Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).
Literary or artistic items having an erotic theme. It refers especially to books treating sexual love in a sensuous or voluptuous manner. (Webster, 3d ed)
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.
The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
The climax of sexual excitement in either humans or animals.
Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.
A parasomnia characterized by a partial arousal that occurs during stage IV of non-REM sleep. Affected individuals exhibit semipurposeful behaviors such as ambulation and are difficult to fully awaken. Children are primarily affected, with a peak age range of 4-6 years.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Disturbances in sexual desire and the psychophysiologic changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
In certain living species, a period of dormancy during the summer months marked by decreased metabolism.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.
Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)
Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
G-protein-coupled NEUROPEPTIDE RECEPTORS that have specificity for OREXINS and play a role in appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles. Two principle receptor types exist, each having a specificity for OREXIN A and OREXIN B peptide subtypes.
Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
An erectile structure homologous with the penis, situated beneath the anterior labial commissure, partially hidden between the anterior ends of the labia minora.
A sexual disorder occurring in a person 16 years or older and that is recurrent with intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child (generally age 13 or younger). (from APA, DSM-IV, 1994).
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.
The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
A disorder characterized by incomplete arousals from sleep associated with behavior suggesting extreme fright. This condition primarily affects children and young adults and the individual generally has no recall of the event. Episodes tend to occur during stage III or IV. SOMNAMBULISM is frequently associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p391)
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Physiological disturbances in normal sexual performance in either the male or the female.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
The posture of an individual lying face down.
A central respiratory stimulant with a brief duration of action. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p1225)
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.

Effect of psychotropic drugs on caudate spindle in cats. (1/2081)

To ascertain whether neuroleptics act on the caudate nucleus itself, the effects of these compounds as well as other centrally acting drugs were examined in relation to caudate spindle and EEG arousal responses (sciatic nerve stimulation) in gallamine-immobilized cats. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle at a dose which had no effect on the EEG arousal response. On the other hand, clozapine and a higher dose of chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle, but depressed the arousal response. High frequency stimulation of the sciatic nerve suppressed the caudate spindle. Pentobarbital, biperiden and diazepam, while depressing the arousal response, caused an enhancement of the caudate spindle. Imipramine at a low dose had no effect on either response, whereas at a high dose this drug enhanced the caudate spindle with concomitant depression of the arousal response. From these results, it may be concluded that the enhancing action on the caudate spindle induced by haloperidol and a low dose of chlorpromazine is due to an increase in susceptibility of the caudate nucleus itself. In addition, it is suggested that depression of the activating system is involved in an appearance of the caudate spindle.  (+info)

Arousal from sleep shortens sympathetic burst latency in humans. (2/2081)

1. Bursts of sympathetic activity in muscle nerves are phase-locked to the cardiac cycle by the sinoaortic baroreflexes. Acoustic arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep reduces the normally invariant interval between the R-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the peak of the corresponding sympathetic burst; however, the effects of other forms of sleep disruption (i.e. spontaneous arousals and apnoea-induced arousals) on this temporal relationship are unknown. 2. We simultaneously recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity in the peroneal nerve (intraneural electrodes) and the ECG (surface electrodes) in seven healthy humans and three patients with sleep apnoea syndrome during NREM sleep. 3. In seven subjects, burst latencies were shortened subsequent to spontaneous K complexes (1.297 +/- 0.024 s, mean +/- s. e.m.) and spontaneous arousals (1.268 +/- 0.044 s) compared with latencies during periods of stable NREM sleep (1.369 +/- 0.023 s). In six subjects who demonstrated spontaneous apnoeas during sleep, apnoea per se did not alter burst latency relative to sleep with stable electroencephalogram (EEG) and breathing (1.313 +/- 0.038 vs. 1.342 +/- 0.026 s); however, following apnoea-induced EEG perturbations, burst latencies were reduced (1.214 +/- 0.034 s). 4. Arousal-induced reduction in sympathetic burst latency may reflect a temporary diminution of baroreflex buffering of sympathetic outflow. If so, the magnitude of arterial pressure perturbations during sleep (e.g. those caused by sleep disordered breathing and periodic leg movements) may be augmented by arousal.  (+info)

The vigilance promoting drug modafinil increases extracellular glutamate levels in the medial preoptic area and the posterior hypothalamus of the conscious rat: prevention by local GABAA receptor blockade. (3/2081)

The effects of modafinil on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission in the rat medial preoptic area (MPA) and posterior hypothalamus (PH), are analysed. Modafinil (30-300 mg/kg) increased glutamate and decreased GABA levels in the MPA and PH. Local perfusion with the GABAA agonist muscimol (10 microM), reduced, while the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (1 microM and 10 microM) increased glutamate levels. The modafinil (100 mg/kg)-induced increase of glutamate levels was antagonized by local perfusion with bicuculline (1 microM). When glutamate levels were increased by the local perfusion with the glutamate uptake inhibitor L-trans-PDC (0.5 mM), modafinil produced an additional enhancement of glutamate levels. Modafinil (1-33 microM) failed to affect [3H]glutamate uptake in hypothalamic synaptosomes and slices. These findings show that modafinil increases glutamate and decreases GABA levels in MPA and PH. The evidence that bicuculline counteracts the modafinil-induced increase of glutamate levels strengthens the evidence for an inhibitory GABA/glutamate interaction in the above regions controlling the sleep-wakefulness cycle.  (+info)

Time course of sleep inertia dissipation in human performance and alertness. (4/2081)

Alertness and performance on a wide variety of tasks are impaired immediately upon waking from sleep due to sleep inertia, which has been found to dissipate in an asymptotic manner following waketime. It has been suggested that behavioural or environmental factors, as well as sleep stage at awakening, may affect the severity of sleep inertia. In order to determine the time course of sleep inertia dissipation under normal entrained conditions, subjective alertness and cognitive throughput were measured during the first 4 h after habitual waketime from a full 8-h sleep episode on 3 consecutive days. We investigated whether this time course was affected by either sleep stage at awakening or behavioural/environmental factors. Sleep inertia dissipated in an asymptotic manner and took 2-4 h to near the asymptote. Saturating exponential functions fitted the sleep inertia data well, with time constants of 0.67 h for subjective alertness and 1.17 h for cognitive performance. Most awakenings occurred out of stage rapid eye movement (REM), 2 or 1 sleep, and no effect of sleep stage at awakening on either the severity of sleep inertia or the time course of its dissipation could be detected. Subjective alertness and cognitive throughput were significantly impaired upon awakening regardless of whether subjects got out of bed, ate breakfast, showered and were exposed to ordinary indoor room light (approximately 150 lux) or whether subjects participated in a constant routine (CR) protocol in which they remained in bed, ate small hourly snacks and were exposed to very dim light (10-15 lux). These findings allow for the refinement of models of alertness and performance, and have important implications for the scheduling of work immediately upon awakening in many occupational settings.  (+info)

Fentanyl and morphine, but not remifentanil, inhibit acetylcholine release in pontine regions modulating arousal. (5/2081)

BACKGROUND: Opioids inhibit the rapid eye movement (REM) phase of sleep and decrease acetylcholine (ACh) release in medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) regions contributing to REM sleep generation. It is not known whether opioids decrease ACh release by acting on cholinergic cell bodies or on cholinergic axon terminals. This study used in vivo microdialysis to test the hypothesis that opioids decrease ACh levels at cholinergic neurons in the laterodorsal tegmental nuclei (LDT) and LDT axon terminals in the mPRF. METHODS: Nine male cats were anesthetized with halothane, and ACh levels within the mPRF or LDT were assayed using microdialysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). ACh levels were analyzed in response to dialysis of the mPRF and LDT with Ringer's solution (control), followed by dialysis with Ringer's solution containing morphine sulfate (MSO4) or naloxone. ACh in the mPRF also was measured during either dialysis delivery or intravenous infusion of remifentanil and during dialysis delivery of fentanyl. RESULTS: Compared with dialysis of Ringer's solution, microdialysis with MSO4 decreased ACh by 23% in the mPRF and by 30% in the LDT. This significant decrease in ACh was antagonized by naloxone. MSO4 and fentanyl each caused a dose-dependent decrease in mPRF ACh when delivered by dialysis. Remifentanil delivered by continuous intravenous infusion or by dialysis into the mPRF did not alter mPRF ACh. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine inhibits ACh at the cholinergic cell body region (LDT) and the terminal field in the mPRF. ACh in the mPRF was not altered by remifentanil and was significantly decreased by fentanyl. Thus, MSO4 and fentanyl disrupt cholinergic neurotransmission in the LDT-mPRF network known to modulate REM sleep and cortical electroencephalographic activation. These data are consistent with the possibility that inhibition of pontine cholinergic neurotransmission contributes to arousal state disruption by opioids.  (+info)

Cognitive functioning in people with epilepsy plus severe learning disabilities: a systematic analysis of predictors of daytime arousal and attention. (6/2081)

In spite of the high prevalence of epilepsy and the importance of preserving cognitive function in people with learning disabilities, this population has received relatively little research attention. This study sets out systematically to investigate possible predictive factors of inter-ictal states of arousal and attention. The daytime function of 28 people with epilepsy and severe learning disabilities was assessed by performance on a two-choice reaction time vigilance task, behavioural analysis of time-sampled video recordings taken in naturalistic settings, and carer ratings on visual analogue scales. This methodology yielded eight discrete functional measures, from which two further index measures were derived after principal components analysis. A range of clinical and psychosocial assessments was completed and subjects had 36 hour ambulatory EEG and sleep EEG monitoring. Regression models identified significant predictors of cognitive function from a range of potential explanatory variables i.e. demographic, clinical, pharmacological, background EEG rhythms and sleep parameters. Results indicated that greater severity of learning disability, longer bedtime periods, poor sleep efficiency, frequent seizures and antiepileptic drug polytherapy were significant predictor variables. Explained variance (adjusted R2) was greater than 50% for six of 10 outcome variables (range up to 85%). Furthermore, significant regression equations (P < 0.05) were obtained for all but one variable. Thus, these results appear reasonably robust. Results support an interactional model of daytime arousal and attention in people with epilepsy plus severe learning disabilities. Inter-ictal cognitive function appears to be mediated by a combination of organic, circadian (sleep wake), clinical and pharmacological factors.  (+info)

Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of cardinal posttraumatic stress symptoms in school-age children. (7/2081)

OBJECTIVES: This report examines the reliability and validity of Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of the cardinal symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: We measured exposure to community violence through the reports of children and their parents and then administered Darryl to a sample of 110 children aged 7 to 9 residing in urban neighborhoods with high crime rates. RESULTS: Darryl's reliability is excellent overall and is acceptable for the reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales, considered separately. Child reports of exposure to community violence were significantly associated with child reports of PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Darryl possesses acceptable psychometric properties in a sample of children with frequent exposure to community violence.  (+info)

