This active re-arrangement of the nucleosomes allows for other transcription factors to bind the available DNA. In thyroid cell ... and other transcription factors that use zinc finger(s) for DNA binding (Groucho TLE, Gal4, and GATA). The eukaryotic cell ... finger domains do not appear to bind nucleosomes well and can be displaced by FOX factors. The ability of pioneer factors to ...
This includes CRISPR/Cas9, which uses a protein found in bacteria and guide strand of RNA, and zinc finger nucleases, which use ... Further, the tissues in the brain often rely on intricate and complicated arrangements of neurons; regions of the brain that do ... A study reports that both CRISPR and Zinc fingers nucleases that rely on double strand breaks trigger contractions and ... It comprises eight tests: gait, stance, finger chase, finger-to-nose test, fast alternating hand movements, heel-shin slide, ...
The arrangement is thus essentially a valve that opens under pressure to allow lubricant to pass through a channel and be ... Once the seal is broken, the pressure in the nozzle is released and this releases the latching fingers. A less common design ... Grease fittings are commonly made from zinc-plated steel, stainless steel, or brass. The patent for the Zerk fitting was ... Often lubricant was delivered under no more pressure than gravity or a finger push might provide. For example, oil was gravity- ...
Searles, MA; Lu D; Klug A (2000). "The role of the central zinc fingers of transcription factor IIIA in binding to 5 S RNA". J ... "The 3D arrangement of the 23 S and 5 S rRNA in the Escherichia coli 50 S ribosomal subunit based on a cryo-electron microscopic ...
His two principal technical objections, which he had termed the "fat fingers problem" and the "sticky fingers problem", argued ... Examples include titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreen, cosmetics and some food products; silver ... Further applications which require actual manipulation or arrangement of nanoscale components await further research. Though ... Smalley first argued that "fat fingers" made MNT impossible. He later argued that nanomachines would have to resemble chemical ...
... leucine zipper motifs and zinc finger motifs. This is because of the convenient structural fact that the diameter of an α-helix ... Her painting "Rise of the Alpha Helix" (2003) features human figures arranged in an α helical arrangement. According to the ...
In Xenopus oocytes, it has been shown that fingers 4-7 of the nine-zinc finger transcription factor TFIIIA can bind to the ... "The 3D arrangement of the 23 S and 5 S rRNA in the Escherichia coli 50 S ribosomal subunit based on a cryo-electron microscopic ... Searles, MA; Lu D; Klug A (2000). "The role of the central zinc fingers of transcription factor IIIA in binding to 5 S RNA". J ... "Interaction of the RNA binding fingers of Xenopus transcription factor IIIA with specific regions of 5 S ribosomal RNA". ...
... zinc fingers. This could only have occurred due to the long life of eukaryotes, which allowed time for zinc to exchange and ... All of these arrangements are modified to function both in the sense of reactivity and the positioning of the protein in the ... Thus most zinc was in the form of insoluble ZnS. However, because seawater at the time was slightly acidic, some Zn(II) was ... Zinc (Zn) was incorporated into living cells in two waves. Four to three Ga, anaerobic prokaryotes arose, and the atmosphere ...
CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), or 11-zinc finger protein, is considered the most prominent player in linking genome organization ... In contrast, on a large scale, the arrangement of chromosomes can determine their properties. Chromosomes are organised into ...
Finger followers are used in some high-performance dual overhead camshaft engines (instead of bucket tappets), most commonly in ... The linear sliding tappet side often had a high rate of wear and demanded careful lubrication with oil containing zinc ... which used a camshaft with 8 lobes that actuated the 16 valves via a clever arrangement of rocker arms. Double overhead ... An alternative to the tappet is the 'finger follower', which is a pivoting beam that is used to convert the camshaft rotation ...
Mutations in the ZIC3 gene, which encodes for the first zinc finger transcription factor, is linked to a 50% risk of atrial ... Due to abnormal arrangement of organs in situs ambiguous, orientation across the left-right axis of the body is disrupted early ... Heterotaxy in general refers to any defect of left-right laterality and arrangement of the visceral organs. This does not ... include the congenital defect situs inversus, which results when arrangement of the organs in the abdomen and chest are ...
It is a general zinc-finger transcription factor and is expressed in the rhombomeres 3 and 5. Krox-20 is considered as one of ... This arrangement permits saltatory conduction of action potentials with repropagation at the nodes of Ranvier. In this way, ...
The core region has two zinc fingers that are responsible for recognizing the DNA sequences specific to this receptor. The N ... This arrangement produces an economy of neurotransmitter production and release.[5]. Receptor-regulation[edit]. Cells can ...
... leucine zipper motifs and zinc finger motifs. This is because of the convenient structural fact that the diameter of an α-helix ... Facial ArrangementsEdit. The amino acids that make up a particular helix can be plotted on a helical wheel, a representation ... Her painting "Rise of the Alpha Helix" (2003) features human figures arranged in an α helical arrangement. According to the ... but it has become the dominant means of representing the sequence arrangement for integral membrane proteins because it shows ...
He used acupuncture needles, pierced into his fingers, to amplify his sense of shock.[23] ... The motor operated on large electrochemical cells, acid batteries having as electrodes zinc and costly platinum, with fragile ... Page conducted a ground-breaking experiment which demonstrated the presence of electricity in an arrangement of a spiral ...
The overall arrangement is RL-UL-RL-α-RS-US-RS-α with each pair of repeats inverting each other. The whole sequence is then ... Pyrithione, a Zinc Ionophore, show antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus. It was reported, in 1979, that there is a ... which is a herpes infection on the fingers. This was a common affliction of dental surgeons prior to the routine use of gloves ... Qiu, Min; Chen, Yu; Chu, Ying; Song, Siwei; Yang, Na; Gao, Jie; Wu, Zhiwei (October 2013). "Zinc ionophores pyrithione inhibits ...
1832: Muntz metal is patented, an alpha-beta brass with about 40% zinc and 60% copper. Its original use is as a replacement for ... Sir Edward Thomason improves the gun lock by making the cock detachable by the thumb and finger as well as making improvements ... is granted a patent for a new arrangement of 'stitching the hole'. 1863: William Sumner (founder of Typhoo) publishes "A ...
The Goodman handle was developed to allow the light head to be carried on the back of the hand, which freed up the fingers for ... The portable power sources progressed from lead-acid batteries for rechargeable lights and zinc-carbon batteries for disposable ... and this arrangement is more appropriate for divers who work or explore alone.[citation needed] Helmet mounts are common for ... zinc-carbon batteries, Nickel-metal hydride batteries (NiMH), lithium-ion batteries, lead-acid batteries, and surface supply by ...
This will induce the change of the resonant frequency of the comb finger structure. This sensor use electrostatic transduction ... Optical fibers were aligned on the silicon substrate with different arrangements for the displacement sensing. A resolution 10 ...
