Sleep Arousal Disorders
Galvanic Skin Response
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological
Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome
Hypothalamic Area, Lateral
Autonomic Nervous System
Analysis of Variance
Respiratory Physiological Phenomena
Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological
Sleep Apnea, Central
Effect of psychotropic drugs on caudate spindle in cats. (1/2081)To ascertain whether neuroleptics act on the caudate nucleus itself, the effects of these compounds as well as other centrally acting drugs were examined in relation to caudate spindle and EEG arousal responses (sciatic nerve stimulation) in gallamine-immobilized cats. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle at a dose which had no effect on the EEG arousal response. On the other hand, clozapine and a higher dose of chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle, but depressed the arousal response. High frequency stimulation of the sciatic nerve suppressed the caudate spindle. Pentobarbital, biperiden and diazepam, while depressing the arousal response, caused an enhancement of the caudate spindle. Imipramine at a low dose had no effect on either response, whereas at a high dose this drug enhanced the caudate spindle with concomitant depression of the arousal response. From these results, it may be concluded that the enhancing action on the caudate spindle induced by haloperidol and a low dose of chlorpromazine is due to an increase in susceptibility of the caudate nucleus itself. In addition, it is suggested that depression of the activating system is involved in an appearance of the caudate spindle. (+info)
Arousal from sleep shortens sympathetic burst latency in humans. (2/2081)1. Bursts of sympathetic activity in muscle nerves are phase-locked to the cardiac cycle by the sinoaortic baroreflexes. Acoustic arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep reduces the normally invariant interval between the R-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the peak of the corresponding sympathetic burst; however, the effects of other forms of sleep disruption (i.e. spontaneous arousals and apnoea-induced arousals) on this temporal relationship are unknown. 2. We simultaneously recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity in the peroneal nerve (intraneural electrodes) and the ECG (surface electrodes) in seven healthy humans and three patients with sleep apnoea syndrome during NREM sleep. 3. In seven subjects, burst latencies were shortened subsequent to spontaneous K complexes (1.297 +/- 0.024 s, mean +/- s. e.m.) and spontaneous arousals (1.268 +/- 0.044 s) compared with latencies during periods of stable NREM sleep (1.369 +/- 0.023 s). In six subjects who demonstrated spontaneous apnoeas during sleep, apnoea per se did not alter burst latency relative to sleep with stable electroencephalogram (EEG) and breathing (1.313 +/- 0.038 vs. 1.342 +/- 0.026 s); however, following apnoea-induced EEG perturbations, burst latencies were reduced (1.214 +/- 0.034 s). 4. Arousal-induced reduction in sympathetic burst latency may reflect a temporary diminution of baroreflex buffering of sympathetic outflow. If so, the magnitude of arterial pressure perturbations during sleep (e.g. those caused by sleep disordered breathing and periodic leg movements) may be augmented by arousal. (+info)
The vigilance promoting drug modafinil increases extracellular glutamate levels in the medial preoptic area and the posterior hypothalamus of the conscious rat: prevention by local GABAA receptor blockade. (3/2081)The effects of modafinil on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission in the rat medial preoptic area (MPA) and posterior hypothalamus (PH), are analysed. Modafinil (30-300 mg/kg) increased glutamate and decreased GABA levels in the MPA and PH. Local perfusion with the GABAA agonist muscimol (10 microM), reduced, while the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (1 microM and 10 microM) increased glutamate levels. The modafinil (100 mg/kg)-induced increase of glutamate levels was antagonized by local perfusion with bicuculline (1 microM). When glutamate levels were increased by the local perfusion with the glutamate uptake inhibitor L-trans-PDC (0.5 mM), modafinil produced an additional enhancement of glutamate levels. Modafinil (1-33 microM) failed to affect [3H]glutamate uptake in hypothalamic synaptosomes and slices. These findings show that modafinil increases glutamate and decreases GABA levels in MPA and PH. The evidence that bicuculline counteracts the modafinil-induced increase of glutamate levels strengthens the evidence for an inhibitory GABA/glutamate interaction in the above regions controlling the sleep-wakefulness cycle. (+info)
Time course of sleep inertia dissipation in human performance and alertness. (4/2081)Alertness and performance on a wide variety of tasks are impaired immediately upon waking from sleep due to sleep inertia, which has been found to dissipate in an asymptotic manner following waketime. It has been suggested that behavioural or environmental factors, as well as sleep stage at awakening, may affect the severity of sleep inertia. In order to determine the time course of sleep inertia dissipation under normal entrained conditions, subjective alertness and cognitive throughput were measured during the first 4 h after habitual waketime from a full 8-h sleep episode on 3 consecutive days. We investigated whether this time course was affected by either sleep stage at awakening or behavioural/environmental factors. Sleep inertia dissipated in an asymptotic manner and took 2-4 h to near the asymptote. Saturating exponential functions fitted the sleep inertia data well, with time constants of 0.67 h for subjective alertness and 1.17 h for cognitive performance. Most awakenings occurred out of stage rapid eye movement (REM), 2 or 1 sleep, and no effect of sleep stage at awakening on either the severity of sleep inertia or the time course of its dissipation could be detected. Subjective alertness and cognitive throughput were significantly impaired upon awakening regardless of whether subjects got out of bed, ate breakfast, showered and were exposed to ordinary indoor room light (approximately 150 lux) or whether subjects participated in a constant routine (CR) protocol in which they remained in bed, ate small hourly snacks and were exposed to very dim light (10-15 lux). These findings allow for the refinement of models of alertness and performance, and have important implications for the scheduling of work immediately upon awakening in many occupational settings. (+info)