Metabolic, gastrointestinal, and CNS neuropeptide effects of brain leptin administration in the rat. (8/2081)

To investigate whether brain leptin involves neuropeptidergic pathways influencing ingestion, metabolism, and gastrointestinal functioning, leptin (3.5 micrograms) was infused daily into the third cerebral ventricular of rats for 3 days. To distinguish between direct leptin effects and those secondary to leptin-induced anorexia, we studied vehicle-infused rats with food available ad libitum and those that were pair-fed to leptin-treated animals. Although body weight was comparably reduced (-8%) and plasma glycerol was comparably increased (142 and 17%, respectively) in leptin-treated and pair-fed animals relative to controls, increases in plasma fatty acids and ketones were only detected (132 and 234%, respectively) in pair-fed rats. Resting energy expenditure (-15%) and gastrointestinal fill (-50%) were reduced by pair-feeding relative to the ad libitum group, but they were not reduced by leptin treatment. Relative to controls, leptin increased hypothalamic mRNA for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; 61%) and for proopiomelanocortin (POMC; 31%) but did not reduce mRNA for neuropeptide Y. These results suggest that CNS leptin prevents metabolic/gastrointestinal responses to caloric restriction by activating hypothalamic CRH- and POMC-containing pathways and raise the possibility that these peripheral responses to CNS leptin administration contribute to leptin's anorexigenic action.  (+info)

