Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Sleep Arousal Disorders: Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).Erotica: Literary or artistic items having an erotic theme. It refers especially to books treating sexual love in a sensuous or voluptuous manner. (Webster, 3d ed)Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Libido: The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.Hibernation: The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Orgasm: The climax of sexual excitement in either humans or animals.Photoplethysmography: Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.Somnambulism: A parasomnia characterized by a partial arousal that occurs during stage IV of non-REM sleep. Affected individuals exhibit semipurposeful behaviors such as ambulation and are difficult to fully awaken. Children are primarily affected, with a peak age range of 4-6 years.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological: Disturbances in sexual desire and the psychophysiologic changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Parasomnias: Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)Respiratory Rate: The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Estivation: In certain living species, a period of dormancy during the summer months marked by decreased metabolism.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Masturbation: Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome: Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)Hypothalamic Area, Lateral: Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Orexin Receptors: G-protein-coupled NEUROPEPTIDE RECEPTORS that have specificity for OREXINS and play a role in appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles. Two principle receptor types exist, each having a specificity for OREXIN A and OREXIN B peptide subtypes.Locus Coeruleus: Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Clitoris: An erectile structure homologous with the penis, situated beneath the anterior labial commissure, partially hidden between the anterior ends of the labia minora.Pedophilia: A sexual disorder occurring in a person 16 years or older and that is recurrent with intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child (generally age 13 or younger). (from APA, DSM-IV, 1994).Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Receptors, Neuropeptide: Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.Penile Erection: The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Night Terrors: A disorder characterized by incomplete arousals from sleep associated with behavior suggesting extreme fright. This condition primarily affects children and young adults and the individual generally has no recall of the event. Episodes tend to occur during stage III or IV. SOMNAMBULISM is frequently associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p391)Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological: Physiological disturbances in normal sexual performance in either the male or the female.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Trazodone: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Prone Position: The posture of an individual lying face down.Doxapram: A central respiratory stimulant with a brief duration of action. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p1225)Sleep Apnea, Central: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.

Effect of psychotropic drugs on caudate spindle in cats. (1/2081)

To ascertain whether neuroleptics act on the caudate nucleus itself, the effects of these compounds as well as other centrally acting drugs were examined in relation to caudate spindle and EEG arousal responses (sciatic nerve stimulation) in gallamine-immobilized cats. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle at a dose which had no effect on the EEG arousal response. On the other hand, clozapine and a higher dose of chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle, but depressed the arousal response. High frequency stimulation of the sciatic nerve suppressed the caudate spindle. Pentobarbital, biperiden and diazepam, while depressing the arousal response, caused an enhancement of the caudate spindle. Imipramine at a low dose had no effect on either response, whereas at a high dose this drug enhanced the caudate spindle with concomitant depression of the arousal response. From these results, it may be concluded that the enhancing action on the caudate spindle induced by haloperidol and a low dose of chlorpromazine is due to an increase in susceptibility of the caudate nucleus itself. In addition, it is suggested that depression of the activating system is involved in an appearance of the caudate spindle.  (+info)

Arousal from sleep shortens sympathetic burst latency in humans. (2/2081)

1. Bursts of sympathetic activity in muscle nerves are phase-locked to the cardiac cycle by the sinoaortic baroreflexes. Acoustic arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep reduces the normally invariant interval between the R-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the peak of the corresponding sympathetic burst; however, the effects of other forms of sleep disruption (i.e. spontaneous arousals and apnoea-induced arousals) on this temporal relationship are unknown. 2. We simultaneously recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity in the peroneal nerve (intraneural electrodes) and the ECG (surface electrodes) in seven healthy humans and three patients with sleep apnoea syndrome during NREM sleep. 3. In seven subjects, burst latencies were shortened subsequent to spontaneous K complexes (1.297 +/- 0.024 s, mean +/- s. e.m.) and spontaneous arousals (1.268 +/- 0.044 s) compared with latencies during periods of stable NREM sleep (1.369 +/- 0.023 s). In six subjects who demonstrated spontaneous apnoeas during sleep, apnoea per se did not alter burst latency relative to sleep with stable electroencephalogram (EEG) and breathing (1.313 +/- 0.038 vs. 1.342 +/- 0.026 s); however, following apnoea-induced EEG perturbations, burst latencies were reduced (1.214 +/- 0.034 s). 4. Arousal-induced reduction in sympathetic burst latency may reflect a temporary diminution of baroreflex buffering of sympathetic outflow. If so, the magnitude of arterial pressure perturbations during sleep (e.g. those caused by sleep disordered breathing and periodic leg movements) may be augmented by arousal.  (+info)

The vigilance promoting drug modafinil increases extracellular glutamate levels in the medial preoptic area and the posterior hypothalamus of the conscious rat: prevention by local GABAA receptor blockade. (3/2081)

The effects of modafinil on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission in the rat medial preoptic area (MPA) and posterior hypothalamus (PH), are analysed. Modafinil (30-300 mg/kg) increased glutamate and decreased GABA levels in the MPA and PH. Local perfusion with the GABAA agonist muscimol (10 microM), reduced, while the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (1 microM and 10 microM) increased glutamate levels. The modafinil (100 mg/kg)-induced increase of glutamate levels was antagonized by local perfusion with bicuculline (1 microM). When glutamate levels were increased by the local perfusion with the glutamate uptake inhibitor L-trans-PDC (0.5 mM), modafinil produced an additional enhancement of glutamate levels. Modafinil (1-33 microM) failed to affect [3H]glutamate uptake in hypothalamic synaptosomes and slices. These findings show that modafinil increases glutamate and decreases GABA levels in MPA and PH. The evidence that bicuculline counteracts the modafinil-induced increase of glutamate levels strengthens the evidence for an inhibitory GABA/glutamate interaction in the above regions controlling the sleep-wakefulness cycle.  (+info)

Time course of sleep inertia dissipation in human performance and alertness. (4/2081)

Alertness and performance on a wide variety of tasks are impaired immediately upon waking from sleep due to sleep inertia, which has been found to dissipate in an asymptotic manner following waketime. It has been suggested that behavioural or environmental factors, as well as sleep stage at awakening, may affect the severity of sleep inertia. In order to determine the time course of sleep inertia dissipation under normal entrained conditions, subjective alertness and cognitive throughput were measured during the first 4 h after habitual waketime from a full 8-h sleep episode on 3 consecutive days. We investigated whether this time course was affected by either sleep stage at awakening or behavioural/environmental factors. Sleep inertia dissipated in an asymptotic manner and took 2-4 h to near the asymptote. Saturating exponential functions fitted the sleep inertia data well, with time constants of 0.67 h for subjective alertness and 1.17 h for cognitive performance. Most awakenings occurred out of stage rapid eye movement (REM), 2 or 1 sleep, and no effect of sleep stage at awakening on either the severity of sleep inertia or the time course of its dissipation could be detected. Subjective alertness and cognitive throughput were significantly impaired upon awakening regardless of whether subjects got out of bed, ate breakfast, showered and were exposed to ordinary indoor room light (approximately 150 lux) or whether subjects participated in a constant routine (CR) protocol in which they remained in bed, ate small hourly snacks and were exposed to very dim light (10-15 lux). These findings allow for the refinement of models of alertness and performance, and have important implications for the scheduling of work immediately upon awakening in many occupational settings.  (+info)

Fentanyl and morphine, but not remifentanil, inhibit acetylcholine release in pontine regions modulating arousal. (5/2081)

BACKGROUND: Opioids inhibit the rapid eye movement (REM) phase of sleep and decrease acetylcholine (ACh) release in medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) regions contributing to REM sleep generation. It is not known whether opioids decrease ACh release by acting on cholinergic cell bodies or on cholinergic axon terminals. This study used in vivo microdialysis to test the hypothesis that opioids decrease ACh levels at cholinergic neurons in the laterodorsal tegmental nuclei (LDT) and LDT axon terminals in the mPRF. METHODS: Nine male cats were anesthetized with halothane, and ACh levels within the mPRF or LDT were assayed using microdialysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). ACh levels were analyzed in response to dialysis of the mPRF and LDT with Ringer's solution (control), followed by dialysis with Ringer's solution containing morphine sulfate (MSO4) or naloxone. ACh in the mPRF also was measured during either dialysis delivery or intravenous infusion of remifentanil and during dialysis delivery of fentanyl. RESULTS: Compared with dialysis of Ringer's solution, microdialysis with MSO4 decreased ACh by 23% in the mPRF and by 30% in the LDT. This significant decrease in ACh was antagonized by naloxone. MSO4 and fentanyl each caused a dose-dependent decrease in mPRF ACh when delivered by dialysis. Remifentanil delivered by continuous intravenous infusion or by dialysis into the mPRF did not alter mPRF ACh. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine inhibits ACh at the cholinergic cell body region (LDT) and the terminal field in the mPRF. ACh in the mPRF was not altered by remifentanil and was significantly decreased by fentanyl. Thus, MSO4 and fentanyl disrupt cholinergic neurotransmission in the LDT-mPRF network known to modulate REM sleep and cortical electroencephalographic activation. These data are consistent with the possibility that inhibition of pontine cholinergic neurotransmission contributes to arousal state disruption by opioids.  (+info)

Cognitive functioning in people with epilepsy plus severe learning disabilities: a systematic analysis of predictors of daytime arousal and attention. (6/2081)

In spite of the high prevalence of epilepsy and the importance of preserving cognitive function in people with learning disabilities, this population has received relatively little research attention. This study sets out systematically to investigate possible predictive factors of inter-ictal states of arousal and attention. The daytime function of 28 people with epilepsy and severe learning disabilities was assessed by performance on a two-choice reaction time vigilance task, behavioural analysis of time-sampled video recordings taken in naturalistic settings, and carer ratings on visual analogue scales. This methodology yielded eight discrete functional measures, from which two further index measures were derived after principal components analysis. A range of clinical and psychosocial assessments was completed and subjects had 36 hour ambulatory EEG and sleep EEG monitoring. Regression models identified significant predictors of cognitive function from a range of potential explanatory variables i.e. demographic, clinical, pharmacological, background EEG rhythms and sleep parameters. Results indicated that greater severity of learning disability, longer bedtime periods, poor sleep efficiency, frequent seizures and antiepileptic drug polytherapy were significant predictor variables. Explained variance (adjusted R2) was greater than 50% for six of 10 outcome variables (range up to 85%). Furthermore, significant regression equations (P < 0.05) were obtained for all but one variable. Thus, these results appear reasonably robust. Results support an interactional model of daytime arousal and attention in people with epilepsy plus severe learning disabilities. Inter-ictal cognitive function appears to be mediated by a combination of organic, circadian (sleep wake), clinical and pharmacological factors.  (+info)

Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of cardinal posttraumatic stress symptoms in school-age children. (7/2081)

