A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria able to anaerobically oxidize and degrade toluene.
A 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, which is an explosive chemical that can cause skin irritation and other toxic consequences.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of protocatechuate to 3-carboxy-cis-cis-muconate in the presence of molecular oxygen. It contains ferric ion. EC
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A widely used industrial solvent.
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Phenols substituted in any position by an amino group.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.
Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An antipsychotic agent that is specific for dopamine D2 receptors. It has been shown to be effective in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
A zinc-binding domain defined by the sequence Cysteine-X2-Cysteine-X(9-39)-Cysteine-X(l-3)-His-X(2-3)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine -X(4-48)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine, where X is any amino acid. The RING finger motif binds two atoms of zinc, with each zinc atom ligated tetrahedrally by either four cysteines or three cysteines and a histidine. The motif also forms into a unitary structure with a central cross-brace region and is found in many proteins that are involved in protein-protein interactions. The acronym RING stands for Really Interesting New Gene.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Inflammation of the choroid.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A tri-hydroxy cyclohexene carboxylic acid important in biosynthesis of so many compounds that the shikimate pathway is named after it.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.
Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.
A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.
Acute or chronic inflammation of the arachnoid membrane of the meninges most often involving the spinal cord or base of the brain. This term generally refers to a persistent inflammatory process characterized by thickening of the ARACHNOID membrane and dural adhesions. Associated conditions include prior surgery, infections, trauma, SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, and chemical irritation. Clinical features vary with the site of inflammation, but include cranial neuropathies, radiculopathies, and myelopathies. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch48, p25)
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
A concave exterior region on some POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS that have three phenyl rings in a non-linear arrangement.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptonate from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. It is one of the first enzymes in the biosynthesis of TYROSINE and PHENYLALANINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
More technically, these artificial nucleotides bearing hydrophobic nucleobases, feature two fused aromatic rings that form a ( ... As each enzyme mix recognises only specific att sites, recombination is highly specific and the fragments can be assembled in ... These can be normal or modified nucleosides which have protecting groups to prevent their amines, hydroxyl groups and phosphate ... However, further research revealed that four more orthogonal att sequences could be generated, allowing for the assembly of up ...
Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Non-covalent interaction ,, DNA intercalation ,, Quinones OR Non-specific OR Non-specific ... är därför bäst att du uppgraderar till en nyare version. ... Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Radical ,, Radical ... Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 ,, Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium and/or carbenium ion formation OR ... Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 ,, Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation ,, N-Hydroxylamines OR ...
More technically, these artificial nucleotides bearing hydrophobic nucleobases, feature two fused aromatic rings that form a ( ... As each enzyme mix recognises only specific att sites, recombination is highly specific and the fragments can be assembled in ... These can be normal or modified nucleosides which have protecting groups to prevent their amines, hydroxyl groups and phosphate ... However, further research revealed that four more orthogonal att sequences could be generated, allowing for the assembly of up ...
Such attachment preferably is effected through a free amine group such as the amine group appended to the R4A group of ... Aryl groups include but are not limited to aromatic and heteroaromatic moieties such as phenyl, tolyl, benzyl, naplithyl, ... R6 and R7 together form a heterocyclic ring having about 4 to about 8 atoms. ... from SRIF receptors on membranes of AtT-20 cells with IC50 values of 30.1, 2.6, 3.8 and 2.5 nM respectively. By comparison, MK- ...
Rich Murray rmforall at att.net Sat May 15 21:58:03 EST 2004 *Previous message: degradation of polycyclic aromatic ... were shown to significantly alter the carcinogenic activities of specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and aromatic amine ... 3-rings (acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, dibenzofuran, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene), and , or = 4-rings (pyrene, ... Previous message: degradation of polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates... * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ...
5 2 . The resulted amine products were tabulated as follows (Table 6 ) . TABLE 6 N-CYCLOALKYLMETHYL-N-PHENYLAMINES RING SIZE ... N and 1 mole of the aromatic amine (PhNHg or PhCHg-NHPh) i n benzene ( refluxed mixture) to obtain PhNH-CO-CHBr-R (I) or Ph-N- ... This has been att r i b u t e d to i n h i b i t i o n of uptake of norepinephrine by various tissues, r e s u l t i n g i n an ... The de-si r e d amine was reacted with chloroacetyl chloride, dimethyl-amine and then reduced to the t e r t i a r y diamine ...