The present study examined the association between personality, competitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and physiological arousal in athletes with high and low anxiety levels. Anxiety was manipulated by means of an incentive. Fifty male participants, first, completed the Five Factor Personality Inventory and their resting electro dermal activity (EDA) was recorded. In the second stage, participants were randomly assigned to high or low anxiety groups. Individual EDAs were recorded again to determine precompetition physiological arousal. Participants also completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) and played a computer-simulated soccer match. Results showed that neuroticism was related to both CSAI-2 components and physiological arousal only in the group receiving the incentive. Winners had higher levels of cognitive anxiety and lower levels of physiological arousal than losers. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that an athletes neurotic personality may influence his ...
Previous research has found that people who are ambivalent toward a group process new information about the group more carefully than people who are nonambivalent toward the group. It has been suggested that this effect occurs because people who are ambivalent toward a group (a) experience a high level of physiological arousal when they think about the group and (b) seek to reduce this arousal by carefully processing new information about the group. To test these hypotheses, we conducted a correlational study (Study 1) and an experimental study (Study 2). Unexpectedly, Study 1 found that intergroup ambivalence is negatively correlated with the physiological arousal that is experienced when target outgroups are salient. Study 2 replicated this pattern and demonstrated an effect of intergroup ambivalence on information processing, while also discovering that the effects of ambivalence on arousal and on information processing were independent. Overall, these results indicate that arousal is not a ...
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When most people think of arousal, the mind immediately reverts to something sexual. The truth is that, put simply, arousal is the amount of attention the mind or body is giving to a particular stimulus.. For all activities there is an optimal arousal level and this directly affects decision making speed or focus level. A high level of arousal will increase blood flow and therefore oxygen flow into the brain, neural and muscular systems and stimulates adrenaline production. This is commonly known as getting nervous or being stressed. In sports performance it is often a case of knowing what to concentrate on and focusing attention on these factors. Concentration can vary in both intensity and focus.. Some people have high arousal levels prior to performance or competition and this can positively or negatively affect sporting performance as muscular tension, decision making ability, concentration, rhythm and coordination are affected by arousal levels.. Arousal is important at all levels of ...
The present study examined the ability of a Virtual Reality (VR) public speaking task to elicit physiological arousal in adults with SAD (n=25) and Controls (n=25). A behavioral assessment paradigm was employed to address three study objectives: (a) to determine whether the VR task can elicit significant increases in physiological response over baseline resting conditions (b) to determine if individuals with SAD have a greater increase from baseline levels of physiological and self-reported arousal during the in vivo speech task as opposed to the VR speech task and (c) to determine whether individuals with SAD experience greater changes in physiological and selfreported arousal during each speech task compared to controls. Results demonstrated that the VR task was able to elicit significant increases in heart rate, skin conductance, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia, but did not elicit as much physiological or self-reported arousal as the in vivo speech task. In addition, no differences were found
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The effects of physiological arousal on cognition cause individuals to be active, attentive, or excited. The term physiological refers to physiology and concerns the normal functioning of an organism. Physiological arousal refers to features of arousal reflected by physiological reactions, such as escalations in blood pressure and rate of respiration and lessened activity of the gastrointestinal system. These terms are what allow for the effects physiological arousal has on cognition itself.[30]. Cognition[31] is internal mental representations best characterized as thoughts and ideas- resulting from and involved in multiple mental processes and operations including perception, reasoning, memory, intuition, judgement and decision making. While cognition is not directly observable, it is still amenable to study using the scientific method. Cognition is also something that plays a fundamental role in determining behavior. Goes into explaining cognitive functions and how they are internal and ...
View Notes - 12 from PSYC 101 at University of San Francisco. Chapter 12 Summary I. Emotions -a complex pattern of bodily and mental changes that includes physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive
A real-life example of cognition is used whenever decision making is involved; for example, a real-life scenario of a cognitive decision would be when a traffic light is changing from green to yellow. One would either make a cognitive decision to run through the yellow light in hopes you could clear the intersection before the light turned red. However, one could make a different cognitive decision to stop when they see the yellow light to not run the light before it turned red. A real-life example of the effects of physiological arousal on cognition is when youre walking through the woods and you notice a rattlesnake in front of the walkway on the ground. You would feel alarmed and scared (physiological arousal). Your past experience and knowledge of poisonous snakes and dangerous predators provides the (cognition) of the situation. Based on your analysis of your position you label your arousal as fear. Fear is explained to be an emotion that one might expect with alarm, it is also known as ...
A real-life example of cognition is used whenever decision making is involved; for example, a real-life scenario of a cognitive decision would be when a traffic light is changing from green to yellow. One would either make a cognitive decision to run through the yellow light in hopes you could clear the intersection before the light turned red. However, one could make a different cognitive decision to stop when they see the yellow light to not run the light before it turned red. A real-life example of the effects of physiological arousal on cognition is when youre walking through the woods and you notice a rattlesnake in front of the walkway on the ground. You would feel alarmed and scared (physiological arousal). Your past experience and knowledge of poisonous snakes and dangerous predators provides the (cognition) of the situation. Based on your analysis of your position you label your arousal as fear. Fear is explained to be an emotion that one might expect with alarm, it is also known as ...
In this study, we demonstrate striking similarities in the activity of amygdala neurons during conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional arousal and strong relationships between neuronal activity in the amygdala and blood pressure-a measure of arousal which is sensitive to lesions of the amygdala in both appetitive (24) and aversive (21, 22) settings. Cells with increases in activity during one CS+ were more likely than would be expected by chance to show the same response to the other oppositely valenced CS+, and the same was true of CS− elicited decreases. Neuronal activity was also more similar than expected by chance during the appetitive and aversive conditioned stimuli when the activity of all recorded cells was considered together. Additionally, the activity of neurons with similar directions of change in firing during conditioned appetitive and aversive stimuli (same cells) was more likely to be correlated with blood pressure than the rest of the population. Same cells were also ...
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Generally, acute bouts of aerobic exercise have been shown to enhance psychological measures of emotion, mood, and affect. Previous investigations suggest that perceived stress and arousal levels are especially influenced by exercise. Interestingly, very few studies have examined the influence of exercise on attention and whether changes in stress and arousal may augment adaptations in attentional orientation that are often required during exercise. Furthermore, very little is known about the timing of the effects of exercise on these psychological outcomes. PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of low-intensity aerobic exercise on stress, arousal, and attention. A secondary aim was to evaluate the time-course effects of exercise on stress, arousal, and attention. METHODS: Twenty (Mage = 23.2 ± 3.1 years old) college-aged individuals were counterbalanced into low-intensity exercise (LI) and seated control (SC) conditions. During each condition, participants completed a
This one day training package draws upon the acclaimed Saturation Model (Morewood et al, 2011) developed by the lead trainer as part of a whole-school approach to supporting autistic students in mainstream schools, fused with emotional regulation and low arousal approaches developed by Studio III (McDonnell & Deveau, 2018).. As a new training package during 2019, it draws on the clinical expertise of Professor Andy McDonnell and the practical whole-school systems established and evaluated by Gareth D Morewood. During 2019 this unique training was delivered to schools and educational settings in the UK and abroad (Dubai, Portugal & Ireland).. ...
The authors investigated the effects of valence and arousal on memory using a dual-process model that quantifies recollective and nonrecollective components of recall without relying on metacognitive judgments to separate them. The results showed that valenced words increased reconstruction (a compo …
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Arousal, not attraction.. Arousal, not attraction.. One more time:. Arousal, not attraction.. I think you need to read or see something 21 times before it becomes a habit or commitied to memory, but Im just not going to type it 21 times.. You get the idea.. A lot of guys get fooled into thinking attraction will get the laid.. A lot of guys get attraction and still go home alone.. Just ask them.. A guy will say, I got her number we vibed, I got attraction.. A woman might say, Oh hes really attractive.. Thats great and all, but the truth is, attraction by itself wont get you in her pants.. Forget attraction.. AROUSAL is what gets you laid.. When we go out approaching women, the objective isnt to just get the number or even get her attracted; its to get her aroused.. You know…. …Her eyes get dilated, her breathing deepens, her skin gets pink and flushed, and she starts playing with her face and her hair.. Shes flat out moist and ready to fuck.. Thats when she starts pulling on ...
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RERA - Respiratory Effort Related Arousal. Looking for abbreviations of RERA? It is Respiratory Effort Related Arousal. Respiratory Effort Related Arousal listed as RERA
In a number of studies, it has been shown that subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show deficits in executive functioning, i.e. in cognitive functions that subserve planning, monitoring and control of goal-directed behaviour (Martinussen et al., 2005; Willcutt et al., 2005), as well as in emotion regulation (Berlin et al., 2004; Desman et al., 2006). However, no study exists so far examining the interaction between cognition and emotion regulation in subjects with ADHD. In our study, we aimed to examine to what extend arousing emotional picture stimuli may account for differential effects in performance quality in subjects with and without ADHD. Thirty-nine males and females with ADHD aged 18 to 40 years and 40 matched healthy controls performed a working memory n-back task (1-back, 2-back). The task was performed with and without neutral and negative background pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) which varied in arousal (low, medium, high). ...
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The tendency to match different sensory modalities together can be beneficial for marketing. Here we assessed the effect of sound-odor congruence on peoples attitude and memory for products of a familiar and unfamiliar brand. Participants smelled high- and low-arousal odors and then saw an advertisement for a product of a familiar or unfamiliar brand, paired with a high- or low-arousal jingle. Participants attitude towards the advertisement, the advertised product, and the products brand was measured, as well as memory for the product. In general, no sound-odor congruence effect was found on attitude, irrespective of brand familiarity. However, congruence was found to affect recognition: when a high-arousal odor and a high-arousal sound were combined, participants recognized products faster than in the other conditions. In addition, familiar brands were recognized faster than unfamiliar brands, but only when sound or odor arousal was high. This study provides insight into the possible ...
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Schachter and Singer dealt with arousal that occurs at the same time as some emotionally relevant stimulus which provides the cognition whereby the arousal is labeled. Zillmann (1978) has described a general situation in which two arousing conditions occur in sequence. Autonomic arousal does not dissipate immediately upon termination of eliciting conditions... Given this fact, Zillmann has reasoned that if two arousing events are separated by a short amount of time, some of the arousal caused by the first event may become transferred to the second event and added to the arousal caused by the latter... (pp. 116-117). ...
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People swear more colourfully when they are in a emotionally aroused state. This suggests that swearing is closely related to emotion.
Age of Arousal, by award-winning Canadian playwright, Linda Griffiths, is a lavish, sexy ensemble piece about the forbidden and gloriously liberated self. The setting is 1885: a time of great passion and great confusion. A population imbalance leaves London flooded with half a million more women than men and an escalating suffrage movement has ushered in a rip-roaring New Age. Mary Barfoot, an ex-militant suffragette, runs a school for secretaries with her beloved Rhoda. The schools invasion by three spinster sisters and a charismatic cad named Everard, creates a catalyst for political, sexual and emotional explosion. Ideas and libidos clash for dominance, as each character confronts the meaning of revolutionary courage.. Age of Arousal will be the third staged reading of Peninsulas 2019-20 season, presented at Peninsula Productions Studio Theatre (14600 North Bluff Road, White Rock, BC) on Sunday, February 23rd at 2:30 p.m. and 7 p.m. Tickets are $20 ...