Fentanyl and morphine, but not remifentanil, inhibit acetylcholine release in pontine regions modulating arousal. (5/2081)BACKGROUND: Opioids inhibit the rapid eye movement (REM) phase of sleep and decrease acetylcholine (ACh) release in medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) regions contributing to REM sleep generation. It is not known whether opioids decrease ACh release by acting on cholinergic cell bodies or on cholinergic axon terminals. This study used in vivo microdialysis to test the hypothesis that opioids decrease ACh levels at cholinergic neurons in the laterodorsal tegmental nuclei (LDT) and LDT axon terminals in the mPRF. METHODS: Nine male cats were anesthetized with halothane, and ACh levels within the mPRF or LDT were assayed using microdialysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). ACh levels were analyzed in response to dialysis of the mPRF and LDT with Ringer's solution (control), followed by dialysis with Ringer's solution containing morphine sulfate (MSO4) or naloxone. ACh in the mPRF also was measured during either dialysis delivery or intravenous infusion of remifentanil and during dialysis delivery of fentanyl. RESULTS: Compared with dialysis of Ringer's solution, microdialysis with MSO4 decreased ACh by 23% in the mPRF and by 30% in the LDT. This significant decrease in ACh was antagonized by naloxone. MSO4 and fentanyl each caused a dose-dependent decrease in mPRF ACh when delivered by dialysis. Remifentanil delivered by continuous intravenous infusion or by dialysis into the mPRF did not alter mPRF ACh. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine inhibits ACh at the cholinergic cell body region (LDT) and the terminal field in the mPRF. ACh in the mPRF was not altered by remifentanil and was significantly decreased by fentanyl. Thus, MSO4 and fentanyl disrupt cholinergic neurotransmission in the LDT-mPRF network known to modulate REM sleep and cortical electroencephalographic activation. These data are consistent with the possibility that inhibition of pontine cholinergic neurotransmission contributes to arousal state disruption by opioids. (+info)
Cognitive functioning in people with epilepsy plus severe learning disabilities: a systematic analysis of predictors of daytime arousal and attention. (6/2081)In spite of the high prevalence of epilepsy and the importance of preserving cognitive function in people with learning disabilities, this population has received relatively little research attention. This study sets out systematically to investigate possible predictive factors of inter-ictal states of arousal and attention. The daytime function of 28 people with epilepsy and severe learning disabilities was assessed by performance on a two-choice reaction time vigilance task, behavioural analysis of time-sampled video recordings taken in naturalistic settings, and carer ratings on visual analogue scales. This methodology yielded eight discrete functional measures, from which two further index measures were derived after principal components analysis. A range of clinical and psychosocial assessments was completed and subjects had 36 hour ambulatory EEG and sleep EEG monitoring. Regression models identified significant predictors of cognitive function from a range of potential explanatory variables i.e. demographic, clinical, pharmacological, background EEG rhythms and sleep parameters. Results indicated that greater severity of learning disability, longer bedtime periods, poor sleep efficiency, frequent seizures and antiepileptic drug polytherapy were significant predictor variables. Explained variance (adjusted R2) was greater than 50% for six of 10 outcome variables (range up to 85%). Furthermore, significant regression equations (P < 0.05) were obtained for all but one variable. Thus, these results appear reasonably robust. Results support an interactional model of daytime arousal and attention in people with epilepsy plus severe learning disabilities. Inter-ictal cognitive function appears to be mediated by a combination of organic, circadian (sleep wake), clinical and pharmacological factors. (+info)
Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of cardinal posttraumatic stress symptoms in school-age children. (7/2081)OBJECTIVES: This report examines the reliability and validity of Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of the cardinal symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: We measured exposure to community violence through the reports of children and their parents and then administered Darryl to a sample of 110 children aged 7 to 9 residing in urban neighborhoods with high crime rates. RESULTS: Darryl's reliability is excellent overall and is acceptable for the reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales, considered separately. Child reports of exposure to community violence were significantly associated with child reports of PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Darryl possesses acceptable psychometric properties in a sample of children with frequent exposure to community violence. (+info)