... and further in which the furan ring moiety is linked to the 6 position of the two ring coumarin system. Psoralen derivatives ... The amine was then extracted into aqueous 0.3 N HCl (10, 5, 5 mL) and the add layers were taken to pH 13 with 20% aqueous NaOH ... DCD07: 5 GCT AGT ATT CCC CCG AAG GT 3. With DCD03 as a common forward primer, the pairs generate amplicons of length 127,327 ... If the biological fluid is just protein, the 320 nm cutoff will be adequate for minimizing side reactions (aromatic amino acids ...
KETONE, Glycol Ethers, ACID, ALCOHOL, AMINES, CHLORINATED SOLVENTS, and ACRYLATES are available. 20+ official partners around ... The carbonyl group of aromatic ketones is directly attached to the aromatic ring; the carbonyl group embedded in the ring is ... In addition, it is also used as an embedding agent for water miscibility.Matters needing att... ... AMINES CHLORINATED SOLVENTS ACRYLATES Support Analysis of Propylene Glycol Analysis of Acetone Analysis of Butanone Analysis of ...
The 2′-O-modified nucleosides of the invention include ring structures that position the sugar moiety of the nucleosides ... These ring structures can be aliphatic, unsaturated aliphatic, aromatic or heterocyclic. A further atom of the ring, the L2 ... Further Y can be selected to be a group capable of assuming a charged structure, e.g. an amine. This is particularly useful in ... 5′-TTT AGG ATT CGT GCT CAT GG-3′. Antisense Oligonucleotide Targeting HCVC 5′-NCR. ...
Aromatic alkylamine N-methyltransferase) (Amine N-methyltransferase) (Arylamine N-methyltransferase) (Thioether S- ... RING finger protein 133) (RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase RNF133) RNF148 7q31.33 Q8N7C7 RN148_HUMAN RING finger protein 148 ... ATT-binding protein) (DHFR oribeta-binding protein RIP60) (Zinc finger protein 464) [RIP60] [ZNF464] RFC2 7q11.23 P35250 RFC2_ ... RING finger protein 202) (RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase ZNRF2) (Zinc/RING finger protein 2) [RNF202] ZP3 7q11.23 P21754 ...
The chelant is a bifunctional chelant, preferably att... WO/2018/064092A1 METHOD FOR TREATING CANCER USING A COMBINATION OF DNA ... FUSED RING COMPOUND, HIGH POLYMER, MIXTURE, COMPOSITION, AND ORGANIC ELECTRONIC COMPONENT. Disclosed in the present invention ... SYNTHESIS METHOD FOR DIFLUORODEUTEROMETHOXY(THIO) FUNCTIONAL GROUP-CONTAINING AROMATIC COMPOUND. A synthesis method for an ... wherein one end of the isotope labelling reagent is a primary amine and the other end is a trimethyl ammonium salt; and the ...
... taiwanensis strains brings the renewable production of aromatics one step closer. ... Aromatic compounds such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid are broadly applied in industry for a myriad of applications used in everyday ... Aromatic compounds such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid are broadly applied in industry for a myriad of applications used in everyday ... E. coli strains were cultivated in Lysogeny Broth (LB) medium (10 g l−1 N-Z-Amine, 5 g l−1 yeast extract, 5 g l−1 NaCl). When ...
The coke was determined to be alkylated aromatic rings with an average composition of CxHy wherein y/x=0.95. The coked catalyst ... Non-limiting examples of molecular sieves are the small pore molecular sieves, AEI, AFT, APC, ATN, ATT, ATV, AWW, BIK, CAS, CHA ... Preferred templates are nitrogen-containing compounds, such as amines, quaternary ammonium compounds and combinations thereof. ... The small, medium and large pore molecular sieves have from a 4-ring to a 12-ring or greater framework type. Typically, the ...
korz at ihlpl.att.com Return to table of contents Date: Wed, 6 Nov 91 15:22:09 CST From: tomm at pet.med.ge.com (Thomas ... Boiling drives off most of the aromatic compounds that make honey interesting in the first place. I dont really see the point ... mind you... schmidily has a nice ring to it also... :-) Yah .... and only two syllables. From: Mike Sharp ,msharp at cs. ... Both alcohol and fusels ,along with some amines are the cause. The liver, that wonderful detoxification ,centre, requires the B ...