OBJECTIVES: This report examines the reliability and validity of Darryl, a cartoon-based measure of the cardinal symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: We measured exposure to community violence through the reports of children and their parents and then administered Darryl to a sample of 110 children aged 7 to 9 residing in urban neighborhoods with high crime rates. RESULTS: Darryl's reliability is excellent overall and is acceptable for the reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales, considered separately. Child reports of exposure to community violence were significantly associated with child reports of PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Darryl possesses acceptable psychometric properties in a sample of children with frequent exposure to community violence.  (+info)

Metabolic, gastrointestinal, and CNS neuropeptide effects of brain leptin administration in the rat. (8/2081)

To investigate whether brain leptin involves neuropeptidergic pathways influencing ingestion, metabolism, and gastrointestinal functioning, leptin (3.5 micrograms) was infused daily into the third cerebral ventricular of rats for 3 days. To distinguish between direct leptin effects and those secondary to leptin-induced anorexia, we studied vehicle-infused rats with food available ad libitum and those that were pair-fed to leptin-treated animals. Although body weight was comparably reduced (-8%) and plasma glycerol was comparably increased (142 and 17%, respectively) in leptin-treated and pair-fed animals relative to controls, increases in plasma fatty acids and ketones were only detected (132 and 234%, respectively) in pair-fed rats. Resting energy expenditure (-15%) and gastrointestinal fill (-50%) were reduced by pair-feeding relative to the ad libitum group, but they were not reduced by leptin treatment. Relative to controls, leptin increased hypothalamic mRNA for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; 61%) and for proopiomelanocortin (POMC; 31%) but did not reduce mRNA for neuropeptide Y. These results suggest that CNS leptin prevents metabolic/gastrointestinal responses to caloric restriction by activating hypothalamic CRH- and POMC-containing pathways and raise the possibility that these peripheral responses to CNS leptin administration contribute to leptin's anorexigenic action.  (+info)

