Tyrosine Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to tyramine and carbon dioxide. The bacterial enzyme also acts on 3-hydroxytyrosine and, more slowly, on 3-hydroxyphenylalanine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.1.1.25.Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases: An enzyme group with broad specificity. The enzymes decarboxylate a range of aromatic amino acids including dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA DECARBOXYLASE); TRYPTOPHAN; and HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Dopa Decarboxylase: One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of DOPA to DOPAMINE. It is of clinical importance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.Amino Acid Transport System L: A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Antigens, CD98 Light Chains: A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Amino Acid Transport System y+Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Histidine Decarboxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of histidine to histamine and carbon dioxide. It requires pyridoxal phosphate in animal tissues, but not in microorganisms. EC 4.1.1.22.Pyruvate Decarboxylase: Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC 4.1.1.1.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Decarboxylation: The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Ornithine Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to yield 5'-deoxy-(5'-),3-aminopropyl-(1), methylsulfonium salt. It is one of the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of spermidine from putrescine. EC 4.1.1.50.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Selenomonas: Curved bacteria, usually crescent-shaped rods, with ends often tapered, occurring singly, in pairs, or short chains. They are non-encapsulated, non-sporing, motile, and ferment glucose. Selenomonas are found mainly in the human buccal cavity, the rumen of herbivores, and the cecum of pigs and several rodents. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Polyporales: An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)Putrescine: A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.Thiamine Pyrophosphate: The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.PolyaminesBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cadaverine: A foul-smelling diamine formed by bacterial decarboxylation of lysine.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Tricarboxylic Acids: Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase: conformational change in the flexible region around Arg334 is required during the transaldimination process. (1/168)

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) catalytic mechanism has been proposed to proceed through two consecutive intermediates (i.e., Michaelis complex and the external aldimine). Limited proteolysis of AADC that preferentially digested at the C-terminal side of Arg334 was slightly retarded in the presence of dihydroxyphenyl acetate that formed a stable Michaelis complex. On the contrary, AADC was scarcely digested in the presence of L-dopa methyl ester that formed a stable external aldimine. Similar protection by the substrate analogs was observed in the chemical modification experiment. From these results, we concluded that the region around Arg334 must be exposed and flexible in the unliganded state, and forming the Michaelis complex generated a subtle conformational change, then underwent marked conformational change during the subsequent transaldimination process prerequisite to forming the external aldimine. For further analyses, we constructed a mutant gene encoding in tandem the two peptides of AADC cleaved at the Asn327-Met328 bond inside the putative flexible region. The gene product, fragmentary AADC, was still active with L-dopa as substrate, but its k(cat) value was decreased 57-fold, and the Km value was increased 9-fold compared with those of the wild-type AADC. The absorption spectra of the fragmentary AADC in the presence of L-dopa methyl ester showed shift in the equilibrium of the transaldimination from the external aldimine to the Michaelis complex. Tryptic digestion of the fragmentary AADC removed seven amino acid residues, Met328-Arg334, and resulted in complete inactivation. Susceptibility of the fragmentary enzyme to trypsin was not changed by L-dopa methyl ester revealing the loss of appropriate conformational change in the flexible region induced by substrate binding. From these results we propose that the conformational change in the flexible region is required during the transaldimination process.  (+info)

Vesicular monoamine transporter-2 and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase enhance dopamine delivery after L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine administration in Parkinsonian rats. (2/168)

Medical therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited by the short-duration response and development of dyskinesia that result from chronic L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) therapy. These problems occur partly because the loss of dopamine storage sites leads to erratic dopamine delivery. Vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) plays a critical role in dopamine storage by packaging dopamine into synaptic vesicles and regulating sustained release of dopamine. To restore the capacity to produce and store dopamine in parkinsonian rats, primary skin fibroblast cells (PF) were genetically modified with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and VMAT-2 genes. After incubation with L-DOPA in culture, the doubly transduced fibroblast cells (PFVMAA) produced and stored dopamine at a much higher level than the cells with either gene alone. PFVMAA cells in culture released dopamine gradually in a constitutive manner. Genetically modified fibroblast cells were grafted in parkinsonian rat striata, and L-DOPA was systemically administered. Higher dopamine levels were sustained for a longer duration in rats grafted with PFVMAA cells than in those grafted with either control cells or cells with AADC alone. These findings underscore the importance of dopamine storage capacity in determining the efficacy of L-DOPA therapy and illustrate a novel method of gene therapy combined with precursor administration to overcome the major obstacles of PD treatment.  (+info)

Aging, high salt intake, and renal dopaminergic activity in Fischer 344 rats. (3/168)