The core region has two zinc fingers that are responsible for recognizing the DNA sequences specific to this receptor. The N ... This arrangement produces an economy of neurotransmitter production and release.[5]. Receptor-regulationEdit. Cells can ...
In Xenopus oocytes, it has been shown that fingers 4-7 of the nine-zinc finger transcription factor TFIIIA can bind to the ... "The 3D arrangement of the 23 S and 5 S rRNA in the Escherichia coli 50 S ribosomal subunit based on a cryo-electron microscopic ... Searles, MA; Lu D; Klug A (2000). "The role of the central zinc fingers of transcription factor IIIA in binding to 5 S RNA". J ... "Interaction of the RNA binding fingers of Xenopus transcription factor IIIA with specific regions of 5 S ribosomal RNA". ...
... particularly the use of CRISPR and zinc finger, to edit the human genome in a way that can be inherited.[105][106][107][108] In ... "The linear arrangement of six sex-linked factors in Drosophila, as shown by their mode of association" (PDF). Journal of ... of linkage between a series of genes can be combined to form a linear linkage map that roughly describes the arrangement of the ...
... arrangement (solitary, generalized, annular, linear), morphology (macules, papules, vesicles), and color (red, blue, brown, ... Flexural: on the front of the fingers. *Extensor: on the back of the fingers ...
A four-lead arrangement is typical with one common lead (anode or cathode) and an additional lead for each color. Others, ... This could be used, for example, in a touchscreen that registers reflected light from a finger or stylus.[163] Many materials ... Destriau, G. (1936). "Recherches sur les scintillations des sulfures de zinc aux rayons". Journal de Chimie Physique. 33: 587- ... In 1936, Georges Destriau observed that electroluminescence could be produced when zinc sulphide (ZnS) powder is suspended in ...
The arrangement of the three components is not always as shown.[20][21] In addition, several CRISPRs with similar sequences can ... Zinc finger. *Gene knockout. *Genetics. *Glossary of genetics. *Human Nature (2019 documentary film) ...
... particularly the use of CRISPR and zinc finger, to edit the human genome in a way that can be inherited.[99][100][101][102] In ... "The linear arrangement of six sex-linked factors in Drosophila, as shown by their mode of association" (PDF). Journal of ... of linkage between a series of genes can be combined to form a linear linkage map that roughly describes the arrangement of the ...
Zinc. Gallium. Germanium. Arsenic. Selenium. Bromine. Krypton. Rubidium. Strontium. Yttrium. Zirconium. Niobium. Molybdenum. ... "Press Release - Titanic Disaster: New Theory Fingers Coal Fire". www.geosociety.org. Archived from the original on 2016-04-14. ... but have a more random arrangement. Linear acetylenic carbon[39] has the chemical structure[39] -(C:::C)n-. Carbon in this ...
Zinc selenide (ZnSe). Indium gallium nitride (InGaN). Synthetic sapphire, Silicon carbide (SiC) as substrate with or without ... This could be used, for example, in a touchscreen that registers reflected light from a finger or stylus.[215] Many materials ... A four-lead arrangement is typical with one common lead (anode or cathode) and an additional lead for each color. ... Destriau, G. (1936). "Recherches sur les scintillations des sulfures de zinc aux rayons". Journal de Chemie Physique. 33: 587- ...
The radial arrangement of the thermopiles guarantees an almost complete integration of the heat. This is verified by the ...
1900 Nickel-zinc battery A nickel-zinc battery is a type of rechargeable battery that may be used in cordless power tools, ... The early form of the rotary dial used lugs on a finger plate instead of holes. The rotary dial was invented by Almon Brown ... 1918 Hydraulic brake The hydraulic brake is an arrangement of braking mechanism which uses brake fluid, typically containing ... In 1900, Thomas Alva Edison filed U.S. Patent #684,204 for the nickel-zinc battery. It was issued on October 8, 1901. 1900 ...
Washing clothing and linens meant scrubbing by hand in a large zinc or copper tub. Some water would be heated and added to the ... Burman, Barbara (1999), "Made at home by clever fingers: home dressmaking in Edwardian England", in Burman, Barbara (ed.), The ... to the passing of the Custody of Infants Act 1839 and then introduced the Tender years doctrine for child custody arrangement. ...
... drumstick fingers, Hippocratic fingers, watch-glass nails) Congenital onychodysplasia of the index fingers Disseminate and ... Vitamin K deficiency Zinc deficiency Papulosquamous hyperkeratotic cutaneous conditions are those that present with papules and ... arrangement (solitary, generalized, annular, linear), morphology (macules, papules, vesicles), and color (red, blue, brown, ... Turf toe Uranium dermatosis UV-sensitive syndrome Vibration white finger (dead finger, hand-arm vibration syndrome) Warm water ...
These elements include: hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, zinc, gallium, iodine, lead, and radon (citations are for references other ... Galileo's finger: the ten great ideas of science, Oxford University Press, Oxford, p. 159 Cox PA 2004, Inorganic chemistry, 2nd ... An arrangement of the chemical elements in several classes inside the periodic table according to their common properties', ... 26 Zinc: Siebring BR 1967, Chemistry, MacMillan, New York, p. 613 Gallium: Wiberg N 2001, Inorganic chemistry, Academic Press, ...
This speed can be adjusted by varying the content of zinc. One challenge when synthesising a metallic glass is that the ... Most metals are crystalline in their solid state, which means they have a highly ordered arrangement of atoms. Amorphous metals ... Maruyama, Masaaki (June 11, 2009). "Japanese Universities Develop Ti-based Metallic Glass for Artificial Finger Joint". Tech-on ...
All had serious disabilities, including missing or underdeveloped fingers and deformities of their feet. They alleged that ... and the agreement forbids disclosure of the financial arrangements. On the subject of cost, Mallender said: "Every £1m of cost ... prepared by Corby Borough Council was uncovered which had raised the prospect of residents being exposed to high levels of zinc ...
The basic arrangement of the cephalopod outer wall is: an outer (spherulitic) prismatic layer, a laminar (nacreous) layer and ... The second gene family known as C2H2 are small proteins that function as zinc transcription factors. C2H2 are understood to ... Externally shelled nautilids (Nautilus and Allonautilus) have on the order of 90 finger-like appendages, termed tentacles, ... has been observed putting the tentacles in a circular arrangement. Cephalopods have advanced vision, can detect gravity with ...
Zinc, which is immiscible in lead, dissolves the silver and gold. The zinc solution can be separated from the lead, and the ... A (wet) finger can be dipped into molten lead without risk of a burning injury. An even number of either protons or neutrons ... "A low-dimensional arrangement of [Pb9]4· clusters in [K(18-crown-6)]2K2Pb9·(en)1.5". Inorganica Chimica Acta. 359 (15): 4774-78 ... The main lead-bearing mineral is galena (PbS), which is mostly found with zinc ores. Most other lead minerals are related to ...
