A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
G-protein-coupled NEUROPEPTIDE RECEPTORS that have specificity for OREXINS and play a role in appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles. Two principle receptor types exist, each having a specificity for OREXIN A and OREXIN B peptide subtypes.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the FOREBRAIN with the HINDBRAIN. Ventral MIDBRAIN also contains three colorful structures: the GRAY MATTER (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
A parasomnia characterized by a partial arousal that occurs during stage IV of non-REM sleep. Affected individuals exhibit semipurposeful behaviors such as ambulation and are difficult to fully awaken. Children are primarily affected, with a peak age range of 4-6 years.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)
Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
A nonapeptide that is found in neurons, peripheral organs, and plasma. This neuropeptide induces mainly delta sleep in mammals. In addition to sleep, the peptide has been observed to affect electrophysiological activity, neurotransmitter levels in the brain, circadian and locomotor patterns, hormonal levels, psychological performance, and the activity of neuropharmacological drugs including their withdrawal.
Literary or artistic items having an erotic theme. It refers especially to books treating sexual love in a sensuous or voluptuous manner. (Webster, 3d ed)
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.
Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.
Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.
The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Fibers that arise from cell groups within the spinal cord and pass directly to the cerebellum. They include the anterior, posterior, and rostral spinocerebellar tracts, and the cuneocerebellar tract. (From Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p607)
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Dense collection of cells in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum known to play a role in the functional organization of the BASAL GANGLIA and in the modulation of the thalamocortical neuronal system.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.
Bouts of physical irritability or movement alternating with periods of quiescence. It includes biochemical activity and hormonal activity which may be cellular. These cycles are shorter than 24 hours and include sleep-wakefulness cycles and the periodic activation of the digestive system.
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.
The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Government required written and driving test given to individuals prior to obtaining an operator's license.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial maxillary nucleus, lateral mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H3 receptors were first recognized as inhibitory autoreceptors on histamine-containing nerve terminals and have since been shown to regulate the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
The climax of sexual excitement in either humans or animals.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Most histamine H1 receptors operate through the inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol second messenger system. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability, hormone release, and cerebral glyconeogenesis. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Sleep arousal are active brain processes medicated and associated with specific brain regions. Despite the fact that various ... Cataplexy, on the other hand, is an involuntary loss of muscle tone during wakefulness. The mechanism of narcolepsy is unknown ... Neurotransmitters and similarly-functioning biochemical messengers elicit effects on postsynaptic neurons at neuronal synapses ... REM sleep cycles mimic conscious brain patterns to an extent. Night Terrors, for example, involve the partial arousal out of ...
Based upon its structure and connectivity, its function is suggested to do with coordination of different brain function; i.e. ... Consciousness functionally can be divided into two components: (i) wakefulness, which is arousal and alertness; (ii) content of ... Brain. 141 (8): 2445-2456. doi:10.1093/brain/awy161. PMC 6061866. PMID 29982424. Stained brain slice images which include the " ... Brain Structure & Function. 222 (5): 2041-2058. doi:10.1007/s00429-016-1323-9. PMC 5382132. PMID 27714529. Stevens CF (June ...
... arousal, and attention? Is there a "hard problem of consciousness"? If so, how is it solved? What, if any, is the function of ... What is the biological function of sleep? Why do we dream? What are the underlying brain mechanisms? What is its relation to ... These problems include: Consciousness: What is the neural basis of subjective experience, cognition, wakefulness, alertness, ... What are the genetic and environmental contributions to brain function? Language: How is it implemented neurally? What is the ...
This system of a sort of general activation of consciousness is referred to as "arousal" or "wakefulness". It is not ... wakefulness). The emerging concept of sluggish cognitive tempo has also been implicated in the expression of 'brain fog' ... The extent of the impairment is variable because inattention may impair several cognitive functions. Sufferers may complain of ... Clouding of consciousness (also known as brain fog or mental fog) is when a person is slightly less wakeful or aware than ...
The regulation of sleep and wakefulness involves many regions and cellular subtypes in the brain. Indeed, the ascending arousal ... Saladin, KS (2018). "Chapter 14 - The Brain and Cranial Nerves". Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function (8th ed ... The ascending system is seen to contribute to wakefulness as characterised by cortical and behavioural arousal. The main ... There are distinct differences in the brain's electrical activity during periods of wakefulness and sleep: Low voltage fast ...
The general function of norepinephrine is to mobilize the brain and body for action. Norepinephrine release is lowest during ... Berridge CW, Schmeichel BE, España RA (2012). "Noradrenergic modulation of wakefulness/arousal". Sleep Med Rev. 16 (2): 187-97 ... Inside the brain norepinephrine functions as a neurotransmitter, and is controlled by a set of mechanisms common to all ... In the brain, norepinephrine increases arousal and alertness, promotes vigilance, enhances formation and retrieval of memory, ...
Though the brain activity during REM sleep appears very similar to wakefulness, the main difference between REM and wakefulness ... What happens in the brain during sleep? How can we understand sleep function based on physiological changes in the brain? What ... Vital signs indicate arousal and oxygen consumption by the brain is higher than when the sleeper is awake. REM sleep is ... Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23. Brown, pp. 1100-1102. Brown, pp. 1118-1119: "Compared with wakefulness, sleep reduces brain ...
The hypothalamus region of the brain regulates basic functions of hormone release, emotional expression and sleep. A study in ... which are chemicals important in promoting wakefulness, arousal and alertness. The diagnosis of narcolepsy and cataplexy is ... Cataplexy is considered secondary when it is due to specific lesions in the brain that cause a depletion of the hypocretin ... These lesions can be visualized with brain imaging, however in their early stages they can be missed. Other conditions in which ...
It involves activation of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) in the brain, which mediates wakefulness, the ... Depression can influence a person's level of arousal by interfering with the right hemisphere's functioning. Arousal in women ... Eysenck's theory of arousal describes the different natural frequency or arousal states of the brains of people who are ... which interrupt wakefulness and arousal. Neurotransmitters of the arousal system, such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, ...
While the best characterized function of the histamine system in the brain is regulation of sleep and arousal, histamine is ... Norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and histamine have complex modulatory functions and, in general, promote wakefulness. The ... Dopamine has a number of important functions in the brain; this includes regulation of motor behavior, pleasures related to ... It functions to regulate appetite, sleep, memory and learning, temperature, mood, behaviour, muscle contraction, and function ...
Possible functions[edit]. Some researchers argue that the perpetuation of a complex brain process such as REM sleep indicates ... REM sleep is "paradoxical" because of its similarities to wakefulness. Although the body is paralyzed, the brain acts somewhat ... a b c Ummehan Ermis, Karsten Krakow, & Ursula Voss (2010), "Arousal thresholds during human tonic and phasic REM sleep", ... a b c d e f g h J. Alan Hobson, Edward F. Pace-Scott, & Robert Stickgold (2000), "Dreaming and the brain: Toward a cognitive ...
REM sleep is "paradoxical" because of its similarities to wakefulness. Although the body is paralyzed, the brain acts somewhat ... while the whole brain stem, from diencephalon to medulla, is still exerting its basic functions of integrated homeostatic ... Such inertia delays the changes in body core temperature so alarming as to elicit arousal from REM sleep. In addition, other ... During REM sleep, electrical connectivity among different parts of the brain manifests differently than during wakefulness. ...
"Brain Structure and Function. 221 (6): 2937-2962. doi:10.1007/s00429-015-1081-0. ISSN 1863-2653. PMC 4713378. PMID 26169110.. ... Norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and histamine have complex modulatory functions and, in general, promote wakefulness. The ... such as promoting feeding behavior and arousal, reducing pain perception, and regulating body temperature, digestive functions ... "Brain Res. 1598: 12-17. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.12.021. PMID 25527398. With regard to gastrointestinal functions, orexin-A ...
While the best characterized function of the histamine system in the brain is regulation of sleep and arousal, histamine is ... Norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and histamine have complex modulatory functions and, in general, promote wakefulness. The ... Dopamine has a number of important functions in the brain; this includes regulation of motor behavior, pleasures related to ... Eiden LE, Weihe E (January 2011). "VMAT2: a dynamic regulator of brain monoaminergic neuronal function interacting with drugs ...
The regulation of sleep and wakefulness involves many regions and cellular subtypes in the brain. Indeed, the ascending arousal ... FunctionEdit. The reticular formation consists of more than 100 small neural networks, with varied functions including the ... Physiologists had proposed that some structure deep within the brain controlled mental wakefulness and alertness.[23] It had ... The main function of the ARAS is to modify and potentiate thalamic and cortical function such that electroencephalogram (EEG) ...
Need To Pull An All-nighter? Reducing Nitric Oxide Gas In The Brain May Help Us Stay Awake "Memory Loss & the Brain". Archived ... This is seen to play a significant role in cognitive functions. Adenosine acts on A1 receptors of cholinergic neurons in the ... The nucleus basalis is an essential part of the neuromodulatory system that controls behaviour by regulating arousal and ... Acetylcholine is known to promote wakefulness in the basal forebrain. Stimulating the basal forebrain gives rise to ...
Wright A. "Limbic System: Amygdala". In Byrne JH (ed.). Homeostasis and Higher Brain Function. Neuroscience Online. University ... Norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and histamine have complex modulatory functions and, in general, promote wakefulness. The ... such as promoting feeding behavior and arousal, reducing pain perception, and regulating body temperature, digestive functions ... With regard to gastrointestinal functions, orexin-A acts centrally to regulate gastrointestinal functions such as gastric and ...
These exist in areas adjacent to histamine neurons and like them project widely to most brain areas and associate with arousal ... Studies have shown that one of sleep's underlying functions is to replenish this glycogen energy source. Wakefulness is ... Several systems originating in this part of the brain control the shift from wakefulness into sleep and sleep into wakefulness ... Wakefulness is a daily recurring brain state and state of consciousness in which an individual is conscious and engages in ...
Determining function and presence of necrosis after trauma to the whole brain or brain-stem may be used to determine brain ... The preservation of these structures maintains arousal and automatic functions. The overall metabolism drops in average to 40- ... In a minimally conscious state, the patient has intermittent periods of awareness and wakefulness. The criteria for minimally ... This confirms the absence of neuronal function in the whole brain. Patients classified as brain dead are legally dead and can ...