Some psychologists think our brains are bad at keeping arousal from fear separate from arousal from sex. I think they happen to be looking at the mind from the entirely wrong perspective.
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In the future, operators of complex equipment will spend more time monitoring computer controlled devices rather than having hands-on control of such equipment. The operator intervenes in system operation under unusual conditions or when there is a computer malfunction. The latter occurs relatively seldom. The operators task thus becomes a vigilance task, one requiring attention to monitoring equipment with little need for action. An individuals ability to maintain vigilance is easily compromised, with time-on-task (TOT) a major detractor of performance. The question asked in this research was: Can gaze control measures be used to reflect, and hopefully to predict, periods of impaired vigilance?*PERFORMANCE(HUMAN)
In 1908, psychologists Robert M. Yerkes and John Dillingham Dodson first mapped out the empirical relationship between arousal (meaning psychological alertness) and performance. They found that performance increases with physiological arousal, but only up to a point. When levels of arousal become too high, performanc
Join us for a great workshop to proof self control in your dog. This is a great challenging workshop for dogs who have basic obedience under their belts. Self-control games include exercises that require the dog to hold a position despite severe distractions and a high arousal level. A food-motivated dog that is asked to sit and hold that position while treats are dropped all around her is demonstrating excellent self-control. A dog that is easily aroused by motion, but can hold a sit while dogs and children are playing close by are showing excellent self-control. Perfect for pets who attend sports and family outings as well as competetive canine athletes alike ...
Since avoidance of local anesthesia prevents pain levitra randleman. Although his wife may be able to call for a large population-based random sample of such symbols as presenting flowers, making eye contact, verbalnonverbal contradictions, and the dorsal hump reduce the amount of time without after effects. 89. Br med j 2000; 65(4): 457491. He could openly express himself and his wife to assess whether drug therapy for womens sexual desire being one of the male richard a. Carroll ender identity is determined by the testes may damage the no-secreting vascular endothelium of the. The couples signaled the beginning of tumescence. Absence of emission and/ or the general population, male rats with chronic dosing and persistence of smooth muscle relaxant or spinal anesthesia. When a cerebral area gets activated, blood flow during early sexual experiences of sexual arousal are part of a pde7 inhibitor would likely have been some encouragement from others for their slownessejaculatory disorders 235 ...
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Knowing where your limits are, or in this case knowing the required level of arousal for any given exercise, is very valuable in predicting the success of more complex movements and will help motivate your progress.. NOT knowing your limits will - over time - cause a shrinking effect! of your mind and your body! A literal narrowing of your perceived abilities both physical and mental. You more or less talk yourself into thinking you cant do things (often simply b/c you havent done them in a while).. Safely Testing your strength and conditioning abilities is not something recommended unless you have a trainer/coach with lots of experience.. ...
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Removal of deceased cells in the lack of concomitant defense arousal is necessary for cells homeostasis. arrived from the statement of overstated build up and reduced removal of misfolded protein in plasminogen-/- rodents pursuing cells damage [7]. An extra element to the removal of undesirable protein can be the phagocytic left arm of the natural immune system program. Therefore, both extracellular degrading digestive enzymes and phagocytic reactions lead to the removal of deceased cells [9,10] and are most likely to communicate with each additional not really just to maximise distance, but also to minimise self-recognition and maintain cells homeostasis. Two primary cell types mediate the phagocytic distance of deceased cells: macrophages and dendritic cells. Earlier research possess demonstrated that plasmin offers a pro-inflammatory impact on macrophages [11C15] and raises their capability to phagocytose apoptotic cells [16]. Dendritic cells, as well as removing deceased cells, are also a ...
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Psychosexual disorders, defined as a lack of arousal or satisfaction while being intimate, are said to affect up to one in three people worldwide.
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The effects of alcohol myopia on response to sexual arousal also depend on the level of sexual arousal. When sexual arousal ... Sexual arousal[edit]. Alcohol myopia causes individuals to become increasingly aware of sexual arousal and more likely to ... The extent of alcohol myopia's effects on one's decisions about how to react to sexual arousal is dependent upon the level of ... The more salient the external cue (in this case, higher levels of sexual arousal were more salient than lower levels) the more ...
Sexsomnia is classified under NREM arousal parasomnia.[1] NREM arousal parasomnia[edit]. Parasomnia disorders are classified ... "Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) Sleep Arousal Disorders - Sleep eBook". Retrieved 2017-11-13. ... Behaviors of pelvic thrusting, sexual arousal, and orgasms are often attributed to sleep related epilepsy disorder. In some ... sleep arousal disorders, Nightmare disorder, Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, Restless legs syndrome, and ...
Arousal and reward[edit]. The dopaminergic neurons from the ventral tegmental area that innervate the olfactory tubercle enable ... Gervais, G. (1979). "Unilateral lesions of the olfactory tubercle modifying general arousal effects in the rat olfactory bulb ... arousal, and reward centers, thus making it a potentially critical interface between processing of sensory information and the ... and a number of structures in the reward-arousal system, as well as the olfactory cortex. Due to its many innervations from ...
Autonomic nervous system - Autonomic arousal[edit]. *Headaches. *Back pains. *Inability to relax ...
Effect of arousals[edit]. Arousals cause return of airway resistance and airflow to near awake values. Refer arousals in NREM ... Effects of arousals[edit]. Induced transient arousal from NREM sleep cause the following: Increase EMG activity of the ... Sleep onset in normal subjects is not immediate, but oscillates between arousal, stage I and II sleep before steady NREM sleep ... These subjects also experienced more frequent arousals and diminished stage 3 and stage 4 sleep. A poorer quality of sleep was ...
arousal (Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake or reactive to stimuli) ...
Arousal. See also: Sleep. Many animals alternate between sleeping and waking in a daily cycle. Arousal and alertness are also ... A key component of the arousal system is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a tiny part of the hypothalamus located directly ... Some of these functions relate to arousal or to social interactions such as sexuality, aggression, or maternal behaviors; but ... which is involved in arousal, comes exclusively from a nearby small area called the locus coeruleus.[70] Other ...
Sexual arousalEdit. See also: Hormones and sexual arousal. When testosterone and endorphins in ejaculated semen meet the ... on genital arousal in women. In addition, a continuous increase in vaginal sexual arousal may result in higher genital ... Sexual arousal and masturbation in women produce small increases in testosterone concentrations.[35] The plasma levels of ... Testosterone levels and sexual arousal in men are heavily aware of hormone cycles in females.[46] This may be linked to the ...
m Arousal‎; 12:16 . . (+10)‎ . . ‎. Rodw. (talk , contribs)‎ (Disambiguated: respiration → Breathing) (Tag: Dispenser [1.0]) ...
Cortical arousal also takes advantage of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN), ventral tegmenti area (VTA) and the ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 12: Sleep and Arousal". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A ... NE, along with 5HT, ACh, histamine, and orexin, is a critical regulator of the sleep-wake cycle and of levels of arousal. ... ... While the best characterized function of the histamine system in the brain is regulation of sleep and arousal, histamine is ...
Confusional arousalsEdit. Confusional arousal has a prevalence[clarification needed] of 4% in adults, and is common in children ... These disorders of arousal can range from confusional arousals, somnambulism, to night terrors. Other specific disorders ... or during arousal from sleep. Most parasomnias are dissociated sleep states which are partial arousals during the transitions ... NREM parasomnias are arousal disorders that occur during stage 3 (or 4 by the R&K standardization) of NREM sleep-also known as ...
Autonomic arousal symptoms. (1) Palpitations or pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate.. (2) Sweating.. (3) Trembling or ...
Levay, Simon; Valente, Sharon M (2006). "Sexual Attraction and Arousal". Human Sexuality. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates Inc ... Evolutionary psychology Mate choice Menstrual cycle Levay, Simon; Baldwin, Janice; Baldwin, John (2015). "Attraction, Arousal, ...
Abnormal uterine bleeding is a general category that includes any bleeding from menstrual or nonmenstrual causes. Hypomenorrhea is abnormally light menstrual periods. Menorrhagia (meno = prolonged,[2] rrhagia = excessive flow/discharge) is an abnormally heavy and prolonged menstrual period. Metrorrhagia is bleeding at irregular times, especially outside the expected intervals of the menstrual cycle. If there is excessive menstrual and uterine bleeding other than that caused by menstruation, menometrorrhagia (meno = prolonged, metro = time, rrhagia = excessive flow/discharge) may be diagnosed. Causes may be due to abnormal blood clotting, disruption of normal hormonal regulation of periods or disorders of the endometrial lining of the uterus. Depending upon the cause, it may be associated with abnormally painful periods. ...
Adhesions form as a natural part of the body's healing process after surgery in a similar way that a scar forms. The term "adhesion" is applied when the scar extends from within one tissue across to another, usually across a virtual space such as the peritoneal cavity. Adhesion formation post-surgery typically occurs when two injured surfaces are close to one another. This often causes inflammation and causes fibrin deposits onto the damaged tissues.[2] The fibrin then connects the two adjacent structures where damage of the tissues occurred. The fibrin acts like a glue to seal the injury and builds the fledgling adhesion, said at this point to be "fibrinous." In body cavities such as the peritoneal, pericardial, and synovial cavities, a family of fibrinolytic enzymes may act to limit the extent of the initial fibrinous adhesion, and may even dissolve it. In many cases, the production or activity of these enzymes are compromised because of injury, however, and the fibrinous adhesion persists. If ...
This type can form when ovulation doesn't occur, and a follicle doesn't rupture or release its egg but instead grows until it becomes a cyst, or when a mature follicle involutes (collapses on itself). It usually forms during ovulation, and can grow to about 7 cm in diameter. It is thin-walled, lined by one or more layers of granulosa cell, and filled with clear fluid.[citation needed] ...
... (BV) is a disease of the vagina caused by excessive growth of bacteria.[6][9] Common symptoms include increased vaginal discharge that often smells like fish.[2] The discharge is usually white or gray in color.[2] Burning with urination may occur.[2] Itching is uncommon.[2][6] Occasionally, there may be no symptoms.[2] Having BV approximately doubles the risk of infection by a number of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS.[8][10] It also increases the risk of early delivery among pregnant women.[3][11] BV is caused by an imbalance of the naturally occurring bacteria in the vagina.[4][5] There is a change in the most common type of bacteria and a hundred to thousandfold increase in total numbers of bacteria present.[6] Typically, bacteria other than Lactobacilli become more common.[12] Risk factors include douching, new or multiple sex partners, antibiotics, and using an intrauterine device, among others.[5] However, it is not considered a sexually transmitted ...
Women who experience pain with attempted intercourse describe their pain in many ways. This reflects how many different and overlapping causes there are for dyspareunia.[2] The location, nature, and time course of the pain help to understand potential causes and treatments. Some women describe superficial pain at the opening of the vagina or surface of the genitalia when penetration is initiated. Other women feel deeper pain in the vault of the vagina or deep within the pelvis upon deeper penetration. Some women feel pain in more than one of these places. Determining whether the pain is more superficial or deep is important in understanding what may be causing a woman's pain.[3] Some women have always experienced pain with intercourse from their very first attempt. Other women begin to feel pain with intercourse after an injury or infection or cyclically with menstruation. Sometimes the pain increases over time. When pain occurs, the woman may be distracted from feeling pleasure and excitement. ...
Levay, Simon; Valente, Sharon M (2006). "Sexual Attraction and Arousal". Human Sexuality. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates Inc ... Levay, Simon; Baldwin, Janice; Baldwin, John (2015). "Attraction, Arousal, and Response". Discovering Human Sexuality. ...
Where an underlying cause can be identified, treatment may be directed at this. Clearly heavy periods at menarche and menopause may settle spontaneously (the menarche being the start and menopause being the cessation of periods). If the degree of bleeding is mild, all that may be sought by the woman is the reassurance that there is no sinister underlying cause. If anemia occurs due to bleeding then iron tablets may be used to help restore normal hemoglobin levels.[1] The first line treatment option for women with HMB and no identified pathology, fibroids less than 3 cm in diameter, suspected or confirmed adenomyosis is the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS).[11] Clinical trial evidence suggests that the LNG-IUS may be better than other medical therapy in terms of HMB and quality of life.[14] Usually, oral combined contraceptive or progesterone only pills may be taken for a few months, but for longer-term treatment the alternatives of injected Depo Provera or the more recent ...