... highly efficient targeted mutagenesis approach based on a novel ZFN monomer arrangement for genome engineering in tomato ... A novel arrangement of zinc finger nuclease system for in vivo targeted genome engineering: the tomato LEC1-LIKE4 gene case. ... Mani M, Smith J, Kandavelou K, Berg JM, Chandrasegaran S (2005b) Binding of two zinc finger nuclease monomers to two specific ... To address this issue, zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-based technology was developed for the Solanum lycopersicum seed system. A ...
Each zinc-finger consists of approximately 30 amino acids in an ββα arrangement (inset). Surface residues (−1, 2, 3 and 6) that ... Cartoon of a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) dimer bound to DNA. ZFN target sites consist of two zinc-finger binding sites separated ... Zinc-finger proteins can be designed to recognize unique "left" and "right" half-sites. (c) (Top) TALE protein in complex with ... Each zinc-finger domain contacts 3-4 base pairs (bps) in the major groove of DNA. The side chains of the conserved Cys and His ...
Three zinc fingers are positioned in a semi-circular or C-shaped arrangement. Each zinc finger is made up of anti-parallel beta ... It is possible to synthesize zinc finger nucleotides with zinc finger components that selectively (almost selectively) bind to ... The histidine coordinated to the zinc atom, which is also the seventh residue in the alpha helix of the zinc fingers, ... no intrinsic specificity in its cleavage of DNA and that the zinc finger recognition domain confers selectivity to zinc finger ...
One type of zinc finger motif consists of a single α helix opposite two β strands in an antiparallel arrangement. The zinc ion ... and regulate gene expression incorporate a zinc finger motif. As the name implies, this motif binds the zinc ion using ...
... zinc-finger protein, contains one canonical and two unusual fingers in unusual arrangements; deletion enhances replication of ...
2001). Each finger contacts primarily 3 bp; the component sites are 9 bp in length; and the optimum arrangement of paired sites ... Redesign of the zinc fingers: Coding sequences for zinc fingers that recognize the DNA sequences 5′-GCGGATGCG-3′ and 5′- ... Each nuclease is composed of three zinc fingers (f1-f3) linked to the DNA-cleavage domain of FokI (green). Each finger contacts ... Zinc fingers generally prefer to bind G-rich sequences, and an extensive study has been performed of fingers that bind all 5′- ...
... interaction destabilizes the zinc binding site making it easier for the zinc ion to be withdrawn due to the new arrangement of ... It ejects the zinc from the zinc binding sites in a two steps. The zinc in the carboxyl-terminal zinc finger is released first ... Zinc finger inhibitors, or zinc ejectors, are substances or compounds that interact adversely with zinc fingers and cause them ... This method of using zinc finger inhibitors to target and destabilize zinc fingers represents a new method of fighting HIV. ...
In monocots, CSD proteins contain two or four CCHC zinc fingers, whereas the number of CCHC zinc fingers is one, two, four, ... and arrangement resembling that of LIN-28. We thus conducted a database search using Plant GDB (http://www.plantgdb.org/) to ... The glycine-rich and CCHC zinc finger regions are probably involved in binding of nucleic acids and other proteins (Karlson et ... LIN-28 comprises a single CSD and two CCHC retroviral-like zinc fingers at the C-terminus. Mammalian LIN-28 is a translational ...
These have included Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas9, ... These have included Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas9, ... Hilioti, Z., Ganopoulos, I., Ajith, S., Bossis, I., and Tsaftaris, A. (2016). A novel arrangement of zinc finger nuclease ... These have included Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas9, ...
CCCH and CCHC zinc fingers bind to an AU-rich RNA element. Different from CCHH zinc figure, the shape of the protein is the ... The strategy used by zinc figure to distinguish these two type of nucleotides may contain distinct structural arrangement of ... Zinc fingers are the domains contain zinc coordinated residues. There are three main types of this domain which are Cys2His2 ( ... When CCHH zinc finger binds to DNA, residues in its recognition α-helix forming hydrogen bonds to Watson-Crick base pairs in ...
... and seems from its sequence that it encodes a protein with five widely spaced zinc-fingers. This novel arrangement of zinc- ... Dependence of position-effect variegation in Drosophila on dose of a gene encoding an unusual zinc-finger protein.. Reuter G1, ... fingers could help in packaging the chromatin fibre into heterochromatin, and also reflect a novel method of controlling the ...
C2H2 zinc-finger genes are one of the largest and most complex gene superfamilies in metazoan genomes, with hundreds of members ... On the basis of current metazoan phylogeny, these 39 groups represent the minimum complement of C2H2 zinc-finger genes present ... Here we analyze C2H2 zinc-finger genes from three taxa - Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans and human - from which near- ... which have low levels of sequence identity but a similar unusual arrangement of zinc fingers. Such examples may also represent ...
The short leaves of osks2 is a result of the abnormal arrangement of the longitudinal mesophyll cells of osks2 leaves, which ... The zinc finger-containing transcription factors GATA-4, −5, and −6. J Biol Chem. 2000;275(50):38949-52.View ArticleGoogle ... The DNA binding domain of GATA factors constitutes a type IV zinc finger in the form of CX2CX17-20CX2C, followed by a highly ... For example, the CO gene was suggested to encode a protein with two zinc fingers related to those of GATA transcription factors ...
The RING-CH zinc finger has thus the same arrangement of cysteine and histidine (C4HC3) as the PHD zinc finger (see PDOC50016) ... Zinc finger, RING-CH-type (IPR011016). Short name: Znf_RING-CH Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Zinc finger, RING/FYVE/PHD ... The RING finger is a well characterised zinc finger which coordinates two zinc atoms in a cross-braced manner (see PDOC00449). ... Zinc finger (Znf) domains are relatively small protein motifs which contain multiple finger-like protrusions that make tandem ...
That the GhCesAs Zn domains cannot form heterodimers with the pGAL4BD domain containing a C2H2-type zinc finger, which itself ... that binds two zinc atoms in a unique "cross-brace" arrangement located at the N-terminal portion (reviewed in refs. 21, 22). ... Because zinc-finger motifs can function as protein-binding domains and sometimes undergo dimerization that is redox dependent ( ... The first conserved region at the N terminus of plant CesA proteins contains two putative zinc fingers that show high homology ...
Gene targeting with zinc finger nucleases to produce cloned eGFP knockout pigs. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 2011;78(1):2.. Whyte JJ, ... Zinc finger nucleases consist of a DNA binding domain fused to an endonuclease. By designing the DNA binding portion correctly ... "The fact that weve been able to knock out 96% of the genes that weve gone after with the zinc finger nucleases I think speaks ... Using zinc finger nucleases, though, Geurtss team has already deleted or modified over 100 of the candidate genes, and ...