... mediating alternation between wakefulness and sleep as well as general level of behavioral and brain arousal. After such trauma ... midbrain and pons must function for a subject to be in a sufficient state of brain arousal to experience anything at all. These ... whether in wakefulness or REM sleep, vividly experienced in dreams although usually not remembered. Brain arousal level ... In brain death there is no arousal, but it is unknown whether the subjectivity of experience has been interrupted, rather than ...
Transient and long-term consequences on brain excitability". Brain Research Bulletin. 104: 27-35. doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull. ... The actions of A1 and A2A receptors oppose each other but are both inhibited by caffeine due to its function as an antagonist. ... Some of these processes include wakefulness, stimulation, and mood and cognition enhancement. Low doses can result in ... which increase alertness and cognitive arousal and diminish fatigue. Caffeine also produces a wide range of other symptoms, ...
... but their function is not fully understood. Norepinephrine is found in the brain stem and is involved in sleep and wakefulness ... These neurons project into many regions of the brain and spinal cord, allowing histamine to mediate attention, arousal, and ... Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative dementia, or loss of brain function, and was first ... neurotransmitter that regulates sleep and wakefulness and is found in neurons of the raphe region of the pons and upper brain ...
While the best characterized function of the histamine system in the brain is regulation of sleep and arousal, histamine is ... The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most ... See Lateral hypothalamus § Function - primary source of orexin neurons that project throughout the brain and spinal cord ... See Lateral hypothalamus § Function - primary source of orexin neurons that project throughout the brain and spinal cord ...
He believed that alcohol abuse or immorality would cause lack of voluntary control in higher order brain functions which would ... that reduces arousal and stimulation in several areas of the brain. Krafft-Ebing describes that the legislator saw such a drug ... Somnolence, or drowsiness, refers to the state between sleep and wakefulness which is marked by reduced self-consciousness and ... Acute Delirium in States of Fever: An increased body temperature can alter brain functioning that may lead to temporary ASCs ...
Sleep plays an essential part in brain functions and has crucial implications across almost all body systems. Numerous studies ... Caffeine increases episodes of wakefulness, and high doses in the late evening can increase sleep onset latency. In elderly ... arousal, and cognition. It then enters the bloodstream, through the stomach and small intestine, and can have a stimulating ... liver function, medications, level of enzymes, pregnancy. This short half-life has been found to help out daytime functioning, ...
Cardin is interested in understanding how the brain can function without needing more neurons, specialized to specific ... wakefulness, and high arousal. She found that behavioral states drastically influence the neural firing patterns of auditory ... rapidly modulated and unselective during wakefulness, and suppressed by arousal. J Neurophysiol 2003, 90: 2884-2899. Cardin, J. ... rapidly modulated and unselective during wakefulness, and suppressed by arousal". Journal of Neurophysiology. 90 (5): 2884-2899 ...
A lowered level of consciousness indicate a deficit in brain function. Level of consciousness can be lowered when the brain ... Although the neural science behind alertness, wakefulness, and arousal are not fully known, the reticular formation is known to ... such as brain herniation. Mass lesions in the brain stem normally cause coma due to their effects on the reticular formation. ... A pH outside of the range the brain can tolerate will also alter LOC. Exposure to drugs (e.g. alcohol) or toxins may also lower ...
USWS represents the first known behavior in which one part of the brain controls sleep while another part controls wakefulness ... Slow-wave sleep (SWS), also known as Stage 3, is characterized by a lack of movement and difficulty of arousal. Slow-wave sleep ... The greatest theoretical importance of USWS is its potential role in elucidating the function of sleep by challenging various ... Brain temperature has been shown to drop when a sleeping EEG is exhibited in one or both hemispheres. This decrease in ...
Nicotine may result in arousal and wakefulness, mainly via incitement in the basal forebrain. Nicotine withdrawal, after ... Nicotine interferes with the blood-brain barrier function, and as a consequence raises the risk of brain edema and ... Nicotine interferes with the blood-brain barrier function, and as a consequence raises the risk of brain edema and ... Nicotine exposure during brain development may hamper growth of neurons and brain circuits, effecting brain architecture, ...
Sleep arousal are active brain processes medicated and associated with specific brain regions. Despite the fact that various ... Cataplexy, on the other hand, is an involuntary loss of muscle tone during wakefulness. The mechanism of narcolepsy is unknown ... Neurotransmitters and similarly-functioning biochemical messengers elicit effects on postsynaptic neurons at neuronal synapses ... REM sleep cycles mimic conscious brain patterns to an extent. Night Terrors, for example, involve the partial arousal out of ...
It involves activation of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) in the brain, which mediates wakefulness, the ... Depression can influence a persons level of arousal by interfering with the right hemispheres functioning. Arousal in women ... Eysencks theory of arousal describes the different natural frequency or arousal states of the brains of people who are ... which interrupt wakefulness and arousal. Neurotransmitters of the arousal system, such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, ...
This suggests that they may provide a link between energy homeostasis and arousal states. A link between the limbic system and ... This suggests that they may provide a link between energy homeostasis and arousal states. A link between the limbic system and ... This review discusses the mechanism by which orexins maintain sleep/wakefulness states and how this mechanism relates to other ... This review discusses the mechanism by which orexins maintain sleep/wakefulness states and how this mechan... ...
Sleep and wakefulness are regulated by complex brain circuits located in the brain stem, thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, ... and to assess the effects on daytime functioning and compare results to auditory stimulation leading to short EEG arousals.Six ... RR interval without EEG arousal also differed significantly from RR interval with EEG arousal.Activation of the brain-stem can ... Wakefulness and NREM and REM sleep are modulated by the interactions between neurotransmitters that promote arousal and ...
Brain Electrical Activity: Characteristics of EEG and EOG in REM and NREM sleep and wakefulness. Cellular origins of EEG ... This module provides an introduction to the evidence for the key role of sleep in growth, development and brain function. ... Content: Parasomnias I: Parasomnias are disorders of arousal, partial arousal and sleep transition. This module will discuss ... The alterations in autonomic function during sleep have effects on gastrointestinal motility and function. As well as the ...
... target for hcrt to regulate the sleep-wakefulness cycle and to assess the respective roles of the hcrtrs in arousal and sleep. ... 2000) The novel brain neuropeptide, orexin-A, modulates the sleep-wake cycle of rats. Eur J Neurosci 12:726-730. ... The hypocretins have been implicated in a variety of physiological functions, including feeding (Sakurai et al., 1998), ... 1999) Orexin A activates locus coeruleus cell firing and increases arousal in the rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:10911-10916. ...
... arousal and stress responses. Gender will influence brain anatomy, chemistry and function. The impact of the gonadal hormones ... it has the highest arousal threshold. During REM sleep, the EEG returns to a profile similar to wakefulness, with low-amplitude ... Women have less wakefulness after sleep onset, less stage 1 sleep, more slow-wave sleep and more slow-wave activity during ... Wakefulness is characterized by low-amplitude/high frequency activity. High frequency beta and gamma activity are not easily ...
This system promotes arousal (wakefulness) and is hypothesized to play a role in excessive arousal, which occurs in patients ... The orexin system in the brain is involved in the control of several key functions, including metabolism, stress response and ... is designed to mimic the natural sleep process by inhibiting the brain mechanisms that promote excessive wakefulness rather ...
How the brain controls vigilance state transitions remains to be fully understood. The discovery of hypocretins, also known as ... entire brain and interact with major neuromodulator systems in order to regulate physiological processes underlying wakefulness ... Lack of function of hypocretin neurons (a relatively simple and non-redundant neuronal system) results in inappropriate control ... Brain 136:1592-1608. doi: 10.1093/brain/awt069CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Serotonin is involved in arousal and directly promotes wakefulness and the stimulation of executive brain functions during ... Promotes arousal and wakefulness. Increased in waking (by increasing 5HT). Hypothalamus. Regulates appetite. Decreased in REM ( ... The Neuroscience of Sleep and Wakefulness. Neurotransmitters and Associated Brain Regions. Effects. Impact on Waking, REM Sleep ... There is no one portion of the brain that is solely responsible for regulating sleep and wakefulness; the sleep cycle involves ...
... including a lot of cortical neurons that are responsible for maintaining brain function during wakefulness. Many of the arousal ... We are now able to do this, because everybody in the study agrees to donate their brain when they die. We have brains from ... that is active during sleep and inhibits all of the arousal systems in the brain. In animal experiments, loss of neurons in the ... New Genetic Findings Reveal Clues to the Brains Sleep Switch by Brenda Patoine May 11, 2011 ...
... genetically modified zebrafish that are unable to produce norepinephrine show that this neurotransmitter promotes wakefulness ... In the central nervous system, lack of NE interferes with the normal arousal function of the LC and thus inhibits wakefulness. ... The locus coeruleus (LC) in the brainstem is a major arousal promoting center and a major source of NE in the brain (reviewed ... Norepinephrine is required to promote wakefulness and for hypocretin-induced arousal in zebrafish. ...
Born points to a number of key brain chemistry changes that occur during SWS, including a sharp drop in the arousal-related ... REM sleeps function here is still a matter of debate, but Born suspects that it further exercises and strengthens newly formed ... Why does this memory consolidation process occur principally during SWS, rather than in REM sleep or wakefulness? ... Brain activity in REM sleep differs from that within non-REM sleep, which in its deepest stages is called slow-wave sleep (SWS ...
... unit of the brain and can be used as an index of VT-mediated actions of these two neurotransmitters in the brain. Thus, the ... unit of the brain and can be used as an index of VT-mediated actions of these two neurotransmitters in the brain. Thus, the ... regions binding to and activating mainly extrasynaptic neuronal and glial receptors in the neuroglial networks of the brain. ... regions binding to and activating mainly extrasynaptic neuronal and glial receptors in the neuroglial networks of the brain. ...
... which play a critical role in the regulation of wakefulness and arousal (21). ... Prenatal impairment of brain serotonergic transmission in infants. J Pediatr 2005; 147: 592- 596. ... Cognitive function in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus during hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia Am J Med 1995; 98 ... Cognitive Function Is Disrupted by Both Hypo- and Hyperglycemia in School-AgedChildren With Type 1 Diabetes: A Field Study. ...