Metabolic, gastrointestinal, and CNS neuropeptide effects of brain leptin administration in the rat. (8/2081)To investigate whether brain leptin involves neuropeptidergic pathways influencing ingestion, metabolism, and gastrointestinal functioning, leptin (3.5 micrograms) was infused daily into the third cerebral ventricular of rats for 3 days. To distinguish between direct leptin effects and those secondary to leptin-induced anorexia, we studied vehicle-infused rats with food available ad libitum and those that were pair-fed to leptin-treated animals. Although body weight was comparably reduced (-8%) and plasma glycerol was comparably increased (142 and 17%, respectively) in leptin-treated and pair-fed animals relative to controls, increases in plasma fatty acids and ketones were only detected (132 and 234%, respectively) in pair-fed rats. Resting energy expenditure (-15%) and gastrointestinal fill (-50%) were reduced by pair-feeding relative to the ad libitum group, but they were not reduced by leptin treatment. Relative to controls, leptin increased hypothalamic mRNA for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; 61%) and for proopiomelanocortin (POMC; 31%) but did not reduce mRNA for neuropeptide Y. These results suggest that CNS leptin prevents metabolic/gastrointestinal responses to caloric restriction by activating hypothalamic CRH- and POMC-containing pathways and raise the possibility that these peripheral responses to CNS leptin administration contribute to leptin's anorexigenic action. (+info)
In the medical field, arousal refers to the state of being awake and alert, and the ability to respond to stimuli. It is a fundamental aspect of consciousness and is closely related to other aspects of consciousness such as attention, perception, and memory. Arousal can be influenced by a variety of factors, including physical factors such as sleep, hunger, and thirst, as well as psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, and mood. In some cases, disorders of arousal can occur, such as sleep disorders, which can affect a person's ability to stay awake and alert during the day, or sexual arousal disorders, which can affect a person's ability to experience sexual pleasure. In the context of medical treatment, arousal can be an important factor to consider when evaluating a patient's overall health and well-being. For example, a patient with a low level of arousal may be more susceptible to infections or other health problems, and may require additional support or interventions to maintain their level of alertness and responsiveness.
Sleep arousal disorders are a group of sleep disorders characterized by the abnormal and frequent awakening during sleep. These disorders can cause significant disruption to sleep and can lead to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and other negative consequences. There are several types of sleep arousal disorders, including: 1. Sleepwalking: A disorder in which a person gets up and walks around while still asleep. 2. Nightmares: Vivid and disturbing dreams that can cause a person to wake up feeling frightened or anxious. 3. Sleep terrors: A disorder in which a person experiences intense fear and panic during sleep, often accompanied by physical symptoms such as sweating and rapid heartbeat. 4. Restless legs syndrome: A disorder in which a person experiences an uncomfortable sensation in their legs that is relieved by moving their legs, often causing them to move around during sleep. 5. Narcolepsy: A disorder in which a person experiences excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden, brief episodes of sleep during waking hours. 6. Sleep-related eating disorder: A disorder in which a person eats during sleep without being aware of it. Treatment for sleep arousal disorders typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medication, and therapy. It is important to seek medical attention if you are experiencing symptoms of a sleep arousal disorder, as they can have a significant impact on your quality of life.
Somnambulism, also known as sleepwalking, is a disorder characterized by a person engaging in complex behaviors while asleep. These behaviors can include walking, talking, eating, and even driving, while the person is in a state of sleep. Somnambulism typically occurs during the first few hours of sleep, and the person is usually unaware of their actions while they are sleepwalking. It is more common in children than in adults, and it is often associated with other sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea or restless leg syndrome. In the medical field, somnambulism is considered a parasomnia, which is a group of sleep disorders characterized by abnormal behaviors or experiences that occur during sleep. Treatment for somnambulism may include lifestyle changes, such as avoiding alcohol and caffeine, as well as medication or therapy to address any underlying sleep disorders.
Sleep Apnea Syndromes are a group of sleep disorders characterized by abnormal breathing during sleep. These disorders are caused by a blockage or narrowing of the airway, which can lead to a reduction or cessation of airflow during sleep. The most common type of sleep apnea is obstructive sleep apnea, which is caused by a physical obstruction of the airway, such as the tongue or soft palate. Central sleep apnea is another type of sleep apnea, which is caused by a failure of the brain to send the proper signals to the muscles that control breathing. Sleep apnea can cause a variety of symptoms, including snoring, gasping or choking during sleep, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty concentrating. It can also increase the risk of serious health problems, such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. Treatment for sleep apnea typically involves the use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine, which delivers a steady stream of air through a mask to keep the airway open during sleep. In some cases, surgery may also be necessary to correct the underlying cause of the sleep apnea.
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive is a medical condition characterized by the temporary cessation of breathing during sleep. It occurs when the muscles in the throat relax and block the airway, causing a decrease or complete stop in airflow. This can happen multiple times throughout the night, leading to disrupted sleep and a variety of symptoms such as snoring, gasping or choking during sleep, fatigue, and headaches upon waking. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is the most common type of sleep apnea and is often treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, lifestyle changes, or in some cases, surgery.