... s are often the result of trauma during childbirth (in which case it is known as obstetric fistula), with increased risk associated with significant lacerations or interventions are used such as episiotomy or operative (forceps/vacuum extraction) deliveries[2] or in situations where there is inadequate health care, such as in some developing countries. Rectovaginal fistula is said to be known as the leading cause in maternal death in developing countries.[3] Risk factors include prolonged labour, difficult instrumental delivery and paramedian episiotomy. Rates in Eritrea are estimated as high as 350 per 100,000 vaginal births. Fistulas can also develop as a result of physical trauma to either the vagina or anus, including from rape.[4] Women with rectovaginal fistulae are often stigmatized in developing countries, and become outcasts.[5] Rectovaginal fistula can also be a symptom of various diseases, including infection by lymphogranuloma venereum,[6] or the unintended result ...
The major cause for distal tubal occlusion is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), usually as a consequence of an ascending infection by chlamydia or gonorrhea.[citation needed] However, not all pelvic infections will cause distal tubal occlusion.[citation needed] Tubal tuberculosis is an uncommon cause of hydrosalpinx formation.[citation needed] While the cilia of the inner lining (endosalpinx) of the fallopian tube beat towards the uterus, tubal fluid is normally discharged via the fimbriated end into the peritoneal cavity from where it is cleared. If the fimbriated end of the tube becomes agglutinated, the resulting obstruction does not allow the tubal fluid to pass; it accumulates and reverts its flow downstream, into the uterus, or production is curtailed by damage to the endosalpinx. This tube then is unable to participate in the reproductive process: sperm cannot pass, the egg is not picked up, and fertilization does not take place. Other causes of distal tubal occlusion include adhesion ...
The following causes of infertility may only be found in females. For a woman to conceive, certain things have to happen: vaginal intercourse must take place around the time when an egg is released from her ovary; the system that produces eggs has to be working at optimum levels; and her hormones must be balanced.[52] For women, problems with fertilisation arise mainly from either structural problems in the Fallopian tube or uterus or problems releasing eggs. Infertility may be caused by blockage of the Fallopian tube due to malformations, infections such as chlamydia and/or scar tissue. For example, endometriosis can cause infertility with the growth of endometrial tissue in the Fallopian tubes and/or around the ovaries. Endometriosis is usually more common in women in their mid-twenties and older, especially when postponed childbirth has taken place.[53] Another major cause of infertility in women may be the inability to ovulate. Malformation of the eggs themselves may complicate conception. ...
Kiesler, C.A.; Pallak, M.S. (1976). "Arousal Properties of Dissonance Manipulations". Psychological Bulletin. 83 (6): 1014-1025 ... Zanna, M.; Cooper, J. (1974). "Dissonance and the Pill: An Attribution Approach to Studying the Arousal Properties of ... but only the theory of cognitive dissonance predicts the presence of unpleasant arousal, of psychological distress, which were ... "Meat-related cognitive dissonance: A conceptual framework for understanding how meat eaters reduce negative arousal from ...
"Arousal Regulation in Affective Disorders". In Frodl, Thomas. Systems Neuroscience in Depression. Elsevier Science. p. 353. In ...
Bancroft J (September 2005). "The endocrinology of sexual arousal". The Journal of Endocrinology. 186 (3): 411-27. doi:10.1677/ ... elevated sex steroids and elevated sexual arousal and sexual performance (Herbert 1996; Fiorino et al. 1997; Liu et al. 1998; ...
The revised scoring was published in 2007 as The AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events.[64] Arousals, ... Cortical arousal also takes advantage of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN), ventral tegmenti area (VTA) and the ... McCormick DA, Bal T (1 March 1997). "Sleep and arousal: thalamocortical mechanisms". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 20 (1): 185 ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 12: Sleep and Arousal". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). Molecular ...
... facilitation of emotional arousal. Prevalent forms of disability and their treatment include drug therapy for constitutional ... "Memory reconsolidation, emotional arousal and the process of change in psychotherapy: new insights from brain science" (PDF) ...
Deprivation reversal also explains much of the arousal data, with deprived smokers being less vigilant and less alert than non- ... Parrott AC (January 1998). "Nesbitt's Paradox resolved? Stress and arousal modulation during cigarette smoking". Addiction. 93 ...
Risch, Elizabeth (2008). "Prenata Methamphetamine Exposure on Arousal Regulation in Toddlers". ProQuest Dissertations and ... can lead to later behavioral problems since the neural circuitry is responsible for maintaining functions such as arousal, ...
Li SB., Giardino W.J., de Lecea L. (2016) Hypocretins and Arousal. In: Lawrence A., de Lecea L. (eds) Behavioral Neuroscience ... Here, we review the role of hypocretins/orexins in arousal state transitions, and discuss possible mechanisms by which such a ... Yamanaka A et al (2003) Hypothalamic orexin neurons regulate arousal according to energy balance in mice. Neuron 38:701-713 ... Carter ME et al (2010) Tuning arousal with optogenetic modulation of locus coeruleus neurons. Nat Neurosci 13:1526-1533. doi: ...
Some even go so far as to cause themselves pain during breastfeeding to combat their feelings of arousal or stop breastfeeding ... The hormones released during lactation explain some of the connection between breastfeeding and arousal. When a baby suckles at ... 1] [2] ... Source URL: ...
activity aesthetic albedo alpha waves alternative animals appear arousal potential arousal value associated attention auditory ... McGraw-Hill, 1960 - Arousal (Physiology) - 350 pages. 0 Reviews ... epistemic behavior evoke expected experiment experimental exploratory behavior factors familiar figures goal box high arousal ... ...
Her condition is called persistent genital arousal disorder, or PGAD, but the "arousal" was more like the feeling of being ... Using "arousal" in the name suggests a pleasant experience, which it decidedly is not, Cataldo says. ... All reported multiple daily or near-daily arousals, often triggered by engine vibration, sitting, standing, or using the toilet ...
... spontaneous arousal. A person can experience sudden orgasms unrelated to sexual desire. Triggers may include anxiety, cysts, ... the genital arousal is not associated with feelings of sexual desire. *the persistent sensations of genital arousal feel ... A woman with PGAD can experience spontaneous orgasms that do not resolve arousal. The persons arousal is not linked to sexual ... Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is characterized by unrelenting, spontaneous, and uncontainable genital arousal, ...
Some psychologists think our brains are bad at keeping arousal from fear separate from arousal from sex. I think they happen to ... These explanations - that the mind mistakes fear arousal for sexual arousal, and that this is useful because it makes people ... Cant it be just because fear and sexual arousal share the same neurological pathways? Maybe arousal needs a qualifier before ... involve physiological arousal (in the form of things like an increased heart rate); apparently, physiological arousal is pretty ...
Also provided are an anesthesia arousal composition for use in thi ... 1. An anesthesia arousal composition comprising a bicarbonate ion. 2. The anesthesia arousal composition according to claim 1, ... 1) An anesthesia arousal composition containing a bicarbonate ion;. (2) The anesthesia arousal composition according to (1) ... 4. The anesthesia arousal composition according to claim 1, provided in a form of Ringers solution. 5. An acidosis-correcting ...
A hormone called kisspeptin was found to increase brain activity associated with sexual arousal and romanic love in healthy ... "Hormone injection boosts brain activity linked to sexual arousal." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 24 Jan. 2017. Web. ... The hormone, called kisspeptin, was found to increase activity in areas of the brain normally stimulated by sexual arousal and ... Whiteman, H. (2017, January 24). "Hormone injection boosts brain activity linked to sexual arousal." Medical News Today. ...
... arousal aligned to low arousal BF. (Right) Low and high arousal curves scaled. (Middle) Cumulative probability plots show no ... we show that NS is strongest during low arousal and becomes progressively weaker as arousal increases. Furthermore, the arousal ... 2 C and D1). Interneuronal correlations were significantly modulated by arousal (Fig. 2C, 2-way ANOVA, Parousal, Pcorrelations ... B4) Increases in arousal decrease current variability (Im SD) while mean current is unchanged (n = 14 cells). (C) Arousal ...
What Science Says About Arousal During Rape Yes, orgasms can happen to rape victims. ...
Paraphilia: Insects as Sources of Sexual Arousal. The peculiar pleasure of ants in your pants Posted Jun 29, 2015 ... Formicophilia is an uncommon but fascinating variety of zoophilia (sexual arousal via animals). The term is derived from the ... young man was taught social skills for interacting with women and encouraged to use heterosexual pictures for sexual arousal. ...
Im looking for some info on confusional arousal (night terrors-parasomnia). My dd will be 4 in Dec, she was born very early at ... Im looking for some info on confusional arousal (night terrors-parasomnia). My dd will be 4 in Dec, she was born very early at ... But I am worried about not being able to contact her/an awake daytime state that seemed like a confusional arousal. Could she ... However, she has frequent episodes of confusional arousal where she will appear to wake from sleep and go into a long screaming ...
Treatments and Tools for arousal. Find arousal information, treatments for arousal and arousal symptoms. ... arousal - MedHelps arousal Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Low sexual arousal and dull pains around penis an perinum ? - Sexual Health Community ... Constant arousal, urge to urinate sometimes, burning sensation? - Urinary Tract Infection Community ...
after googling and surfing the internet for answers i hav concluded tht i suffer with sexual arousal disorder meaning i hav the ... Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction is difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, ... Sexual dysfunction disorders are generally classified into four categories: sexual desire disorders, sexual arousal disorders, ...
Maybe down the road urine scent will have its place as a natural, sexual arousal, but for now we can stick to our other ... Unfortunately (or fortunately), urine has not been recorded to pose as a strong sexual arousal for humans. One study reveals ...
Arousal was induced by randomly presented trains of five electrical pulses delivered to a finger. The pulses were triggered on ... Arousal elicits exaggerated inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity in phobic syncope patients.. Artikel i vetenskaplig ... Alerting stimuli causing arousal have been shown to elicit a reproducible transient inhibition of muscle sympathetic nerve ... The aim of the present study was to test whether this inhibitory response to arousal is exaggerated in patients with a history ...
In general, sexual arousal comprises 2 components: genital arousal and subjective (neuronal) arousal (8). The former is ... Understanding sexual arousal and subjective-genital arousal desynchrony in women. Nat. Rev. Urol. 16, 107-120 (2019).. ... Neural substrates of sexual arousal are not sex dependent. Ekaterina Mitricheva, Rui Kimura, Nikos K. Logothetis, Hamid R. ... Neural substrates of sexual arousal are not sex dependent. Ekaterina Mitricheva, Rui Kimura, Nikos K. Logothetis, Hamid R. ...
Help me out here mamas. I seem to remember this from my last 2 spontaneous labors, but that was 7 and 5 years ago. I forgot about that till this started...
"Goat arousal experts", they exist! Wasnt it yesterday that we had the article about the guy, who when he was arrested, said ...
Female Viagra will help women increase their sexual arousal. By Claire Ellicott for the Daily Mail Updated: 06:48 EDT, 14 ... Now that we are beginning to establish the pathways involved in sexual arousal, scientists may be able to find ways of helping ... Pharmaceutical giant Pfizer has developed a drug, so far called only UK-414,495, which is supposed to increase sexual arousal, ... A female equivalent of Viagra could soon be available to help women increase their sexual arousal, scientists claim. ...
Age of Arousal is set in 1885 London, England. Based on George Gissings 1893 novel The Odd Women, the show begins with an ex- ... Age of Arousal is set in 1885 London, England. Based on George Gissings 1893 novel The Odd Women, the show begins with an ex- ... Age of Arousal runs in the Factory Theatre Mainstage (125 Bathurst) until December 16. - Showtimes are Tuesday - Saturday at ...
Steele, R. S. (1973).The physiological concomitants of psychogenic motive arousal in college males. Unpublished doctoral ... just as norepinephrine has been found to be associated with arousal of power motivation. Thus, different motives may be ... it appears likely that dopamine is especially associated with arousal of affiliation motivation, ... subserved by different hormones, making it unlikely that all motives lead to the same state of physiological arousal. ...
Arousal from Above & Arousal from Below. Knowledge Base » Torah, The » Kabbalah & Chassidism; Mysticism » Kabbalah » ...
Stress, arousal, and sleep. Sanford, L. D., Suchecki, D. & Meerlo, P., 2015, Sleep, Neuronal Plasticity and Brain Function . ... While most stressors are associated with at least a brief period of arousal and wakefulness, the subsequent amount and ... regions likely play significant roles in memory processes and participate in the way stressful memories may affect arousal and ...
Molecular Regulation of Arousal States explores the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which sleep and wakefulness are ... Arousal states are processes that include waking, deep sleep, and the dreaming phase of sleep (REM). ... Arousal states are processes that include waking, deep sleep, and the dreaming phase of sleep (REM). Molecular Regulation of ... For the first time, a single source integrates cellular and molecular research techniques with studies of arousal, opening the ...
"The arousal wont let up. It will not subside. It will not relent. One O-R-G will lead you directly into the horrible intense ... Persistent genital arousal disorder brings woman agony, not ecstasy What do you do when your body turns against you? When the ... Persistent genital arousal disorder was first identified in 2001 by Sandra Leiblum, a noted sex therapist and professor of ... If she wanted the arousal to stop, she turned the electrical impulses on with a transmitter. If she wanted to have sex with her ...