... has been associated with a number of complex brain functions, including anxiety-like behaviors, arousal, sleep-wakefulness ... A total number of similar to 500 NPS/EGFP-positive neurons are present in the mouse brain, located in the pericoerulear region ... Molecular Fingerprint of Neuropeptide S-Producing Neurons in the Mouse Brain. Liu, Xiaobin University of California Irvine. ... In order to better understand how NPS influences these functions in a neuronal network context, it is critical to identify ...
Extensive and divergent effects of sleep and wakefulness on brain gene expression. Neuron 41: 35-43. [ Links ]. ... arousal, and cardiovascular function. Loss of orexin appears to be the primary cause of narcolepsy (Kilduff and Peyron 2000, ... Mol Brain Res 136: 148-157. [ Links ]. DE KLOET ER. 1991. Brain corticosteroid receptor balance and homeostatic control. In: ... Dreaming and the brain: toward a cognitive neuroscience of conscious states. Behav Brain Sci 23: 793-842. [ Links ]. ...
Helps control arousal level; influences wakefulness, learning and memory 5 of 6 ... Perhaps the major excretory transmitter of the brain; plays crucial role in memory and learning ...
How the brain controls vigilance state transitions remains to be fully understood. The discovery of hypocretins, also known as ... entire brain and interact with major neuromodulator systems in order to regulate physiological processes underlying wakefulness ... Lack of function of hypocretin neurons (a relatively simple and non-redundant neuronal system) results in inappropriate control ... Nambu T et al (1999) Distribution of orexin neurons in the adult rat brain. Brain Res 827:243-260CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
... global brain function; (ii) regional brain function; (iii) changes in functional connectivity; and (iv) primary versus ... Next, we will focus on situations where wakefulness and awareness are dissociated. The most tragic example is the vegetative ... We will discuss recent neuroimaging studies revealing the functional neuro-anatomy of arousal and awareness illuminating the ... brain imaging data to its potential neuronal substrate that can greatly aid the development of theories about brain function. ...
While the best characterized function of the histamine system in the brain is regulation of sleep and arousal, histamine is ... Norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and histamine have complex modulatory functions and, in general, promote wakefulness. The ... Dopamine has a number of important functions in the brain; this includes regulation of motor behavior, pleasures related to ... It functions to regulate appetite, sleep, memory and learning, temperature, mood, behaviour, muscle contraction, and function ...
... received during rehabilitation was associated with recovery of full consciousness or improved neurobehavioral function after ... i,Despite a lack of clear evidence, multiple neurostimulants are commonly provided after severe brain injury (BI). The purpose ... Neurobehavioral and neurocognitive gains ascribed to neurostimulants include enhanced arousal, wakefulness, awareness, ... is efficacious in accelerating neurobehavioral function among people in VS or MCS between 4 and 16 weeks after traumatic brain ...
If you ask some people about what they do when they drain their brain, nearly half of them would say that they take nootropics ... Orexin is located in the brains hypothalamus. It is responsible for the regulation of arousal, wakefulness, and even with ... It plays a vital role in a persons cognitive function as it increases focus and brain plasticity. ... Nootropics, or which are commonly known as smart drugs, help in powering up the function of the brain. ...
... such as arousal, cognition, stress, appetite, and metabolism. Arousal is the most important function of orexin system as ... Hypocretin fibers project throughout the brain, including several areas implicated in regulation of the sleep/wakefulness cycle ... Shining Light on Wakefulness and Arousal BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY de Lecea, L., Carter, M. E., Adamantidis, A. 2012; 71 (12): 1046 ... The brain hypocretins and their receptors: mediators of allostatic arousal CURRENT OPINION IN PHARMACOLOGY Carter, M. E., Borg ...
1996) Executive and mnemonic functions in early Huntingtons disease. Brain 119:1633-1645. ... in the cortex and/or arousal systems afferent to the cortex cannot sustain normal prolonged states of sleep and/or wakefulness ... The brains were rapidly excised and frozen on dry ice. This was performed at four time points: ZT3, ZT9, ZT15, and ZT21 (WT and ... The brains were excised and cooled in ice-cold, oxygenated artificial CSF (aCSF). The composition of the aCSF was as follows ( ...
Possible functions[edit]. Some researchers argue that the perpetuation of a complex brain process such as REM sleep indicates ... REM sleep is "paradoxical" because of its similarities to wakefulness. Although the body is paralyzed, the brain acts somewhat ... a b c Ummehan Ermis, Karsten Krakow, & Ursula Voss (2010), "Arousal thresholds during human tonic and phasic REM sleep", ... a b c d e f g h J. Alan Hobson, Edward F. Pace-Scott, & Robert Stickgold (2000), "Dreaming and the brain: Toward a cognitive ...
... implicated in supporting wakefulness and higher brain function, but has been difficult to selectively manipulate owing to ... such as arousal, cognition, stress, appetite, and metabolism. Arousal is the most important function of orexin system as ... Shining Light on Wakefulness and Arousal BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY de Lecea, L., Carter, M. E., Adamantidis, A. 2012; 71 (12): 1046 ... The brain hypocretins and their receptors: mediators of allostatic arousal CURRENT OPINION IN PHARMACOLOGY Carter, M. E., Borg ...
... abnormalities affecting brain, kidney, and vascular function. However, the relationship of SDB and sleep deprivation to other ... electroencephalographic arousal) that disturb restorative physiological patterns linked to cycles of sleep and wakefulness. ... o Elucidate functions of the biological clock or other neural mechanisms regulating sleep that influence the relationship ... Abnormalities in endothelial function are associated with SDB. Frequent intermittent episodes of hypoxia and reoxygenation ...
Functions of brain H1-receptors include regulation of brain activity(3), balance sleep/wakefulness(3), concentration of ... Figure 1 : Arousal and sleep pathway. Courtesy of Dr.Thomas A.Woolsey, The definitive guide to the human brain; 3rd.ed.; John ... Hobson A,Sleep is of the brain, by the brain and for the brain .Nature 2005;437:1254-1256. 14. Steriade M. The intact and ... Non-REM Sleep functions. NREM sleep gives the brain rest. Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) activity may reflect the average strength of ...
Arousal. Wakefulness. Intracranial pressure Lateralization of brain function Sleep Memory. Primarily PNS ... Others of these involve just a couple of synapses to function (e.g., the withdrawal reflex). Processes such as breathing, ... reflex is made possible by neural pathways called reflex arcs which can act on an impulse before that impulse reaches the brain ...
  • While neurochemistry is mostly associated with the effects of neurotransmitters and similarly-functioning chemicals on neurons themselves, clinical neurochemistry relates these phenomena to system-wide symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurotransmitters and similarly-functioning biochemical messengers elicit effects on postsynaptic neurons at neuronal synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomical studies of neural projections from/to orexin neurons and phenotypic characterization of transgenic mice revealed various roles for orexin neurons in the coordination of emotion, energy homeostasis, reward system, and arousal. (frontiersin.org)
  • These findings suggest that orexin neurons sense the outer and inner environment of the body and maintain the proper wakefulness level of animals for survival. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using genetic overexpression of hypocretin (Hcrt) and optogenetic activation of hcrt -expressing neurons, we also find that NE is important for Hcrt-induced arousal. (elifesciences.org)
  • These results establish a role for endogenous NE in promoting arousal and indicate that NE is a critical downstream effector of Hcrt neurons. (elifesciences.org)
  • Throughout the day, some hypothalamic neurons release a neuropeptide called hypocretin, which helps maintain wakefulness. (elifesciences.org)
  • Hypocretin acts on neurons within the brainstem and causes them to release other neurotransmitters that promote wakefulness. (elifesciences.org)
  • Lack of function of hypocretin neurons (a relatively simple and non-redundant neuronal system) results in inappropriate control of sleep states without affecting the total amount of sleep or homeostatic mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • Anatomical and functional evidence shows that the hypothalamic neurons that produce hypocretins/orexins project widely throughout the entire brain and interact with major neuromodulator systems in order to regulate physiological processes underlying wakefulness, attention, and emotions. (springer.com)
  • Here, we review the role of hypocretins/orexins in arousal state transitions, and discuss possible mechanisms by which such a relatively small population of neurons controls fundamental brain state dynamics. (springer.com)
  • Nambu T et al (1999) Distribution of orexin neurons in the adult rat brain. (springer.com)
  • Yamanaka A et al (2003) Hypothalamic orexin neurons regulate arousal according to energy balance in mice. (springer.com)
  • We think that the reason people sleep less as they age is due to a gradual loss of these neurons that turn off the arousal systems to allow sleep. (dana.org)
  • A total number of similar to 500 NPS/EGFP-positive neurons are present in the mouse brain, located in the pericoerulear region and the Kolliker-Fuse nucleus. (diva-portal.org)
  • Stress-induced functional activation of NPS-producing neurons was detected by staining for the immediate-early gene c-fos, thus supporting earlier findings that NPS might be part of the brain stress response network. (diva-portal.org)
  • Dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons are critically involved in a variety of behaviors that rely on heightened arousal, but whether they directly and causally control the generation and maintenance of wakefulness is unknown. (stanford.edu)
  • We recorded calcium activity using fiber photometry in freely behaving mice and found arousal-state-dependent alterations in VTA dopaminergic neurons. (stanford.edu)
  • We used chemogenetic and optogenetic manipulations together with polysomnographic recordings to demonstrate that VTA dopaminergic neurons are necessary for arousal and that their inhibition suppresses wakefulness, even in the face of ethologically relevant salient stimuli. (stanford.edu)
  • We further found that different projections of VTA dopaminergic neurons differentially modulate arousal. (stanford.edu)
  • These data demonstrate how peripheral metabolic signals interact with hypothalamic neurons to coordinate stress and arousal and suggest one mechanism through which hyperarousal or altered metabolic states may be linked with abnormal stress responses. (stanford.edu)
  • Although the body is paralyzed, the brain acts somewhat awake, with cerebral neurons firing with the same overall intensity as in wakefulness. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] The cortical and thalamic neurons in the waking and REM sleeping brain are more depolarized (fire more readily) than in the NREM deep sleeping brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) Determining how cholinergic neurons in the pons promote arousal. (harvard.edu)
  • We also work with post-mortem human brain tissue to better understand how loss of wake-promoting neurons with traumatic brain injury produces chronic sleepiness in humans. (harvard.edu)
  • A small cluster of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus produces the orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides, and we found that these neurons are especially active during wakefulness. (harvard.edu)
  • Brain function is contingent, in part, on a vascular network that tightly regulates the movement of ions, molecules, and cells between blood and neurons. (jaoa.org)