The present study examined renal dopaminergic activity and its response to high salt (HS) intake in adult (6-month-old) and old (24-month-old) Fischer 344 rats. Daily urinary excretion of L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine, and its metabolites 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid was similar in adult and old rats; by contrast, daily urinary excretion of norepinephrine in old rats was almost twice that in adult animals. HS intake (1% NaCl) over a period of 24 hours resulted in a 2-fold increase in the urinary excretion of dopamine, DOPAC, and norepinephrine in adult animals but not in old animals. Norepinephrine and L-DOPA plasma levels did not change during HS intake and were similar in both groups of rats. The natriuretic response to an HS intake in old rats (from 4.7+/-0.4 to 10.7+/-2.0 nmol. kg(-1). d(-1); Delta=6.0+/-0.9 nmol. kg(-1). d(-1)) was less than in adult rats (from 5.2+/-0.4 to 13.5+/-2.5 nmol. kg(-1). d(-1); Delta=8.3+/-0.8 nmol. kg(-1). d(-1)). A diuretic response to HS intake was observed in adult rats (from 20.9+/-2.3 to 37.6+/-2.8 mL. kg(-1). d(-1)) but not in old rats (from 37.7+/-5.7 to 42.3+/-6. 0 mL. kg(-1). d(-1)). Dopamine levels and dopamine/L-DOPA ratios in the renal cortex of old rats were greater than in adult rats. HS intake increased both dopamine levels and dopamine/L-DOPA ratios in the renal cortex of adult rats but not in old rats. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity was higher in old rats than in adult rats; HS intake increased L-amino acid decarboxylase activity (nmol. mg protein(-1). l5 min(-1)) in adult rats (from 67+/-1 to 93+/-1) but not in old rats (from 86+/-2 to 87+/-2). Dopamine inhibited Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in proximal tubules obtained from adult rats, but it failed to exert such an inhibitory effect in old rats. It is concluded that renal dopaminergic tonus in old rats is higher than in adult rats but fails to respond to HS intake as observed in adult rats. This may be due in part to the inability of dopamine to inhibit Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in old rats.  (+info)

Expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and tyrosine decarboxylase genes in tobacco results in altered biochemical and physiological phenotypes. (4/168)

The substrate specificity of tryptophan (Trp) decarboxylase (TDC) for Trp and tyrosine (Tyr) decarboxylase (TYDC) for Tyr was used to modify the in vivo pools of these amino acids in transgenic tobacco. Expression of TDC and TYDC was shown to deplete the levels of Trp and Tyr, respectively, during seedling development. The creation of artificial metabolic sinks for Trp and Tyr also drastically affected the levels of phenylalanine, as well as those of the non-aromatic amino acids methionine, valine, and leucine. Transgenic seedlings also displayed a root-curling phenotype that directly correlated with the depletion of the Trp pool. Non-transformed control seedlings could be induced to display this phenotype after treatment with inhibitors of auxin translocation such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid or N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid. The depletion of aromatic amino acids was also correlated with increases in the activities of the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways in older, light-treated transgenic seedlings expressing TDC, TYDC, or both. These results provide in vivo confirmation that aromatic amino acids exert regulatory feedback control over carbon flux through the shikimate pathway, as well as affecting pathways outside of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis.  (+info)

Inhibition of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity by human autoantibodies. (5/168)

A full-length rat cDNA clone encoding aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) (E.C. 4.1.1.28) was used for in vitro transcription and translation. The enzyme had catalytic activity (0. 2 pmol serotonin/microl lysate per min), and was stimulated 2.5-fold by the addition of excess pyridoxal phosphate. On size exclusion chromatography, AADC eluted as a single activity peak with an apparent mol. wt of 93 kD. This activity peak was immunoprecipitated by sera from patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I) containing autoantibodies against AADC. Serum and purified IgG from these patients inhibited the enzyme activity (non-competitively) by 10-80%, while sera from APS I patients without autoantibodies and controls did not. This finding confirms and extends previous observations that APS I patients have inhibitory antibodies against key enzymes involved in neurotransmitter biosynthesis.  (+info)

Roles of renal dopamine and kallikrein-kinin systems in antihypertensive mechanisms of exercise in rats. (6/168)

We have previously shown that both renal dopamine (DA) and kallikrein-kinin systems are activated by exercise in mild hypertensives. We aimed to confirm the effects of exercise on the renal DA system and the stimulatory effects of DA on the renal kallikrein-kinin system in rats. In experiment 1, 12 male Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats given a 4% salt diet were divided into two groups. Rats in the exercise group were forced to run at 8 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Daily urinary volume, urinary excretion of sodium, free DA, and kallikrein activity were measured weekly. Renal aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC) activities were assayed at the end of the experiment. In experiment 2, 15 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, a DA-5 (5 microg of DA/kg/min), a DA-10 (10 microg of DA/kg/min), and a control group. DA or vehicle was administered subcutaneously with an osmotic pump for 2 weeks. Daily urinary volume, urinary excretion of sodium, aldosterone, DA, and kallikrein activity were measured weekly. Plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and renal kallikrein mRNA levels were determined at the end of the experiment. In experiment 1, urinary excretion of free DA and renal AADC activities in the exercise group were significantly higher than those in the non-exercise group at week 4. In experiment 2, renal kallikrein mRNA levels and urinary volume were significantly increased in the DA-10 group compared to the control group, although there were no differences in urinary kallikrein activities. Plasma aldosterone concentration was significantly decreased in the DA-10 group compared to that in the control group despite a lack of differences in plasma renin activities. In conclusion, exercise increased the urinary excretion of free DA, probably through increased renal AADC activity in DS rats. DA amplified renal kallikrein mRNA levels and decreased plasma aldosterone levels, probably through its suppression of aldosterone in the adrenal glands. Activation of the kallikrein-kinin system might be counteracted by post-transcriptional modification of aldosterone. These results suggest that exercise enhances renal dopamine production by activating renal AADC activity, which in turn stimulates the renal kallikrein-kinin system.  (+info)