Moreover, the binding affinity of the individual zinc fingers was found to increase in the order Finger 1 < Finger 2 < Finger 3 ... Moreover, these mostly neglect the cooperativity exhibited by zinc fingers. Here, we present an ab-initio method that is based ... Analysis of the predictions made by all three strategies indicate strong dependence of zinc finger binding specificity on the ... Most existing tools for predicting DNA-binding specificity in zinc fingers are trained on data obtained from naturally ...
... the C2H2 zinc finger proteins inDrosophila (∼46%), or the C6 and C2H2 families in yeast (∼25% each one). The three largest ... The plant-specific GRAS proteins might be distant relatives of the animal-specific STATS, based on a similar arrangement of ... or C2H2 zinc fingers, in combinations that are not present inArabidopsis. Some of these domains (paired and POU) are specific ... because of its extensive use of the C2H2 zinc finger proteins). Families that are present in all four organisms account for ...
... meiotic pairing is facilitated by interactions between chromosome-specific zinc finger proteins and the SUN and KASH domain ... In many species, such interactions are required for bouquet formation, an arrangement in which telomeres cluster in association ... analogous interactions between nuclear envelope proteins and chromosomes are mediated by zinc finger proteins that connect ... 1999 Interaction between human topoisomerase I and a novel RING finger/arginine-serine protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 27: 2538- ...
C2H2 zinc-finger genes are one of the largest and most complex gene superfamilies in metazoan genomes, with hundreds of members ... On the basis of current metazoan phylogeny, these 39 groups represent the minimum complement of C2H2 zinc-finger genes present ... Here we analyze C2H2 zinc-finger genes from three taxa - Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans and human - from which near- ... frequently joins adjacent fingers. This is apparent in the lower panel, which shows the typical arrangement of fingers in a ...
The multiple homeodomain and zinc finger motifs in these two proteins show a similar linear arrangement that implies coordinate ... The human ATBF1-B gene encodes a 306-kDa protein containing 4 homeodomains and 18 zinc fingers including one pseudo zinc finger ... The homeodomain and zinc finger regions are highly conserved between ZFH-4 and ATBF1 except that one zinc finger is missing in ... of encoding a 3,550-amino acid protein containing four homeodomains and 22 zinc fingers including two pseudo zinc finger motifs ...
... because proteins with a different number and arrangement of CCCH zinc fingers, such as HUA1 and ZFN1, are not localized in the ... Tandem CCCH zinc finger proteins in mRNA binding. In S Iuchi, N Kuldell, eds, Zinc Finger Proteins: from Atomic Contact to ... six CCCH zinc fingers) was localized in the nucleolus (Cheng et al., 2003) and ZFN1 (At3g02830; five CCCH zinc fingers) was ... six CCCH zinc fingers) is localized in the nucleolus, and ZFN1-GFP (At3g02830; five CCCH zinc fingers) is localized in the ...
Zinc Fingers: The best poems are the ones that call a reader to return again, conveying content through imagery, then going ... The arrangement of the poems in this book appears at first sight to be too clever or gimmicky: one poem more or less for each ...
... formation suggests that BTB/POZ domains from otherwise unrelated proteins will form dimers with similar quaternary arrangements ... The BTB/POZ domain and zinc fingers (Zn) are indicated for PLZF, BCL-6, and BAZF. B, sequence alignment of BTB/POZ domains. ... Chang C-C., Ye B. H., Chaganti R. S. K., Dalla-Favera R. BCL-6, a POZ/zinc-finger protein, is a sequence-specific ... Zollman S., Godt D., Prive G. G., Couderc J-L., Laski F. The BTB domain, found primarily in zinc finger proteins, defines an ...
The DNA-binding domains (DBDs) of several zinc finger proteins, including EKLF, interact directly with SWI/SNF to generate ... RING finger) interspersed between the ATPase motifs in an arrangement similar to that found in the yeast RAD5 and RAD16 ... Remodeling is achieved with only the BRG1-BAF155 minimal complex and the EKLF zinc finger DBD, whereas transcription requires, ... A complex overlapping arrangement is observed between sequences required for the interaction of LBP-1 and CTF/NF I proteins and ...
The adenine substitution leads to a hydrogen bonding arrangement that is incompatible withG-quartet formation, while inosine ... 7. A zinc finger polypeptide according to claim 1 wherein said zinc finger polypeptide comprises at least one zinc finger motif ... In other words, they comprise a Cys2-His2 zinc finger motif.. Zinc Fingers. A zinc finger is a DNA-binding protein domain that ... Zinc fingers, as is known in the art, are nucleic acid binding molecules. A zinc finger binding motif is a structure well known ...
C2H2 zinc finger domain binding Source: MGI. *DNA binding Source: MGI ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a ... This arrangement is conserved in some mammalian species.Curated. ,p>The ,a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology ( ...
However, ASC-1 contains a putative zinc finger motif with an arrangement of metal binding residues similar to those of E1A (14 ... and ASCΔNΔC includes only the putative zinc finger domain (residues 125 to 237). The zinc finger region is specifically deleted ... which consists only of the putative zinc finger domain (residues 125 to 237), this transactivation function maps to the zinc ... The zinc finger region of ASC-1 forms a ternary complex with CBP, SRC-1, and RXR.It was surprising that a relatively small ...
We also demonstrate that, for the myosin light chain 2 gene (MLC2), myocardin cooperates with the zinc-finger transcription ... We define preferential motif arrangements for TBX5 and NKX2-5 cooperative binding sites, supported at the atomic level by their ... We report extensive and complex interdependent genomic occupancy of TBX5, NKX2-5, and the zinc finger TF GATA4 coordinately ...
... differences in the features of their zinc finger sequences and zinc finger arrangements compared to animal zinc finger proteins ... comprises proteins with one isolated or two to five dispersed fingers and a mostly invariant QALGGH motif in the zinc finger ... The comparison of zinc finger proteins in several eukaryotes has shown that there is a lot of lineage specific diversification ... The different zinc finger helix signatures we found in family C1 may have important implications for the sequence specific DNA ...