  • [2] this system of neurons mediates an array of cognitive and physical processes, such as promoting feeding behavior and arousal, reducing pain perception , and regulating body temperature , digestive functions, and blood pressure, among many others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the diverse outputs of the orexin system, the orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus mediate an array of functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Locus coeruleus neurons have extremely wide projections and they are innervated by only a few brain stem nuclei and forebrain areas. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The activity of locus coeruleus neurons varies not only with arousal but also with specific cognitive processes, resulting in concerted release of noradrenaline in multiple target areas, and very complex effects depending upon local parameters. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Brain stem inputs are thought to have the strongest influence on locus coeruleus neurons, because they directly target their cell bodies. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Locus coeruleus neurons fire as a function of vigilance and arousal Figure 3 . (scholarpedia.org)
  • Orexin/hypocretin neuropeptides, produced by a few thousand neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, are of critical importance for the control of vigilance and arousal of vertebrates, from fish to amphibians, birds and mammals. (doabooks.org)
  • The reticular formation is not anatomically well defined because it includes neurons located in different parts of the brain . (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons of the reticular formation, particularly those of the ascending reticular activating system, play a crucial role in maintaining behavioral arousal and consciousness . (wikipedia.org)
  • The modulatory functions are primarily found in the rostral sector of the reticular formation and the premotor functions are localized in the neurons in more caudal regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The caudal third of the hypothalamus contains neurons that are critical for maintaining wakefulness and responding to emergencies. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Octopamine HCL is another stimulant with a similar function as norepinephrine in sympathetic neurons. (nootriment.com)
  • Although sleep-active neurons have been identified in other brain areas, neurons that are specifically activated during slow-wave sleep have not previously been described in the cerebral cortex. (pnas.org)
  • Previous research has shown that Cyclin A is expressed in a small number of neurons including a cluster of seven neurons on each side of the brain. (phys.org)
  • Koh and colleagues showed that these neurons are located in an area of the fly brain that corresponds with the human hypothalamus-one of the sleep centers of the human brain. (phys.org)
  • Although the cause(s) in PD for the progressive and relatively selective attack on both the LC and SNpc remains to be learned, neurons in both brain regions share in common an intracellular accumulation of neuromelanin pigment as well as the enzymatic apparatus for catecholamine synthesis and catabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Now that the location and identity of the wake-promoting neurons are precisely defined, the supramammillary region joins other parts of the brain known as being involved in keeping people awake, such as the nearby lateral hypothalamus, the upper brain stem and basal forebrain. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The presence of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase was used to identify an especially potent wake-promoting group of neurons, but their functions still depend on glutamate release. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Nigel P. Pedersen et al, Supramammillary glutamate neurons are a key node of the arousal system, Nature Communications (2017). (medicalxpress.com)
  • It turns out that adult brain is not hard wired as some areas are continuously working, developing and adapting by growing new cells (neurons) and connections (synapses). (dupischai.com)
  • The brain can create new neurons - process called neurogenesis. (blogspot.com)
  • The longer the brain has been awake, the greater the spontaneous firing rates of cerebral cortex neurons with this increase being reversed by sleep. (artandpopularculture.com)
  • Another effect of wakefulness (which may or may not be related to this) is that it lowers the small stores of glycogen held in the astrocytes that can supply energy to the brain's neurons-one of the functions of sleep it has been proposed is to create the opportunity for them to be replenished. (artandpopularculture.com)
  • Histamine neurons in the tuberomamillary nucleus and nearby adjacent posterior hypothalamus project to the entire brain and are the most wake-selective system so far identified in the brain. (artandpopularculture.com)
  • These exist in areas adjacent to histamine neurons and like them project widely to most brain areas and associate with arousal. (artandpopularculture.com)
  • Research suggests that orexin and histamine neurons play distinct, but complementary roles in controlling wakefulness with orexin being more involved with wakeful behavior and histamine cognition and activation of cortical EEG . (artandpopularculture.com)
  • Arousal is mediated by several neural systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gonadal hormones play their major role from birth organizing the neural circuitry responsible for gender differences in behavior later in life contributing to sex-specific mating behavior, aggression, arousal and stress responses. (imsociety.org)
  • Although the neural circuits that regulate sleep and wakefulness have yet to be fully identified, the importance of at least two brain regions is well established. (elifesciences.org)
  • Sakurai T (2007) The neural circuit of orexin (hypocretin): maintaining sleep and wakefulness. (springer.com)
  • Neurostimulants, specifically, are provided to manage arousal states which often means enhancing neural transmission [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • [1] [2] Electroencephalography during REM deep sleep reveal fast, low amplitude, desynchronized neural oscillation (brainwaves) that resemble the pattern seen during wakefulness which differ from the slow δ (delta) waves pattern of NREM deep sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural activity during REM sleep seems to originate in the brain stem , especially the pontine tegmentum and locus coeruleus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Hhistamine cells in the hypothalamic tuberomamillary nucleus is a part of the neural system which regulates arousal (4). (ispub.com)
  • The functional attributes of arousal (awareness, movement, mental activity, communication, etc.) are mediated by multiple neural systems including the histaminergic circuitry. (ispub.com)
  • 1) Using anatomic and physiologic techniques to map out the neural circuits through which the orexin peptides control wakefulness and regulate REM sleep. (harvard.edu)
  • 1][2] A reflex is made possible by neural pathways called reflex arcs which can act on an impulse before that impulse reaches the brain. (theinfolist.com)
  • Our research focuses on understanding the neural circuitry that controls arousal and sleep, and how the function of this circuitry is disrupted in narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. (harvard.edu)
  • In this course, you will discover the organization of the neural systems in the brain and spinal cord that mediate sensation, motivate bodily action, and integrate sensorimotor signals with memory, emotion and related faculties of cognition. (coursera.org)
  • Despite its importance, it remains unclear as to how the neural mechanisms for arousal are organized across them. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, we outline an integrative neural reference space as a key first step in developing a more systematic understanding of central nervous system contributions to arousal. (nih.gov)
  • We forecast the importance of high-field neuroimaging in bridging this gap to examine how the various networks within the neural reference space for arousal operate across varieties of arousal-related phenomena. (nih.gov)
  • The main issue is that these compounds are stimulants as opposed to pure cognitive enhancers so they can end up burning out your neural function as opposed to contributing to improved brain capacity over the long therm. (nootriment.com)
  • We often associate cognitive development with infants and children as their brains grow in size, neural tissue and capacity. (dupischai.com)
  • In biology, monoamines are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that play a significant role in the neural communication that happens in the brain. (therevisionist.org)
  • Being awake is the opposite of being asleep in which most external inputs to the brain are excluded from neural processing. (artandpopularculture.com)
  • It involves activation of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) in the brain, which mediates wakefulness, the autonomic nervous system, and the endocrine system, leading to increased heart rate and blood pressure and a condition of sensory alertness, desire, mobility, and readiness to respond. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is with its action that raises the levels of histamine which then contributes to both alertness and wakefulness. (amazinghub.net)
  • This is affected by 3 factors: decreased arousal (wakefulness or alertness levels) in the brain, decreased urine production in the kidneys, and increased functional bladder capacity (FBC) during sleep. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The brain activation signature of wakefulness, alpha expression discloses immediate levels of alertness and dissipates in concert with fading awareness as sleep begins. (plos.org)
  • The irreversible, total destruction of all brainstem functions, including the capacity for alertness, cranial nerve functions, and apnea (UK), or all brain function (whole brain death in US). (bmj.com)
  • It helps mediate transitions from relaxed wakefulness to periods of high attention during tasks requiring increased alertness and attention. (thriveafter50.com)
  • These two systems work alongside one another to regulate sleep and wakefulness throughout the night, to ensure we get the rest we need AND have the alertness, energy and focus we require to perform in our daily lives. (patrimon.cz)
  • Wakefulness is regulated by the ascending reticular activating system, which is composed of five major neurotransmitter systems - the acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, histamine, and serotonin systems - that originate in the brainstem and form connections which extend throughout the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the brainstem, which connects the brain with the spinal cord. (elifesciences.org)
  • The locus coeruleus receives direct excitatory and inhibitory inputs from a handful of brainstem nuclei involved in the control of primitive behavior and autonomic functions (P. H. Luppi et al. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The human reticular formation is composed of almost 100 brain nuclei and contains many projections into the forebrain , brainstem , and cerebellum , among other regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This unit covers the surface anatomy of the human brain, its internal structure, and the overall organization of sensory and motor systems in the brainstem and spinal cord. (coursera.org)
  • Both topics involve explorations of complex, widely distributed systems in the forebrain and brainstem that modulate states of body and brain. (coursera.org)
  • Several specific anatomically and chemically defined forebrain and brainstem structures trigger and maintain episodes of sleep and wakefulness [ 2 ]. (springer.com)
  • Other regions, including the brainstem, the posterior hypothalamus, and the basal telencephalon, also play a role in the generation of wakefulness. (springer.com)
  • Sleep is divided into two states, non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM), each with independent functions and controls. (imsociety.org)
  • EEG tracings will depict the differences between the vigilance states, namely wakefulness, NREM sleep and REM sleep. (imsociety.org)
  • Stage 2 NREM sleep occupies about 45-55% of the night, with sleep deepening and a higher arousal threshold being required to awaken the patient. (imsociety.org)
  • Below, selected notions from the literature on sleep functions (REM and NREM sleep) and the consequence of REM sleep deprivation as a result of shallow non restorative sleep is reviewed. (ispub.com)
  • Wakefulness may be further sub-divided by level of arousal and/or attention, and sleep into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • In a repeated measures model predicting the index of cerebral oxygenation, mean arterial pressure, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, female sex, age, and oxygen saturation had a positive effect on cerebral oxygenation levels, whereas arousal index and non-REM (NREM) sleep had a negative effect. (nih.gov)
  • The American Academy of Sleep Medicine categorizes sleep/wake states into wakefulness (stage W, defined above), 3 nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages (N1, N2, N3), and REM sleep (R stage). (springer.com)