Concerted action of dopamine on renal and intestinal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in the rat remnant kidney. (7/168)

The present study evaluated renal and intestinal adaptations in sodium handling in uninephrectomized (Unx) rats and the role of dopamine. Two weeks after uninephrectomy, the remnant kidney in Unx rats weighed 33 +/- 2% more than the corresponding kidney in sham-operated (Sham) animals. This was accompanied by increases in urinary levels of dopamine and major metabolites [3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid] and increases in maximal velocity values (169 vs. 115 nmol. mg protein(-1). 15 min(-1)) for renal aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of renal dopamine. High salt (HS) intake increased (P < 0.05) the urinary excretion of dopamine and DOPAC in Unx and Sham rats. However, the urinary levels of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine, and DOPAC in Sham rats during HS intake were lower than in Unx rats. Blockade of dopamine D(1) receptors (Sch-23390, 2 x 30 microg/kg) reduced the urinary excretion of sodium in Unx (31% decrease) more pronouncedly than in Sham (19% decrease) rats. However, inhibition of renal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by dopamine was of similar magnitude in Unx and Sham rats. In parallel, it was observed that uninephrectomy resulted in a significant reduction in jejunal sodium absorption and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in jejunal epithelial cells. In jejunal epithelial cells from Sham rats, dopamine (1 microM) failed to inhibit Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, whereas in Unx rats it produced a significant reduction. It is concluded that uninephrectomy results in increased renal dopaminergic activity and dopamine-sensitive enhanced natriuresis. Furthermore, it is suggested that decreased jejunal absorption of sodium may take place in response to partial renal ablation, as an example of renal-intestinal cross talk.  (+info)

The aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa is selectively cytotoxic to human pulmonary carcinoid and small cell lung carcinoma cells. (8/168)

The carcinoid tumor is an uncommon neuroendocrine neoplasm the hallmark of which is excessive serotonin production. In studying kinetics of tryptophan hydroxylase and aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) in human carcinoid hepatic metastases and adjacent normal liver (J. A. Gilbert et al, Biochem. Pharmacol., 50: 845-850, 1995), we identified one significant difference: the Vmax of carcinoid AAAD was 50-fold higher than that in normal liver. Here, we report Western and Northern analyses detecting large quantities of AAAD polypeptide and mRNA in human carcinoid primary as well as metastatic tumors compared with normal surrounding tissues. To assess the feasibility of targeting these high AAAD levels for chemotherapy, AAAD inhibitors carbidopa (alpha-methyl-dopahydrazine), alpha-monofluoromethyldopa (MFMD), and 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (NSD-1015) were incubated (72 h) with NCI-H727 human lung carcinoid cells. Carbidopa and MFMD were lethal (IC50 = 29 +/- 2 microM and 56 +/- 6 microM, respectively); NSD-1015 had no effect on proliferation. On exposure to other human tumor lines, carbidopa was lethal only to NCI-H146 and NCI-H209 small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) lines (IC50 = 12 +/- 1 microM and 22 +/- 5 microM, respectively). Carbidopa (100 microM) decreased growth of (but did not kill) SK-N-SH neuroblastoma and A204 rhabdomyosarcoma cells and did not affect proliferation of DU 145 prostate, MCF7 breast, or NCI-H460 large cell lung carcinoma lines. The rank order of lines by AAAD activity was NCI-H146 > NCI-H209 > SK-N-SH > NCI-H727, whereas A204, DU 145, MCF7, and NCI-H460 had no measurable activity. For lung tumor lines (carcinoid, two SCLC, and one large cell lung carcinoma), AAAD activity was correlated with the potency of carbidopa-induced cytotoxicity. However, carcinoid cell death was not solely attributable to complete inhibition of either AAAD activity or the serotonin synthetic pathway. In further evaluating potential applications of these findings with carbidopa, we determined that sublethal doses of carbidopa produced additive cytotoxic effects in carcinoid cells in combination with etoposide and cytotoxic synergy in SCLC cells when coincubated with topotecan.  (+info)

*Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase

... inhibitor, a class of anti-Parkinson drugs Aromatic amino acids Histidine decarboxylase PDB ... Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC or AAAD), also known as DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), tryptophan decarboxylase, and 5- ... Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... "Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: clinical features, treatment, and prognosis". Neurology. 62 (7): 1058-65. doi: ...

*Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor

An aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor (synonyms: DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor, DDCI and AAADI) is a drug which ... inhibits the synthesis of dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC, AAAD, or DOPA decarboxylase). ... ISBN 3-8047-1763-2. "Editorial: Dopa decarboxylase inhibitors". British Medical Journal. 4 (5939): 250-1. November 1974. doi: ...

*Aromatic amino acid

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase Expanded genetic code Logan, Carolynn M.; Rice, M. Katherine (1987). Logan's Medical and ... An aromatic amino acid (AAA) is an amino acid that includes an aromatic ring. Examples include: Among 20 standard amino acids: ... Aromatic amino acids are able to absorb light due to their conjugated double bonds. This characteristic of aromatic amino acids ... Animals obtain aromatic amino acids from their diet, but all plants and micro-organisms must synthesize their aromatic amino ...

*Phenylalanine decarboxylase

Other names in common use include L-phenylalanine decarboxylase, aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, and L-phenylalanine ... Schulz AR, Oliner L (1967). "The possible role of thyroid aromatic amino acid decarboxylase in thyroxine biosynthesis". Life ... LOVENBERG W, WEISSBACH H, UDENFRIEND S (1962). "Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase". J. Biol. Chem. 237: 89-93. PMID 14466899 ... In enzymology, a phenylalanine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.53) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-phenylalanine ...

*Meta-Tyramine

"EC 4.1.1.28 - Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (Homo sapiens)". BRENDA. Technische Universität Braunschweig. July 2016. ... meta-Tyramine is produced in humans via aromatic amino acid decarboxylase-mediated metabolism of meta-tyrosine. meta-Tyramine ...

*3-O-Methyldopa

On the other hand, the possibility of blocking peripheral decarboxylation by adding an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC ... This reaction happen in the process of decarboxylation by aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) also called dopa- ... Vanilpyruvate is reduced to the final conversion: venillactate which are the same, predominantly by aromatic α-keto acid ... Some studies have proposed that 3-OMD increases homocysteine levels, and this amino acid induces cardiovascular disease and ...

*Entacapone

... entacapone is given as an adjunct to levodopa and an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, carbidopa. Entacapone ... When administered with a decarboxylase inhibitor, COMT acts as the major metabolizing enzyme for levodopa and metabolizes it to ...

*N,N-Dimethyltryptamine

No matter the source of L-tryptophan, the biosynthesis begins with its decarboxylation by an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase ... In plants, the parent amino acid L-tryptophan is produced endogenously where in animals L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid ... as other DMT acid salts are extremely hygroscopic and will not readily crystallize. Its freebase form, although less stable ...

*List of OMIM disorder codes

CYP19A1 Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency; 608643; DDC Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 1; 107970; TGFB3 ... FREM1 Bile acid malabsorption, primary; 613291; SLC10A2 Bile acid synthesis defect, congenital, 2; 235555; AKR1D1 Bile acid ... SBDS Sialic acid storage disorder, infantile; 269920; SLC17A5 Sialidosis, type I; 256550; NEU1 Sialidosis, type II; 256550; ... SLC7A7 Lysosomal acid phosphatase deficiency; 200950; ACP2 Lysyl hydroxylase 3 deficiency; 612394; PLOD3 Machado-Joseph disease ...

*Neurotransmitter

... and the biosynthetic enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 6: ... Major neurotransmitters: Amino acids: glutamate, aspartate, D-serine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine Gasotransmitters: ... Most neurotransmitters are about the size of a single amino acid, however, some neurotransmitters may be the size of larger ... Dividing them into amino acids, peptides, and monoamines is sufficient for some classification purposes. ...

*Nucleus accumbens

... and the biosynthetic enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Barrot, Michel; Marinelli, Michela; Abrous, Djoher Nora; ... More recently, Fuller's laboratory also discovered that sleep can be promoted by the activation of a gamma-aminobutyric acid- ...

*Amphetamine

... and the biosynthetic enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). ... AMPH release of DA from synapses requires both an ... phenethylamine is produced directly from L-phenylalanine by the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) enzyme, which converts ... SLC1A1 is excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), a glutamate transporter located in neurons, SLC22A3 is an extraneuronal ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular ...

*Trace amine

... and the biosynthetic enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Grandy DK, Miller GM, Li JX (February 2016). ""TAARgeting ... decreases in the urine and plasma levels of the PE metabolite phenylacetic acid and the precursors phenylalanine and tyrosine ...

*Reverse transport

... and the biosynthetic enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). ... AMPH release of DA from synapses requires both an ...

*Vesicular monoamine transporter

... and amino acid aromatic decarboxylase (AADC) are physically and functionally coupled with VMAT2. It was initially thought that ... and the biosynthetic enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Rang, H. P. (2003). Pharmacology. Edinburgh: Churchill ... Studies indicate that the amino acid residue His419, located on the domain between TMD X and XI of rat VMAT1, plays a role in ... Scientists have used these tools to analyze DNA and amino acid sequences, discovering that transporters in bacteria and humans ...