Sexual dysfunctions, psychological, refer to a range of conditions that affect a person's ability to experience sexual pleasure and satisfaction. These conditions are primarily caused by psychological factors, such as anxiety, depression, stress, relationship issues, and past trauma. Some common examples of psychological sexual dysfunctions include: 1. Sexual desire disorder: A persistent or recurring lack of interest in sexual activity. 2. Sexual arousal disorder: Difficulty achieving or maintaining sexual arousal. 3. Sexual pain disorder: Persistent or recurrent genital pain during sexual activity. 4. Premature ejaculation: Inability to control the timing of ejaculation during sexual activity. 5. Delayed ejaculation: Difficulty achieving or maintaining an orgasm. 6. Anorgasmia: Inability to achieve an orgasm, even with adequate sexual stimulation. Psychological sexual dysfunctions can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and relationships. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying psychological factors through therapy, counseling, or medication.
Parasomnias are a group of sleep-related disorders that involve abnormal behaviors, movements, sensations, or perceptions that occur during sleep. These disorders can occur during any stage of sleep, including rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Some common examples of parasomnias include sleepwalking, sleep talking, sleep terrors, night terrors, sleep-related eating disorder, and restless legs syndrome. These disorders can be distressing for both the individual experiencing them and their loved ones, and can also interfere with sleep quality and overall health. Parasomnias are typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and sleep studies. Treatment options may include medication, therapy, lifestyle changes, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the specific disorder and the individual's needs.
Neuropeptides are small, protein-like molecules that are synthesized and secreted by neurons in the nervous system. They play a variety of roles in regulating and modulating various physiological processes, including mood, appetite, pain perception, and hormone release. Neuropeptides are typically composed of 3-50 amino acids and are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum of neurons. They are then transported to the synaptic terminals, where they are released into the synaptic cleft and bind to specific receptors on the postsynaptic neuron or on other cells in the body. There are many different types of neuropeptides, each with its own unique structure and function. Some examples of neuropeptides include dopamine, serotonin, and opioid peptides such as endorphins. Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or hormones, and they play important roles in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Sleep deprivation is a condition that occurs when an individual does not get enough sleep, either in terms of duration or quality. It is a common problem that can have serious consequences on a person's physical and mental health. In the medical field, sleep deprivation is defined as a lack of sufficient sleep that affects a person's ability to function normally. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends that adults should aim for 7-9 hours of sleep per night, and that children and adolescents need even more. Sleep deprivation can be caused by a variety of factors, including lifestyle habits such as irregular sleep schedules, exposure to bright light at night, and the use of electronic devices before bedtime. It can also be caused by underlying medical conditions such as sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, and narcolepsy. The effects of sleep deprivation can range from mild to severe and can include fatigue, irritability, difficulty concentrating, memory problems, and an increased risk of accidents and injuries. In severe cases, sleep deprivation can lead to more serious health problems such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes. Treatment for sleep deprivation typically involves addressing the underlying cause and making lifestyle changes to improve sleep habits. In some cases, medication or other medical interventions may be necessary to treat underlying sleep disorders.
In the medical field, "affect" typically refers to a patient's emotional state or mood. It is often used in conjunction with the term "psychiatric assessment" to evaluate a patient's mental health and emotional well-being. Affect can be assessed through various means, such as observation of the patient's facial expressions, tone of voice, and body language, as well as through self-reporting and standardized rating scales. Changes in affect can be an important indicator of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Therefore, assessing a patient's affect is an important part of a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation.
Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome (NMS) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions or jerks that occur during sleep. These muscle movements are typically brief and repetitive, and they can affect any part of the body, including the arms, legs, face, and neck. NMS is usually diagnosed in adults, although it can occur in children as well. The cause of NMS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to abnormal electrical activity in the brain during sleep. Symptoms of NMS can include muscle spasms or jerks during sleep, difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, and fatigue or daytime sleepiness. In some cases, NMS can also cause other symptoms, such as headaches, dizziness, and difficulty with balance. Treatment for NMS typically involves medications to help control the muscle movements and improve sleep quality. In some cases, physical therapy or other interventions may also be recommended to help manage symptoms.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a part of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary bodily functions, such as heart rate, breathing, digestion, and blood pressure. It is responsible for maintaining homeostasis, or a stable internal environment, in the body. The ANS is divided into two branches: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). The SNS is responsible for the "fight or flight" response, which prepares the body for action in response to a perceived threat. The PNS, on the other hand, is responsible for the "rest and digest" response, which helps the body to relax and conserve energy. The ANS communicates with the central nervous system (CNS) through a series of ganglia (clusters of nerve cells) and nerves. The ANS is an important part of the body's overall functioning and plays a critical role in maintaining health and wellness.
Orexin receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are primarily expressed in the central nervous system, particularly in the hypothalamus and brainstem. These receptors are activated by orexins, also known as hypocretins, which are neuropeptides that play a key role in regulating appetite, sleep-wake cycles, and other physiological processes. There are two types of orexin receptors, designated as OX1 and OX2, which are activated by different orexin isoforms. Activation of these receptors leads to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate a variety of physiological processes, including arousal, feeding behavior, and energy metabolism. Disruptions in orexin signaling have been implicated in several sleep disorders, including narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. In addition, alterations in orexin signaling have been linked to other neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and addiction. As a result, orexin receptors have become an important target for the development of new treatments for these conditions.