  • Four stages have non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, with unique brain wave patterns and physical changes occurring. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The four stages of NREM sleep are each associated with distinct brain activity and physiology. (nap.edu)
  • Bülbül, M & Travagli, RA 2018, ' Novel transmitters in brain stem vagal neurocircuitry: New players on the pitch ', American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology , vol. 315, no. 1, pp. (elsevier.com)
  • How mathematical models and signal processing analysis methods can help us to understand brain functioning and physiology. (uio.no)
  • for example, they enable scientists to discern the function of a certain stage of sleep by observing physiology and behaviour that occur in the absence of that stage. (britannica.com)
  • It is crucial for motivating certain behaviors, such as mobility, the pursuit of nutrition, the fight-or-flight response and sexual activity (see Masters and Johnson's human sexual response cycle, where it is known as the arousal phase). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuropeptide S (NPS) has been associated with a number of complex brain functions, including anxiety-like behaviors, arousal, sleep-wakefulness regulation, drug-seeking behaviors, and learning and memory. (diva-portal.org)
  • Orexin is a neuropeptide which is released by the posterior lateral hypothalamus, and is linked to wakefulness and sleep, appetite regulation, and the motivation of sexual and addictive behaviors. (neuroanthropology.net)
  • the reporter notes, "Some brains may be wired to encourage fidgeting and other restless behaviors that consume calories and help control weight, according to new research published by The American Physiological Society. (neuroanthropology.net)
  • Orexin is a neurotransmitter that regulates eating behaviors, wakefulness, and arousal. (drhyman.com)
  • On the hypothesis that the brain is solving action selection problems in executing such behaviors, a critical question concerns what the 'units' of selection might be. (scholarpedia.org)
  • It regulates everything from your body's basic functions to shaping your thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. (baconstreet.org)
  • Lactate also increases orexin (hypocretin), a neurotransmitter that regulates arousal wakefulness and appetite. (brainfogrelief.com)
  • Modafinil is a mighty stimulant and wakefulness medication. (amazinghub.net)
  • This is also the original aim of modafinil which promotes wakefulness through various means, including the reduction of GABA ( 2 ), which is a sleep-promoting neurotransmitter. (healthguidance.org)
  • Aside from helping you avoid midday snoozes, Modafinil might help to enhance cognitive performance and executive functioning. (stronghealth.com)
  • Researchers confirmed that Modafinil was effective in enhancing the attention to detail, cognitive ability, and executive functioning in schizophrenic subjects. (stronghealth.com)
  • Modafinil is a pharmaceutical drug best known as a "eugeroic" - which means it promotes and enhances wakefulness. (elearneracademy.com)
  • Modafinil is an oral drug that is used for improving wakefulness in patients with excessive sleepiness. (elearneracademy.com)
  • Like amphetamines, modafinil promotes wakefulness by stimulating the brain. (elearneracademy.com)
  • Neurotransmitters of the arousal system, such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, work to inhibit the ventrolateral preoptic area. (wikipedia.org)
  • They suggested that hypocretins function within the central nervous system as neurotransmitters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike existing therapies, seltorexant is designed to mimic the natural sleep process by inhibiting the brain mechanisms that promote excessive wakefulness rather than by sedating patients through the activation of the neurotransmitters that promote sleep. (yahoo.com)
  • However, it remains unclear how these centers interact with each other, and what specific functions are fulfilled by the neurotransmitters and neuropeptides they employ. (elifesciences.org)
  • Changes in extracellular concentrations of the classical synaptic neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA found with microdialysis is likely an expression of the activity of the neuron-astrocyte unit of the brain and can be used as an index of VT-mediated actions of these two neurotransmitters in the brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neurotransmitters play a major role in shaping everyday life and functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrical and chemical activity regulating this phase seems to originate in the brain stem and is characterized most notably by an abundance of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine , combined with a nearly complete absence of monoamine neurotransmitters histamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The last few decades have seen a major increase in the number of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides recognized as playing a role in brain stem neurocircuits, including those involved in homeostatic functions such as stress responsiveness, gastrointestinal motility, feeding, and/or arousal/wakefulness. (elsevier.com)
  • Factors that appear to play an important role in stress-induced wakefulness and sleep changes include various monominergic neurotransmitters, hypocretins, corticotropin releasing factor, and prolactin. (rug.nl)
  • While mental fatigue and low motivational states can have several different causes, Nootropics also work in various ways such as providing energy sources to brain cells or working to stimulate the production, release and uptake of key neurotransmitters involved in energy, feelings of positivity or motivation. (lawndalebusiness.org)
  • Valerian-it's, actually the root of the valerian plant that is used medicinally-boosts the levels of calming neurotransmitters in the brain, including GABA, a neurochemical that is critical for healthy sleep. (patrimon.cz)
  • Because MAO breaks down monoamine neurotransmitters, MAO is often targeted by drugs, like MAO inhibitors, to prevent the break down of monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain & body. (therevisionist.org)
  • Thus, these experiments indicate that hypocretin does indeed promote wakefulness though norepinephrine. (elifesciences.org)
  • So I am going to give you this one first, which summarizes aspects of orexin (also known as hypocretin) and neurological function with respect to sleep, appetite and sex. (neuroanthropology.net)
  • The hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) system of the brain is best known for promoting wakefulness and appetite. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Blocking hypocretin signaling throughout the brain with an HCRT-R1 antagonist reduced cocaine intake only in the rats allowed long access to cocaine self-administration . (medicalxpress.com)
  • These independent studies indicate that the hypocretins have a major role in the regulation of sleep, but the role of different brain structures and the contribution of each of the hcrt receptors remain unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • Marcus JN et al (2001) Differential expression of orexin receptors 1 and 2 in the rat brain. (springer.com)
  • Extrasynaptic neurotransmission is an important short distance form of volume transmission (VT) and describes the extracellular diffusion of transmitters and modulators after synaptic spillover or extrasynaptic release in the local circuit regions binding to and activating mainly extrasynaptic neuronal and glial receptors in the neuroglial networks of the brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Blocking H1 receptors in the brain, makes the condition even worse. (ispub.com)
  • Functions of brain H1-receptors include regulation of brain activity(3), balance sleep/wakefulness(3), concentration of attention(5), memory(3), learning(3), daily activity(5), appetite (reduction) and activation of serotoninergic system (the secondary anti-depressive effect)(5). (ispub.com)
  • Citrizine ) cross blood-brain barrier and block brain H1 receptors, serotonin receptors(5) and central muscarinic cholinergic receptors(3). (ispub.com)
  • The greater expression of orexin receptors suggests the lean rats' brains were more sensitive to the orexin the brain produces,' said Catherine M. Kotz, the study's senior researcher. (neuroanthropology.net)
  • Yet, both receptors do not have redundant function. (doabooks.org)
  • Supplements such as Piracetam work by promoting the function of acetylcholine receptors, but again the mechanism of action isn't fully understood, making their use a risky undertaking. (healthguidance.org)
  • Similar to the orexin peptides, orexin receptors are widely distributed throughout the brain, including brain regions involved in drug reward and addiction [ 10 - 12 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Because histamine is also a neurotransmitter that communicates with the brain, taking antihistamines cause the active receptors to be suppressed, simultaneously making you sleepy. (beyondthebite4life.com)
  • The integration of knowledge concerning the molecular and cellular actions of a drug within the brain circuitry leads to an overall understanding of a neurological drug's action mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of hypocretins, also known as orexins, and their link to narcolepsy has undoubtedly allowed us to advance our knowledge on key mechanisms controlling the boundaries and transitions between sleep and wakefulness. (springer.com)
  • The general mechanisms of action for neurostimulants are increases in the synaptic concentration of dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline in various brain regions [ 9 - 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the mechanisms through which arousal and metabolic states influence the HPA axis are poorly understood. (stanford.edu)
  • Further, our studies characterize mechanisms responsible for pathologies associated with disruption of sleep/wake states: for example, post-traumatic stress disorder, neurodegeneration, failed recovery from traumatic brain injury, and drug addiction. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Although our understanding of the mechanisms governing sleep stages and their role in cognitive processes including memory functions is gradually increasing. (doabooks.org)
  • In this unit, we will examine the organization and function of the brain and spinal mechanisms that govern bodily movement. (coursera.org)
  • The more that we learn about the brain, the more that we learn that brain signaling mechanisms that play a particular defined function, such as a role in wakefulness or appetite, often play important roles in other functions, such as addiction," said professor John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Brain plasticity: where, how and when: what is the timing of plasticity mechanisms, especially for short-term plasticity mechanisms. (uio.no)
  • The brain stem is the region between the diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus) and the spinal cord. (eku.edu)
  • Two of the most commonly noted functions of orexin peptides in the lateral hypothalamus are the promotion of feeding behavior and arousal (i.e., wakefulness). (wikipedia.org)
  • Prepro-orexin encodes a precursor protein of a neuropeptide producing orexin A and B (hcrt1 and hcrt2), which is enriched in the hypothalamus and regulates maintenance of arousal. (pnas.org)
  • The hypothalamus is a small area at the base of the brain , weighing about 4 gm out of the 1400 gm brain weight of an adult human, yet it performs a wide range of functions that are vital for the survival of the individual. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Strokes of the hypothalamus are vanishingly rare, as the hypothalamus has the most luxuriant blood supply in the brain, befitting a site that is absolutely critical to maintain life. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The hypothalamus sits at a crossroads in the brain, receiving direct sensory inputs from the smell, taste, visual, and somatosensory systems. (scholarpedia.org)
  • In addition to the brain regions directly involved in stress responses such as the hypothalamus, the locus coeruleus, and the amygdala, differential effects of stressor controllability on behavior and sleep may be mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex. (rug.nl)
  • There is evidence that the hypothalamus and thalamus of the brain initiate sleep and that part of the midbrain acts as an arousal system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It would have been helpful to look at the hypothalamus, which is the part of the brain that stores the body's biological clock. (sleepassociation.org)