  • Zinc-finger proteins can be designed to recognize unique "left" and "right" half-sites. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple modes of RNA recognition by zinc finger proteins. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Zinc finger proteins: getting a grip on RNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The first conserved region at the N terminus of plant CesA proteins contains two putative zinc fingers that show high homology to the RING-finger motif. (pnas.org)
  • One notable characteristic of all of the CesA proteins is the presence of two zinc-finger domains located within the cytoplasmic N-terminal region of the proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Most existing tools for predicting DNA-binding specificity in zinc fingers are trained on data obtained from naturally occurring proteins, thereby skewing the predictions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To exploit zinc finger proteins for genome manipulation, molecular and structural insights at the binding interface of zinc fingers and corresponding DNA targets are mandatory. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although there is no simple, general code for zinc finger protein-DNA recognition, selection strategies have been developed that allow these proteins to be designed to target almost any desired site on double-stranded DNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The importance of designing ZFPs which bind to target DNA sequences is further aided by the developments in chemical methods for protein synthesis that enables the preparation of zinc finger proteins containing amino acids that do not usually occur in these proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The CCCH tandem zinc finger proteins (TZFs) play pivotal roles in gene expression, cell fate specification, and various developmental processes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The evolutionarily conserved BTB/POZ domain from the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) oncoprotein mediates transcriptional repression through the recruitment of corepressor proteins containing histone deacetylases in acute promyelocytic leukemia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The classical C2H2 zinc finger domain is involved in a wide range of functions and can bind to DNA, RNA and proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The comparison of zinc finger proteins in several eukaryotes has shown that there is a lot of lineage specific diversification and expansion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the number of characterized plant proteins that carry the classical C2H2 zinc finger motifs is growing, a systematic classification and analysis of a plant genome zinc finger gene set is lacking. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found through in silico analysis 176 zinc finger proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana that hence constitute the most abundant family of putative transcriptional regulators in this plant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Only a minority of 33 A. thaliana zinc finger proteins are conserved in other eukaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The newly defined family A1 (24 members) comprises proteins with tandemly arranged zinc finger domains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Family C1 (64 members), earlier described as the EPF-family in Petunia , comprises proteins with one isolated or two to five dispersed fingers and a mostly invariant QALGGH motif in the zinc finger helices. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our analysis of the few evolutionarily conserved zinc finger proteins of A. thaliana suggests that most of them could be involved in ancient biological processes like RNA metabolism and chromatin-remodeling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, the majority of the unique A. thaliana zinc finger proteins are known or suggested to be involved in transcriptional regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They exhibit remarkable differences in the features of their zinc finger sequences and zinc finger arrangements compared to animal zinc finger proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C2H2 zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) constitute an abundant family of nucleic acid binding proteins in the genomes of higher and lower eukaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Approximately 0.8% of the proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [ 3 ] have C2H2 zinc finger domains and about 0.7% in Arabidopsis thaliana (this paper). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The predicted amino acid sequence of SHI has acidic and glutamine-rich stretches and shows sequence similarity over a putative zinc finger region to three presumptive Arabidopsis proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • The plant homeodomain (PHD) finger is a C4HC3 zinc-finger-like motif found in nuclear proteins thought to be involved in epigenetics and chromatin-mediated transcriptional regulation. (embl.de)
  • The PHD finger and the bromodomain are small protein domains that occur in many proteins associated with phenomena related to chromatin. (embl.de)
  • The RING-variant domain is a C4HC3 zinc-finger like motif found in a number of cellular and viral proteins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Zinc Finger: For Proteins to form a stable structure there is inter-working of hundreds of amino acids. (meity.gov.in)
  • Therefore, the sequence of target motifs encoded by DNA program defines also the arrangement of those functional proteins along with the order of DNA-binding factors. (igem.org)
  • Gives access to information on naturally occurring and engineered zinc finger proteins (ZFPs). (omictools.com)
  • It allows universal access to the database content and allows diverse queries sustaining many types of research utilizing zinc finger proteins. (omictools.com)
  • The fusion proteins consisted of: pEGFP-KLF6, which encodes the total duration KLF6 protein pEGFP-SV1, entire length KLF6-SV1 pEGFP-5BR, the fifty nine basic region (5BR) and pEGFP-ZF1ZF2ZF3, the complete KLF6 zinc finger (ZF) area (Determine 1B). (vannoortevents.com)
  • The element zinc (Zn) is crucial in the formation of so called zinc 'finger' proteins, in which Zn 2+ is bonded to pairs of cysteine and histidine amino acids, acting like 'fingers' which interact with specific gene segments. (icr.org)
  • The replicative helicase of eukaryotes is based on this same arrangement of a core hexameric ring comprised of six related Mcm subunits, but helicase activity requires five additional proteins including Cdc45 and the heterotetrameric GINS complex (Psf1-3 and Sld5). (elifesciences.org)
  • However, these IDRs have only been thought of as linkers that allow flexible spatial arrangement of the structured domains, but recent studies have shown that similar IDRs mediate specific and critical interactions in other proteins. (mtak.hu)
  • A number of eukaryotic and viral proteins contain a conserved 40-60 residue cysteine-rich domain, variously termed a C3HC4 zinc-finger or `RING' finger [1-3]. (130.88.97)
  • BBOXZNFINGER is a 2-element fingerprint that provides a signature for B-box zinc finger proteins. (130.88.97)
  • RNA-binding domains included in this database are RNA recognition motif, K homology, CCCH zinc finger, and more domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are RNA recognition motif (RRM), K-Homology domain (KH domain) and zinc fingers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schematic diagram of a C2H2 zinc-finger motif. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most common DNA-binding motif found in humans and multicellular organism is the cysteine-histidine (Cys2-His2) zinc finger. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 7. A zinc finger polypeptide according to claim 1 wherein said zinc finger polypeptide comprises at least one zinc finger motif. (patentgenius.com)
  • Activating signal cointegrator 1 (ASC-1) harbors an autonomous transactivation domain that contains a putative zinc finger motif which provides binding sites for basal transcription factors TBP and TFIIA, transcription integrators steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) and CBP-p300, and nuclear receptors, as demonstrated by the glutathione S -transferase pull-down assays and the yeast two-hybrid tests. (asm.org)
  • We have determined the crystal structure of the Cwc2 functional core, revealing how a previously uncharacterized Torus domain, an RNA recognition motif (RRM) and a zinc finger (ZnF) are tightly integrated in a compact folding unit. (embopress.org)
  • The PHD finger binds two zinc ions using the so-called 'cross-brace' motif and is thus structurally related to the RING finger and the FYVE finger . (embl.de)