The clitoris is a small, sensitive organ located at the front of the vulva in females. It is composed of erectile tissue and is surrounded by a hood of skin called the clitoral hood. The clitoris is a part of the female genitalia and is involved in sexual pleasure and arousal. It is also a source of sexual sensation and can be stimulated for sexual pleasure. The clitoris is not connected to the reproductive system and does not play a role in reproduction.
Pedophilia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a primary or exclusive sexual attraction to prepubescent children, typically under the age of 13. It is important to note that pedophilia itself is not a crime, but it is illegal to act on those attractions in any way that involves a child, such as sexual contact or grooming. In the medical field, pedophilia is typically diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is the standard classification system for mental health disorders. The DSM-5 defines pedophilia as a disorder of sexual preference, and it is classified as a paraphilia, which is a sexual orientation that is not considered normal or socially acceptable. Treatment for pedophilia typically involves psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which aims to help individuals change their thoughts and behaviors related to their attraction to children. In some cases, medication may also be used to help manage related symptoms, such as anxiety or depression. However, it is important to note that there is currently no cure for pedophilia, and individuals with this disorder are at a higher risk of committing sexual offenses involving children.
Receptors, Neuropeptide are proteins found on the surface of cells in the nervous system that bind to specific neuropeptides, which are signaling molecules that transmit information between neurons. These receptors play a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes, including mood, pain, appetite, and stress response. Activation of neuropeptide receptors can lead to changes in gene expression, intracellular signaling pathways, and cellular function, ultimately resulting in changes in behavior and physiology. Dysregulation of neuropeptide receptors has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, addiction, and pain.
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method used to compare the means of three or more groups. In the medical field, ANOVA can be used to compare the effectiveness of different treatments, interventions, or medications on a particular outcome or variable of interest. For example, a researcher may want to compare the effectiveness of three different medications for treating a particular disease. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean response (e.g., improvement in symptoms) between the three groups of patients who received each medication. If the results show a significant difference between the groups, it would suggest that one medication is more effective than the others. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different groups of patients based on a categorical variable, such as age, gender, or race. For example, a researcher may want to compare the mean blood pressure of patients in different age groups. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean blood pressure between the different age groups and determine if there are significant differences. Overall, ANOVA is a powerful statistical tool that can be used to compare the means of different groups in the medical field, helping researchers to identify which treatments or interventions are most effective and to better understand the factors that influence health outcomes.
In the medical field, the brain is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. It is responsible for controlling and coordinating all bodily functions, including movement, sensation, thought, emotion, and memory. The brain is located in the skull and is protected by the skull bones and cerebrospinal fluid. The brain is composed of billions of nerve cells, or neurons, which communicate with each other through electrical and chemical signals. These neurons are organized into different regions of the brain, each with its own specific functions. The brain is also divided into two hemispheres, the left and right, which are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Damage to the brain can result in a wide range of neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Treatment for brain disorders often involves medications, surgery, and rehabilitation therapies to help restore function and improve quality of life.
Night terrors, also known as sleep terrors or pavor nocturnus, are a sleep disorder characterized by sudden, intense fear or panic that can occur during any stage of sleep. They are different from nightmares, which occur during the rapid eye movement (REM) stage of sleep, and from sleepwalking, which occurs during the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) stage of sleep. Night terrors typically occur during the first few hours of sleep and are characterized by a sudden awakening with a sense of intense fear or panic. The person may scream, cry, or become agitated, and may be difficult to. Night terrors usually last for a few minutes and then subside, but the person may remain awake for some time afterwards. Night terrors are more common in children than in adults, but they can occur at any age. They are more common in people who have a family history of night terrors or other sleep disorders, and in people who are under stress or experiencing significant life changes. Treatment for night terrors may include lifestyle changes, such as establishing a regular sleep routine and avoiding caffeine and alcohol before bedtime. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. It is important to seek medical attention if night terrors are causing significant distress or interfering with daily functioning.
Sexual dysfunction, physiological refers to a range of sexual problems that are caused by physical factors, such as hormonal imbalances, nerve damage, or medical conditions. These problems can affect any aspect of sexual function, including desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain. Physiological sexual dysfunction can be caused by a variety of factors, including chronic illness, medications, surgeries, and age-related changes. Treatment for physiological sexual dysfunction typically involves addressing the underlying physical cause of the problem, such as through medication, therapy, or lifestyle changes.
The amygdala is a small almond-shaped structure located deep within the temporal lobes of the brain. It is part of the limbic system, which is responsible for regulating emotions, memory, and behavior. The amygdala plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. It receives sensory information from the thalamus and evaluates it for potential threats or danger. If a threat is detected, the amygdala sends signals to other parts of the brain, such as the hypothalamus and the brainstem, to initiate a fight-or-flight response. The amygdala is also involved in the formation and retrieval of emotional memories. It helps to consolidate emotional memories and store them in long-term memory, which can be important for learning from past experiences and avoiding similar situations in the future. In addition to its role in emotion regulation and memory, the amygdala is also involved in other functions, such as social behavior, decision-making, and addiction. Damage to the amygdala can result in a range of emotional and behavioral problems, including anxiety disorders, depression, and aggression.