  • Scientists have identified an additional group of cells in the brain responsible for keeping us awake: the supramammillary nucleus, part of the caudal hypothalamus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The posterior hypothalamus plays a key role in the maintenance of the cortical activation that underlies wakefulness. (artandpopularculture.com)
  • It boosts serotonin (improves mood), glutamate (supports nerve cells), and orexin (promotes wakefulness and arousal). (stronghealth.com)
  • Chronic sleep deprivation impairs immune function and promotes obesity. (umich.edu)
  • Drugs that enhance the effects of norepinephrine increase wakefulness, whereas those that block norepinephrine signaling promote sleep. (elifesciences.org)
  • This helps to increase wakefulness and arousal as well as lifting brain fog. (nootriment.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if the number of neurostimulants received during rehabilitation was associated with recovery of full consciousness or improved neurobehavioral function after severe BI. (hindawi.com)
  • Severe brain injury (BI) results in loss of consciousness for a period of time greater than 24 hours. (hindawi.com)
  • What system is responsible for arousal, wakefulness and consciousness? (sporcle.com)
  • Everything I've read implicates the thalamus as the critical structure whose function is being disrupted when people lose consciousness due to trauma, seizure, disease. (physicsforums.com)
  • An early study published this week in Neurology, a journal of the American Academy of Neurology, showed that brain injury patients have fluctuating body temperatures that are directly related to their level of consciousness. (sleepassociation.org)
  • This was noticeable especially regarding arousal, a necessary component of regaining consciousness. (sleepassociation.org)
  • This is important because arousal is a necessary component of consciousness. (sleepassociation.org)
  • Perhaps the most important function of the RAS is its control of consciousness. (thriveafter50.com)
  • Among the four networks, the "fight/flight" noradrenaline network, originating from the locus coeruleus (LC), is the system most typically responsible for arousal. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Each state is defined by varying levels of arousal and awareness, ranging from the absence of arousal and sleep wake cycles in the comatose state to inconsistent but definite behavioral indicators of self- or environmental awareness in MCS [ 1 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Embarrassment originates in the amygdalae and the insular cortex , very old parts of the brain responsible for some of our baser functions like fear conditioning & memory, social interaction, & awareness of personal space (in the case of the former) and the processing of disgust & norm violations (in the case of the latter). (atheists.org)
  • The thalamus plays a major role in regulating arousal, the level of awareness, and activity. (physicsforums.com)
  • Biofeedback is the process of gaining greater awareness of physiological functions primarily using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will. (hmtm-hannover.de)
  • The complete loss of awareness with preserved wakefulness and wake-sleep-cycles. (bmj.com)
  • These include the idea of antroposophy in which four modes of awareness are distinguished: wakefulness (conferring with dhyana ), dream (conferring with dharani ), sleep (conferring with pratyahara ) and moment of death or absorption of spirit (conferring with samādhi ). (artandpopularculture.com)
  • Easterbrook states that an increase of arousal decreases the number of cues that can be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data in humans come from placebo-controlled trials where estrogen therapy was administered to peri- and postmenopausal women and the findings seem to suggest that estrogen decreases latency to sleep onset, decreases wakefulness after sleep onset, increases total sleep time and decreases rate of cyclic alternating patterns. (imsociety.org)
  • They were initially recognized as regulators of feeding behavior, but they are mainly regarded as key modulators of the sleep/wakefulness cycle. (frontiersin.org)
  • This may be because in mammals, norepinephrine also has important roles outside the brain, thus complicating the effects of this genetic modification on behavior. (elifesciences.org)
  • Optogenetic stimulation, in contrast, initiated and maintained wakefulness and suppressed sleep and sleep-related nesting behavior. (stanford.edu)
  • Although sleep is a basic behavior in animals as well as humans, researchers still do not completely understand all of its functions in maintaining health. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Wakefulness is a daily recurring brain state in which an individual is conscious and engages in coherent cognitive and behavior responses to the external world such as communication , ambulation , nutritional ingestion and procreation . (artandpopularculture.com)
  • These findings clearly show the importance of the orexin system in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, we discuss the various physiological roles of the orexin system, focusing on the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neuroanatomical distribution of hcrt fibers suggest several brain regions relevant to the role of the hcrts in the regulation of the sleep-wakefulness cycle. (jneurosci.org)
  • Upon completion of this experiment, Loewi asserted that sympathetic regulation of cardiac function can be mediated through changes in chemical concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thalamus is also believed to be involved in the regulation of sleep, wakefulness, and arousal. (simplypsychology.org)
  • Cognitive operations, "freezing" of gait, tremor, dyskinesia, REM sleep regulation, and other aspects of brain function are tied into signaling by NE, and there is also evidence that it may have a role in the neurodegenerative process itself. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Monoaminergic systems is involved with the regulation of cognitive functions including mood, emotions, arousal, and certain types of memory. (therevisionist.org)
  • Using a series of genetic and biochemical experiments, the researchers tracked how Taranis interacted with other proteins and saw that Taranis bound to a known sleep regulator protein called Cyclin A. Their data suggest that Taranis and Cyclin A create a molecular machine that inactivates Cdk1, whose normal function is to suppress sleep and promote wakefulness. (phys.org)
  • What part of the brain contains nuclei for four cranial nerves? (sporcle.com)
  • What part of the brain contains nuclei regulating the respiratory centers in the medulla? (sporcle.com)
  • Together with other nuclei located in the anterodorsal part of the brain stem, it belongs to what used to be described as the 'ascending reticular activating system', an area critical for arousal and wakefulness. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The lateral RF is close to the motor nuclei of the cranial nerves, and mostly mediates their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nuclei can be differentiated by function, cell type, and projections of efferent or afferent nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contains a series of reasonably well differentiated cell groups or nuclei, sandwiched between to major axonal pathways that connect it with the rest of the brain and with the endocrine system. (scholarpedia.org)
  • First, research conducted primarily in non-human animals underscores the importance of several subcortical nuclei that contribute to various sources of arousal, motivating the need for an integrative framework. (nih.gov)
  • Wakefulness in maintained through the activity of wake-promoting brain regions, including the cholinergic nuclei of the pontine tegmentum, the adrenergic locus coeruleus, and the serotonergic raphe nuclei. (springer.com)
  • The RAS is a set of connected nuclei deep in the brain stems of vertebrates that's responsible for regulating arousal and sleep-wake transitions. (thriveafter50.com)
  • The activation of the locus coeruleus and release of norepinephrine causes wakefulness and increases vigilance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacological studies in mammals suggest that norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in promoting arousal. (elifesciences.org)
  • Decreased norepinephrine synthesis in the locus coeruleus, a part of the brain stem associated with attention and arousal, and the prefrontal cortex, responsible for executive function, attention, and memory, are also common. (theconversation.com)
  • Tissue concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) are markedly decreased in various regions of the Parkinson's disease (PD) brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to better understand how NPS influences these functions in a neuronal network context, it is critical to identify transmitter systems that control NPS release and transmitters that are co-released with NPS. (diva-portal.org)
  • My lab uses molecular, optogenetic, anatomical and behavioral methods to identify and manipulate the neuronal circuits underlying brain arousal, with particular attention to sleep and wakefulness transitions. (stanford.edu)
  • We use a variety of methods to study the circuits that control sleep and arousal, including physiological techniques such as optogenetics, chemogenetics, and sleep recordings in combination with viral vectors in various lines of recombinant mice to manipulate specific neuronal populations. (harvard.edu)
  • There are four neuronal networks spreading their communications to many areas of the brain, and all relate closely to arousal and sleep function. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Due to the high variety of neuronal subtypes in the brain, population-based estimates of the impact of anesthesia may conceal unit- or ensemble-specific effects of the transition between states. (uio.no)
  • The parts of the brain that extensively use monoamines as neuronal chemical messengers (a.k.a. neurotransmitter) is called the Monoaminergic system. (therevisionist.org)
  • The pathways described are ascending pathways, but there also arousal pathways that descend. (wikipedia.org)
  • The early part of my career focused on the wake side of that equation, examining the different pathways or circuits in the brain that keep us awake. (dana.org)
  • Orexins are increasingly recognized for orchestrating the activity of the organism's arousal system with appetite, reward and stress processing pathways. (doabooks.org)
  • Another arousal system, the dopaminergic system, releases dopamine produced by the substantia nigra. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeine also actually increases dopamine levels, while working in other ways to promote arousal as well (by reducing a build-up of adenosine). (healthguidance.org)
  • The answer may lie in the brain chemical dopamine. (lawndalebusiness.org)
  • Mind Lab Pro® supplies the best dopamine nootropics for motivation in a superior-quality brain-boosting formula. (lawndalebusiness.org)
  • Most commonly associated with the disorder are reduced levels of dopamine in the mesocorticolimbic projection, the brain system that plays an important role in reward, motivation, learning, memory and movement. (theconversation.com)
  • Like dopamine, NE is involved in a wide range of cognitive, motor, and autonomic functions of the brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • But drugs cause the brain to release 2 - 10 times the amount of dopamine! (baconstreet.org)
  • It has reprogrammed this center of their brain to get more out of a dopamine high from doing drugs than from other activities. (baconstreet.org)
  • The Yerkes-Dodson law states that an optimal level of arousal for performance exists, and too little or too much arousal can adversely affect task performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Every sensory function, except for olfaction (sense of smell) has a thalamic nucleus that receives, processes, and transmits information to associated areas within the cerebral cortex. (simplypsychology.org)
  • VS is commonly due to severe cerebral cortical damage (usually by anoxia-ischemia after cardiac arrest or less commonly by hypoglycemia), by damage to the white matter of the cerebrum (most commonly related to diffuse axonal injury from traumatic brain injury), or thalamic damage (by anoxia-ischemia or structural lesions such as tumors or strokes). (bmj.com)
  • Many different functions are linked to the system to which thalamic parts belong. (academic.ru)
  • Newer research suggests that thalamic function is more complicated. (academic.ru)
  • Racetams are another type of nootropic designed to boost focus, this time by promoting acetylcholine use - the most abundant neurotransmitter in the brain. (healthguidance.org)
  • The transition to REM sleep brings marked physical changes, beginning with electrical bursts called PGO waves originating in the brain stem . (wikipedia.org)