... a compound containing an aromatic hydrocarbon in which an oxygen is linked to a carbon atom constituting the benzene ring ... Such novel att recombination sequences being e.g. attP.b, attP.a, attL.a, attR.a and attR.b. The present invention further ... preparation of carboxylic acid by a biological cell located in an aqueous medium with addition of an amine of formula (I). 2011 ... NOVEL RECOMBINATION SEQUENCES - The present invention relates to novel nucleotide sequences, which are variants of att ...
promalasso) Att. , "soften beforehand, make supple by rubbing or kneading" (Aristotle, Problemata 869b30) [23]. It is defined ... "Its odor is aromatic, resembling that of meliloti herba, of balsam of Peru, or of the Banana poplar." Vauquelin used 100 g of ... amines, amides, and organic debris (5%) [95]. The major constituents of propolis from most of the sources are flavonoids [4]. ... and flavonol to the parent ring system and its 3-hydroxy derivative. From the period of 1895 onwards, a considerable number of ...
"Aryl group" as used herein includes aromatic aryl rings such as phenyl, heterocyclic aromatic rings such as pyridine, furan, ... The forward primer 5′-CTC ATT TGG AAT TTT GCC GAT T-3′ (SEQ ID NO:109) and reverse primer 5′-CCG AGT GAA GAT CCC CTT TTT A-3′ ( ... Suitable substitution groups include but are not limited to, halogens, amines, hydroxyl groups, carboxylic acids, nitro groups ... In one embodiment, the covalent bond between the i and the i+4 residues is a carbon-carbon bond derived from a ring-closing ...
... v C 16.5 Cl 19.5 H 1.98 S 17.0 O 5.48 Aromatic ring 20.2 N 5.69 Heterocyclic ring 20.2 Diffusion volumes for simple molecules, ... D 136 atT ¼ 273 e /kT ¼ ¼ 0:498 V j ¼ 1:074 2 AB D T 2 273 atT ¼ 293 V j ¼ 1:074 (previouscalculations) 1 D T 1 The corrected ... in primary amines 10.5 Sulfur 25.6 Nitrogen, in secondary amines 12.0 y G. Le Bas, The Molecular Volumes of Liquid Chemical ... five-membered ring, as furan deduct 11.5 for pyridine deduct 15 for benzene ring deduct 15 for naphthalene ring deduct 30 for ...
The component at 286.0 eV is associated with the carbon atoms on the aromatic ring and the aliphatic chain. The component at ... Since the aliphatic amine group on its molecule is easily connecting to the objects to be marked, and the molecule maintains a ... 0167] b) Mixing a solution of DNA with its end group modified by mercapto group (the nucleotide sequence is GAT CAG ATT CGC--( ... The component at 284.9 eV is derived from the aromatic ring carbon atoms on N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethylisoluminol molecule. ...
... a nitrogenous six member ring) bonded at its nitrogen group. The other ring is an aromatic phenyl ring substituted at R4 with a ... As a derivative of 1-Phenylcyclohexylamine where the amine has been replaced with a 1-piperidyl group, further substituted in ... New drugs coming our way - what are they and how do we detect them? , http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_78745_EN ... 4-MeO-PCP contains cyclohexane, a six member saturated ring, bonded to two additional rings at R1. One of these rings is a ...
... are named for their structures which include a cyclohexane ring bound to an aromatic ring along with an amine group. ... Online sales of new psychoactive substances/legal highs , http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_143801_EN_ ... MXE contains a phenyl ring with a methoxy (CH3-O-) substituent at R3 bonded to a cyclohexane ring substituted at R2 with an oxo ... group (cyclohexanone). Bound to the same location (R1) of the cyclohexanone ring is an amino ethyl chain -N-CH2CH3. ...
Polycyclic aromatic compounds in general can function as Raman active signal molecules. Other signal molecules that can be of ... A base is a nitrogen-containing ring structure without the sugar or the phosphate. Such signal molecules can be detected by ... Standard chemical cross linking techniques can be used for probe immobilization, such as thiol-gold linkage or amine-aldehyde ... Yaphank, N.Y.). Nanogold® nanoparticles can be obtained with either single or multiple maleimide, amine or other groups ...