Trazodone is a medication that is primarily used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. It is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and also acts as a serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor (SARI) at higher doses. Trazodone is also sometimes used as a sleep aid to treat insomnia. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin in the brain, which can help to improve mood and reduce anxiety. Trazodone is available in tablet form and is usually taken once or twice a day. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare professional when taking trazodone, as the dosage and duration of treatment may vary depending on the individual and the condition being treated.
Hypothalamic hormones are hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus, a small region of the brain that plays a critical role in regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, growth, and reproduction. The hypothalamus produces several hormones that are involved in regulating the endocrine system, which is responsible for producing and secreting hormones throughout the body. Some of the most well-known hypothalamic hormones include: 1. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH): This hormone stimulates the pituitary gland to produce thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which in turn stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. 2. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH): This hormone stimulates the pituitary gland to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn stimulates the adrenal gland to produce cortisol. 3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): This hormone stimulates the pituitary gland to produce follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are involved in regulating the reproductive system. 4. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH): This hormone stimulates the pituitary gland to produce growth hormone (GH), which is involved in regulating growth and development. 5. Somatostatin: This hormone inhibits the production of several hormones, including GH, TSH, and ACTH. Hypothalamic hormones play a critical role in regulating various bodily functions, and imbalances in these hormones can lead to a range of health problems, including metabolic disorders, reproductive disorders, and endocrine disorders.
Doxapram is a medication that is used to stimulate breathing in premature infants who have difficulty breathing on their own. It is a synthetic respiratory stimulant that works by increasing the activity of the respiratory center in the brainstem, which controls breathing. Doxapram is typically given intravenously and is used as a short-term treatment to help improve breathing in infants who are at risk of respiratory distress syndrome or other breathing problems. It is not recommended for long-term use, as it can cause side effects such as agitation, tremors, and seizures.
Sleep Apnea, Central (CSA) is a type of sleep disorder characterized by repeated episodes of central sleep apnea during sleep. In CSA, the brain fails to send the proper signals to the muscles that control breathing, causing the muscles to relax and the airway to collapse, leading to a temporary stop in breathing. This can occur multiple times during the night, disrupting sleep and causing symptoms such as snoring, gasping or choking during sleep, and excessive daytime sleepiness. CSA is often associated with underlying medical conditions such as heart failure, stroke, or neurological disorders, and can be diagnosed through a sleep study. Treatment options for CSA may include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, oxygen therapy, or in some cases, surgery.
Circadian rhythm refers to the internal biological clock that regulates various physiological processes in the body, including sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone production, and metabolism. This rhythm is controlled by a group of neurons in the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which receives input from specialized photoreceptors in the retina that detect changes in light levels. The circadian rhythm is approximately 24 hours long and is influenced by external factors such as light exposure, meal times, and physical activity. Disruptions to the circadian rhythm, such as those caused by jet lag, shift work, or chronic sleep disorders, can have negative effects on health and well-being, including increased risk of mood disorders, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes.
Acoustic Stimulation refers to the use of sound waves to stimulate or activate certain areas of the brain or body. This technique is commonly used in the medical field for various purposes, including: 1. Treating hearing loss: Acoustic Stimulation can be used to stimulate the auditory nerve and improve hearing in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. 2. Treating tinnitus: Acoustic Stimulation can be used to reduce the perception of ringing or buzzing in the ears, which is commonly known as tinnitus. 3. Treating sleep disorders: Acoustic Stimulation can be used to promote relaxation and improve sleep in individuals with insomnia or other sleep disorders. 4. Treating neurological disorders: Acoustic Stimulation can be used to stimulate specific areas of the brain to improve symptoms of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Acoustic Stimulation is typically delivered through a device that emits low-level sound waves, which are then directed to the targeted area of the body or brain. The frequency and intensity of the sound waves can be adjusted to optimize the therapeutic effect.
The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, responsible for many of the higher functions of the nervous system, including perception, thought, memory, and consciousness. It is composed of two hemispheres, each of which is divided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. The cerebral cortex is responsible for processing sensory information from the body and the environment, as well as generating motor commands to control movement. It is also involved in complex cognitive processes such as language, decision-making, and problem-solving. Damage to the cerebral cortex can result in a range of neurological and cognitive disorders, including dementia, aphasia, and apraxia.
New Approaches to Female Sexual Arousal Disorder
Explanation for Arousals
ongoing by Tim Bray · Sock Hop Arousal
Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Increases Behavioral Arousal Through Modulation of Hypocretin/Orexin Neurons - SRI International
Unit on Motivation and Arousal | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
An electrophysiological marker of arousal level in humans | eLife
Erowid.org: Erowid Reference 4135 : The effect of drugs on arousal responses produced by the electrical stimulation of the...