*Lisdexamfetamine

... and the biosynthetic enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Sulzer D, Cragg SJ, Rice ME (August 2016). "Striatal ... The attachment of the amino acid lysine slows down the relative amount of dextroamphetamine available to the blood stream. ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular ... Its chemical structure consists of dextroamphetamine coupled with the essential amino acid L-lysine. Lisdexamfetamine itself is ...

*Adderall

... and the biosynthetic enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Broadley KJ (March 2010). "The vascular effects of trace ... phenethylamine is produced directly from L-phenylalanine by the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) enzyme, which converts ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular ... benzoic acid, hippuric acid, norephedrine, and phenylacetone. Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are 4- ...

*Dextroamphetamine

... phenethylamine is produced directly from L-phenylalanine by the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) enzyme, which converts ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular ... benzoic acid, hippuric acid, norephedrine, and phenylacetone. Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are 4- ... This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ...

*Monoamine neurotransmitter

... and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes. Monoaminergic systems, i.e., the networks ... All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, ... neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring ...

*L-DOPA

... it is converted into dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, also known as DOPA decarboxylase. Pyridoxal ... Dopamine is formed by the decarboxylation of L-DOPA by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). L-DOPA can be directly ... "Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: diagnostic methodology" (PDF). Clinical Chemistry. 38 (12): 2405-10. PMID ... L-DOPA is produced from the amino acid L-tyrosine by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. It is also the precursor for the ...

*Phenethylamine

... from the amino acid L-phenylalanine by enzymatic decarboxylation via the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. In ... the gene for aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), the major enzyme involved in the synthesis of the trace amines, is ... phenethylamine is synthesized in catecholamine neurons from L-phenylalanine by aromatic amino acid decarboxylase at ... Acetoacetic acid (AAA) and ß-phenylethylamine (PEA) performed best in this experiment. On beef meat pieces, PEA reduced the ...

*Catecholamine

... which is metabolized by l-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC; see Cooper et al., 2002) to the transmitter dopamine. This ... The amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine are precursors for catecholamines. Both amino acids are found in high concentrations ... Catecholamines are derived from the amino acid tyrosine, which is derived from dietary sources as well as synthesis from ... The enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) converts the amino acid l-tyrosine into 3,4- dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA). The ...

*Carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone

Carbidopa is a peripheral aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) inhibitor. Carbidopa, which also does not cross the blood- ...

*Tolcapone

... carbidopa and benserazide are aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) inhibitors. Without administration of tolcapone, the ... It melts at 143 to 146 °C (289 to 295 °F), is practically insoluble in water and acids but soluble in 0.1 M aqueous sodium ... hydroxylation by CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 with subsequent oxidation to a carboxylic acid, and possibly a minor path with reduction to ... in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid / ethanol). Its chemical name is 3,4-dihydroxy-4'-methyl-5-nitrobenzophenone. A synthesis of ...

*Neurobiological effects of physical exercise

... phenethylamine is synthesized in catecholamine neurons from L-phenylalanine by aromatic amino acid decarboxylase at ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular ... Two reviews noted a study where the mean 24 hour urinary β-phenylacetic acid acid concentration following just 30 minutes of ... The 24 hour mean urinary concentration of phenylacetic acid was increased by 77% after exercise. ... As phenylacetic acid ...