  • The PHD finger motif is reminiscent of, but distinct from the C3HC4 type RING finger. (embl.de)
  • It contains a C4HC3 motif that coordinates two zinc ions in a cross-brace manner. (biocuckoo.org)
  • Extended description: The RING-variant (RINGv) domain contains a C4HC3 zinc-finger-like motif similar to the PHD domain, while some of the spacing between the Cys/His residues follow a pattern somewhat closer to that found in the RING domain. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The diagram shown here is of a typical C2H2 zinc-finger motif. (meity.gov.in)
  • We have started this project by selecting the Cys2His2 zinc finger motif as a model protein fold and replaced the 10-residue long original α-helical segment in the third finger of transcription factor Egr1 by an oligourea sequence bearing two appropriately spaced imidazole side chains for zinc coordination. (guichard-iecb.fr)
  • A novel protein sequence motif related to the zinc finger. (130.88.97)
  • Often, one or two copies of the B-box are associated with a coiled coil domain in addition to the ring finger, forming a tripartite motif. (130.88.97)
  • Bibikova M, Golic M, Golic KG, Carroll D (2002) Targeted chromosomal cleavage and mutagenesis in Drosophila using zinc-finger nucleases. (springer.com)
  • The zinc finger nucleases that have been synthesized for this treatment are manufactured by combining FokI Type II restriction endonucleases with engineered zinc fingers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar work is ongoing for high-risk HPVs (with the intent of reversing cervical neoplasia) as well as with HSV-2 (with the goal of achieving a complete cure for genital herpes) The FokI catalytic domain must dimerize to cleave the DNA at the targeted site, and requires there to be two adjacent zinc finger nucleases (see picture), which independently bind to a specific codon at the correct orientation and spacing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) comprise a powerful class of tools that are redefining the boundaries of biological research. (nih.gov)
  • Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are hybrids between a nonspecific DNA-cleavage domain and a DNA-binding domain composed of Cys 2 His 2 zinc fingers. (genetics.org)
  • We intend to bypass this limitation with nucleases based on zinc-finger DNA-recognition domains. (genetics.org)
  • This should permit cleavage by zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) to be directed to different genomic sequences without the need to alter those sequences in advance. (genetics.org)
  • These have included Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas9, which is so far the most successful and commonly used approach for targeted and stable editing of DNA, due to its ease of use and low cost. (frontiersin.org)
  • Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs) are man-made restriction enzymes useful for manipulating genomes by cleaving target DNA sequences. (omictools.com)
  • Recent advances in the use of designer nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 system for site-specific genome engineering open the possibility to perform rapid targeted genome modification in virtually any laboratory species without the need to rely on embryonic stem (ES) cell technology. (jove.com)
  • This protocol describes targeting of the Pituitary homeobox 3 ( PITX3 ) locus in human embryonic stem cells using custom designed zinc-finger nucleases, which introduce site-specific double-strand DNA breaks, together with a PITX3 - EGFP -specific DNA donor vector. (jove.com)
  • Other viruses such as SARS, polio, Ebola, measles, human coxsackie, Dengue, rabies, human hepatitis, human parainfluenza and human respiratory syncytical have similar zinc finger motifs and could potentially benefit from zinc finger inhibitor technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • These motifs contain two peptide units of Cys-X2-Cys-X4-His-X4-Cys (CCHC), where the X represents a substituted amino acid, that make up the zinc (II) ion binding sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc finger (Znf) domains are relatively small protein motifs which contain multiple finger-like protrusions that make tandem contacts with their target molecule. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Zinc-binding motifs are stable structures, and they rarely undergo conformational changes upon binding their target. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Sticky fingers: zinc-fingers as protein-recognition motifs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Engineering zinc finger protein motifs for specific binding to double-stranded DNA is critical for targeted genome editing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protein domains that are sometimes present in transcription factors, but not necessarily associated with them, have not been included in this genome survey, for example, some zinc coordinating motifs that either are involved in protein-protein interactions or have not yet been functionally characterized. (sciencemag.org)
  • The B-box structure differs in tertiary fold from all other known zinc-binding motifs. (130.88.97)
  • The fingerprint was derived from an initial alignment of 7 sequences: the motifs were drawn from conserved regions spanning the full length of the finger domain. (130.88.97)
  • In the same manner as ADA, the compounds interact with an 18-residue polypeptide on the N terminal zinc knuckle region of the HIV nucleocapsid protein which causes ejection of the zinc from the region by covalently modifying the cysteine residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • They react with the cysteine residues on the zinc finger of the NCp7 and cause a covalent conformation change which ejects the zinc from the zinc finger domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc fingers are the domains contain zinc coordinated residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • When CCHH zinc finger binds to DNA, residues in its recognition α-helix forming hydrogen bonds to Watson-Crick base pairs in the major groove. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another difference between the RING-CH and the common RING variants is a somewhat longer peptide segment between the fourth and fifth zinc-coordinating residues. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Here, we present an ab-initio method that is based on mutation of the key α-helical residues of individual fingers of the parent template for Zif-268 and its consensus sequence (PDB ID: 1AAY). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The RINGv domain, similar to the RING, PHD and LIM domains, is thought to bind two zinc ions co-ordinated by the highly conserved Cys and His residues. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The RING domains have each 8 cysteine/histidine residues in the general formula C-x 2 -C-x (9-39) -C-x (1-3) -H-x (2-3) -C-x 2 -C-x (4-48) -C-x 2 -C, which bind 2 Zn 2+ ions and form a cross-brace, which does not resemble the classical zinc fingers [ 6 ]. (parasitol.kr)
  • In addition, we have shown that variants of this domain in which the final zinc-ligating histidine is mutated to residues such as asparagine and alanine are still functional in binding both GATA-1 and, in the context of a 3-zinc-finger construct, DNA. (edu.au)
  • A selection-free, highly efficient targeted mutagenesis approach based on a novel ZFN monomer arrangement for genome engineering in tomato reveals plant trait modifications. (springer.com)
  • Specificity of genome editing is important for the zinc finger nuclease to be a successful application. (wikipedia.org)
  • C2H2 zinc-finger genes are one of the largest and most complex gene superfamilies in metazoan genomes, with hundreds of members in the human genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we analyze C2H2 zinc-finger genes from three taxa - Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans and human - from which near-complete genome sequence data are available. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the basis of current metazoan phylogeny, these 39 groups represent the minimum complement of C2H2 zinc-finger genes present in the genome of the bilaterian common ancestor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The rationale to study about zinc finger domain and its interaction with the DNA stems from the need to expatiate on the mechanisms by which the binding of transcription activators and repressors to the genome regulates the expression repertoire of all genes in a cell, hence focussing on its enormous scope in genome engineering. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To address this issue, zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-based technology was developed for the Solanum lycopersicum seed system. (springer.com)