INSOMNIA, PRE- SLEEP AROUSAL AND PERSONALITY TRAITS: A CORRELATION STUDY. | Pedagogická fakulta MU
Hypocretin as a Hub for Arousal and Motivation - PubMed
Early Postnatal Manganese Exposure Causes Lasting Impairment of Selective and Focused Attention and Arousal Regulation in Adult...
Hyperexcitable arousal circuits drive sleep instability during aging - PubMed
Applying signal detection theory to conflict escalation as a consequence of victimization with physiological arousal covariates...
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Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder - Women's Health Issues - MSD Manual Consumer Version
Co-Regulation of Physiological Arousal in Social Support Interactions among University Athletes: The Role of Co-rumination ...
Real time pupil size detection as a live marker of arousal state and perceptual sensitivity | Section on Functional Imaging...
arousal - Pleasure Mechanics
What's Your Arousal Type?
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- Poor genital blood flow is believed to contribute to female arousal or orgasm disorders similar to the role of vascular disease in male erectile dysfunction. (medscape.com)
- Also known as receptive arousal, this kind of desire is not only more common for female arousal, but it is also much less depicted in the media-which leads many to think there's something 'wrong' with them. (opositiv.com)
- Other female arousal products function on menthol, or vaso-dilators (such as L-Arginine). (thevelvetbox.com)
- Persistent genital arousal disorder is excessive unwanted physical (genital) arousal, involving increased blood flow to the genital organs and, in women, increased vaginal secretions, without any desire for sexual activity. (msdmanuals.com)
- What causes persistent genital arousal disorder is unknown. (msdmanuals.com)
- In persistent genital arousal disorder in women, physical changes that are usually triggered by sexual stimulation occur even though the woman has no wish to engage in sexual activity and is not mentally or emotionally (subjectively) aroused. (msdmanuals.com)
- Doctors diagnose persistent genital arousal disorder based on characteristic symptoms but only when women are greatly distressed by the symptoms. (msdmanuals.com)
- Here, we provide an overview on how these neurons act as a central hub integrating sensory and physiological information to tune arousal and motivated behavior accordingly. (nih.gov)
- and physiological arousal during escalation detection. (emerald.com)
- A repeated measures general linear model in sex and conflict initiation using two measures of physiological arousal revealed significant effects on EDA while watching escalating conflict as a function of victimization history. (emerald.com)
- The fact that physiological arousal was heightened after exposure to the conflict escalation video as a function of victimization due to physical force has ramifications for watching media with violent content. (emerald.com)
- Additionally, the physiological arousal shared between athletes during discussions about sport-related stressors remains poorly understood. (scapps.org)
- This study aimed to observe social support behaviors exhibited by athletes during discussions of sport-related stressors while continuously recording athletes' physiological arousal, specifically focusing on co-regulation of heart rate variability. (scapps.org)
- Moreover, co-rumination related with co-dysregulated physiological arousal-a process in which partners' physiological arousal is linked and mutually amplifying and may be related with regulatory failures. (scapps.org)
- These results highlight the significance of considering co-rumination and its association with co-dysregulated physiological arousal in social support interactions. (scapps.org)
- B) Respiratory events followed by arousals. (thoracic.org)
- Although our case did not demonstrate respiratory events from the VNS, it was the scoring of the actual electrical impulses as spontaneous arousals which was the interesting finding. (thoracic.org)
- PSG or sleep study can directly monitor and quantify the number of respiratory events (ie, obstructive, central, or complex) and the resultant hypoxemia and arousals related to the respiratory events or even independent of the respiratory events. (medscape.com)
- Dame's Arousal Serum is a pH-balanced formula with natural ingredients that awakens your clitoris with a warm tingle. (puralunaapothecary.com)
- Strategies to control arousal levels should be specific to whether it's physical (somatic anxiety) or mental (cognitive anxiety). (rangeofmotion.net.au)
- Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) has previously been shown to promote wakefulness and to induce arousal from hibernation. (sri.com)
- It's common to see the portrayal of spontaneous sexual desire, especially as male arousal, though it's actually much more rare! (opositiv.com)
- Spontaneous arousal can seemingly come out of nowhere, sparked by the tiniest trigger, such as the mere mention of sex. (opositiv.com)
- As Clinical sex educator Gigi Engle puts it, spontaneous sexual arousal is much more cerebral and can be categorized as having "sexy mind" vs "sexy body" A sexy-minded person (spontaneous desire), is someone who only needs the context of a sexual interaction to become fully aroused. (opositiv.com)
- June 3, 2002 - Topical alprostadil and a clitoral vacuum pump, two new treatments for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) presented on May 25 at the American Urological Association annual meeting, improved sexual response by increasing genital blood flow. (medscape.com)
- One could argue that a highly voltaged VNS could result in physical discomfort and manifest as periodic arousals on the polysomnogram (PSG). (thoracic.org)
- Physical arousal examples include intentional touch, certain kinds of movements, textures, pressures, or speeds, which can all get you in the mood pretty quickly. (opositiv.com)