  • REM sleep is punctuated and immediately preceded by PGO (ponto-geniculo-occipital) waves , bursts of electrical activity originating in the brain stem. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex system which contributes to the maintenance of the wakefulness arises from the brain stem reticular formation, distributed throughout the brain stem and forebrain. (ispub.com)
  • The midbrain is the most superior portion of the brain stem. (eku.edu)
  • The pons is the bulging middle portion of the brain stem. (eku.edu)
  • What is the principle relay for almost all signals from the spinal cord, brain stem, cerebellum to the cerebral cortex? (sporcle.com)
  • What neurotransmitter is found in the brain stem? (sporcle.com)
  • HPA axis , HPG axis , and HPT axis ) through other hypothalamic outputs, and regulating visceral functions (e.g., respiration, blood pressure, and micturition ) via a group of structures in the brain stem, among other functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • It aims inter alia to tone up the brain's arousal systems including the brain-stem reticular activating system which is a core sleep-energy centre and part of the subcortical-cortical arousal axis controlling energy distribution in the brain and body which was discovered in the 1950s and led to some of the perennial arousal theories in Psychophysiology [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • They lie above the brain stem and the midbrain (or mesencephalon), which allows for connections of nerve fibers to reach the cerebral cortex in all directions. (simplypsychology.org)
  • As the thalamus is heavily involved in relaying information between the cortex and the brain stem, as well as within different cortical structures, it contributes to many brain processes. (simplypsychology.org)
  • In the caudal (tail) to rostral (head) sequence of neuromeres , the diencephalon is located between the mesencephalon ( cerebral peduncule , belonging to the brain stem ) and the cerebrum. (academic.ru)
  • The brain stem controls basic functions that are critical to life, such as heart rate, breathing, and sleeping. (baconstreet.org)
  • To account for anatomic variability, an index of cerebral oxygenation during sleep was derived by referencing the measurement obtained during sleep to that obtained during wakefulness. (nih.gov)
  • These structures form the limbic lobe of the brain, which receives highly processed sensory information from throughout the cerebral cortex, and determines it personal importance for the individual. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Lactate increases cerebral blood flow ( vasodilation ) increasing the supply of metabolic (and energy) substrates to the brain. (brainfogrelief.com)
  • The presence of large-amplitude, slow waves in the EEG is a primary characteristic that distinguishes cerebral activity during sleep from that which occurs during wakefulness. (pnas.org)
  • The thalamus is often described as the relay station of the brain as a great deal of information that reaches the cerebral cortex , first stops in the thalamus before being sent to its destination. (simplypsychology.org)
  • Whereas the connections between the thalamus and the cerebral cortex are ipsilateral, meaning they communicate on the same side of the brain. (simplypsychology.org)
  • Diffuse disturbance of cerebral function in the absence of overt parenchymal inflammation or structural abnormality. (bmj.com)
  • By increasing cerebral blood flow, this nootropic is said to remove brain fog, help you get focus and motivated, and also make general cognition easier. (sellsteroid.com)
  • Recently, evidence has emerged that confirms a role for the hypocretins in arousal states. (jneurosci.org)
  • and strongly suggest that the hypocretinergic system is involved in many different physiological functions, including feeding, blood pressure, hormone release, and arousal. (jneurosci.org)
  • During sleep, which is in part a period of rest and relaxation, most physiological functions such as body temperature, blood pressure, and rate of breathing and heartbeat decrease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is a part of the brain that plays a very important role in regulating a number of physiological functions, such as the control of arousal, stress and attention. (sellsteroid.com)
  • What part of the brain recives and integrates sensory and motor impules? (sporcle.com)
  • What is the sensory function of cranial nerve 10? (sporcle.com)
  • Here, you will learn the overall organization and function of the sensory systems that contribute to our sense of self relative to the world around us: somatic sensory systems, proprioception, vision, audition, and balance senses. (coursera.org)
  • So much of brain function is about the sensory systems-vision, hearing, touch-and what the brain does to take basic sensory signals from all over the body and turn them into a coherent picture of where this particular creature-oneself-is at this particular time, and what needs to happen next to meet its needs. (ontario-wind-resistance.org)
  • This structure of the brain is able to relay and integrate a variety of motor and sensory signals between the higher centers of the brain and the peripheries. (simplypsychology.org)
  • Historically believed to only be related to sensory relay in visual, auditory, somatosensory, and gustatory systems, it has since been found to be involved in many other functions beyond these. (simplypsychology.org)
  • This is at first the case for sensory systems (which excepts the olfactory function) auditory , somatic, visceral , gustatory and visual system s where localised lesions provoke particular sensory deficits. (academic.ru)
  • A good night of sleep gives your brain a chance to connect with events, feelings, memories, and other sensory inputs. (knowabouthealth.com)
  • Because the LC receives the densest hcrtergic innervation, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether the LC is a physiological target for hcrt to regulate the sleep-wakefulness cycle and to assess the respective roles of the hcrtrs in arousal and sleep. (jneurosci.org)
  • This minireview will focus on the known physiological role of three of these novel neuropeptides, i.e., apelin, nesfatin-1, and neuropeptide-S, with a special emphasis on their hypothetical roles in vagal signaling related to gastrointestinal motor functions. (elsevier.com)
  • Also, these regions likely play significant roles in memory processes and participate in the way stressful memories may affect arousal and sleep. (rug.nl)
  • Despite the major roles of NE throughout the brain, there has been only minimal exploration of pharmacological intervention with NErgic neurotransmission. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The result is a fluctuating rhythm of sleepiness and wakefulness throughout the 24-hour day. (patrimon.cz)
  • Heralding this transition is attenuation of the alpha rhythm, an 8-13 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillation prominent over posterior brain regions, and the signature of relaxed wakefulness [2] . (plos.org)
  • it has the highest arousal threshold. (imsociety.org)
  • In deep sleep, the highest arousal thresholds are observed, such as the difficulty of awakening by the sound of a particular volume. (sleepassociation.org)
  • Arousal plays a central role in a wide variety of phenomena, including wakefulness, autonomic function, affect and emotion. (nih.gov)
  • The divisions of the brain include the (1) cerebrum, (2) thalamus, (3) midbrain, (4) pons, and (5) medulla oblongata. (eku.edu)
  • The brain can be divided into three primary broad regions: the forebrain, midbrain (Mb), and hindbrain (Hb), each of which contain further subdivisions. (nih.gov)
  • The limbic system is important for control of mood, and the nucleus accumbens signal excitement and arousal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulation of these axons and release of serotonin causes cortical arousal and impacts locomotion and mood. (wikipedia.org)
  • lapses in attention, slowed working memory(7), reduced cognitive outputs (learning, memory, executive functions) and depressed mood(8). (ispub.com)
  • The presented randomised controlled trial (RCT) with university students compared the effects of Brain Wave Vibration (BWV), Iyengar Yoga, and Mindfulness training on the mood, well-being, and immune function of healthy participants. (hindawi.com)
  • That's the feeling of your blood sugar crashing, leading to hunger, cravings, brain fog, and a definite not-in-the-mood feeling. (drhyman.com)
  • You may experience heightened levels of mental clarity and wakefulness as well as the potential for a mood enhancement effect. (sellsteroid.com)
  • Growing evidence suggests that basic or primary enuresis is a maturational disorder of the central nervous system with a lack of arousal and lacking inhibition of the micturition reflex. (selfgrowth.com)
  • This review discusses the mechanism by which orexins maintain sleep/wakefulness states and how this mechanism relates to other systems that regulate emotion, reward, and energy homeostasis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The argument is developed that the diverse physiological and behavioural effects of orexins can best be understood in terms of an integrated set of reactions which function to rectify nutritional status without compromising personal survival. (neuroanthropology.net)
  • Note the high number of dopaminergic neuron cell bodies in this brain region. (aveslabs.com)
  • And you'll notice that many drugs called psychostimulants often target the monoamine systems (a.k.a. the dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic systems combined) in the brain to change our mental state. (therevisionist.org)
  • Arousal is also an essential element in many influential theories of emotion, such as the James-Lange theory of emotion or the Circumplex Model. (wikipedia.org)
  • This key neuromodulatory system is currently thought to be critical for numerous functions including response to stress, attention , emotion , motivation , decision making and learning and memory . (scholarpedia.org)
  • NPS and transgene expression is first detectable around E14, indicating a potential role for NPS in brain development. (diva-portal.org)
  • Since its inception in 1895, Chiropractic has been focused on the spine and its role in the total health and function of the human body. (uschirodirectory.com)
  • 5 The CSF has an important role in clearing the brain of toxins, cellular debris, soluble proteins, and metabolic products. (jaoa.org)
  • The thalamus also plays an important role in regulating states of sleep and wakefulness. (physicsforums.com)
  • Our research elucidates a new molecular pathway and a novel brain area that play a role in controlling how long we sleep. (phys.org)
  • The seminal research of Arvid Carlsson and other investigators in the 1950s elevated dopamine's role from that of a mere metabolic intermediate to the "star of the show" in PD and other brain disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This may amount to some redundancy in the arousal network, but may also relate to the way in which different components of the arousal system have a role in particular types or components of wakefulness. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The role of the gaseous neurotransmitter nitric oxide in this brain network is not yet known, Pedersen adds. (medicalxpress.com)
  • After summarizing the molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of CaCCs, the role of CaCCs in normal cellular functions will be discussed, and I will emphasize how dysregulation of CaCCs in pathological conditions can account for different diseases. (bireme.br)
  • How the brain controls vigilance state transitions remains to be fully understood. (springer.com)
  • My interest in how the brain regulates sleep goes back to my neurology residency, when I became convinced that we really did not have a good framework for understanding either how the brain stays awake or how it goes to sleep. (dana.org)
  • Orexin is definitely involved in arousal and wakefulness, for example, in getting sleepy or drowsy people to be more awake (with little effect on arousal in already rested individuals). (neuroanthropology.net)
  • Another interesting function of this supplement is that it activates an area of the brain called the locus coeruleus (LC). (sellsteroid.com)
  • The study found that the brains of rats bred to be lean are more sensitive to a chemical produced in the brain, orexin A, which stimulates appetite and spontaneous physical activity such as fidgeting and other unconscious movements. (neuroanthropology.net)
  • First-generation antihistamines inhibits REM sleep (rapid eye movement) and cause rebound syndrome (increase REM number and intensity) that leads to fragmentation of sleep, arrhythmia, tissue hypoxia and sleep apnea,daily somnolence, impairment of daily activity, impairment of cognitive function, Sleep apnea increases the risk of sudden death(1,3,5). (ispub.com)