A new McGill University study that used thermal imaging technology for the first time ever to measure sexual arousal rates has ... Both the men and the women began showing arousal within 30 seconds. The men reached maximal arousal in 664.6 seconds (roughly ... "Comparing sexual arousal between men and women, we see that there is no difference in the amount of time it takes healthy young ... During the arousal experiment, the male and female subjects watched separate sexually explicit films procured from the Kinsey ...
View first unread post The Great Arousal Mismatch: When Bodies and Brains Dont Line Up by Sam W » Mon Jul 13, 2020 8:44 am » ... Does Sex / Masturbation / arousal Smell. Any questions or discussions that you ONLY want to discuss with our staff or ... View first unread post How to identify whats arousal and whats vaginal discharge? by chrysanthemum » Tue Sep 29, 2020 9:19 pm ... View first unread post lack if arousal by tomatopotato » Wed Nov 25, 2020 2:35 pm » in Sex & Sexuality ...
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  • Her condition is called persistent genital arousal disorder, or PGAD, but the "arousal" was more like the feeling of being pursued by a tiger than the pleasure of a sexual encounter. (
  • What is persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD)? (
  • Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is characterized by unrelenting, spontaneous, and uncontainable genital arousal, mostly in females. (
  • Persistent genital arousal disorder can limit a person's lifestyle and cause ongoing discomfort and embarrassment. (
  • People with chronic, or incurable, persistent genital arousal disorder may eventually lose their notion of sexual pleasure, because the orgasm becomes associated with relief from pain rather than an enjoyable experience. (
  • Some doctors class priapism in men as a type of persistent genital arousal disorder. (
  • Scientists from McGill University Health Centre in Montreal (in Canada) used the method of thermal imaging to record baseline temperature change in genital area to define the time necessary for sexual arousal. (
  • Previously, sex researchers have measured arousal with instruments that require genital contact and manipulation. (
  • Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD)--which is almost exclusively experienced by females and characterized by spontaneous and unwanted sexual arousal unrelated to desire--can compromise individuals' mental health and well-being and severely damage relationships with partners. (
  • 2020) Persistent genital arousal disorder a special sense neuropathy. (
  • Just ask Michelle Thompson, who has a rare condition called persistent genital arousal syndrome (PGAS). (
  • Persistent genital arousal syndrome, also known as persistent sexual arousal syndrome, can affect women of any age, premenopausal or postmenopausal, married or single. (
  • For years, women who experienced persistent genital arousal and did decide to report it to their doctors were told it was all in their head and that they should seek psychiatric help. (
  • Some researchers have suggested that it may be related to use of antidepressants, although this has not been verified, nor do all women who have persistent genital arousal syndrome have a history of antidepressant use. (
  • PGAD is characterized by unwelcome and intrusive genital arousal episodes that is unrelated to desire . (
  • Persistent genital arousal (PGAD) is a syndrome of unprovoked sexual arousal/orgasm of uncertain cause primarily reported in female patients. (
  • It is been shown that there is a poor subjective arousal that poorly correlates with genital response. (
  • Thus, an increase in genital vasocongestion, responding to erotic videos, are similar among women who report problems with arousal and women who report no problems with arousal. (
  • In MRI (magnetic resonance) studies, it was found that there is a poor correlation between brain activation in areas controlling genital response in the brain and subjective arousal. (
  • and there's about 10% overlap for women's genital response and subjective arousal. (
  • Relatively little is known about the subjective reactions of women with lifelong vaginismus to erotic stimuli and genital arousal has never been investigated. (
  • Despite negative subjective responses, women with vaginismus responded with increased genital sexual arousal to erotic films. (
  • Many of us recognise the lack of control we feel when we become nervous or how our levels of arousal can alter our reactions in certain situations. (
  • General questions for students on this could involve whether there is actually a plateau for a small selection of levels of arousal in athletes which elicits the same sporting response and how the steepness of such a curve can be greatly different between differing athletes. (
  • Optimal levels of arousal and anxiety do not always occur at the mid-point on the continuum but can occur at differing points within different individuals. (
  • This is usually accompanied by low levels of arousal and sexual excitement with orgasms, often leading to major sexual dissatisfaction. (
  • A road map helps understand how to get where we want to go, gives us assurance we are on the right track, and helps us correct when we are headed the wrong direction, Als's Seven Levels of Arousal is a road map of emotional states. (
  • These graphs are referred to as response landscapes, and they highlight the flexibility available for improving training efficacy and the likely need for different approaches to suit animals in different affective states and at various levels of arousal. (
  • The Yerkes-Dodson law states that an optimal level of arousal for performance exists, and too little or too much arousal can adversely affect task performance. (
  • The potential stimuli for sexual arousal vary from person to person, and from one time to another, as does the level of arousal. (
  • However if your level of arousal is too high there's a likelihood that you'll force things and either try to play the shot too quickly- thus taking the wrong option and setting yourself up for a bad point or in the worst case scenario you may be so 'psyched-up' that you end up swinging at fresh air. (
  • Things that precipitate human sexual arousal are called erotic stimuli and colloquially known as turn-ons. (
  • Human sexual arousal: a modern behavioral approach. (
  • In particular, recent research has demonstrated that human sexual arousal patterns can emerge in the absence of a history of instrumental learning or stimulus association. (
  • These findings considerably expand the traditional behavioral approach to the analysis of human sexual arousal. (
  • A relational frame approach to the analysis of human sexual arousal is then outlined and its interpretative power in dealing with a range of complex human sexual behavior is demonstrated. (
  • Behavioral psychology has not been particularly concerned with providing an account of human sexual responding, or with analyzing the emergence and maintenance of complex patterns of human sexual arousal. (
  • We will then outline recent RFT findings which suggest that the emergence of human sexual arousal may involve process other than those posited in a traditional classical or operant conditioning account. (
  • William Masters and Virginia Johnson were the first researchers to examine extensively the physical components of human sexual arousal. (
  • Given sufficient sexual stimulation, sexual arousal in humans reaches its climax during an orgasm. (
  • Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction is difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution) that prevents the individual or couple from enjoying sexual activity. (
  • Sexual dysfunction disorders are generally classified into four categories: sexual desire disorders, sexual arousal disorders, orgasm disorders, and sexual. (
  • Call it undercover reporting: GH asked couples to try two popular arousal gels (products that increase blood flow to the genitals, promising to make the area more sensitive and enhance orgasm). (
  • Although masturbation or sexual activity with a partner that results in orgasm may relieve the vaginal congestion, the relief is temporary, and the physical signs of sexual arousal may persist for hours, days, or months. (
  • Two patterns emerged: 80% reported daily out-of-context sexual arousal episodes (≤30/day) that usually included orgasm and 40% reported lesser, often longer-lasting, nonorgasmic arousals. (
  • The idea of going through the sexual phases of desire, arousal, orgasm and resolution often overlap and are variable. (
  • She may not be able to exhibit adequate sexual desire, arousal, orgasm or desire for intercourse. (
  • One model suggests three stages: desire, arousal, and orgasm. (
  • One example is the ventrolateral preoptic area, which release GABA reuptake inhibitors, which interrupt wakefulness and arousal. (
  • While most stressors are associated with at least a brief period of arousal and wakefulness, the subsequent amount and architecture of recovery sleep can vary dramatically across conditions even though classical markers of acute stress such as corticosterone are virtually the same. (
  • Molecular Regulation of Arousal States explores the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which sleep and wakefulness are regulated and seeks explanations for the generation of arousal states. (
  • Arousal plays a central role in a wide variety of phenomena, including wakefulness, autonomic function, affect and emotion. (
  • Arousal is a multidimensional construct that has a role in the processing of the body's levels of alertness and wakefulness (Anderson, 1990). (
  • Histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) are an important component of the ascending arousal system and may form part of a "flip-flop switch" hypothesized to regulate sleep and wakefulness. (
  • However, when a person fails to be aroused in a situation that would normally produce arousal and the lack of arousal is persistent, it may be due to a sexual arousal disorder or hypoactive sexual desire disorder. (
  • Like anxiety results in premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory problems in men, it results in lack of arousal in women. (
  • The lack of arousal and lubrication may result in painful intercourse ( dyspareunia ), emotional distress, or relationship problems. (
  • Mental stimuli and physical stimuli such as touch, and the internal fluctuation of hormones, can influence sexual arousal. (
  • citation needed] Erotic stimuli which can result in sexual arousal can include conversation, reading, films or images, or a smell or setting, any of which can generate erotic thoughts and memories in a person. (
  • Some people do not feel aroused on every occasion that they are exposed to erotic stimuli, nor act in a sexual way on every arousal. (
  • Alerting stimuli causing arousal have been shown to elicit a reproducible transient inhibition of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in healthy subjects. (
  • The phobic patient group exhibited prolonged sympathetic inhibitions to arousal stimuli compared to controls and non-phobic patients, whereas no difference was found between tilt-positive and tilt-negative patients or between controls and non-phobic patients. (
  • The findings suggest that the degree of inhibition in response to arousal stimuli is related to a subjective factor coupled to fear of blood/injury. (
  • Sexual arousal is a dynamical, highly coordinated neurophysiological process that is often induced by visual stimuli. (
  • Systematic review of sex differences in gray matter volume of brain regions associated with sexual arousal (3,723 adults) did not show any causal relationship between structural features and functional response to visual sexual stimuli. (
  • In particular, it is widely assumed that there are sex differences in response to visual sexual stimuli ( 2 ) that lead to a larger sexual arousal in men than in women ( 3 ⇓ ⇓ - 6 ). (
  • However, significantly less-intense auditory stimuli were needed during rapid eye movement sleep to induce cortical arousals when swaddled than when not swaddled. (
  • Swaddling promotes more-sustained sleep and reduces the frequency of spontaneous awakenings, whereas induced cortical arousals are elicited by less-intense stimuli. (
  • An essential characteristic of sleep is heightened arousal threshold, with decreased behavioral response to external stimuli. (
  • In recordings from head-fixed mice, changes in arousal are typically assessed by measurements of pupil diameter or exploratory behavior, such as locomotion, with increases in pupil diameter and bouts of running/walking indicating heightened arousal ( 1 ). (
  • Sexual activity is a natural, goal-directed behavior for all species and genders ( 1 ), while arousal and desire are often expressed in different ways in men and women. (
  • To determine whether the lLNvs are involved in arousal and sleep/wake behavior, we examined the effects of altered electrical excitation of the LNvs. (
  • lLNv-hyperexcited flies lacking sLNvs exhibit robust hyperexcitation-induced increases in nocturnal behavior, suggesting that the sLNvs are not essential for mediation of arousal. (
  • A major synthesis of disparate data by a preeminent neuroscientist, Brain Arousal and Information Theory challenges current thinking about cognition and behavior. (
  • Here, we studied the unique progression of the dynamic behavior of cortical and hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs) during slow-wave sleep-related to motor-bursts (micro-arousals) in mice. (
  • The current paper provides an overview of the traditional behavioral approach to the analysis of sexual arousal, and outlines Relational Frame Theory as a modern behavioral approach to human language, cognition, and complex behavior in general. (
  • Finally, we will describe how RFT may shed light on the relationship between predispositions to sexual behavior and the emergence of complex and novel sexual arousal patterns established through learning histories. (
  • It has now been discovered that this condition of heightened arousal is also linked directly to pleasure seeking and reward, which actually explains a great deal of inappropriate human behavior. (
  • Because many such behaviors involve the use of substances that may cause wear and tear to brain circuitry, your arousal thermostat can get locked into an inappropriately high setting, in turn re-enforcing the behavior in order to be able to sleep. (
  • A woman with PGAD can experience spontaneous orgasms that do not resolve arousal. (
  • The condition was formerly known as Persistent Sexual Arousal Syndrome (PSAS), but the name was changed to PGAD as PSAS suggests active sexual desire. (
  • We hypothesize that many cases of PGAD are caused by unprovoked firing of C-fibers in the regional special sensory neurons that subserve sexual arousal. (
  • A fast fourier transform was performed and covariance maps of spectral power were computed in association with the subjective arousal ratings. (
  • Subjective arousal ratings had good inter-individual correlations. (