The present study examined the association between personality, competitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and physiological arousal in athletes with high and low anxiety levels. Anxiety was manipulated by means of an incentive. Fifty male participants, first, completed the Five Factor Personality Inventory and their resting electro dermal activity (EDA) was recorded. In the second stage, participants were randomly assigned to high or low anxiety groups. Individual EDAs were recorded again to determine precompetition physiological arousal. Participants also completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) and played a computer-simulated soccer match. Results showed that neuroticism was related to both CSAI-2 components and physiological arousal only in the group receiving the incentive. Winners had higher levels of cognitive anxiety and lower levels of physiological arousal than losers. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that an athletes neurotic personality may influence his ...
Previous research has found that people who are ambivalent toward a group process new information about the group more carefully than people who are nonambivalent toward the group. It has been suggested that this effect occurs because people who are ambivalent toward a group (a) experience a high level of physiological arousal when they think about the group and (b) seek to reduce this arousal by carefully processing new information about the group. To test these hypotheses, we conducted a correlational study (Study 1) and an experimental study (Study 2). Unexpectedly, Study 1 found that intergroup ambivalence is negatively correlated with the physiological arousal that is experienced when target outgroups are salient. Study 2 replicated this pattern and demonstrated an effect of intergroup ambivalence on information processing, while also discovering that the effects of ambivalence on arousal and on information processing were independent. Overall, these results indicate that arousal is not a ...
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The effects of physiological arousal on cognition cause individuals to be active, attentive, or excited. The term "physiological" refers to physiology and concerns the normal functioning of an organism. Physiological arousal refers to features of arousal reflected by physiological reactions, such as escalations in blood pressure and rate of respiration and lessened activity of the gastrointestinal system. These terms are what allow for the effects physiological arousal has on cognition itself.[30]. Cognition[31] is internal mental representations best characterized as thoughts and ideas- resulting from and involved in multiple mental processes and operations including perception, reasoning, memory, intuition, judgement and decision making. While cognition is not directly observable, it is still amenable to study using the scientific method. Cognition is also something that plays a fundamental role in determining behavior. Goes into explaining cognitive functions and how they are internal and ...
View Notes - 12 from PSYC 101 at University of San Francisco. Chapter 12 Summary I. Emotions -a complex pattern of bodily and mental changes that includes physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive
A real-life example of cognition is used whenever decision making is involved; for example, a real-life scenario of a cognitive decision would be when a traffic light is changing from green to yellow. One would either make a cognitive decision to run through the yellow light in hopes you could clear the intersection before the light turned red. However, one could make a different cognitive decision to stop when they see the yellow light to not run the light before it turned red. A real-life example of the effects of physiological arousal on cognition is when youre walking through the woods and you notice a rattlesnake in front of the walkway on the ground. You would feel alarmed and scared (physiological arousal). Your past experience and knowledge of poisonous snakes and dangerous predators provides the (cognition) of the situation. Based on your analysis of your position you label your arousal as fear. Fear is explained to be an emotion that one might expect with alarm, it is also known as ...
A real-life example of cognition is used whenever decision making is involved; for example, a real-life scenario of a cognitive decision would be when a traffic light is changing from green to yellow. One would either make a cognitive decision to run through the yellow light in hopes you could clear the intersection before the light turned red. However, one could make a different cognitive decision to stop when they see the yellow light to not run the light before it turned red. A real-life example of the effects of physiological arousal on cognition is when youre walking through the woods and you notice a rattlesnake in front of the walkway on the ground. You would feel alarmed and scared (physiological arousal). Your past experience and knowledge of poisonous snakes and dangerous predators provides the (cognition) of the situation. Based on your analysis of your position you label your arousal as fear. Fear is explained to be an emotion that one might expect with alarm, it is also known as ...
In this study, we demonstrate striking similarities in the activity of amygdala neurons during conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional arousal and strong relationships between neuronal activity in the amygdala and blood pressure-a measure of arousal which is sensitive to lesions of the amygdala in both appetitive (24) and aversive (21, 22) settings. Cells with increases in activity during one CS+ were more likely than would be expected by chance to show the same response to the other oppositely valenced CS+, and the same was true of CS− elicited decreases. Neuronal activity was also more similar than expected by chance during the appetitive and aversive conditioned stimuli when the activity of all recorded cells was considered together. Additionally, the activity of neurons with similar directions of change in firing during conditioned appetitive and aversive stimuli (same cells) was more likely to be correlated with blood pressure than the rest of the population. Same cells were also ...
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RERA - Respiratory Effort Related Arousal. Looking for abbreviations of RERA? It is Respiratory Effort Related Arousal. Respiratory Effort Related Arousal listed as RERA
The tendency to match different sensory modalities together can be beneficial for marketing. Here we assessed the effect of sound-odor congruence on peoples attitude and memory for products of a familiar and unfamiliar brand. Participants smelled high- and low-arousal odors and then saw an advertisement for a product of a familiar or unfamiliar brand, paired with a high- or low-arousal jingle. Participants attitude towards the advertisement, the advertised product, and the products brand was measured, as well as memory for the product. In general, no sound-odor congruence effect was found on attitude, irrespective of brand familiarity. However, congruence was found to affect recognition: when a high-arousal odor and a high-arousal sound were combined, participants recognized products faster than in the other conditions. In addition, familiar brands were recognized faster than unfamiliar brands, but only when sound or odor arousal was high. This study provides insight into the possible ...
Schachter and Singer dealt with arousal that occurs at the same time as some emotionally relevant stimulus which provides the cognition whereby the arousal is labeled. Zillmann (1978) has described a general situation in which two arousing conditions occur in sequence. Autonomic arousal does not dissipate immediately upon termination of eliciting conditions... Given this fact, Zillmann has reasoned that if two arousing events are separated by a short amount of time, some of the arousal caused by the first event may become transferred to the second event and added to the arousal caused by the latter... (pp. 116-117). ...
Age of Arousal", by award-winning Canadian playwright, Linda Griffiths, is a lavish, sexy ensemble piece about the forbidden and gloriously liberated self. The setting is 1885: a time of great passion and great confusion. A population imbalance leaves London flooded with half a million more women than men and an escalating suffrage movement has ushered in a rip-roaring New Age. Mary Barfoot, an ex-militant suffragette, runs a school for secretaries with her beloved Rhoda. The schools invasion by three spinster sisters and a charismatic cad named Everard, creates a catalyst for political, sexual and emotional explosion. Ideas and libidos clash for dominance, as each character confronts the meaning of revolutionary courage.. "Age of Arousal" will be the third staged reading of Peninsulas 2019-20 season, presented at Peninsula Productions Studio Theatre (14600 North Bluff Road, White Rock, BC) on Sunday, February 23rd at 2:30 p.m. and 7 p.m. Tickets are $20 ...
Some psychologists think our brains are bad at keeping arousal from fear separate from arousal from sex. I think they happen to be looking at the mind from the entirely wrong perspective.
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In the future, operators of complex equipment will spend more time monitoring computer controlled devices rather than having hands-on control of such equipment. The operator intervenes in system operation under unusual conditions or when there is a computer malfunction. The latter occurs relatively seldom. The operators task thus becomes a vigilance task, one requiring attention to monitoring equipment with little need for action. An individuals ability to maintain vigilance is easily compromised, with time-on-task (TOT) a major detractor of performance. The question asked in this research was: Can gaze control measures be used to reflect, and hopefully to predict, periods of impaired vigilance?*PERFORMANCE(HUMAN)
Join us for a great workshop to proof self control in your dog. This is a great challenging workshop for dogs who have basic obedience under their belts. Self-control games include exercises that require the dog to hold a position despite severe distractions and a high arousal level. A food-motivated dog that is asked to sit and hold that position while treats are dropped all around her is demonstrating excellent self-control. A dog that is easily aroused by motion, but can hold a sit while dogs and children are playing close by are showing excellent self-control. Perfect for pets who attend sports and family outings as well as competetive canine athletes alike ...
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Knowing where your limits are, or in this case knowing the required level of arousal for any given exercise, is very valuable in predicting the success of more complex movements and will help motivate your progress.. NOT knowing your limits will - over time - cause a shrinking effect! of your mind and your body! A literal narrowing of your perceived abilities both physical and mental. You more or less talk yourself into thinking you cant do things (often simply b/c you havent done them in a while).. Safely Testing your strength and conditioning abilities is not something recommended unless you have a trainer/coach with lots of experience.. ...
Removal of deceased cells in the lack of concomitant defense arousal is necessary for cells homeostasis. arrived from the statement of overstated build up and reduced removal of misfolded protein in plasminogen-/- rodents pursuing cells damage [7]. An extra element to the removal of undesirable protein can be the phagocytic left arm of the natural immune system program. Therefore, both extracellular degrading digestive enzymes and phagocytic reactions lead to the removal of deceased cells [9,10] and are most likely to communicate with each additional not really just to maximise distance, but also to minimise self-recognition and maintain cells homeostasis. Two primary cell types mediate the phagocytic distance of deceased cells: macrophages and dendritic cells. Earlier research possess demonstrated that plasmin offers a pro-inflammatory impact on macrophages [11C15] and raises their capability to phagocytose apoptotic cells [16]. Dendritic cells, as well as removing deceased cells, are also a ...
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Psychosexual disorders, defined as a lack of arousal or satisfaction while being intimate, are said to affect up to one in three people worldwide.
Reaction to assessor: Ulysses was calm and relaxed upon approach. He looks at the assessor and closes his eyes to rest when softly spoken to. Reaction to cage door opening: Ulysses remains soft and relaxed. Reaction to touch: Ulysses comes to the front and head-butts the assessor. He leans on the assessors hand and begins to purr during the interaction. When continuing to pet him, his tail started to sway from side to side and he nipped the assessors hand gently. He remains calm, but may not like additional attention. Reaction to being picked up: Ulysses remains calm and allows handling. Behavior Determination: Experience Ulysses is social and affectionate but appears to be easily overstimulated. As a result of this observed behavior we recommend adopters who are familiar with signs of behavioral arousal and agitation in cats, so that interactions can be ended before Ulysses becomes overstimulated. We also recommend fishing pole-type toys for play as they allow for interaction and vigorous, ...
The research was an experiment that was conducted in 15 volunteers. Each participant was presented with 80 life episodes and asked to imagine these scenarios according to the instructions shown on a screen. They would either be past or future events and included scenes such as "the end of a relationship", "winning an award" and so on. The participants were asked to press a button when the image (the "memory" or for future events, the "projection") began to form in their mind, and again when they had finished thinking about it. After each image, the participants rated the scenario depending on its emotional arousal and whether they called it "positive", "neutral" or "negative". These categories were used later to compare the differences between the participants when they were thinking about positive and negative, future and past events. Brain activity throughout the sessions of remembering and imagining was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Finally, all of the scenarios were ...
Lets say that at one point, the baby of, perhaps, just a day or so of age (just an arbitrary age) experiences a discomforting stimulus. This may be something as simple and benign as a change in its auditory environment; perhaps the parents with raised voices in the next room (not an argument), or an airplane flying low overhead, or some sudden noise like a dog barking or something dropping or crashing. Its evident that all these experiences do not constitute ACTUAL trauma or danger to the baby, but its also obvious that this stimulus can create discomfort in the babys experience: - negative emotional arousal. It is natural that this is so - see the fight or flight response in chapter 5. Note that the baby has never experienced this sensory input before. Its a "first-of" experience. ...
Principal Investigator:SASAKI Satoshi, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Applied materials science/Crystal engineering