- Arousal is the level of physical and psychological activation, on a scale from deep sleep to intense excitement. (rangeofmotion.net.au)
- Deep non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) and general anesthesia with propofol are prominent states of reduced arousal linked to the occurrence of synchronized oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG). (elifesciences.org)
- Taken together, our findings describe a common electrophysiological marker that tracks states of reduced arousal, including different sleep stages as well as anesthesia in humans. (elifesciences.org)
- Disorders of arousal. (medlineplus.gov)
- Another overarching aim of the Unit on Motivation and Arousal is to elucidate these mechanisms and their potential role in behavioral maladaptation during drug withdrawal. (nih.gov)
- Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that TRH modulates behavioral arousal, in part, through the Hcrt system. (sri.com)
- In other words, you need some revving, which is why foreplay is key for this arousal type. (opositiv.com)
- Arousal is a continuum of sensitivity of the organism to stimuli, both external and internal. (nih.gov)
- Though all forms of communication could improve this kind of disconnect, getting to know each individual arousal type is helpful in repairing and strengthening your intimacy. (opositiv.com)
- Muscle tension and coordination difficulties with excessive arousal. (rangeofmotion.net.au)
- When you embrace the dual control model of arousal, it puts you in the driver's seat. (pleasuremechanics.com)
- An overarching interest in the Unit on Motivation and Arousal is to understand the neural mechanism of seeking and avoidance behavior to ameliorate these psychiatric illnesses. (nih.gov)
- The mission of the Unit on Motivation and Arousal (UMA) is to understand how brain systems controlling motivated behaviors and sleep/arousal processes interact to drive maladaptive behaviors. (nih.gov)
- Usage: Enhance Sensation & Desire With Rodeo Intimates Arousal Oil. (rodeointimates.com)
- When applied directly to the clitoris, the fast-acting On Hemp will dramatically heighten a woman's arousal and give her an exciting sensation that pulsates, vibrates, and tingles the most sensitive part of her body. (primrosepathboutique.com)
- Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. (pleasuremechanics.com)
- Arousal is an internal process that we can develop, learn how to pay attention to, and practice on purpose! (pleasuremechanics.com)
- First, you learn how to pay attention to arousal using the super power of interoception. (pleasuremechanics.com)
- But for all of us, this magical process starts by learning how to first pay attention to arousal and then feel less shame and judgment about that arousal. (pleasuremechanics.com)
- Attention and concentration narrows with increased arousal. (rangeofmotion.net.au)
- The benefits of hemp seed oil extract are added to this incredibly powerful arousal oil for women. (primrosepathboutique.com)
- Sleep arousal burden is associated with long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in 8001 community-dwelling older men and women. (nih.gov)
- AIMS: To quantify the arousal burden (AB) across large cohort studies and determine its association with long-term cardiovascular (CV) and overall mortality in men and women. (nih.gov)
- Then, you map how your arousal system works - what arouses you and what happens when you get aroused? (pleasuremechanics.com)
- Although rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is also associated with diminished arousal levels, it is characterized by a desynchronized, 'wake-like' EEG. (elifesciences.org)
- Arousal levels affect performance negatively and positively. (rangeofmotion.net.au)
- Different tasks have different optimal levels of arousal. (rangeofmotion.net.au)
- Recognise factors that influence arousal levels. (rangeofmotion.net.au)
- You may find yourself declining sex for not being "in the mood," and while this is totally normal and valid, responsive sexual arousal hints that starting sexual activity will actually spark your sexual desire. (opositiv.com)
- Inverted U model shows the relationship between performance and arousal. (rangeofmotion.net.au)
- What's Your Arousal Type? (opositiv.com)
- This arousal type is much more favored in media depiction. (opositiv.com)
- If this is your arousal type, you may need touching, cuddling, or kissing before you get turned on, expecting your desire to emerge as a result of the process. (opositiv.com)
- The relationship between task type and optimal level of arousal is shown below. (rangeofmotion.net.au)
- It's important to note that one may experience this kind of arousal towards the beginning of a relationship, and then eventually evolve into the second kind of arousal. (opositiv.com)
- We offer you a three step process for owning your arousal. (pleasuremechanics.com)
- On™ uses a proprietary blend of essential oils and botanicals to create a safe, natural arousal effect unlike any other. (thevelvetbox.com)
- These are the skills we work on in the Mindful Sex course and throughout our work and relationships - how can we get rid of the sexual shame and fear so we can cultivate and use sexual arousal as the clean burning fuel it can be? (pleasuremechanics.com)
- how disgust interuppts arousal, even more so than fear! (pleasuremechanics.com)
- Third, you learn how to cultivate arousal and then put it to use as fuel for your life and creative purpose! (pleasuremechanics.com)
- In this episode we explore the nature of sexual arousal, and why we all need to stop waiting around hoping to get turned on! (pleasuremechanics.com)
- Responsive sexual arousal goes beyond initial horniness , taking into account the relational and contextual aspects of desire. (opositiv.com)