  • Pharmaceutical giant Pfizer has developed a drug, so far called only UK-414,495, which is supposed to increase sexual arousal, but will not affect desire, mood or emotional problems. (
  • Pfaff argues that, beneath our mental functions and emotional dispositions, a primitive neuronal system governs arousal. (
  • Emotional arousal induced by stress and/or anxiety can exert complex effects on learning and memory processes in mammals. (
  • Recent studies have begun to link study of the influence of emotional arousal on memory with earlier research indicating that memory is organized in multiple systems in the brain that differ in terms of the "type" of memory they mediate. (
  • Specifically, these studies have examined whether emotional arousal may have a differential effect on the "cognitive" and stimulus-response "habit" memory processes sub-served by the hippocampus and dorsal striatum, respectively. (
  • A bias toward the use of habit memory can also be produced by intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) administration of anxiogenic drugs, consistent with the well documented role of efferent projections of this brain region in mediating the modulatory influence of emotional arousal on memory. (
  • In some learning situations, the bias toward the use of habit memory produced by emotional arousal appears to result from an impairing effect on hippocampus-dependent cognitive memory. (
  • Consistent with the hypothesis that emotional arousal can serve to modulate memory processes in a bi-directional manner, both enhancing and impairing effects of stress and anxiety have been observed in lower animal and human studies. (
  • In addition, investigation of brain regions that in part mediate the modulatory effects of emotional arousal on memory has focused largely on various limbic system structures, in particular the basolateral amygdala (BLA) (for review see McGaugh, 2004 ). (
  • Studies examining the organization of memory in the mammalian brain indicate the existence of multiple memory systems, raising the question of whether emotional arousal may differentially influence the use of different brain systems in a given learning situation. (
  • This is followed by a discussion of recent studies in lower animals indicating a differential influence of emotional arousal on the relative use of multiple memory systems. (
  • Evidence that the BLA mediates the influence of emotional arousal on multiple memory systems in lower animals is presented. (
  • Finally, recent work examining the effects of stress on the use of multiple memory systems in humans is described, and the hypothesis that the modulatory influence of emotional arousal on cognitive and habit memory systems may be relevant to understanding various human psychopathologies is briefly considered. (
  • Music is capable of inducing emotional arousal. (
  • In a second session, the subjects evaluated their emotional arousal during the listening. (
  • AU - Mikutta,Christian, AU - Altorfer,Andreas, AU - Strik,Werner, AU - Koenig,Thomas, Y1 - 2012/04/26/ PY - 2011/10/10/received PY - 2012/04/06/accepted PY - 2012/4/27/entrez PY - 2012/4/27/pubmed PY - 2013/2/6/medline SP - 423 EP - 30 JF - Brain topography JO - Brain Topogr VL - 25 IS - 4 N2 - Music is capable of inducing emotional arousal. (
  • Since then, other models have been suggested that include the emotional aspects of arousal. (
  • Our study found that when we raised people's emotional arousal level they became more proficient at swearing such that they were able to produce a greater number of different swear words and expressions in a one-minute period. (
  • This article discusses the impacts of arousal and emotional state on training animals using methods based on reward and punishment. (
  • Three-dimensional graphs are provided to offer a visual means to illustrate how arousal and emotional state may influence the effectiveness of reward and punishment depending on the behaviour being trained. (
  • The hormone, called kisspeptin, was found to increase activity in areas of the brain normally stimulated by sexual arousal and romantic love. (
  • When the men viewed sexual images, the team identified an increase in activity in brain regions that are usually stimulated by sexual arousal and love following the kisspeptin injection, but not after injection with the placebo. (
  • Here, we review the role of hypocretins/orexins in arousal state transitions, and discuss possible mechanisms by which such a relatively small population of neurons controls fundamental brain state dynamics. (
  • Yamanaka A et al (2003) Hypothalamic orexin neurons regulate arousal according to energy balance in mice. (
  • Large ventral lateral neurons modulate arousal and sleep in Drosophila. (
  • We found that Dsk neurons physiologically interact with male-specific P1 neurons, part of a command center for male sexual behaviors, and function oppositely to regulate multiple arousal-related behaviors including sex, sleep and spontaneous walking. (
  • Thus DSK/CCKLR signaling in the sex circuitry functions antagonistically with P1 neurons to balance arousal levels and modulate sexual behaviors. (
  • For those of you who are technically minded, the arousal thermostat is established by a pair of excitatory neuropeptides produced by neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus, and projecting throughout your brain. (
  • Changes in arousal influence cortical sensory representations, but the synaptic mechanisms underlying arousal-dependent modulation of cortical processing are unclear. (
  • Sensory representations are less sparse, and the tuning of nearby cells more similar when arousal increases. (
  • In vivo whole-cell recordings reveal that mechanisms contributing to the effects of arousal on sensory representations include state-dependent modulation of membrane potential dynamics, spontaneous firing, and tone-evoked synaptic potentials. (
  • Information processing in the sensory cortex is modulated by changes in behavioral states such as those associated with arousal, attention, or task engagement ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ - 4 ). (
  • Despite the potential for arousal to regulate cortical sensory coding, the subthreshold synaptic mechanisms by which changes in brain state influence sensory representations and tuning properties are not well understood. (
  • Unexpected arousal modulates the influence of sensory noise on confidence. (
  • In contrast, interoceptive inference models suggest that confidence reflects a weighted integration of sensory precision and expectations about internal states, such as arousal. (
  • Across measures of perceptual bias, uncertainty, and physiological arousal we found that arousing disgust cues modulated the encoding of sensory noise. (
  • Our results suggest that unexpected arousal regulates perceptual precision, such that subjective confidence reflects the integration of both external sensory and internal, embodied states. (
  • lLNv hyperexcitation impairs sensory arousal, as shown by physiological and behavioral assays. (
  • Here we test this hypothesis using a novel psychophysical paradigm, in which unseen disgust-cues induced unexpected, unconscious arousal just before participants discriminated motion signals of variable precision. (
  • Applying his hypothesis to heightened states of arousal-sex and fear-Pfaff shows us how his theory opens new scientific approaches to understanding the structure of brain arousal. (
  • Russian Psychologist Yuri Hanin's adaptation of the the Inverted-U Hypothesis allows for two distinct manners of variation in performance anxieties and arousal levels. (
  • The results provide support for the hypothesis that the amygdala, and in particular the ACe, contributes to a heightened state of arousal during conditioned fear. (
  • Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception. (
  • Sports psychologists have studied the effects of both physiological and psychological arousal on performance over many years. (
  • Stimulation of these axons and release of serotonin causes cortical arousal and impacts locomotion and mood. (
  • The existence of an externally initiated, internally present low-level coherent oscillation (perceived as binaural beating) within the central nervous system, and specifically the reticular formation, suggests a condition that may facilitate alterations of levels of cortical arousal. (
  • Low to moderate levels of anxiety, over a short period of time, heighten our arousal in a beneficial way. (
  • Freestyle Skiing- Arousal Or Anxiety? (
  • Freestyle skiing for some ilicits arousal, whereas others will feel great anxiety in sport. (
  • The effect of both arousal and anxiety on performance is a key relationship in sports and when an athlete can develop control of those characteristics their competitive edge can be greatly enhanced. (
  • Symptoms of PTSD are re-experiencing the traumatic event, avoidance, reduced responsiveness, and increased arousal, anxiety or guilt as a result of the event that last longer than a month (APA, 2000). (
  • Reports of maladaptive cognitions and fears regarding sexuality and intercourse suggest that anxiety may interfere with sexual arousal in women with vaginismus. (
  • Indeed, moment-to-moment changes in arousal have strong effects on spontaneous and stimulus-evoked firing activity in the primary visual (V1) ( 5 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 12 ) and auditory (A1) cortex ( 13 ⇓ - 15 ). (
  • Sexual dysfunction - or problems with arousal - can present in many forms. (
  • Most often, when people think about problems with arousal, they think of erectile dysfunction in men. (
  • Despite its importance, it remains unclear as to how the neural mechanisms for arousal are organized across them. (
  • The University of Georgia researchers and identified 358 landmarks throughout the brain related to memory, vision, language, arousal regulation and many other fundamental bodily operations. (
  • The methods we employed for tracking the circuitry of arousal regulation in the brain can guide DBS research on all of these disorders, and others," said the study's senior author, Jin Hyung Lee, PhD, assistant professor of neurology, of neurosurgery and of bioengineering at Stanford. (
  • The person's arousal is not linked to sexual desire. (
  • Sexual arousal (also sexual excitement) is typically the arousal of sexual desire during or in anticipation of sexual activity. (
  • The condition is characterized by persistent feelings of vaginal congestion and other physical signs of sexual arousal without any awareness of sexual desire along with the intense arousal. (
  • Xia Increase Sexual Desire female arousal enhancement Houying served as female arousal enhancement Wholesale a servant for a long time, commanding the guards, responsible for protecting Liu Bang s safety, foods for male fertility enhancement Wholesale and often personally drove the chariot of the Han King. (
  • The problem of decreasing sexual desire, arousal and sexual activity over the latter part of one's life, often after 35 or 40. (
  • In a study of some 24 multiethnic midlife women - Hispanic, White, African-American, Chinese and Japanese, a questionnaire revealed that about 40% felt that they never had or infrequently had sexual desire, but with stimulation were capable of arousal, but only 13% expressed content of their sexual experience. (
  • When a person has a comorbid disease, bilateral oophorectomy (removal of ovaries), or during aging, reduced sexual desire and arousal often occur. (
  • Although sexual desire often triggers arousal, for many women, particularly after menopause, sex drive may no longer be the first phase of sexual response. (
  • Linda Griffiths' Age of Arousal , a play "wildly inspired" by George Gissing's novel "The Odd Women," plays the Shaw Festival in Ontario July 23-Oct. 10. (
  • The Shaw Festival's new production of Linda Griffiths' Age of Arousal , freely adapted from George Gissing's novel "The Odd Women," a play about women typists in Victorian England, begins previews July 23 at the Court House Theatre in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario. (
  • Light-activated lLNvs modulate behavioral arousal and sleep in Drosophila. (
  • We show that, in Drosophila melanogaster males, sleep pressure after sleep deprivation can be counteracted by raising their sexual arousal, either by engaging the flies with prolonged courtship activity or merely by exposing them to female pheromones. (
  • This arousal-dependent "network suppression" gates the duration of tone-evoked responses and regulates the broadness of frequency tuning. (
  • In response to the erotic films, the vaginismus group reported less mental arousal than the no-pain group and a range of negative subjective responses, including threat and disgust. (
  • Following on from recent studies showing that affective states and arousal levels may correlate with behavioural outcomes, we explore the contribution of both affective state and arousal in behavioural responses to operant conditioning. (
  • Comparing sexual arousal between men and women, we see that there is no difference in the amount of time it takes healthy young men and women to reach peak arousal," said Dr. Irv Binik, psychology professor and founder and director of the Sex and Couple Therapy Service of Royal Victoria Hospital, which is part of the McGill University Health Centre (MUHC). (
  • Overall, participants showed concordance between peak subjective sexual arousal and temperature change from baseline to peak arousal. (
  • (8162226) There are Goat Arousal experts? (
  • Of course there are goat arousal experts. (
  • I'm more of a goat arousal hobbyist. (
  • Goat arousal experts", they exist! (
  • Also, these regions likely play significant roles in memory processes and participate in the way stressful memories may affect arousal and sleep. (
  • The changes in hormone levels and vaginal changes discussed earlier can significantly affect arousal in midlife women. (
  • Sexual arousal has several stages and may not lead to any actual sexual activity, beyond a mental arousal and the physiological changes that accompany it. (
  • Episodes of intense arousal may occur several times a day for weeks, months, or even years. (
  • Associated with behavioral arousal in these animals is an increase in amplitude and apparent synchrony of high frequency waveforms in the electroencephalogram (EEG). (
  • A review of these studies ( 7 ) proposes that the sexual duality is due to differences in neural information processing, that in turn lead to dimorphisms in physiological response and subjective ratings of arousal. (
  • In addition to Viagra, there are number of other medications that enhance arousal by causing blood vessels to expand, thereby increasing blood flow to the genitals. (
  • Despite the arousal-dependent reduction in stimulus selectivity, frequency discrimination by cell ensembles improves due to a reduction in correlated variability (noise correlations). (
  • The arousal may be triggered not only by sexual activity, but also by seemingly nonsexual situations or no obvious stimulus at all. (
  • The results indicate that music is a powerful arousal-modulating stimulus. (