When it comes to competing, or performing in high-pressure situations, being able to manage your emotional state is critical. In sport, the arousal state
Your interesting comment, however, does pose a good question for science in general. Ought we reject or at least be suspicious of scientific research that seems to posit a secret self (e.g. that bisexuals, in their secret selves are really mostly homosexuals). I am not sure what to think here. There seem to be good arguments in both directions. But what would you say to a study that measured arousal at images of women other than ones wife? If a man said, that no, hes only attracted to his wife and only finds her sexually appealling, would research showing that men are very frequently aroused by women other than their wives be suspect? Would it be silly or absolutely justified for this man to get upset and decry the scientists as anti-monogamous bigots ...
The current proposal is a continuation from a parent grant focused on characterizing the neural basis of cognitive control through adolescence. Core cognitive c...
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Warning: This map seems to be thresholded, sparse or acquired with limited field of view (90.43% of voxels are zeros). Some of the NeuroVault functions such as decoding might not work properly. Please use unthresholded maps whenever possible ...
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Sexual arousal (also sexual excitement) is the arousal of sexual desire, during or in anticipation of sexual activity. A number of physiological responses occur in the body and mind as preparation for sexual intercourse and continue during it. Genital responses are not the only changes, but noticeable and necessary for consensual and comfortable intercourse. Male arousal will lead to an erection, and in female arousal the bodys response is engorged sexual tissues such as nipples, vulva, clitoris, vaginal walls and vaginal lubrication. Mental stimuli and physical stimuli such as touch, and the internal fluctuation of hormones, can influence sexual arousal. Sexual arousal has several stages and may not lead to any actual sexual activity, beyond a mental arousal and the physiological changes that accompany it. Given sufficient sexual stimulation, sexual arousal in humans reaches its climax during an orgasm. It may also be pursued for its own sake, even in the absence of an orgasm. There are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Altered cardio-respiratory response to spontaneous cortical arousals in children with upper airway obstruction. AU - Baumert, Mathias. AU - Kohler, Mark. AU - Kabir, Muammar. AU - Sanders, Prashanthan. AU - Kennedy, Declan. AU - Martin, James. AU - Pamula, Yvonne. PY - 2011/3/1. Y1 - 2011/3/1. N2 - Objective: Upper airway obstruction (UAO) during childhood is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate the cardio-respiratory response to cortical arousal during sleep in children with UAO. Methods: Standard paediatric overnight polysomnography (PSG) was conducted in 40 children with UAO (25. M, 7.5 ± 2.7. yrs) prior to and 6 months following adenotonsillectomy. For comparison a control group of 40 normal, sex and age matched children (21. M, 7.5 ± 2.6. yrs) underwent two PSGs without intervention at the same time points. Results: Heart rate and respiratory rate were measured during spontaneous and respiratory arousals in stage 2 and REM ...
arousal - MedHelps arousal Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for arousal. Find arousal information, treatments for arousal and arousal symptoms.
Latency to sleep and the amount of sensory stimulation required to awaken an animal are measures of arousal threshold, which are ultimately modulated by an arousal regulation system involving many brain areas. Among these brain areas and network connections are wake-promoting nuclei of the brainstem and their corresponding neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine (NE). In this study, we used mice that are unable to produce NE to study its role in regulating sleep latency after a variety of interventions, and to study arousal from sleep after sleep deprivation (SD). Sleep latency was measured after gentle awakening or after injections of saline, caffeine or modafinil. Sleep latency was also measured before and after partial restoration of NE pharmacologically. Arousal threshold was measured by recording the number of decibels of white noise required to wake each mouse from NREM sleep after 0, 3 and 3 + 3 h SD (3 h SD followed by < 2 min sleep, followed by an additional 3 h SD). Results showed ...
Sexual behavior is an important role for the survival of species. The advancement of brain imaging methods has enabled the understanding of the brain mechanism related to sexual arousal. The previous studies on the brain mechanism related to sexual arousal have mostly conducted on block design paradigm. Despite its requirement for stricter experimental control, the event-related paradigm is known to be more efficient in detecting instant emotional and cognitive responses. The paradigm also enables the observation of hemodynamic responses through time. Therefore, this study used the event-related fMRI to examine the brain activation in various areas associated with sexual arousal as well as changes in hemodynamic responses with time. Strong activations were observed in the various areas associated with sexual arousal comprised of various factors: (1) activation areas related to cognitive factors: the occipital lobe and parietal lobe; (2) activation areas related to emotional factors: the thalamus and
To date, there has been limited literature on the measurement of sexual arousal in adolescent sex offenders. The data that exist have been somewhat mixed in terms of factors related to deviant sexual arousal in this group. The present study, with 71 adolescent sex offenders, investigates the relationship between offender and offense characteristics, including gender of victim, history of sexual abuse, history of physical abuse, race, and interactions between these factors in the prediction of physiologically measured sexual arousal to deviant and nondeviant stimulus categories. A number of variables significantly predicted sexual arousal. The most consistent predictors were gender of victim, race, the interaction of race and gender of victim, and to some extent the interaction of offender abuse history and gender of victim. Caucasian subjects tended to respond more than African American subjects did, and this has not been reported previously in the literature. The data are discussed in terms of
Introduction: The aim with this investigation was to psychometrically evaluate two insomnia-specific measures of worry/rumination: the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS; cognitive subscale) and the Anxiety and Preoccupation about Sleep Questionnaire (APSQ).. Methods: From a randomly selected sample from the general population (N = 5,000), 2,333 participants filled out a survey on sleep, daytime impairment, PSAS-C, and APSQ.. Results: Exploratory factor analyses showed that for both PSAS-C and APSQ only one factor was retained (total variance: 64% and 69%). One of the PSAS-C items fitted less well in the solution (being distracted by sounds, noise in the environment). The internal consistency for PSAS-C was .92 and for APSQ .95, and the two measures were highly correlated (r: .67). Both measures were correlated with sleep onset latency (r: .43-.50), wake time after sleep onset during night (r: .44-.46) and morning (r: .31-.34), sleep quality (r: .55-.60), and with sleep restoration (r: .51-.54). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Does muscle tension reflect arousal? Relationship between electromyographic and electroencephalographic recordings. AU - Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf. AU - Hazlett, Richard L.. AU - Pourmotabbed, Tahere. AU - McLeod, Daniel R.. PY - 1997/5/16. Y1 - 1997/5/16. N2 - Increased muscle tension and heightened arousal are the most consistent finding in patients with anxiety disorders. This study examined the relationship between frontalis and gastrocnemius electromyographic (EMG) and electroencephalographic activity on 14 female generalized anxiety disorder patients and 14 female control subjects. In GAD patients, gastrocnemius but not frontalis EMG was correlated with right but not left hemisphere activity. For the non-anxious subjects, there was a pattern for both β1 and β2 waves to be positively associated with both frontalis and gastrocnemius muscle tension levels. The results, while preliminary, suggest that EMG activity may reflect central nervous system arousal.. AB - Increased muscle ...
Delirium is a common and serious problem among acutely unwell persons. Alhough linked to higher rates of mortality, institutionalisation and dementia, it remains underdiagnosed. Careful consideration of its phenomenology is warranted to improve detection and therefore mitigate some of its clinical impact. The publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-5) provides an opportunity to examine the constructs underlying delirium as a clinical entity. Altered consciousness has been regarded as a core feature of delirium; the fact that consciousness itself should be physiologically disrupted due to acute illness attests to its clinical urgency. DSM-5 now operationalises `consciousness as `changes in attention. It should be recognised that attention relates to content of consciousness, but arousal corresponds to level of consciousness. Reduced arousal is also associated with adverse outcomes. Attention and arousal are hierarchically
How do arousal-related changes in sensory representations impact the ability of the pyramidal cell population to discriminate frequencies? At face value, the reduction in sparseness of activated cells and broadening of frequency tuning should increase overlap in cell ensembles activated by different frequencies. This implies that increased arousal would degrade rather than improve frequency discrimination. To address this, we analyzed interneuronal correlations that contribute to population coding: signal correlations (rsignal), a measure of tuning similarity between pairs of neurons and noise correlations (rnoise), a measure of how much the trial-to-trial response variability of a pair of neurons is correlated (19, 20). Consistent with previous studies in the auditory cortex (21⇓⇓-24), mean rsignal and rnoise values were small and positive (n = 4,938 cell pairs, 8 experiments, Fig. 2 C and D1). Interneuronal correlations were significantly modulated by arousal (Fig. 2C, 2-way ANOVA, ...
Skakoon-Sparling and her also team tested whether the effect of sexual arousal on mens and womens risk-taking extends to non-sexual decisions. Over one hundred more undergrads took part and followed a similar procedure to before, with half of them watching the porn clips and half watching non-sexual clips. This time, after each clip, the participants played rounds of the card game Black Jack. Men and women in the porn condition took more risks in the game than the control participants, and self-reported sexual arousal correlated positively with levels of risk-taking in the game. Women were just as inclined to take risks as men, in both the porn and control conditions ...
Acute effects of zaleplon on daytime functions on the following day psychomotor and physical performances, arousal levels and moodAcute effects of zaleplon on daytime functions on the following day psychomotor and physical performances, arousal levels and mood ...
Clinical trial: Evaluation of the Effects of Etifoxine 100 mg and Lorazepam 2 mg on Vigilance and Cognitive Functions in the Elderly
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Several studies have investigated the neural responses triggered by emotional pictures, but the specificity of the involved structures such as the amygdala or the ventral striatum is still under debate. Furthermore, only few studies examined the association of stimulis valence and arousal and the underlying brain responses. Therefore, we investigated brain responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging of 17 healthy participants to pleasant and unpleasant affective pictures and afterwards assessed ratings of valence and arousal. As expected, unpleasant pictures strongly activated the right and left amygdala, the right hippocampus, and the medial occipital lobe, whereas pleasant pictures elicited significant activations in left occipital regions, and in parts of the medial temporal lobe. The direct comparison of unpleasant and pleasant pictures, which were comparable in arousal clearly indicated stronger amygdala activation in response to the unpleasant pictures. Most important, ...
as fast as possible after a red stopwatch appears on screen. A valid response (response occurs after stopwatch appears) is followed by reaction time feedback. An invalid response (response occurs before stopwatch appears) is followed by a brief error message. DATA FILE INFORMATION: The default data stored in the data files are: (1) Raw data file: psychomotorvigilancetest_raw*.iqdat (a separate file for each participant)* build: Inquisit build computer.platform: the platform the script was run on date, time, subject, group: date and time script was run with the current subject/groupnumber blockcode, blocknum: the name and number of the current block trialcode, trialnum: the name and number of the currently recorded trial (Note: not all trials that are run might record data; by default data is collected unless /recorddata = false is set for a particular trial/block) /ISI: the currently randomly selected interstimulus interval in ms (randomly sampled from 2-10s) response: the participants ...
In 2009 the United States National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) introduced the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project which intends to explicate fundamental biobehavioral dimensions that cut across the current heterogeneous disorder categories in psychiatry (Cuthbert & Insel, 2013). One major research domain is defined by arousal/regulatory systems. In this study, we investigate the relationships between the arousal and regulatory systems domain with EEG-beta phenotypes and psychologically defined behavioral dimensions including insomnia, hyperactivity, and attention. This investigation is applied to a large heterogeneous outpatient psychiatric population. The goal of this study is to better understand an objective neurophysiological marker (an EEG-phenotype), and its behavioral implications that are shared across disorders and categories as defined by diagnostic systems such as DSM-IV/5 (American Psychiatric Association, American Psychiatric 2013).. The resting state EEG consists of ...
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Why, Freud once asked, should "a man, who will kiss a pretty girls mouth passionately, perhaps be disgusted by the idea of using her toothbrush"? A study published this week at last provides an answer. Research from the Netherlands shows that humans have evolved biological mechanisms that allow them to suppress any feelings of disgust they might otherwise feel during sex. There is evidence that a breakdown in these mechanisms may underlie a number of sexual disorders. Charmaine Borg, one of the researchers at Groningen University, said: "Disgust is thought to have evolved as a defensive mechanism to protect the organism from external contamination. However, sexual arousal seems to be so powerful as to modify our very perception of disgust." Ms Borg and Professor Peter…. ...