*Sympathoadrenal system

... aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, dopamine-β-hydroxylase, and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. The release of ...
Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is required for the synthesis of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. Children with defects in the AADC gene show compromised development, particularly in motor function. Drug therapy has only marginal effects on some of the symptoms and does not change early childhood mortality. Here, we performed adeno-associated viral vector-mediated gene transfer of the human AADC gene bilaterally into the putamen of four patients 4 to 6 years of age. All of the patients showed improvements in motor performance: One patient was able to stand 16 months after gene transfer, and the other three patients achieved supported sitting 6 to 15 months after gene transfer. Choreic dyskinesia was observed in all patients, but this resolved after several months. Positron emission tomography revealed increased uptake by the putamen of 6-[18F]fluorodopa, a tracer for AADC. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed increased dopamine and serotonin levels after gene transfer. ...
Compare dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Rat embryonic mesencephalic cultures were employed to evaluate the consequences of adding GM1 ganglioside to cultures lesioned with the selective neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). MPP+ reduced dopamine and DOPAC content, dopamine uptake, aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity, and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase- immunopositive neurons. The immunopositive neurons that remained were aberrant. All of these parameters were partially restored by adding GM1 ganglioside to the cultures. The response to GM1 was not altered by prior treatment of the cultures with cytosine beta-D-arabinofuranoside to reduce the number of glial cells. Dopamine uptake activity restored by GM1 was lost if GM1 was removed from the culture.. ...
In normal dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter synthesis, AADC is not the rate-limiting step in either reaction. However, AADC becomes the rate-limiting step of dopamine synthesis in patients treated with L-DOPA (such as in Parkinsons disease), and the rate-limiting step of serotonin synthesis in people treated with 5-HTP (such as in mild depression or dysthymia). AADC is inhibited by carbidopa outside of the blood brain barrier to inhibit the premature conversion of L-DOPA to dopamine in the treatment of Parkinsons. In humans, AADC is also the rate-limiting enzyme in the formation of trace amines. Deficiency of AADC is associated with various symptoms as severe developmental delay, oculogyric crises and autonomic dysfunction. The molecular and clinical spectrum of AAAC deficiency is heterogeneous. The first case of AADC deficiency was described in twin brothers 1990. Patients can be treated with dopamine agonists, MAO inhibitors, and pyridoxine (vitamin B6).[6] Clinical phenotype ...
By indirect immunohistochemistry, the present study examined the distribution of neuronal structures in the cat medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, showing immunoreactivity to aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), which catalyzes the convers
The AADC Research Trust was founded in 2006 to globally disseminate as much medical and scientific information and improve disease awareness about Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency.
Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) catalyses the decarboxylation of all aromatic l-amino acids. In mammals, AADC is expressed in many tissues besides the nervous system, and is associated with
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. The enzyme also acts on some other aromatic L-amino acids, including L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine.
ABSTRACT. Recent pharmacological discovery on trace amineassociated receptor, type 1(TAAR1) has emphasized importance of trace amines in pathogenesis of psychoses, such as schizophrenia. TAAR1 has many ligands, including tyramine, β-phenylethylamine (PEA), amphetamines, and 3-iodothyronamine. Socalled D-neurons are putative producer of trace amines, endogenous ligands of TAAR1. The D-neuron is defined "the aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC)-containing neuron, but not dopaminergic nor serotonergic", i.e. not containing tyrosine hydroxylase nor tryptophan hydroxylase. AADC is an enzyme, also called dopa decarboxylase (DDC). The localization of D-neurons in the central nervous system has been specified into 15 groups, from the spinal cord (D1) to striatum (D15). We showed the decrease of D-neurons in D15 in postmortem brains of schizophrenia, where midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are heavily innervated. Decrease of D-neurons may cause reduction of trace amines in the striatum, and may also ...
Safety and Efficacy Study of VY-AADC01 for Advanced Parkinsons Disease. Parkinsons disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder involving loss of dopamine producing neurons located in the striatum. Levodopa is the primary treatment used to treat Parkinsons disease, which converts to dopamine by the enzyme (protein) Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC). As PD progresses, the amount of AADC levels in the brain decreases, and in turn, reduces the amount of dopamine that is produced with each dose of levodopa.. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the safety of increasing AADC levels, via gene delivery. The investigational drug, termed VY-AADC-01, will be injected directly into the striatum during a neurosurgical procedure that is performed with real-time MRI imaging to monitor delivery.. Participants will continue to take their Parkinson medications, including levodopa while participating in this study.. The safety and potential clinical responses to VY-AADC-01 will be ...
Parkinsons disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder involving loss of dopamine producing neurons located in the striatum. Levodopa is the primary treatment used to treat Parkinsons disease, which converts to dopamine by the enzyme (protein) Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC). As PD progresses, the amount of AADC levels in the brain decreases, and in turn, reduces the amount of dopamine that is produced with each dose of levodopa.. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the safety of increasing AADC levels, via gene delivery. The investigational drug, termed VY-AADC-01, will be injected directly into the striatum during a neurosurgical procedure that is performed with real-time MRI imaging to monitor delivery.. Participants will continue to take their Parkinson medications, including levodopa while participating in this study.. The safety and potential clinical responses to VY-AADC-01 will be assessed by repeated clinical evaluations of Parkinsons disease, treatment ...