  • Fortunately, I'm very familiar with the dual control model and with arousal nonconcordance , so I know that when my genitals respond to a stimulus, all it means is that the stimulus is sexually relevant , even if it's not appealing. (
  • According to Hans Eysenck, differences in baseline arousal level lead people to be extraverts or introverts. (
  • Arousals remain high (24.3 arousals per hour on CPAP compared to 28.8 at baseline), total sleep time stays the same at 318 minutes, and sleep efficiency remains low at 70 percent. (
  • Correlational analysis revealed significant associations between various cognitive test scores and changes in physiological arousal from baseline to testing (−0.59 ≤ r ≤ 0.22). (
  • Relative to HC, patients with BD experience larger changes in ANS arousal between a restful baseline and cognitive testing, and achieve lower cognitive test scores. (
  • Here we use population imaging and intracellular recording to show that arousal regulates frequency tuning in layer 2/3 of primary auditory cortex. (
  • In the new study, Lee's group tracked the interplay among distinct structures throughout the entire brain - among them the thalamus, the somatosensory cortex and the zona incerta - and showed how this interplay regulates arousal states. (
  • Unlike many other animals, humans do not have a mating season, and both sexes are potentially capable of sexual arousal throughout the year. (
  • Unfortunately (or fortunately), urine has not been recorded to pose as a strong sexual arousal for humans. (
  • The neural basis of sexual arousal in humans is associated with sexual orientation yet, contrary to the widely accepted view, is not different between women and men. (
  • The brain structures that we showed to be critical in regulating arousal, and the connections between them, are virtually the same in rats and humans, so we have high hopes of seeing our findings, as well as our methods, translated into clinical trials. (
  • The brain structures that we showed to be critical in regulating arousal, and the connections between them, are virtually the same in rats and humans. (
  • Dutton & Aron (1974) suggest that these results were consistent with a type of " cognitive relabeling", where the arousal from fear becomes reinterpreted by the subjects as sexual attraction. (
  • The purpose of this study was to examine autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal following cognitive challenge. (
  • Male arousal will lead to an erection, and in female arousal the body's response is engorged sexual tissues such as nipples, vulva, clitoris, vaginal walls, and vaginal lubrication. (
  • In fact, the first noticeable change associated with menopause is often reduced vaginal lubrication during arousal. (
  • If you are distressed by a consistent lack of vaginal lubrication and related physical signs compared to what you experienced in the past, you may have what has been called "female sexual arousal disorder. (
  • Vigorelle® for Women instantly glides on a silky texture, then creates a "cool tingling" sensation that speeds arousal and encourages your body's natural lubrication. (
  • Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) refers to the persistent or recurrent inability of a woman to achieve or maintain an adequate lubrication-swelling response during sexual activity. (
  • Phentolamine , marketed as Vasomax for men and Vasotem for women, has been shown to improve arousal, lubrication and sensation in post-menopausal women with SAD. (
  • The young man was taught social skills for interacting with women and encouraged to use heterosexual pictures for sexual arousal. (
  • There is a common belief that women need more time to achieve arousal. (
  • Researchers studied the time required for an individual to reach the peak of sexual arousal while watching sexually explicit movies or pictures and came to the conclusion that on average women and men took almost the same time for sexual arousal - around 10 minutes. (
  • A female equivalent of Viagra could soon be available to help women increase their sexual arousal, scientists claim. (
  • Now that we are beginning to establish the pathways involved in sexual arousal, scientists may be able to find ways of helping women who would like to overcome female sexual arousal disorder. (
  • A new McGill University study that used thermal imaging technology for the first time ever to measure sexual arousal rates has turned the conventional wisdom that women become aroused more slowly than men on its head. (
  • Both the men and the women began showing arousal within 30 seconds. (
  • The men reached maximal arousal in 664.6 seconds (roughly ten minutes), the women in 743 seconds - a statistically negligible difference. (
  • Dr. Binik's PhD student, Tuuli Kukkonen, said, "This will help diagnose and treat sexual dysfunction in women, such as female sexual arousal disorder, which is poorly understood. (
  • The physiologic signs of persistent arousal are intrusive, unwanted, and disruptive to the women who experience them. (
  • Fun fact: in a recent study, 90% of women reported that adding arousal gel made their intimacy more satisfying! (
  • Arousal problems that cause distress or concern affect about 5% of women in the United States, according to a large nationwide survey. (
  • In addition to being more likely in midlife women, bothersome arousal problems were more common among women who were married or living with their partner, women who had experienced surgical (rather than natural) menopause, and women who were in worse overall health. (
  • Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a frequent finding in women in middle age and more prevalent in post-menopausal women. (
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  • Both women and men can experience sexual arousal issues. (
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  • However, she has frequent episodes of confusional arousal where she will appear to wake from sleep and go into a long screaming/kicking session. (
  • Principal investigator, Douglas Bradley, professor of medicine at the University of Toronto said that researchers involved in the study were surprised that using CPAP to alleviate CSA had no effect on arousals and no effect on sleep structure. (
  • Researchers around the world are looking for the keys to sexual functioning and some recent studies from the University of Amsterdam are demonstrating that contrary to popular belief, arousal is not a product of desire, but rather a result of it. (
  • The anatomy and physiology-and thus the innervation-of sexual arousal are dimorphic, but it has been studied almost exclusively in male patients, and the peripheral and spinal pathways and neurotransmitters mapped primarily in rodents. (
  • Arousal is mediated by several neural systems. (
  • Starting with a review of the neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and neurochemical components of arousal, Pfaff asks us to look at the gene networks and neural pathways underlying the brain's arousal systems much as a design engineer would contemplate information systems. (
  • Thus, we outline an integrative neural reference space as a key first step in developing a more systematic understanding of central nervous system contributions to arousal. (
  • We forecast the importance of high-field neuroimaging in bridging this gap to examine how the various networks within the neural reference space for arousal operate across varieties of arousal-related phenomena. (
  • This study was conducted to evaluate whether swaddling influences infants' arousal thresholds for environmental auditory stress. (
  • In both conditions, the infants were exposed to white noise of increasing intensity, from 50 to 100 dB(A), during rapid eye movement sleep, to determine their arousal thresholds. (
  • Consistent with this, diminished NCA channel activity in C. elegans robustly increased arousal thresholds during sleep bouts in L4-to-adult developmentally timed sleep. (
  • Neuroimaging studies suggest differences in the underlying biology of sexual arousal associated with sex and sexual orientation, yet their findings are conflicting. (
  • In this article, we review neuroscience findings for three of the most common origins of arousal: wakeful arousal, autonomic arousal, and affective arousal. (
  • In conclusion, these novel findings indicate that oscillatory dynamics pattern of cortical and hippocampal LFPs preceding micro-arousals could be part of the regulatory processes in sleep architecture. (
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  • During female sexual arousal without intercourse the uterus was raised and the anterior vaginal wall lengthened. (
  • 4 5 Their most remarkable observations regarding sexual arousal in the woman were the backwards and upwards movements of the anterior vaginal wall (vaginal tenting) and a 50-100% greater volume of the uterus. (
  • The vaginal atrophy and dryness associated with low estrogen can cause arousal to take longer or be harder to achieve. (
  • Another arousal system, the dopaminergic system, releases dopamine produced by the substantia nigra. (
  • Since aroused affiliation motivation was not associated with higher concentrations of norepinephrine, epinephrine, or cortisol in either study, it appears likely that dopamine is especially associated with arousal of affiliation motivation, just as norepinephrine has been found to be associated with arousal of power motivation. (
  • A study in the Jan. 1 issue of the journal Sleep demonstrates that the frequent arousals from sleep that occur in heart failure patients with central sleep apnoea (CSA) may reflect the presence of another underlying arousal disorder rather than being a defensive mechanism to terminate apnoeas. (
  • In contrast, arousals in heart failure patients with CSA often occur several breaths after apnoea termination. (
  • Arousal may occur first, resulting from seduction or suggestion by your partner. (
  • During the arousal experiment, the male and female subjects watched separate sexually explicit films procured from the Kinsey Institute and determined to be sexually arousing to specific genders. (
  • You have no idea what a perplexing mess is female arousal," says Mary Roach in her book Bonk . (
  • My advice, having gone through a profound hormonal change myself last year, is to keep on top of current sex-positive information about female arousal, be firm with your doctors that this is something you have a right to be concerned about and find community to share and gather information. (
  • To find out whether taking images of the male and female genitals during coitus is feasible and to find out whether former and current ideas about the anatomy during sexual intercourse and during female sexual arousal are based on assumptions or on facts. (
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  • But if the sleep-deprived flies were exposed to a chemical emitted by female flies that increased their sexual arousal, they no longer needed to sleep. (
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  • The sensation was akin to sexual arousal. (
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  • The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying arousal threshold changes during sleep are not fully understood. (
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  • after googling and surfing the internet for answers i hav concluded tht i suffer with sexual arousal disorder meaning i hav the desire but cant get sexually aroused. (
  • Arousal disorder in patients with cardiac failure? (
  • The authors suggest that hear failure patients with CSA may have a "predisposition to hyperarousability," and in some there may be an underlying arousal disorder accompanied by sleep disruption that is neither a consequence of CSA nor of impaired cardiac function. (
  • To understand FSAD, it is helpful to have an outline of the physiological changes that normally take place in a woman's body during sexual arousal. (
  • FSAD affects the excitement or arousal stage of sexual activity. (
  • When examined under an MRI, the brains of the men who received the hormone showed increased activity in the areas of the brain typically activated by sexual arousal and romance , and afterward reported a reduction in depressive symptoms. (
  • However, what if Jack - or some part of Jack's brain , more precisely - mistook the arousal he felt when he was afraid for sexual attraction ? (
  • In Brain Arousal and Information Theory , Donald Pfaff presents a daring perspective on this long-standing puzzle. (
  • Employing the simple but powerful framework of information theory, Pfaff revolutionizes our understanding of arousal systems in the brain. (
  • The arousal brain system is comprised by the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) and a descending network from the cortex to the spinal cord. (
  • Arousal comes from deep inside the brain, in those primal regions of the autonomic nervous system where ingoing and outgoing signals are monitored and the glass over the big fight-or-flight button waits to be smashed. (
  • There are two types of mechanism by which the brain modulates its own responsiveness, those of arousal and attention . (
  • Hyperactivity of the brain, associated with seizures is also correlated with high levels of measures of arousal and clinically with a gliosis. (
  • Also, the relaxed reserves in your nerves must be replenished and nutrition that supports changes in brain plasticity can be employed to help reset the arousal thermostat to a proper setting. (
  • It could be the first medication to target the brain for improved sexual arousal. (
  • This paper provides a framework for assessing how affective state and arousal may influence the efficacy of operant training methods. (
  • It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired behaviours. (
  • Increased arousal reduces lateral inhibition, broadens frequency tuning and enhances cortical representations of pure tones. (
  • Here, we use 2-photon Ca 2+ imaging in the auditory cortex of awake mice to show that heightened arousal, as indexed by pupil diameter, broadens frequency-tuned activity of layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal cells. (
  • Surprisingly, changes in short-latency tone-evoked excitatory input cannot explain the effects of arousal on the broadness of frequency-tuned output. (
  • Results indicate that after three months of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, heart failure patients with CSA show no significant improvement in the frequency of their arousals or in their sleep structure even though breathing pauses are significantly reduced by 55 percent from 35.4 central apneas and hypopnoeas per hour to 16.1 events per hour. (
  • According to the authors, arousals in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are considered to be an important defense mechanism to terminate apnoeas, and treating OSA with CPAP immediately reduces the frequency of arousals. (
  • iii) a pattern of cortico-hippocampal frequency communication precedes micro-arousals: the analysis between hippocampal and cortical LFP fluctuations reveal high coherence during τ interval in a broader frequency band (2-12 Hz), while at a lower frequency band (0.5-2 Hz) the coherence reaches its maximum after the onset of micro-arousals. (