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Yet researchers were unable to produce direct evidence of bisexual arousal patterns in men, said Dr. J. Michael Bailey, a professor of psychology at Northwestern and the new studys senior author.. A 1979 study of 30 men found that those who identified themselves as bisexuals were indistinguishable from homosexuals on measures of arousal. Studies of gay and bisexual men in the 1990s showed that the two groups reported similar numbers of male sexual partners and risky sexual encounters. And a 1994 survey by The Advocate, the gay-oriented newsmagazine, found that, before identifying themselves as gay, 40 percent of gay men had described themselves as bisexual.. "Im not denying that bisexual behavior exists," said Dr. Bailey, "but I am saying that in men theres no hint that true bisexual arousal exists, and that for men arousal is orientation.". But other researchers -- and some self-identified bisexuals -- say that the technique used in the study to measure genital arousal is too crude to ...
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Many people on the Autism Spectrum display characteristics such as the inability to socially connect with others. They may also have repetitive behaviors that disrupt their functional life. They do this when they are overstimulated, anxious, or to change their arousal level. They may lock out joints, grind their teeth, flap their hands and play with their ears. But typical people have similar behaviors too! They change their arousal level by shaking their leg, twirling their hand, stroking their beard, or chewing gum. Many people have habits or behaviors to help with concentration and cope with their anxiety. We help people on the spectrum replace their atypical behaviors to more socially appropriate ways of meeting their needs.. Another thing that "Autism Awareness," means to us is understanding. Often people on the spectrum as well as their families feel isolated by the diagnosis. People with ASD often ...
Many people on the Autism Spectrum display characteristics such as the inability to socially connect with others. They may also have repetitive behaviors that disrupt their functional life. They do this when they are overstimulated, anxious, or to change their arousal level. They may lock out joints, grind their teeth, flap their hands and play with their ears. But typical people have similar behaviors too! They change their arousal level by shaking their leg, twirling their hand, stroking their beard, or chewing gum. Many people have habits or behaviors to help with concentration and cope with their anxiety. We help people on the spectrum replace their atypical behaviors to more socially appropriate ways of meeting their needs.. Another thing that "Autism Awareness," means to us is understanding. Often people on the spectrum as well as their families feel isolated by the diagnosis. People with ASD often ...
A key physical reaction God built into arousal for a woman is that there are glands in the vagina that secret lubrication, making it more comfortable for her to receive her husbands erect penis. Of course, each womans body is different and there are various factors that can affect how well this lubrication process works, but generally speaking, the vagina becoming wetter is a natural progression of her feeling aroused and sexually excited.. Some women can become wet without even being touched, especially if they feel extremely safe and secure with their marriage relationship, have a high sex drive, and have a positive and healthy perspective on sex. She may become wet just from the way you talk to her seductively or from her own thought life as she thinks about sexual connection with you.. This lubrication is one reason foreplay is so important. While you may feel ready at a moments notice, her body may need more time to warm up to the proposition. Be sure to read the post where I elaborate ...
The traditional physiologically defined activation or arousal continuum, which ranges from intense emotion and vigorous activity on one extreme to calmness and sleep on the other, is rejected in favor
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The locus coeruleus has widespread connections to brain regions that process sensory information. It secretes most of the brains noradrenaline, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in arousal mechanisms, such as the "fight or flight" response. It is also involved in a variety of complex behaviors, such as attentional focusing (the ability to concentrate attention on environmental cues relevant to the task in hand, or to switch attention from one task to another). Poor attentional focusing is a defining characteristic of autism. "What is unique about the locus coeruleus is that it activates almost all higher-order brain centers that are involved in complex cognitive tasks," says Dr. Mehler. Drs. Purpura and Mehler hypothesize that in autism, the LC-NA system is dysregulated by the interplay of environment, genetic, and epigenetic factors (chemical substances both within as well as outside the genome that regulate the expression of genes). They believe that stress plays a central role in ...
A fascinating new study just came out, showing that tears that were produced by women under negative emotions reduce the sex drive of men! This gives men yet another reason not to upset women.. Here is the abstract:. Emotional tearing is a poorly understood behavior that is considered uniquely human. In mice, tears serve as a chemosignal. We therefore hypothesized that human tears may similarly serve a chemosignaling function. We found that merely sniffing negative-emotion-related odorless tears obtained from women donors, induced reductions in sexual appeal attributed by men to pictures of womens faces. Moreover, after sniffing such tears, men experienced reduced self-rated sexual arousal, reduced physiological measures of arousal, and reduced levels of testosterone. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that sniffing womens tears selectively reduced activity in brain-substrates of sexual arousal in men.. The full paper is here:. ...
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Background: This paper reviews the physiological correlates of arousal to develop a comprehensive and collective understanding of the physiological co..
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NOTOC__ ,html> ,div class="col-md-12 text-justify" style="border: 1px #e4e4e4 solid; margin-top: 30px; margin-bottom: 30px; padding: 20px; border-radius: 4px; box-shadow: 0 0 12px #ccc; background-color: #fff; color: #003b6e; font-weight: bolder; ">,!--#93322d-#003b6e ,h4> ,b> Respiratory and Arousal Mechanisms ,/b> ,small>,i> (NS090414) ,/i>,/small>,/h4> ,br> ,h4> Specific Aims and Tasks ,/h4> ,h5> Cardiac arrhythmias and respiratory depression are both proposed to be mechanisms that lead to SUDEP; however respiratory mechanisms have not been studied as extensively as cardiac causes. SUDEP is a major cause of death in patients with epilepsy, by some estimates accounting for up to 50% of mortality in patients with chronic refractory epilepsy. Cardiac arrhythmias and respiratory depression are both proposed to be mechanisms that lead to SUDEP, however respiratory mechanisms have not been studied as extensively as cardiac causes. This proposal seeks: 1) to investigate the mechanisms underlying ...
INTRODUCTION. During normal development, self-regulation develops as infants learn to take interest in their surroundings, while at the same time regulating their level of arousal in response to sensory stimulation1. This self-regulation is described as an interaction between physiological maturation; the parents sensitivity to the infants needs as well as the infants adaptation to the environmental demands. The foundation for self-regulation is the infants ability to develop homeostasis during the early months of life. This process continues to develop during the first two years of life2. Homeostasis refers to the ability of the infant to regulate and develop sleep-wake cycles, to digest food, to self soothe in response to changing stimuli from the environment and to respond appropriately to social stimuli3.. For some infants this natural process of self-regulation does not develop typically. As a result they may have difficulties in transitioning between arousal states, become overwhelmed ...
INTRODUCTION. During normal development, self-regulation develops as infants learn to take interest in their surroundings, while at the same time regulating their level of arousal in response to sensory stimulation1. This self-regulation is described as an interaction between physiological maturation; the parents sensitivity to the infants needs as well as the infants adaptation to the environmental demands. The foundation for self-regulation is the infants ability to develop homeostasis during the early months of life. This process continues to develop during the first two years of life2. Homeostasis refers to the ability of the infant to regulate and develop sleep-wake cycles, to digest food, to self soothe in response to changing stimuli from the environment and to respond appropriately to social stimuli3.. For some infants this natural process of self-regulation does not develop typically. As a result they may have difficulties in transitioning between arousal states, become overwhelmed ...
I was frantically running from wild harpies, women with grotesque heads and chicken bodies. I felt alone and vulnerable. My body was injured. I ran into a small cave and pushed my body against the rock, terrified. I saw the harpies sharp, bloody teeth as they howled, clawing to get in. There was no escape. I woke up with my heart in my throat.". As Angie spoke I could see the high sympathetic tone or activation in her body. The artery in her neck was pulsing. Her hands were quivering with adrenaline. Through these and other physiological markers, I also observed her body in high arousal with dorsal vagal (freeze) dominance. Her voice seemed constricted. Her torso was muscularly locked and her breathing was fast and shallow. Her skin was very pale and I imagined she felt cold.. As Angie finished talking I noticed her eyes move to the picture on the wall behind me. I invited her to follow this movement and to naturally orient: "Just allow your eyes, head, and neck to move in any way they want ...
Both techniques involve maintaining a low-to-moderate level of excitability, and are specifically intended to narrow down your attention to facilitate full concentration. This has been thought to improve sporting prowess. The recent findings have shown otherwise, such that by simply increasing excitability, one could enhance maximal hand force.. It will be interesting to determine whether it is possible to find an optimal range of arousal levels that maintain concentration as well as enhance force performance. There is clearly scope for future work.. Note that factors influencing performance in other sports could involve different sensory-motor mechanisms and may receive different effects of heightened arousal than that examined in this study.. For example, a tennis match involves a sequential chain of small wins and losses that build up into the final match outcome. This will give rise to a different set of motivational mechanisms to improve performance which may interact with how excitable an ...
The main goal of e-commerce is to improve the usability of website, which nowadays brings a competitive advantage. If todays consumers are not satisfied with websites, they leave them. It is so easy to visit the competitor´s e-shop, it is only one click away. This study is an investigation of the role of emotional arousal (anxiety-like emotion) and engagement when completing online purchasing related tasks. We have chosen one of the most popular e-shops in the world - Amazon [1]. Amazon was a role model for e-commerce design for many years. [2] Nielsen said: "In 2001, we evaluated the usability of 20 e-commerce sites and Amazon was the clear winner, scoring 65% higher than the average of the other 19 sites. Having the Webs best usability served Amazon well: sales increased by 126% from 2001 to 2004". This website was tested, evaluated and then redesigned many times. [3] Despite the fact that many tests were done, we would like to verify the impact to users. There is the potential to find out ...
Leptin, Homocysteine, Homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Heart rate variability, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire and Psychomotor Vigilance Task ...
Penis tingling symptoms - I have a tingling sensation in my penis shaft. No pain or other symptoms. I have been celibate for 11 months and it started a week ago. Arousal? Sexual arousal can cause tingling feeling in the penis.
I am a special education teacher of 8-11 year olds in Australia. Most of my kids have a diagnosis of ASD and lots of other comorbid conditions. This year I have spent a lot of time trying to create an environment that will help them to self regualte their arousal levels and keep sensory input in the positive zone. I have been teaching for 20 years but this year, I think that my kids with ASD and/or ADHD have taught me its not about changing the child its all about creating a right environment for them to learn and live in. The world outside my classroom is crazy and I deal with lots of the same issues you mentioned when I take the kids out in public. The world is faulty, my kids are loveable and loving, brave, resilient, and simply amazing. So is yours. ...
Where are we when we sleep? Does any part of us remains cognizant of the external environment in which our body rests? The closest we can come to approachin..
Higher levels of affiliation motivation after exposure to affiliative films are significantly related to higher dopamine concentrations in saliva in one study of 61 college students of both sexes,...
I really enjoyed tonights lecture. Bobs talk about various herbs affects on our bodies, their historical value and present value was fascinating. Les summary of the relationship of DNA, RNA, proteins, enzymes and hormones was literally the 1st time Ive ever heard anyone package it together in such an easily understandable box of info for me. 2 years of biology didnt do that for me. The best part is how Bob and Les put it together to do what is best for the patient. It was an eye opening an… ...
Humorous views on interesting, bizarre and amusing articles, submitted by a community of millions of news junkies, with regular Photoshop contests.
Researchers have discovered that Arginine regulates nitric oxide, a powerful compound in the blood responsible for regulating blood flow, immune function, communication among nerve cells, liver function, blood clotting, and even sexual arousal. Arginine r
Stanford University investigators have for the first time tied several brain circuits to alertness. The findings enhance scientists understanding of the forces driving alertness, a brain state thats essential to survival, by showing that diverse cell types throughout the brain together produce this state.
Hindmarch I, Parrott AC: The effects of combined sedative and anxiolytic preparations on subjective aspects of sleep and objective measures of arousal and performance the morning following nocturnal medication. I: Acute doses. Arzneimittelforschung. 1980;30(6):1025-8. PMID 6106498 ...
The primal urge to win often overwhelms rational decision making. Heres how to tame competitive arousal, head off emotionally charged competitions, or manage them to your advantage.