... aromatic amino acids, and biogenic amines. ... The constrictor ring is slipped over the shunt and, with a ... ATT) and measurement of fasting and postprandial serum bile acid concentrations are more reliable for diagnosing liver ... the inner casein ring can be rotated so that its opening faces in the opposite direction from that of the stainless steel ring. ... Before constrictor placement, the "key", a small column of casein that completes the constrictor ring, is removed from the ...
Illustrative organic bases that form suitable salts include aliphatic, alicyclic or aromatic organic amines such as methylamine ... Representative examples of antisense microRNA-27a oligonucleotide sequences can be 5′-CCA CAC CAA GUC GUG UUC ATT-3′ (set forth ... group containing from 6 to 14 carbon atoms that can be optionally fused with a fully or partially saturated carbocyclic ring ... 0081] The term "heteroaryl" refers to an aromatic mono- or bicyclic group containing from 5 to 14 carbon atoms, of which one to ...
... which oxidize the primary aromatic amine of procainamide to form procainamide hydroxylamine. *misoprostol uk ... Apotek erbjuder sig att köpa Kamagra Oral Jelly på nätet i Ungern, l tryptophan uk Nederländerna, Serbien, Tyskland och andra ... The alkyl group may also comprise a ring, eg, a cycloalkyl (eg, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cyclopropyl, or cyclobutyl). Solid ...
The most effective enhancers are certain aromatic amines and phenols. Phenolic compounds known to enhance peroxidase reactions ... 5 ACT TCA CTT CTA ATG ATG ATT ATG 3 (SEQ ID NO:3) and ... CH.dbd.CH thereby forming a benzo-fused ring and wherein Y is a ... GAA AAT ATC ATT GGT GTT TCC 3 (SEQ ID NO:8) (mutant). The oligonucleotides were custom synthesized by Oligos etc., ( ... ring halogenated derivatives of (p-cyanomethylthio) -phenol, phenolindo-phenol, 2-naphthol, 6-bromo-2-naphthol, 6-hydroxy- ...
... involvement of alkyltransferases in the repair of DNA damage induced by aromatic amines. Mutagenesis 20: 199-208. ... of key hydrophobic/aromatic surface interactions between the phenol side-chain atoms of Y181 and the FMN isoalloxazine ring, as ... ggc att gaa gtg ctc atc ggt ctt gtt ccc-3′. ... of FMN as a result of stacking interactions with aromatic ...
... whereas the ring current along the outer part of the macrocycle (the rim) is diatropic (aromatic). The neutral [8]circulenes ... In the basic pH range, a significantly higher fraction of the amine groups was found to be protonated when the PEI was ... Den underliggande mekanismen för frisläppning härrör ifrån att micellens kärna fryser vid sänkt temperatur. Förutom de uppmätta ... and GeH2-containing dicationic species sustain net diatropic ring currents i.e., they are aromatic, whereas the O-, S-, Se-, NH ...
... aromatic residues and fused aromatic and non-aromatic cyclic systems. In some instances the lipophilic moiety will consist of a ... 1954) 2, 1, which react with nucleophiles such as amino groups by ring opening; [0048] ix) squaric acid diethyl esters as ... 0061] Aldehydes and ketones may also be reacted with amines to form Schiffs bases, which may advantageously be stabilised ... frequency max att.: 3.5 MHz). The microbubbles were stable at 120 mm Hg. [0193] MALDI mass spectral analysis was used to ...
The term "heteroaryl" refers to an aromatic ring structure containing from 5 to 14 ring atoms in which at least one of the ring ... substituted amines including naturally occurring substituted amines, cyclic amines, basic ion exchange resins, and the like. ... atg to att 2.92 4.21 ,20 ,20 108-5X-Y5 M161I BCG WT WT inhA 0.37 0.02 0.30 17.00 BCG-529- atg to gtc 27.88 3.02 1.27 ,60 108- ... A heteroaryl may be a single ring or 2 or 3 fused rings. Examples of heteroaryl substituents include 6-membered ring ...
L(1)-TAG(2O3)-CTG(2O3)-CTG-ATT-Lys-NH2 3746.9 3748.9 Oligo 20 TG(5)G-C(1O2)AA-C(1O2)TG-A(5)T-Lys-NH2 3525.6 3523.8 Oligo 21 Fam ... Current U.S. Class: Nitrogen Attached Directly Or Indirectly To The Purine Ring System By Nonionic Bonding (544/276) ... aromatic group such as phenyl, pyridyl, furyl, naphthyl, etc methylene -(CH2)- acyl -C(O)- substituted with hydrido, alkyl, ... trifluoroacetic acid, TEA for triethyl-amine, DIEA for N,N- diisopropylethylamine, LiOH for lithium hydroxide, Aeg for N-(2- ...