  • Each ZFN is made up of multiple zinc fingers and one nuclease enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the two binding events from the two zinc finger nuclease enables specific DNA targeting. (wikipedia.org)
  • (b) Cartoon of a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) dimer bound to DNA. (nih.gov)
  • 2011) ZFN-site searches genomes for zinc finger nuclease target sites and off-target sites . (omictools.com)
  • The largest open reading frame (ORF3) encodes a putative polyprotein, with predicted domains including zinc finger, aspartic protease, reverse transcriptase (RT) and RNase H, in that order. (springermedizin.de)
  • MHY1 encodes a C 2 H 2 -type zinc finger protein, Mhy1p, which can bind putative cis -acting DNA stress response elements, suggesting that Mhy1p may act as a transcription factor. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The number of copies of the Drosophila gene Suvar(3)7 is a dose-limiting factor in this phenomenon, and seems from its sequence that it encodes a protein with five widely spaced zinc-fingers. (nih.gov)
  • Cloning the SE gene revealed that it encodes a protein with a single, C 2 H 2 -type, zinc finger related to genes in other eukaryotes. (plantcell.org)
  • SE encodes a zinc-finger protein whose mRNA accumulates in meristems and organ primordia. (plantcell.org)
  • HIC1 encodes a zinc‐finger transcription factor that acts as a transcriptional repressor. (embopress.org)
  • The RING-CH zinc finger has thus the same arrangement of cysteine and histidine (C4HC3) as the PHD zinc finger (see PDOC50016 ) but it contains features (spacing between the cysteines and the histidine) characteristic of the genuine RING-finger (C3HC4) [ PMID: 11641273 , PMID: 12695663 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • ADA inhibits HIV by electophilically attacking the sulfur atoms of the zinc coordinated cysteine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RING finger is a well characterised zinc finger which coordinates two zinc atoms in a cross-braced manner (see PDOC00449 ). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This is done using Zinc atoms which acts as a magnet attracting certain type of amino acids. (meity.gov.in)
  • The finger binds two atoms of zinc, and is probably involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. (130.88.97)
  • Here we present an analysis of the C2H2 zinc finger (C2H2 ZNF) genes: a superfamily that, with over 600 members in humans, contains 1-2% of all human genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is apparent in the lower panel, which shows the typical arrangement of fingers in a C2H2 ZNF protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is evident in the lower part which depicts a typical structure of fingers in a C2H2 ZNF protein. (meity.gov.in)
  • 1. An isolated Cys2 His2 zinc finger polypeptide that binds to a molecule selected from the group consisting of telomeric nucleic acid, G-quadruplex nucleic acid and G-quartetnucleic acid. (patentgenius.com)
  • Dependence of position-effect variegation in Drosophila on dose of a gene encoding an unusual zinc-finger protein. (nih.gov)
  • Klug A. Zinc finger peptides for the regulation of gene expression. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 1997 ) Control of vertebrate left-right asymmetry by a snail-related zinc finger gene. (biologists.org)
  • The zinc finger transcriptional repressor Blimp1 originally cloned as a negative regulator of beta-interferon gene expression [ 1 ] is known to control cell fate decisions in the developing embryo and adult organism [ 2 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • In a portion of a mouse gene, for example, this protein recognizes a unique DNA site using three of these 'fingers. (icr.org)
  • Furthermore, zinc-activated MTF-1 causes down-regulation of Zip10 transcription by physically blocking Pol II movement through the gene. (jove.com)
  • Members of the GATA transcription factor family contain one or two zinc fingers with the amino acid sequence CysX 2 CysX 17 CysX 2 Cys and can bind the DNA sequence (A/T) GATA (A/G) ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is possible to synthesize zinc finger nucleotides with zinc finger components that selectively (almost selectively) bind to specific portions of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The strategy used by zinc figure to distinguish these two type of nucleotides may contain distinct structural arrangement of this domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc-fingers and TAL elements can be designed to bind to almost any desired nucleotide sequence ranging from 9 to as many as 18 nucleotides. (igem.org)
  • Mhy1p shows strong homology in its zinc finger domain to the S. cerevisiae stress response factors Msn2p and Msn4p. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This method of using zinc finger inhibitors to target and destabilize zinc fingers represents a new method of fighting HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc finger genes represent a large multigene family present in mammalian and other genomes. (ucy.ac.cy)
  • Zinc finger inhibitors, or zinc ejectors, are substances or compounds that interact adversely with zinc fingers and cause them to release their zinc from its binding site, disrupting the conformation of the polypeptide chain and rendering the zinc fingers ineffective, thereby preventing them from performing their associated cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • NCp7 is initially formed as part of the gag polypeptide and follows a gag-knuckle zinc finger conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The solution structure of the RING-CH-type zinc finger of the herpesvirus Mir1 protein has shown that it is an outlying relative of the cellular RING finger domain family, with its polypeptide backbone much more closely resembling that of RING domains than PHD domains [ PMID: 15465811 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 2. A zinc finger polypeptide according to claim 1 wherein said nucleic acid is not in a double-helical conformation. (patentgenius.com)
  • 3. A zinc finger polypeptide according to claim 1 wherein said nucleic acid comprises single-stranded DNA. (patentgenius.com)
  • 4. A zinc finger polypeptide according to claim 1 wherein said nucleic acid is contained in a chromosome end. (patentgenius.com)
  • 5. A zinc finger polypeptide according to claim 1 wherein said nucleic acid is in a non-Watson-Crick base paired conformation. (patentgenius.com)
  • 6. A zinc finger polypeptide according to claim 1 wherein said nucleic acid comprises Hoogsteen base pairing. (patentgenius.com)
  • 8. A zinc finger polypeptide according to claim 1 wherein said polypeptide has an affinity for G-quadruplex nucleic acid which is different from its affinity for duplex nucleic acid. (patentgenius.com)
  • and (iv) monitoring the binding of said zinc finger polypeptide to said telomerase treated nucleic acid sample. (patentgenius.com)
  • 15. A method for discriminating between duplex and quadruplex nucleic acid comprising contacting a sample of nucleic acid with a zinc finger polypeptide according to claim 8 and monitoring the binding of said zinc finger polypeptide to saidnucleic acid. (patentgenius.com)
  • In a polypeptide encompassing the DNA binding domain of rat GR, it has been shown that each of two Zn(II) is coordinated in a tetrahedral arrangement by four cysteines (Freedman, et al. (justia.com)
  • This arrangement is conserved in some mammalian species. (uniprot.org)
  • The regulation of cellular zinc uptake is a key process in the overall mechanism governing mammalian zinc homeostasis and how zinc participates in cellular functions. (jove.com)
  • Specificity protein 1 binds with high affinity to GC rich sequence that regulates expression of an arrangement of genes drawn in various cellular processes such as growth, differentiation, immune response and apoptosis which in turn modulates cell responses to DNA damage implicated in chromatin remodeling. (biology-online.org)
  • This tandem beta-zipper arrangement has been observed in one other recent structure - a bacterial pathogen that binds cellular fibronectin repeats (Potts et al. (edu.au)
  • ZFN target sites consist of two zinc-finger binding sites separated by a 5- to 7-bp spacer sequence recognized by the Fok I cleavage domain. (nih.gov)
  • Because zinc fingers can be manipulated to recognize a broad range of sequences, these enzymes have the potential to direct cleavage to arbitrarily chosen targets. (genetics.org)