article{9a61eb3f-8c54-482b-b9ab-17e99c703a0d, abstract = {,p,Monoamine neurotransmitters play an important role in the modulation of sensory, motor and autonomic functions in the spinal cord. Although traditionally it is believed that in mammalian spinal cord, monoamine neurotransmitters mainly originate from the brain, accumulating evidence indicates that especially when the spinal cord is injured, they can also be produced in the spinal cord. In this review, I will present evidence for a possible pathway for two-step synthesis of dopamine and serotonin in the spinal cord. Published data from different sources and unpublished data from my own ongoing projects indicate that monoenzymatic cells expressing aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) are present in the spinal cord and that these TH and THP cells often lie in close proximity to AADC cells. Prompted by the above evidence, I hypothesize that dopamine and serotonin could be ...
L-DOPA crosses the protective blood-brain barrier, whereas dopamine itself cannot. Thus, L-DOPA is used to increase dopamine concentrations in the treatment of Parkinsons disease and dopamine-responsive dystonia. This treatment was made practical and proven clinically by George Cotzias and his coworkers, for which they won the 1969 Lasker Prize.[4][5] Once L-DOPA has entered the central nervous system, it is converted into dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, also known as DOPA decarboxylase. Pyridoxal phosphate (vitamin B6) is a required cofactor in this reaction, and may occasionally be administered along with L-DOPA, usually in the form of pyridoxine.. Besides the central nervous system, L-DOPA is also converted into dopamine from within the peripheral nervous system. Excessive peripheral dopamine signaling causes many of the adverse side effects seen with sole L-DOPA administration. To bypass these effects, it is standard clinical practice to coadminister (with ...
Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter. Dopaminergic substances or actions increase dopamine-related activity in the brain. Dopaminergic brain structures facilitate dopamine-related activity. For example, certain proteins such as the dopamine transporter (DAT), vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), and dopamine receptors can be classified as dopaminergic, and neurons that synthesize or contain dopamine and synapses with dopamine receptors in them may also be labeled as dopaminergic. Enzymes that regulate the biosynthesis or metabolism of dopamine such as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase or DOPA decarboxylase, monoamine oxidase (MAO), and catechol O-methyl transferase (COMT) may be referred to as dopaminergic as well. Also, any endogenous or exogenous chemical substance that acts to affect dopamine receptors or dopamine release through indirect actions (for example, on neurons that synapse onto neurons that ...
in Molecular Imaging & Biology (2016, July), 18(S1), 1744. Objectives: Rat models of Parkinsons disease (PD), such as unilaterally lesioned rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), are useful to evaluate novel antiparkinsonian therapies. MicroPET imaging, using L-3 ... [more ▼]. Objectives: Rat models of Parkinsons disease (PD), such as unilaterally lesioned rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), are useful to evaluate novel antiparkinsonian therapies. MicroPET imaging, using L-3,4-dihydroxy-6-[18F]-fluoro-phenylalanine ([18F]FDOPA) allows longitudinal evaluations of DA terminals loss. However, chemical structure of [18F]FDOPA leads to suboptimal PET imaging. 18F-fluoro-m-tyrosine ([18F]FMT) is an effective PET tracer to evaluate DA terminals integrity and L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) metabolic pathway. So far, there are no available quantitative PET studies comparing the two methods in hemiparkinsonian rats. In this study, we compare imaging data provided by [18F]FMT PET and ...
Voyager Therapeutics, Inc. is a clinical-stage gene therapy company. The Company focuses on developing treatments for patients suffering from severe diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). The Companys pipeline consists of programs for CNS indications, including advanced Parkinsons disease; a monogenic form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); Huntingtons disease; Friedreichs ataxia; frontotemporal dementia/Alzheimers disease, and severe chronic pain. The Companys clinical candidate, VY-AADC01, is an adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy product candidate, for the treatment of advanced Parkinsons disease. VY-AADC01 consists of the AAV2 capsid, which has been used in multiple AAV gene therapy clinical trials for various diseases, and the cytomegalovirus promoter that drives expression of the aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) transgene. Its pipeline also includes VY-SOD101, VY-FXN01, VY-HTT01, VY-TAU01 and VY-NAV01.
Physiology Test Question - In the biosynthetic pathway of catecholamines, the enzyme L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase catalyzes the following reaction:
Tryptamine-induced resistance in tryptophan decarboxylase transgenic poplar and tobacco plants against their specific herbivores.: The presence of amines and th
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Idiopathic PD is defined as a synucleinopathy in which Lewy bodies, pathological aggregations of the synaptic protein α-synuclein, are found in the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra [14, 15]. A reduction of dopamine in the striatum is a consistent finding in PD, although the clinical features are heterogeneous and include different predominant symptoms (resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, or postural instability and gait disorder) with different rates of progression, and with or without dementia [16-19]. PET imaging is a valuable tool for assessing altered dopaminergic function in the striatum in PD. While FDOPA is suitable for assessing the metabolism of levodopa, FMT is superior for estimating AADC activity because it enables the production of higher-quality brain images [7, 20-22]. The high resolution of FMT-PET images enables analysis of dopaminergic presynaptic changes in each subregion of the striatum.. In the present study, FMT uptake in PD was reduced in the putamen, ...