  • Thorough investigations on the condensation of 35 with a series of aliphatic and aromatic amines allowed the determination of the characteristic g-diketoenamine structure present in these compounds, as exemplified by (-)-Δ²‧¹¹-enaminousnic acid (132), and concluded with the preparation of the useful (+)-isoxazolo[4,5-b]usnic acid (158) and (+)-2H- [l,2]oxazocinousnic acid (159), a novel eight-membered heterocycle. (ubc.ca)
  • 13. The oligonucleotide of claim 1 wherein said ring system is mono-, di-, or tri-substituted phenyl. (google.com)
  • The other ring is an aromatic phenyl ring substituted at R 4 with a methoxy group. (psychonautwiki.org)
  • MXE contains a phenyl ring with a methoxy (CH 3 -O-) substituent at R 3 bonded to a cyclohexane ring substituted at R 2 with an oxo group (cyclohexanone). (psychonautwiki.org)
  • One of these rings is a piperidine ring (a nitrogenous six member ring) bonded at its nitrogen group. (psychonautwiki.org)
  • Bound to the same location (R 1 ) of the cyclohexanone ring is an amino ethyl chain -N-CH 2 CH 3 . (psychonautwiki.org)
  • Toxins which have been implicated in hepatic encephalopathy include ammonia, mercaptans, short chain fatty acids, indoles, aromatic amino acids, and biogenic amines. (vin.com)
  • The original synthetic goal was finally accomplished by methylation of the isoxazole 158 with methyl iodide-silver oxide in chloroform and Beckmann rearrangement of the corresponding ring A oxime to produce (+)-N-acetyl-6-amino-7,9-di-0-methylisoxazolo[4,5-b]usnic acid (228), one of the various previously unknown of this study. (ubc.ca)
  • The general reaction sequence followed was to start with the appropriate cycloalkanecarboxyllc acid and build up to a secondary amine via an acid chloride and an amide. (ubc.ca)
  • The general reaction sequence followed was to s t a r t with the appropriate cycloalkanecarboxyllc acid and b u i l d up to a secondary amine v i a an acid chloride and an amide. (ubc.ca)
  • Aromatic compounds such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid are broadly applied in industry for a myriad of applications used in everyday life. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aromatic compounds are broadly applied in every-day life. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the removal of the aromatic acetyl grouping under strong alkaline conditions resulted in solvent addition to the C₄-C[sub 4a] double bond with concomitant irreversible rearrangement to the isousnic acid series, an important process that had not been recognized by previous workers. (ubc.ca)
  • Part D provides the synthesis of (+)-6-¹⁴COCH₃-usnic acid (255), the first radioactive precursor specifically labelled at the aromatic acetyl grouping. (ubc.ca)
  • In certain embodiments, cyclic peptides of the invention have structure: ##STR1## wherein R NP1 is H, an amine protecting group, or a solid support and R NP2 is H or an amine protecting group. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These can be normal or modified nucleosides which have protecting groups to prevent their amines, hydroxyl groups and phosphate groups from interacting incorrectly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2′-O-modified nucleosides of the invention include ring structures that position. (google.com)
  • The 2′-O-modified nucleosides of the invention include ring structures that position the sugar moiety of the nucleosides preferentially in 3′ endo geometries. (google.com)
  • 4-MeO-PCP contains cyclohexane, a six member saturated ring, bonded to two additional rings at R 1 . (psychonautwiki.org)
  • Arylcyclohexylamines are named for their structures which include a cyclohexane ring bound to an aromatic ring along with an amine group. (psychonautwiki.org)
  • 7(b): this has twice the 8-atom repeat motif cis- cis-trans-cis-trans-cis-trans-cis (one with d-trans and the other with 1-trans) joined at each end by further bridging single trans-sulfur atoms which constitute the 2 extreme atoms of the elongated ring. (exclusivebinaryoptions.com)
  • It has been known for several years that the N-terminal amine and the aromatic group of Tyr 1 are key pharmacophoric groups in Dyn A. To date, no cyclic analogues of opioid peptides have restricted the backbone conformation of the N-terminal Tyr residue of this opioid peptide. (textarchive.ru)