If youre looking to buy some time before reaching climax, rather than hitting up your doctor for meds, check out the following tips. Stop-Start Technique You need to get used to building your arousal to where youre almost at that point of no return. Start stimulation, but as soon as you feel youre getting too…
Pre-Ejaculatory Fluid Definition - Pre-ejaculatory fluid is the fluid released by the penis during arousal to protect ejaculated sperm from the...
A Gunslinger contributor brought this to my attention; I share it for your edification and arousal. The ICJ opinion referred to in the YouTube video can be found here ...
Now, Shop online for Sensuva ON Ice Buzzing & Cooling Female Arousal Oil 5 ml in India at ThatsPersonal.com, and get it delivered discreetly at your doorstep.
... is the state of active attention by high sensory awareness such as being watchful and prompt to meet danger or emergency, or being quick to perceive and act. It is related to psychology as well as to physiology. Inhalation is the best method. The following are essential oils that have been shown to help. This in no way is to replace medications or medical supervision.
Vigilance. Its the key to detecting concerns about your health before they turn into larger, life changing complications. Vigilance means when something doesnt seem quite right, report it to your doctor. And always stay current with recommended screenings. They can save your life. For Kristen Snader, 34, vigilance combined with state-of-the-art surgical standards and attentive, compassionate care at UPMC Susquehanna, stopped cancer.
News Analysis The Rising Research Profile of 23andMe An exploration of the genetics of earlobe attachment is just the latest collaborative research project to come out of the personal genetic testing company.. ...
Sexsomnia is classified under NREM arousal parasomnia.[1] NREM arousal parasomnia[edit]. Parasomnia disorders are classified ... "Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) Sleep Arousal Disorders - Sleep eBook". sleepdisorders.sleepfoundation.org. Retrieved 2017-11-13. ... Behaviors of pelvic thrusting, sexual arousal, and orgasms are often attributed to sleep related epilepsy disorder. In some ... sleep arousal disorders, Nightmare disorder, Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, Restless legs syndrome, and ...
Arousal and reward[edit]. The dopaminergic neurons from the ventral tegmental area that innervate the olfactory tubercle enable ... Gervais, G. (1979). "Unilateral lesions of the olfactory tubercle modifying general arousal effects in the rat olfactory bulb ... arousal, and reward centers, thus making it a potentially critical interface between processing of sensory information and the ... and a number of structures in the reward-arousal system, as well as the olfactory cortex. Due to its many innervations from ...
Effect of arousals[edit]. Arousals cause return of airway resistance and airflow to near awake values. Refer arousals in NREM ... Effects of arousals[edit]. Induced transient arousal from NREM sleep cause the following: Increase EMG activity of the ... Sleep onset in normal subjects is not immediate, but oscillates between arousal, stage I and II sleep before steady NREM sleep ... These subjects also experienced more frequent arousals and diminished stage 3 and stage 4 sleep. A poorer quality of sleep was ...
arousal (Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake or reactive to stimuli) ...
m Arousal‎; 12:16 . . (+10)‎ . . ‎. Rodw. (talk , contribs)‎ (Disambiguated: respiration → Breathing) (Tag: Dispenser [1.0]) ...
Cortical arousal also takes advantage of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN), ventral tegmenti area (VTA) and the ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 12: Sleep and Arousal". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A ... NE, along with 5HT, ACh, histamine, and orexin, is a critical regulator of the sleep-wake cycle and of levels of arousal. ... ... While the best characterized function of the histamine system in the brain is regulation of sleep and arousal, histamine is ...
Autonomic arousal symptoms. (1) Palpitations or pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate.. (2) Sweating.. (3) Trembling or ...
Arousal. See also: Sleep. Many animals alternate between sleeping and waking in a daily cycle. Arousal and alertness are also ... A key component of the arousal system is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a tiny part of the hypothalamus located directly ... Some of these functions relate to arousal or to social interactions such as sexuality, aggression, or maternal behaviors; but ... which is involved in arousal, comes exclusively from a nearby small area called the locus coeruleus.[70] Other ...
Sexual arousalEdit. See also: Hormones and sexual arousal. When testosterone and endorphins in ejaculated semen meet the ... on genital arousal in women. In addition, a continuous increase in vaginal sexual arousal may result in higher genital ... Sexual arousal and masturbation in women produce small increases in testosterone concentrations.[35] The plasma levels of ... Testosterone levels and sexual arousal in men are heavily aware of hormone cycles in females.[46] This may be linked to the ...
Confusional arousalsEdit. Confusional arousal has a prevalence[clarification needed] of 4% in adults, and is common in children ... These disorders of arousal can range from confusional arousals, somnambulism, to night terrors. Other specific disorders ... or during arousal from sleep. Most parasomnias are dissociated sleep states which are partial arousals during the transitions ... NREM parasomnias are arousal disorders that occur during stage 3 (or 4 by the R&K standardization) of NREM sleep-also known as ...
Levay, Simon; Valente, Sharon M (2006). "Sexual Attraction and Arousal". Human Sexuality. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates Inc ... Evolutionary psychology Mate choice Menstrual cycle Levay, Simon; Baldwin, Janice; Baldwin, John (2015). "Attraction, Arousal, ...
Abnormal uterine bleeding is a general category that includes any bleeding from menstrual or nonmenstrual causes. Hypomenorrhea is abnormally light menstrual periods. Menorrhagia (meno = prolonged,[2] rrhagia = excessive flow/discharge) is an abnormally heavy and prolonged menstrual period. Metrorrhagia is bleeding at irregular times, especially outside the expected intervals of the menstrual cycle. If there is excessive menstrual and uterine bleeding other than that caused by menstruation, menometrorrhagia (meno = prolonged, metro = time, rrhagia = excessive flow/discharge) may be diagnosed. Causes may be due to abnormal blood clotting, disruption of normal hormonal regulation of periods or disorders of the endometrial lining of the uterus. Depending upon the cause, it may be associated with abnormally painful periods. ...
... (BV) is a disease of the vagina caused by excessive growth of bacteria.[6][9] Common symptoms include increased vaginal discharge that often smells like fish.[2] The discharge is usually white or gray in color.[2] Burning with urination may occur.[2] Itching is uncommon.[2][6] Occasionally, there may be no symptoms.[2] Having BV approximately doubles the risk of infection by a number of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS.[8][10] It also increases the risk of early delivery among pregnant women.[3][11] BV is caused by an imbalance of the naturally occurring bacteria in the vagina.[4][5] There is a change in the most common type of bacteria and a hundred to thousandfold increase in total numbers of bacteria present.[6] Typically, bacteria other than Lactobacilli become more common.[12] Risk factors include douching, new or multiple sex partners, antibiotics, and using an intrauterine device, among others.[5] However, it is not considered a sexually transmitted ...
Women who experience pain with attempted intercourse describe their pain in many ways. This reflects how many different and overlapping causes there are for dyspareunia.[2] The location, nature, and time course of the pain help to understand potential causes and treatments. Some women describe superficial pain at the opening of the vagina or surface of the genitalia when penetration is initiated. Other women feel deeper pain in the vault of the vagina or deep within the pelvis upon deeper penetration. Some women feel pain in more than one of these places. Determining whether the pain is more superficial or deep is important in understanding what may be causing a woman's pain.[3] Some women have always experienced pain with intercourse from their very first attempt. Other women begin to feel pain with intercourse after an injury or infection or cyclically with menstruation. Sometimes the pain increases over time. When pain occurs, the woman may be distracted from feeling pleasure and excitement. ...
Levay, Simon; Valente, Sharon M (2006). "Sexual Attraction and Arousal". Human Sexuality. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates Inc ... Levay, Simon; Baldwin, Janice; Baldwin, John (2015). "Attraction, Arousal, and Response". Discovering Human Sexuality. ...
... s are often the result of trauma during childbirth (in which case it is known as obstetric fistula), with increased risk associated with significant lacerations or interventions are used such as episiotomy or operative (forceps/vacuum extraction) deliveries[2] or in situations where there is inadequate health care, such as in some developing countries. Rectovaginal fistula is said to be known as the leading cause in maternal death in developing countries.[3] Risk factors include prolonged labour, difficult instrumental delivery and paramedian episiotomy. Rates in Eritrea are estimated as high as 350 per 100,000 vaginal births. Fistulas can also develop as a result of physical trauma to either the vagina or anus, including from rape.[4] Women with rectovaginal fistulae are often stigmatized in developing countries, and become outcasts.[5] Rectovaginal fistula can also be a symptom of various diseases, including infection by lymphogranuloma venereum,[6] or the unintended result ...
The major cause for distal tubal occlusion is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), usually as a consequence of an ascending infection by chlamydia or gonorrhea.[citation needed] However, not all pelvic infections will cause distal tubal occlusion.[citation needed] Tubal tuberculosis is an uncommon cause of hydrosalpinx formation.[citation needed] While the cilia of the inner lining (endosalpinx) of the fallopian tube beat towards the uterus, tubal fluid is normally discharged via the fimbriated end into the peritoneal cavity from where it is cleared. If the fimbriated end of the tube becomes agglutinated, the resulting obstruction does not allow the tubal fluid to pass; it accumulates and reverts its flow downstream, into the uterus, or production is curtailed by damage to the endosalpinx. This tube then is unable to participate in the reproductive process: sperm cannot pass, the egg is not picked up, and fertilization does not take place. Other causes of distal tubal occlusion include adhesion ...
The following causes of infertility may only be found in females. For a woman to conceive, certain things have to happen: vaginal intercourse must take place around the time when an egg is released from her ovary; the system that produces eggs has to be working at optimum levels; and her hormones must be balanced.[52] For women, problems with fertilisation arise mainly from either structural problems in the Fallopian tube or uterus or problems releasing eggs. Infertility may be caused by blockage of the Fallopian tube due to malformations, infections such as chlamydia and/or scar tissue. For example, endometriosis can cause infertility with the growth of endometrial tissue in the Fallopian tubes and/or around the ovaries. Endometriosis is usually more common in women in their mid-twenties and older, especially when postponed childbirth has taken place.[53] Another major cause of infertility in women may be the inability to ovulate. Malformation of the eggs themselves may complicate conception. ...
Kiesler, C.A.; Pallak, M.S. (1976). "Arousal Properties of Dissonance Manipulations". Psychological Bulletin. 83 (6): 1014-1025 ... Zanna, M.; Cooper, J. (1974). "Dissonance and the Pill: An Attribution Approach to Studying the Arousal Properties of ... but only the theory of cognitive dissonance predicts the presence of unpleasant arousal, of psychological distress, which were ... "Meat-related cognitive dissonance: A conceptual framework for understanding how meat eaters reduce negative arousal from ...
"Arousal Regulation in Affective Disorders". In Frodl, Thomas. Systems Neuroscience in Depression. Elsevier Science. p. 353. In ...
Bancroft J (September 2005). "The endocrinology of sexual arousal". The Journal of Endocrinology. 186 (3): 411-27. doi:10.1677/ ... elevated sex steroids and elevated sexual arousal and sexual performance (Herbert 1996; Fiorino et al. 1997; Liu et al. 1998; ...
The revised scoring was published in 2007 as The AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events.[58] Arousals, ... Cortical arousal also takes advantage of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN), ventral tegmenti area (VTA) and the ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 12: Sleep and Arousal". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A ... McCormick DA, Bal T (1 March 1997). "Sleep and arousal: thalamocortical mechanisms". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 20 (1): 185 ...
The areas concerning sexual arousal are: Arousability (arousal and sexual stimulation); Sexual power dynamics (power dynamics ... sexual arousal is controlled by the balance of several factors, all of which contribute to arousal or inhibition. Validation of ... Arousal contingency (arousal-related factors); Concerns about sexual function (concerns about the consequences of sexual ... Each item explores a particular aspect of sexuality: 1. Sexual drive, 2. Arousal, 3a. Penile erection; 3b. Vaginal lubrication ...
Episode 5. Spousal Arousal. Aired: Directed by: Brian Kirk 'Mick Bad News' thinks his wife is having an affair and hires the ...
ISBN 978-0-9561387-1-2. Jones, BE (1 May 2003). "Arousal systems". Frontiers in Bioscience. 8: s438-51. ISSN 1093-9946. PMID ...
Vaginal lubrication and genital arousal? Also linked to pelvic blood flow. As such, an increasing amount of research focuses on ... arousal, lubrication, orgasm) compared to an age-matched control group of sedentary women. ...
Li SB., Giardino W.J., de Lecea L. (2016) Hypocretins and Arousal. In: Lawrence A., de Lecea L. (eds) Behavioral Neuroscience ... Here, we review the role of hypocretins/orexins in arousal state transitions, and discuss possible mechanisms by which such a ... Yamanaka A et al (2003) Hypothalamic orexin neurons regulate arousal according to energy balance in mice. Neuron 38:701-713 ... Carter ME et al (2010) Tuning arousal with optogenetic modulation of locus coeruleus neurons. Nat Neurosci 13:1526-1533. doi: ...
... of the men who received the hormone showed increased activity in the areas of the brain typically activated by sexual arousal ...
Some even go so far as to cause themselves pain during breastfeeding to combat their feelings of arousal or stop breastfeeding ... The hormones released during lactation explain some of the connection between breastfeeding and arousal. When a baby suckles at ... 1] http://www.goaskalice.columbia.edu/answered-questions/arousal-while-breastfeeding. [2] http://goaskalice.columbia.edu/ ... Source URL: http://www.goaskalice.columbia.edu/answered-questions/arousal-while-breastfeeding ...