  • This makes BLAST scores unreliable indicators of evolutionary relationships, as the score depends on the length of matching sequence and will be misleadingly high for genes that have independently evolved multiple contiguous fingers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finger repetition also means that molecular phylogenetics can only be employed where the relationships of individual fingers between genes can be determined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This synergy appears to depend on specific arrangements of linked Rel and GATA binding sites in the regulatory regions of select immunity genes ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Orthologues of the four ORFs asr0689-alr0692, with a highly conserved genomic arrangement positioned between hupSL, and the hyp genes are found in several other N2-fixing cyanobacteria, but are absent in non N2-fixing cyanobacteria with only the bidirectional hydrogenase. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CCCH and CCHC zinc fingers bind to an AU-rich RNA element. (wikipedia.org)
  • We present evidence here that the zinc finger-homeodomain protein ZEB contains two independent repressor domains that target different sets of transcription factors and regulate distinct biologic processes. (asm.org)
  • ZEB is a zinc finger-homeodomain protein that represses transcription by binding to a subset of E-box sequences. (asm.org)
  • The only real difference between the classic and variant RING domains, other than the alteration of zinc ligands, is the loss of the small beta-sheet found in RING domains and the replacement of one strand of this sheet with a single turn of helix. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Of 7 potential zinc ligands, only 4 are used, binding a single zinc atom in a C2-H2 tetrahedral arrangement [5]. (130.88.97)
  • In contrast, U-boxes do not bind zinc but have evolved instead networks of hydrogen bonds and salt bridges in corresponding location in the structure. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The binding of zinc (II) in the CCHC binding site is necessary for the domain to be functional and for the stabilization of the conformation of the structure, allowing the NCp7 to carry out the processes required for HIV replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the CCHC binding site is mutation resistant and involved in the replication of HIV-1, it makes a prime candidate for the prevention of HIV through zinc ejectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the pattern of cysteines and histidines three different subfamilies of RING finger can be defined. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The paired cysteines (C) and histidines (H) that bind the zinc ion are shown in yellow and blue, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Zinc Fingers, 2 numbers Cysteines and Histidines are arranged close to each other in a chain. (meity.gov.in)
  • 1985), the invariant cysteines are thought to form two "zinc fingers" for specific DNA binding. (justia.com)
  • 1988.) In this model, the first four cysteines (C.sub.1 to C.sub.4) chelate one Zn(II) to form Finger 1, which includes a loop of 13 amino acids between C.sub.2 and C.sub.3. (justia.com)
  • Finger 2 is formed by the next four cysteines (C.sub.5 to C.sub.8), since function is retained when the ninth cysteine is changed to an alanine or serine (Severne, et al. (justia.com)
  • There are more than 700 experimentally determined zinc fingers in the database ZIFDB, offering a huge choice of tools for synthetic biology. (igem.org)
  • The classical RING finger (RING-HC) has a histidine at the fourth coordinating position and a cysteine at the fifth. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In similarity to the RING finger and the LIM domain, the PHD finger is thought to bind two zinc ions. (embl.de)
  • Their binding properties depend on the amino acid sequence of the finger domains and of the linker between fingers, as well as on the higher-order structures and the number of fingers. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Analysis of the predictions made by all three strategies indicate strong dependence of zinc finger binding specificity on the amino acid propensity and the position of a 3-bp DNA sub-site in the target DNA sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The linker sequence, shown in green with its consensus sequence in the single-letter amino acid code, frequently joins adjacent fingers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The different zinc finger helix signatures we found in family C1 may have important implications for the sequence specific DNA recognition and allow inferences about the evolution of the members in this family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DNA sequence represents a program consisting of a series of blocks which determine the arrangement of DNA binding factors along the DNA. (igem.org)
  • Titration in the presence of the Egr1 target DNA sequence supports binding to GC bases as reported for the wildtype zinc finger. (guichard-iecb.fr)
  • 2. BORDEN, K.L.B. AND FREEMONT, P.S. The RING finger domain: a recent example of a sequence-structure family. (130.88.97)
  • It has been shown to interact with both DNA (CACCC boxes) and the C-terminal zinc finger of GATA-1. (edu.au)
  • It is not yet known if PHD fingers have a common molecular function. (embl.de)
  • Different from CCHH zinc figure, the shape of the protein is the primary determinant of specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of FOG-1 finger 3 (left) shows that it is a typical classical CCHH finger (BMRB 6216). (edu.au)
  • The number of zinc fingers attached to the endonuclease controls the specificity of the ZFN since they are engineered to preferentially bind to specific base sequences in DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • PHD fingers make extensive contacts with H3K4me3, imparting a high degree of specificity. (biocuckoo.org)
  • This novel arrangement of zinc-fingers could help in packaging the chromatin fibre into heterochromatin, and also reflect a novel method of controlling the expression from DNA domains. (nih.gov)
  • ZifBASE is a web based platform independent, manually curated database that provides hyperlinks to the 3D structures for naturally occurring ZFPs, finger positions, number of fingers, physiochemical properties and all classes and framework with PubMed citations. (omictools.com)
  • Znf domains are often found in clusters, where fingers can have different binding specificities. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Based on the amino acid pattern in these helices we could describe five different signature sequences prevalent in C1 zinc finger domains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also found a number of non-finger domains that are conserved in these families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These expansions often include ZFPs that contain conserved lineage specific non-finger domains like the vertebrate specific KRAB domain (reviewed in [ 4 ]) or the ZAD domain specific to diptera [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other reports suggesting that the PHD finger is a ubiquitin ligase have been refuted as these domains were RING fingers misidentified as PHD fingers. (embl.de)
  • the structure of RING domains is built around two zinc binding sites that are critical to its stability. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Other similarities between these two domains include an antiparallel beta-sheet type arrangement involving the first surface exposed loop and the central alpha helix. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 4. BORDEN, K.L. RING fingers and B-boxes: zinc-binding protein-protein interaction domains. (130.88.97)
  • Several reports suggest that it can function as a protein-protein interacton domain and it was recently demonstrated that the PHD finger of p300 can cooperate with the adjacent BROMO domain in nucleosome binding in vitro. (embl.de)
  • 1988). Finger 2 has a loop of 9 amino acids, and is separated by a "Linker" of 15-17 amino acids from Finger 1. (justia.com)
  • This arrangement makes it possible for a protein to grab a zinc ion and then fold tightly around it. (meity.gov.in)
  • A zinc-finger transcription factors involved in various cellular processes including cell growth , cell differentiation , apoptosis , immune response and DNA damage. (biology-online.org)
  • The only other molecule with an electron arrangement exactly that of O 2 is S 2 . (icr.org)
  • The yeast splicing factor Cwc2 contacts several catalytically important RNA elements in the active spliceosome, suggesting that Cwc2 is involved in determining their spatial arrangement at the spliceosome's catalytic centre. (embopress.org)
  • This electrophilic interaction destabilizes the zinc binding site making it easier for the zinc ion to be withdrawn due to the new arrangement of bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such an arrangement produces a globular domain with a small β-sheet and an α-helix. (biocuckoo.org)