  • Matters of the heart: the brain in pediatric sleep apnea. (nih.gov)
  • During TBI (traumatic brain injury), there is an increase in brain glycolysis, with a decrease in oxygen. (brainfogrelief.com)
  • Some emotional reactions and emotional responses can be formed without any conscious, cognitive participation…because the shortcut from thalamus [which regulates, among other things, wakefulness & emotional arousal] to amygdyla completely bypasses the neocortex," a process called amygdala hijacking . (atheists.org)
  • Although the shape of the whole brain is distorted by the kind of impact a hard punch represents, it is specifically distortion of the thalamus which probably causes temporary unconsciousness. (physicsforums.com)
  • The thalamus filters through information between the brain and the body. (simplypsychology.org)
  • Caption = MRI cross-section of human brain, with thalamus marked. (academic.ru)
  • The thalamus (from Greek "θάλαμος" = "room, chamber", IPA= /ˈθæləməs/) is a pair and symmetric part of the brain. (academic.ru)
  • The thalamus is known to have multiple functions. (academic.ru)
  • The contribution of the thalamus to vestibular or to tectal functions is almost ignored. (academic.ru)
  • The lateral RF is known for its ganglions and areas of interneurons around the cranial nerves , which serve to mediate their characteristic reflexes and functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This region primarily consists of nerve fibers that form conduction tracts between the higher brain centers and spinal cord. (eku.edu)
  • This article bridges the gap between the foundational chiropractic principles taught by the Palmers and their predecessors and today's breakthrough findings and the correlation between unchecked spinal dysfunction AKA chronic spine pain and its effect on the brain. (uschirodirectory.com)
  • In addition, chronic pain has a cause and effect on the morphology of the spinal cord and the brain in particular resulting in a process termed "linear shrinkage", which has been suggested to cause ancillary negative neurological sequella. (uschirodirectory.com)
  • Electrostimulation works indirectly by affecting the spinal nerve function controlling the bladder. (selfgrowth.com)
  • commands from your brain and spinal cord. (coursera.org)
  • Found in the brain and spinal cord. (cbdoilanxietyshop.com)
  • The brain acts as a primary controller of our nervous system and along with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system (CNS) that regulates most of body functions. (dupischai.com)
  • The state of "sleep debt" per se is associated with increased sympathetic nervous activity and abnormalities in endocrine function. (nih.gov)
  • This course provides an introduction to basic computational methods for understanding what nervous systems do and for determining how they function. (coursera.org)
  • 4 In many cases the resumption of ventilation is associated with EEG arousals, which are markers of central nervous system activation, 5 and disturbed sleep which is driven back to a more superficial level. (bmj.com)
  • Our vision is to prevent and cure disease and disability of the brain and nervous system. (edu.au)
  • The brain has long been thought to lack a lymphatic drainage system. (jaoa.org)
  • Recent studies, however, show the presence of a brain-wide paravascular system appropriately named the glymphatic system based on its similarity to the lymphatic system in function and its dependence on astroglial water flux. (jaoa.org)
  • Besides the clearance of cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid, the glymphatic system also facilitates the clearance of interstitial solutes such as amyloid-β and tau from the brain. (jaoa.org)
  • 1 In the past couple of years, a similar system in the brain has been uncovered, termed the glymphatic system . (jaoa.org)
  • The glymphatic system is currently understood to facilitate the clearance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), interstitial fluid (ISF), and interstitial solutes from the brain. (jaoa.org)
  • According to Joseph LeDoux , a neuroscientist at NYU and author of the excellent book Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are , "Anatomically the emotional system can act independently of the neocortex [the higher-order, "thinking" part of the brain responsible for conscious thought, language, etc]. (atheists.org)
  • Lactate supplies the brain with energy to produce and regulate the orexin system. (brainfogrelief.com)
  • Basic alerting and wakefulness is a function of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS). (bmj.com)
  • This is the main function of our Endocannabinoid System. (cbdoilanxietyshop.com)
  • The way the brain does this is through something called the reticular activating system (RAS). (thriveafter50.com)
  • Neurologists had suspected that a component of the "ascending arousal system" could be found in this part of the brain for more than 100 years, but the precise location had been a mystery. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Inhibiting the same area of the brain with similar techniques increased the amount of time mice slept, especially non-REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, although sleep was not instant upon drug administration, as has been shown for other parts of the arousal system, Pedersen says. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Disruption of other components of the arousal system typically has relatively mild effects. (medicalxpress.com)
  • 2) The brain initially evolved as a motor program system capable of generating more complex movements, then as a temporary memory system able to both "play back" and produce immediate fear-based reactions to certain situations, and finally as a permanent memory system that constructs a model of the world to make predictions about that world. (wanderingsolace.com)
  • if you understand the system´s function deeply, you should be able to predict what it will do reasonably far into the future. (wanderingsolace.com)
  • Therefore, while one's itchy eyes might be gone, GI, brain, and immune system symptoms will still very likely be present. (beyondthebite4life.com)
  • To nourish the brain and all CNS activity an interconnected system of blood vessels spiderwebs surround the brain, bringing in oxygen and nutrients while taking away byproducts. (dupischai.com)
  • The limbic system controls the reward circuit of the brain. (baconstreet.org)
  • Brain scans have shown that once in recovery, the limbic system and cortex can get better. (baconstreet.org)
  • This part of the brain is tied to the limbic system processes, which is discussed above. (baconstreet.org)
  • We concluded that abnormal behavioral and molecular circadian rhythms observed in R6/2 mice in vivo arise from dysfunction of brain circuitry afferent to the SCN, rather than from a primary deficiency within the pacemaker itself. (jneurosci.org)
  • Because circadian sleep disruption is deleterious to cognitive function, and cognitive decline is pronounced in R6/2 mice, we tested whether circadian and cognitive disturbances could be reversed by using a sedative drug to impose a daily cycle of sleep in R6/2 mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, our data show for the first time that treatments aimed at restoring circadian rhythms may not only slow the cognitive decline that is such a devastating feature of HD but may also improve other circadian gene-regulated functions that are impaired in this disease. (jneurosci.org)
  • She noted that the findings suggest the circadian rhythm in brain injury patients who were in a coma may have better test scores in recovery if their body temperatures are similar to a healthy person's. (sleepassociation.org)
  • Dr. Blume noted that this research, for the first time, makes an association between body temperature in relationship to the circadian rhythm and the arousal in patients who have suffered a brain injury. (sleepassociation.org)
  • Research has shown that the omega-3 fatty acid DHA reduces disruptions to the circadian clock gene Bmal1, one of several core clock genes that keep circadian clocks and rhythms functioning in sync. (patrimon.cz)
  • The current article explores the adverse health outcomes related to sleep deprivation, the five stages of sleep, the neurobiology of sleep and wakefulness, and the various medications and supplements that may improve the ability to "catch some Zs. (healio.com)
  • Higher cortical functions such as cognition, attention, and memory are rapidly affected by REM sleep deprivation. (ispub.com)
  • To elucidate how REM sleep deprivation caused by H1 blockade is damaging to general mental health, we need to go over functions of sleep. (ispub.com)
  • It is a function that cannot be substituted by quiet rest(6).In animal studies 2-3 weeks total sleep deprivation(TSD) is shown to be fatal. (ispub.com)
  • Recent findings suggest that SDB and sleep deprivation are associated with specific molecular, anatomical, and pathophysiological abnormalities affecting brain, kidney, and vascular function. (nih.gov)
  • Dream deprivation or sleep deprivation results in detrimental changes in personality, perceptual processes, and intellectual functioning. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This information will provide a cellular-level understanding of how sleep deprivation, jet lag, and substances such as alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine alter sleep and wakefulness. (umich.edu)
  • In the case of sleep, the deprivation approach to function has been applied-both experimentally and naturalistically-to sleep as a unitary state (general sleep deprivation) and to particular kinds of sleep (selective sleep deprivation). (britannica.com)
  • The method of general deprivation studies is enforced wakefulness. (britannica.com)
  • Human sleep deprivation studies seem to suggest that the principal function of deep sleep may be to give the brain time to restore itself from its daily activeness. (sleepassociation.org)
  • One example is the ventrolateral preoptic area, which release GABA reuptake inhibitors, which interrupt wakefulness and arousal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The physiologic response of the cochlea to turbine noise is also a trigger for tinnitus and the brain-cell-level reorganization that tinnitus represents-reorganization that can have an impact on language processing and the profound learning processes related to language processing. (ontario-wind-resistance.org)
  • The course is primarily aimed at third- or fourth-year undergraduates and beginning graduate students, as well as professionals and distance learners interested in learning how the brain processes information. (coursera.org)
  • This brain chemical is involved in a number of different mental processes and functions. (nootriment.com)
  • OBJECTIVE We developed a field procedure using personal digital assistant (PDA) technology to test the hypothesis that naturally occurring episodes of hypo- and hyperglycemia are associated with deterioration in cognitive function in children with type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • One major barrier to investigating the effects of acute hypo- and hyperglycemia on cognitive function in pediatric populations is reluctance to induce extreme glucose levels, and possible neurological insult, in younger patients with developing brains ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As a result, first-generation antihistamines impair cognitive function of daily living (2,3). (ispub.com)
  • The proposed model may explain the sources of variability in cognitive function of children with sleep-disordered breathing. (nih.gov)
  • Regardless of age, there are many ways of training your brain to improve cognitive function, mental clarity and memory. (dupischai.com)
  • 1398). Chronic pain patients also have shown to have changes in brain function in sufferers with Alzheimer' disease, depression, schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder giving further insight into disease states. (uschirodirectory.com)
  • Visual attention, learning and cognitive functioning in the life span. (uio.no)
  • It does this by promoting arousal (wakefulness), which is a necessary ingredient for being able to pay attention and react quickly. (neurohacker.com)
  • While caffeine gets most of the attention, coffee polyphenols support healthy function. (neurohacker.com)
  • It is believed to control sleep, wakefulness, and the ability to consciously focus attention on something. (thriveafter50.com)
  • Many projects in the lab use mouse models to understand the function of circuits that control sleep and wakefulness. (harvard.edu)
  • An increase of glucose metabolism in the brain occurs as a result of tasks that require mental activity. (sleepassociation.org)
  • Understanding what exactly occurs in the brain from substance use will help answer some of these questions. (baconstreet.org)