Arousal & Massage Deals: 50 to 90% off deals on Groupon Goods. Jo Vaginal Tightening Serum (1.7 Fl. Oz.). Doc Johnson GoodHead ...
activity aesthetic albedo alpha waves alternative animals appear arousal potential arousal value associated attention auditory ... McGraw-Hill, 1960 - Arousal (Physiology) - 350 pages. 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Conflict_Arousal_and_ ... epistemic behavior evoke expected experiment experimental exploratory behavior factors familiar figures goal box high arousal ... books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Conflict_Arousal_and_Curiosity.html?id=Z1x9AAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus- ...
... spontaneous arousal. A person can experience sudden orgasms unrelated to sexual desire. Triggers may include anxiety, cysts, ... the genital arousal is not associated with feelings of sexual desire. *the persistent sensations of genital arousal feel ... A woman with PGAD can experience spontaneous orgasms that do not resolve arousal. The persons arousal is not linked to sexual ... Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is characterized by unrelenting, spontaneous, and uncontainable genital arousal, ...
Some psychologists think our brains are bad at keeping arousal from fear separate from arousal from sex. I think they happen to ... These explanations - that the mind mistakes fear arousal for sexual arousal, and that this is useful because it makes people ... Cant it be just because fear and sexual arousal share the same neurological pathways? Maybe arousal needs a qualifier before ... involve physiological arousal (in the form of things like an increased heart rate); apparently, physiological arousal is pretty ...
A hormone called kisspeptin was found to increase brain activity associated with sexual arousal and romanic love in healthy ... "Hormone injection boosts brain activity linked to sexual arousal." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 24 Jan. 2017. Web. ... The hormone, called kisspeptin, was found to increase activity in areas of the brain normally stimulated by sexual arousal and ... Whiteman, H. (2017, January 24). "Hormone injection boosts brain activity linked to sexual arousal." Medical News Today. ...
... arousal aligned to low arousal BF. (Right) Low and high arousal curves scaled. (Middle) Cumulative probability plots show no ... we show that NS is strongest during low arousal and becomes progressively weaker as arousal increases. Furthermore, the arousal ... 2 C and D1). Interneuronal correlations were significantly modulated by arousal (Fig. 2C, 2-way ANOVA, Parousal, Pcorrelations ... B4) Increases in arousal decrease current variability (Im SD) while mean current is unchanged (n = 14 cells). (C) Arousal ...
Treatments and Tools for arousal. Find arousal information, treatments for arousal and arousal symptoms. ... arousal - MedHelps arousal Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Low sexual arousal and dull pains around penis an perinum ? - Sexual Health Community ... Constant arousal, urge to urinate sometimes, burning sensation? - Urinary Tract Infection Community ...
Maybe down the road urine scent will have its place as a natural, sexual arousal, but for now we can stick to our other ... Unfortunately (or fortunately), urine has not been recorded to pose as a strong sexual arousal for humans. One study reveals ...
Arousal was induced by randomly presented trains of five electrical pulses delivered to a finger. The pulses were triggered on ... Arousal elicits exaggerated inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity in phobic syncope patients.. Artikel i vetenskaplig ... Alerting stimuli causing arousal have been shown to elicit a reproducible transient inhibition of muscle sympathetic nerve ... The aim of the present study was to test whether this inhibitory response to arousal is exaggerated in patients with a history ...
... While the emotion of fear serves to protect us from an immediate danger, anxiety ... Low to moderate levels of anxiety, over a short period of time, heighten our arousal in a beneficial way. This arousal makes us ... This increased arousal is due in part to the release of chemicals in the body such as adrenaline and noradrenalin. However, ...
In general, sexual arousal comprises 2 components: genital arousal and subjective (neuronal) arousal (8). The former is ... Understanding sexual arousal and subjective-genital arousal desynchrony in women. Nat. Rev. Urol. 16, 107-120 (2019).. ... Neural substrates of sexual arousal are not sex dependent. Ekaterina Mitricheva, Rui Kimura, Nikos K. Logothetis, Hamid R. ... Neural substrates of sexual arousal are not sex dependent. Ekaterina Mitricheva, Rui Kimura, Nikos K. Logothetis, Hamid R. ...
Humorous views on interesting, bizarre and amusing articles, submitted by a community of millions of news junkies, with regular Photoshop contests.
"Goat arousal experts", they exist! Wasnt it yesterday that we had the article about the guy, who when he was arrested, said ...
Female Viagra will help women increase their sexual arousal. By Claire Ellicott for the Daily Mail Updated: 06:48 EDT, 14 ... Now that we are beginning to establish the pathways involved in sexual arousal, scientists may be able to find ways of helping ... Pharmaceutical giant Pfizer has developed a drug, so far called only UK-414,495, which is supposed to increase sexual arousal, ... A female equivalent of Viagra could soon be available to help women increase their sexual arousal, scientists claim. ...
Aesthetic Arousal. For our Winter 2019 issue themed on Pleasure, we asked seven artists: which works of art turn you on? ...
The Arousal was a Pakistani anarchist newsletter founded in 1988. It was distributed in Karachi and Lahore and became notorious ...
Arousal Disasters is Jonathan Seets second album, released by Aporia Records/MapleNationwide on 14 February 2003. "À Bientôt ...
Low arousal most likely refers to when a person is in a state of low arousal. It can also refer to: Low arousal approach, deals ... that individuals who have antisocial personality disorder or ADHD seek excessive activity to combat a state of low arousal ... with how staff handles patients who are easily provoked Low arousal theory, explains ...
Steele, R. S. (1973).The physiological concomitants of psychogenic motive arousal in college males. Unpublished doctoral ... just as norepinephrine has been found to be associated with arousal of power motivation. Thus, different motives may be ... it appears likely that dopamine is especially associated with arousal of affiliation motivation, ... subserved by different hormones, making it unlikely that all motives lead to the same state of physiological arousal. ...
Stress, arousal, and sleep. Sanford, L. D., Suchecki, D. & Meerlo, P., 2015, Sleep, Neuronal Plasticity and Brain Function . ... While most stressors are associated with at least a brief period of arousal and wakefulness, the subsequent amount and ... regions likely play significant roles in memory processes and participate in the way stressful memories may affect arousal and ...
  • A recent study conducted by researchers in Turkey and published in the November 2009 issue of The Journal of Sexual Medicine found that elite female athletes (specifically, professional volleyball and handball players) had better clitoral blood flow and more positive sexual function (think: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm) compared to an age-matched control group of sedentary women. (menshealth.com)
  • Several of these studies also found that the degree of amygdala activation correlates with measures of autonomic arousal ( 13 - 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Arousal comes from deep inside the brain, in those primal regions of the autonomic nervous system where ingoing and outgoing signals are monitored and the glass over the big fight-or-flight button waits to be smashed. (youarenotsosmart.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal following cognitive challenge. (wiley.com)
  • Psychophysiological theories suggest that anxiety disorders are associated with chronic dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system, as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and heart rate (HR). Findings to date regarding autonomic arousal at rest and in response to stress, among children with (social) anxiety disorder(s) have been inconsistent however, and/or subject to a range of methodological limitations. (bl.uk)
  • The first study presented in this thesis aimed to investigate whether children with social anxiety disorder, other anxiety disorders and nonanxious children differ in terms of their autonomic arousal at rest and in response to stress, taking account of various methodological shortcomings of previous studies. (bl.uk)
  • One puzzle in high worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is the heterogeneity in the level of autonomic arousal symptoms seen among affected individuals. (frontiersin.org)
  • While current models agree that worry persists, in part, because it fosters avoidance of unpleasant internal experiences, they disagree as to whether worry does so by suppressing activation of autonomic arousal or by fostering persistent autonomic hyperarousal. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our Cognitive Control Model predicts that which pattern of autonomic arousal occurs depends on whether or not a worrier has sufficient cognitive control capacity to worry primarily in a verbal versus imagery-based manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, we report tentative evidence that autonomic arousal symptoms in worry and GAD vary as a function of individual differences in cognitive control capacity because higher capacity is linked to a greater predominance of verbal thought during worry. (frontiersin.org)
  • That model posits, in part, that worry is characterized by suppression of fear-provoking images and the autonomic arousal they would typically engender, by shifting to a verbal mode of threat processing. (frontiersin.org)
  • This model is supported by numerous studies finding that worry and GAD are indeed characterized by a lack of elevated autonomic arousal. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, despite such support, a similarly large body of studies shows instead that worry and GAD are characterized by high levels of autonomic arousal. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, whereas the CognAv model cannot account for findings that worry and GAD are characterized by high levels of autonomic arousal, neither can the ContrAv model easily accommodate the opposite pattern. (frontiersin.org)
  • recently proposed and tested an integrative model, which posits that only when worriers have sufficient cognitive control capacity to suppress intrusive threatening imagery and shift instead to verbal processing of threat can they avoid the autonomic arousal that such images would otherwise elicit. (frontiersin.org)
  • Absent such capacity, worry will instead be characterized by heightened autonomic arousal. (frontiersin.org)
  • The condition appears to be genetically determined, and caused by the presence in the nose of erectile tissue which may become engorged during sexual arousal as a side effect of the signals from the autonomic nervous system that trigger changes in the genitals of both men and women. (wikipedia.org)
  • The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased arousal reduces lateral inhibition, broadens frequency tuning and enhances cortical representations of pure tones. (pnas.org)
  • Arousal (EDA) correlated positively with brain activity in amygdala, OFC, and aCING during midcycle but not in early follicular, suggesting less cortical control of amygdala during early follicular, when arousal was increased. (jneurosci.org)
  • This is the first evidence suggesting that estrogen may likely attenuate arousal in women via cortical-subcortical control within HPA circuitry. (jneurosci.org)
  • Findings suggest that estrogen is likely attenuating arousal in women via cortical-subcortical control within the HPA circuitry. (jneurosci.org)
  • The existence of an externally initiated, internally present low-level coherent oscillation (perceived as binaural beating) within the central nervous system, and specifically the reticular formation, suggests a condition that may facilitate alterations of levels of cortical arousal. (monroeinstitute.org)
  • the system for arousal is mainly subcortical, and the one for attention is mainly cortical. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results emphasize the crucial role of arousal for long-term recognition memory and support the hypothesis that the memorized material, over time, becomes stored in a distributed cortical network including the core salience network and basal ganglia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Slow waves are thus correlated with both behavioral decreases in arousal and disruption of cortical activity. (elifesciences.org)
  • Observations in victims of SIDS support a role of arousal deficiency in SIDS. (aappublications.org)
  • 4 Observations in infants at high risk for SIDS also support a role of arousal deficiency. (aappublications.org)
  • Other publications by Fein include research on the role of arousal in stereotype threat, suspicion and the fundamental attribution error, and a study testing whether measuring the personalities of new medical students could predict what area of medicine they would specialize in several years later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, moment-to-moment changes in arousal have strong effects on spontaneous and stimulus-evoked firing activity in the primary visual (V1) ( 5 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 12 ) and auditory (A1) cortex ( 13 ⇓ - 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • The results may also be relevant to understanding clinical disorders, such as anxiety and depression, where changes in arousal might lock sufferers into an unrealistically certain or uncertain world. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here we test this hypothesis using a novel psychophysical paradigm, in which unseen disgust-cues induced unexpected, unconscious arousal just before participants discriminated motion signals of variable precision. (nih.gov)
  • Applying his hypothesis to heightened states of arousal-sex and fear-Pfaff shows us how his theory opens new scientific approaches to understanding the structure of brain arousal. (harvard.edu)
  • Russian Psychologist Yuri Hanin's adaptation of the the Inverted-U Hypothesis allows for two distinct manners of variation in performance anxieties and arousal levels. (hubpages.com)
  • The results provide support for the hypothesis that the amygdala, and in particular the ACe, contributes to a heightened state of arousal during conditioned fear. (jneurosci.org)
  • We measured TBL of bats ( Pipistrellus kuhlii ) at the same T a but under different conditions of humidity, and found an inverse relationship between TBL and total evaporative water loss, independent of metabolic rate, which directly supports the hypothesis that hydration state is a cue to arousal in bats. (biologists.org)
  • The University of Georgia researchers and identified 358 landmarks throughout the brain related to memory, vision, language, arousal regulation and many other fundamental bodily operations. (earthsky.org)
  • The methods we employed for tracking the circuitry of arousal regulation in the brain can guide DBS research on all of these disorders, and others," said the study's senior author, Jin Hyung Lee, PhD, assistant professor of neurology, of neurosurgery and of bioengineering at Stanford. (healthcanal.com)
  • These impairments can lead to later behavioral problems since the neural circuitry is responsible for maintaining functions such as arousal, regulation and reactivity to stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • The low arousal theory is a psychological theory explaining that people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and antisocial personality disorder[page needed] seek self-stimulation by excessive activity in order to transcend their state of abnormally low arousal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study of some 24 multiethnic midlife women - Hispanic, White, African-American, Chinese and Japanese, a questionnaire revealed that about 40% felt that they never had or infrequently had sexual desire, but with stimulation were capable of arousal, but only 13% expressed content of their sexual experience. (cancersupportivecare.com)
  • In addition, the intensity of stimulation needed to induce an artificial arousal varies with both season and time spent in torpor. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using ON Arousal Balm, will help a woman's body respond more easily to physical stimulation, and give her the type of full-body awareness that raises her arousal level. (covenantspice.com)
  • Furthermore, animals exhibit behavioural changes consistent with a decrease in arousal state during TRN stimulation. (elifesciences.org)
  • Any act that creates and enhances sexual desire, interest, stimulation or arousal in a sexual partner may constitute foreplay. (wikipedia.org)
  • A survey in 2006 found that sexual arousal in about 82% of young females and 52% of young males arises or is enhanced by direct stimulation of nipples, with only 7-8% reporting that it decreased their arousal. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the authors, arousals in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are considered to be an important defense mechanism to terminate apnoeas, and treating OSA with CPAP immediately reduces the frequency of arousals. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Although changes in T a and T b affect TBL and the frequency of arousals (e.g. (biologists.org)
  • When examined under an MRI, the brains of the men who received the hormone showed increased activity in the areas of the brain typically activated by sexual arousal and romance , and afterward reported a reduction in depressive symptoms. (aarp.org)
  • However, what if Jack - or some part of Jack's brain , more precisely - mistook the arousal he felt when he was afraid for sexual attraction ? (psychologytoday.com)
  • The hormone, called kisspeptin, was found to increase activity in areas of the brain normally stimulated by sexual arousal and romantic love. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When the men viewed sexual images, the team identified an increase in activity in brain regions that are usually stimulated by sexual arousal and love following the kisspeptin injection, but not after injection with the placebo. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In Brain Arousal and Information Theory , Donald Pfaff presents a daring perspective on this long-standing puzzle. (harvard.edu)
  • Employing the simple but powerful framework of information theory, Pfaff revolutionizes our understanding of arousal systems in the brain. (harvard.edu)
  • To understand the functional significance of correlated brain activity, it is necessary to know whether and how its structure depends on stimulus and arousal state. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our goal was to partition the brain in each stimulus and arousal state, and then compare the structure of identified networks across states. (jneurosci.org)
  • In MRI (magnetic resonance) studies, it was found that there is a poor correlation between brain activation in areas controlling genital response in the brain and subjective arousal. (cancersupportivecare.com)
  • 1994 ), significantly greater magnitude of brain activity in arousal circuitry during early follicular compared with midcycle timing in women. (jneurosci.org)
  • There are two types of mechanism by which the brain modulates its own responsiveness, those of arousal and attention . (springer.com)
  • Hyperactivity of the brain, associated with seizures is also correlated with high levels of measures of arousal and clinically with a gliosis. (springer.com)
  • The brain structures that we showed to be critical in regulating arousal, and the connections between them, are virtually the same in rats and humans, so we have high hopes of seeing our findings, as well as our methods, translated into clinical trials. (healthcanal.com)
  • In the new study, Lee's group tracked the interplay among distinct structures throughout the entire brain - among them the thalamus, the somatosensory cortex and the zona incerta - and showed how this interplay regulates arousal states. (healthcanal.com)
  • The brain structures that we showed to be critical in regulating arousal, and the connections between them, are virtually the same in rats and humans. (healthcanal.com)
  • It could be the first medication to target the brain for improved sexual arousal. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Other brain regions were also active during the attentional task, but these areas did not change their activity as a function of arousal. (jneurosci.org)
  • Further, arousal was found to be the only subjective rating significantly modulating brain activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Other theories of yawning, such as brain thermoregulation, are not necessarily excluded by the arousal theory but may be the results of yawning rather than its cause. (scirp.org)
  • However, increasing the volunteers' alertness or "arousal" levels immediately before a trial countered this effect, showing that task difficulty is not the only factor that determines confidence. (elifesciences.org)
  • The physiology of yawning with its sharp chest inhalation, along with its contagious nature, can be explained by an arousal theory, that is, yawning promotes vigilance and alertness within a group that overrides a drive to sleep. (scirp.org)
  • Thus, considerable evidence suggests that the amygdala is important for appetitive and aversive arousal. (pnas.org)
  • However, the degree to which the same or different populations of cells within the amygdala are involved in appetitive and aversive arousal remains unclear. (pnas.org)
  • This model predicts that there will be an inverse relationship between neuronal activity in the amygdala during appetitive and aversive arousal-cells which have a certain response during one form of arousal should be less likely than other cells to have the same response during the other form of arousal. (pnas.org)
  • Both alcohol and arousal impact neurological functioning, including that of the amygdala-striatal system and prefrontal cortex. (oxfordhandbooks.com)
  • Subjective arousal was found to have a dose-dependent effect on activations in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and in higher order visual areas. (frontiersin.org)
  • The anatomy and physiology-and thus the innervation-of sexual arousal are dimorphic, but it has been studied almost exclusively in male patients, and the peripheral and spinal pathways and neurotransmitters mapped primarily in rodents. (lww.com)
  • Since aroused affiliation motivation was not associated with higher concentrations of norepinephrine, epinephrine, or cortisol in either study, it appears likely that dopamine is especially associated with arousal of affiliation motivation, just as norepinephrine has been found to be associated with arousal of power motivation. (springer.com)
  • Here we use population imaging and intracellular recording to show that arousal regulates frequency tuning in layer 2/3 of primary auditory cortex. (pnas.org)
  • Misattribution of arousal is a term in psychology which describes the process whereby people make a mistake in assuming what is causing them to feel aroused. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of the possible effects of misattribution of arousal is perceiving a potential partner as more attractive because of a heightened state of physiological stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Donald Dutton and Arthur Aron's (1974) study to test the causation of misattribution of arousal incorporated an attractive confederate female to wait at the end of a bridge that was either a suspension bridge (that would induce fear) or a sturdy bridge (that would not induce fear). (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the earlier studies that focused on misattribution of arousal was done by Schachter and Singer in 1962. (wikipedia.org)
  • The misattribution of arousal also went away when they ran the experiment on a safe bridge. (youarenotsosmart.com)
  • Neuroanatomic connectivity of the human ascending arousal system critical to consciousness and its disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Von Economo, in his studies, noticed that lesions in the connection between the midbrain and the diencephalon caused prolonged sleepiness and therefore proposed the idea of an ascending arousal system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tests on a women's gymnastic team to explore correlation between arousal, anxiety, and performance, revealed limited relationships between performance and arousal/anxiety measures and indicated that gymnastic ability is the best correlate of gymnastic performance. (ed.gov)
  • Unfortunately (or fortunately), urine has not been recorded to pose as a strong sexual arousal for humans. (mediamatic.net)
  • The neural basis of sexual arousal in humans is associated with sexual orientation yet, contrary to the widely accepted view, is not different between women and men. (pnas.org)
  • We conclude that the thalamus is involved in mediating the interaction of attention and arousal in humans. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our findings indicate that humans use multiple acoustic parameters to infer relative arousal in vocalizations for each species, but mainly rely on fundamental frequency and spectral centre of gravity to identify higher arousal vocalizations across species. (phys.org)
  • Neuroimaging studies suggest differences in the underlying biology of sexual arousal associated with sex and sexual orientation, yet their findings are conflicting. (pnas.org)
  • Taken together, the findings suggest normal subjective and physiological sexual arousal capacity in asexual women and challenge the view that asexuality should be characterized as a sexual dysfunction. (springer.com)
  • In fact, it has been demonstrated that movement of animals while they are hibernating is sufficient to induce an artificial arousal, which can detrimentally alter experimental findings obtained from animals assumed to be torpid. (frontiersin.org)
  • Their findings provoked widespread interest, in part because they related hippocampal activity to arousal, which was at that time the hottest topic in neuroscience. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arousal elicits exaggerated inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity in phobic syncope patients. (gu.se)
  • Like anxiety results in premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory problems in men, it results in lack of arousal in women. (ndtv.com)
  • The majority of individuals spend time in a state of arousal equilibrium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such an effect is considered to be indicative of a heightened state of arousal. (jneurosci.org)
  • The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying arousal threshold changes during sleep are not fully understood. (genetics.org)
  • rather, it comprises bouts of torpor interspersed with periods of arousal, when the animal returns to its normothermic T b and MR ( French, 1985 ). (biologists.org)
  • A single torpor bout can last as long as 350 h in bats, but periods of arousal rarely exceed 24 h ( Geiser and Ruf, 1995 ). (biologists.org)
  • These multi-day bouts of torpor are interrupted at regular intervals by brief (8-24 h) periods of arousal throughout the hibernation season where body temperature, metabolism, heart rate, and RR rapidly return to non-hibernating levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • Measures of arousal - specifically heart rate and pupil dilation - were also related to how confident the volunteers felt on each trial. (elifesciences.org)
  • The Yerkes-Dodson law is an empirical relationship between arousal and performance, originally developed by psychologists Robert M. Yerkes and John Dillingham Dodson in 1908. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the initial studies looking into this phenomenon conducted by Schachter and Singer (1962) was based on the idea that the experience of arousal could be ambiguous and therefore misattributed to an incorrect stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the arousal-dependent reduction in stimulus selectivity, frequency discrimination by cell ensembles improves due to a reduction in correlated variability (noise correlations). (pnas.org)
  • The arousal may be triggered not only by sexual activity, but also by seemingly nonsexual situations or no obvious stimulus at all. (emaxhealth.com)
  • To clarify the functional significance of this correlated activity, we asked whether and how its structure depends on stimulus and arousal state. (jneurosci.org)
  • Three scenarios for the dependence of ICs on stimulus and arousal state. (jneurosci.org)
  • A , If the structure of a network remains constant regardless of stimulus or arousal state (i.e., columns 1-4 yield the same ICA result), then the network likely reflects fixed anatomical connections that can be driven by spontaneous activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Write a Review on this Nympho's Desire Arousal Balm - Naked product and share your experience or opinion with other customers. (vitasprings.com)
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  • Another wonderful benefit of ON Arousal Balm is that it may actually help some women increase their production of personal lubrication. (covenantspice.com)
  • Men using the penile plethysmograph have a far greater correlation between reported arousal and blood flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Linda Griffiths' Age of Arousal , a play "wildly inspired" by George Gissing's novel "The Odd Women," plays the Shaw Festival in Ontario July 23-Oct. 10. (playbill.com)
  • The Shaw Festival's new production of Linda Griffiths' Age of Arousal , freely adapted from George Gissing's novel "The Odd Women," a play about women typists in Victorian England, begins previews July 23 at the Court House Theatre in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario. (playbill.com)
  • The VLPO, together with the reticular activating system and the widely projecting orexin neuronal system that originates in the lateral hypothalamus, are the interconnected neural systems which control states of arousal, sleep, and transitions between these two states. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to test whether this inhibitory response to arousal is exaggerated in patients with a history of vasovagal syncope. (gu.se)
  • The secretion of these inhibitory neurotransmitters suppresses the arousal system and results in sleep. (wikipedia.org)