Early and convenient diagnosis is urgently needed for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection (AAAD) patients due to its high mortality within the first 48 hours. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases, however, little is known about circulating miRNAs involved in AAAD. Here, the blood serum was sampled from 104 AAAD+ patients and 103 age-matched donors. Initial screening was conducted using the TaqMan Low Density Array followed by RT-qPCR confirmation. According to the two-phase selection and validation process, we found that miR-25, miR-29a and miR-155 were significantly elevated, while miR-26b was markedly decreased in AAAD+ serum samples compared with AAAD- individuals ...
Carbidopa (CD), a competitive inhibitor of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, is routinely administered with levodopa (LD) to patients with Parkinson disease (PD) to reduce the peripheral decarboxylation
0081]The term "self-antigen" refers to an immunogenic peptide derived from a protein of said individual. It may be, by way of example, an auto-antigen of the following non-limiting list: acetylcholine receptor, actin, adenin nucleotide translocator, β-adrenoreceptor, aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, asioaloglycoprotein receptor, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPi), calcium sensing receptor, cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, collagen type IV Oy-chain, cytochrome P450 2D6, desmin, desmoglein-1, desmoglein-3, F-actin, GM-gangliosides, glutamate decarboxylase, glutamate receptor, H/K ATPase, 17-[alpha]-hydroxylase, 21-hydroxylase, IA-2 (ICAS 12), insulin, insulin receptor, intrinsic factor type 1, leucocyte function antigen 1, myelin associated glycoprotein, myelin basic protein, myelin oligodendrocyte protein, myosin, P80-coilin, pyruvate deshydrogenase complex E2 (PDC-E2), sodium iodide symporter, SOX-10, thyroid and eye muscle shared protein, thyroglobulin, thyroid ...
The present invention is directed to a somatostatin antagonist according to formula (I), wherein A1 is an optionally substituted aromatic ∝-amino acid; A2 is an optionally substituted aromatic ∝-amino acid; A3 is Dab, Dap, Lys or Orn; A4 is β-Hydroxyvaline, Ser, Hser, or Thr; A5 is an optionally substituted D- or L-aromatic -amino acid; and Y1 is OH, NH2 or NHR1, where R1 is (C1-6)alkyl; wherein each said optionally substituted aromatic -amino acid is optionally substituted with one or more substituents each independently selected from the group consisting of halogen, NO2, OH, CN, (C1-6)alkyl, (c2-6)alkenyl, (c2-6)alkynyl, (C1-6)alkoxy, Bzl, O-Bzl, and NR9R10, where R9 ad R10 each is independently H, O, or (C1-6)alkyl; and wherein the amine nitrogen of each of amide peptide bond and the amino group of A1 of formula (I) is optionally substituted with a methyl group, provided that there is at least one said methyl group; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and to uses thereof.
The results presented herein show that the tubular uptake of l-DOPA in WKY and SHR was a saturable process, being higher in the latter than the former at both 4 and 12 weeks of age. Expression of LAT2 in SHR was higher than in WKY kidneys. This increase was more marked at 4 than at 12 weeks of age. Expression of intestinal LAT2 was identical in SHR and WKY at both 4 and 12 weeks of age. The Northern blot analysis did not detect LAT1 mRNA in either the kidney or intestine. Kidney total RNA was then subjected to RT and amplified by PCR with specific primers for LAT1. The presence of a fragment of the expected size for LAT1 led to the conclusion that LAT1 mRNA is a rare message in kidney. It is suggested that overexpression of LAT2 in the SHR kidney might contribute to the enhanced l-DOPA uptake, which is organ specific and precedes the onset of hypertension.. Although the kidney is endowed with 1 of the highest levels of aromatic AADC activities in the body and plasma levels of l-DOPA are in the ...
Parkinsons disease has been traditionally thought of as a dopaminergic disease in which cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) die. However, accumulating evidence implies an important role for the serotonergic system in Parkinsons disease in general and in physiological responses to levodopa therapy, the first line of treatment. We use a mathematical model to investigate the consequences of levodopa therapy on the serotonergic system and on the pulsatile release of dopamine (DA) from dopaminergic and serotonergic terminals in the striatum. Levodopa competes with tyrosine and tryptophan at the blood-brain barrier and is taken up by serotonin neurons in which it competes for aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. The DA produced competes with serotonin (5HT) for packaging into vesicles. We predict the time courses of LD, cytosolic DA, and vesicular DA in 5HT neurons during an LD dose. We predict the time courses of DA and 5HT release from 5HT cell bodies and 5HT terminals as well as the ...
Neurotransmitters associated with pediatric neurotransmitter diseases include the catecholamines, serotonin, and the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobuytric (GABA).. The pathways leading to the metabolism (production), synthesis (building up of), and catabolism (break down) of neurotransmitters are extremely complicated systems. The following is the pathways for the dopamine neurotransmitters pathway.. When there is a disruption within the neurotransmitter system, it can cause abnormalities with many of the brains essential functions. In pediatric neurotransmitter diseases children are born with genetic defects that affect the neurotransmitter pathways and the use of the related neurotransmitter. The specific pediatric neurotransmitter disease is determined by where the defect in the pathway occurs. For example in Aromatic L Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Deficiency the AADC enzyme is affected in the dopamine pathway and children cannnot effectively utilize the neurotransmitter ...
DOPA Decarboxylase兔多克隆抗体(ab32587)可与大鼠, 羊, 兔, 豚鼠, 牛, 狗, 人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Established in 1982 from an adrenal gland metastasis of a small cell lung cancer from a man in relapse following treatment; cells were described to be tumorigenic in nude mice and to express elevated levels of L-dopa decarboxylase, neuron-specific enolase, creatine kinase and bombesin-like ...
Intensive study and analysis of selected Afro-American problems and issues of limited scope, approached within an interdisciplinary format. Topics will vary, but will ordinarily cut across departmental concentration areas. Summer 2011 Topics RACE, CLASS, AND LITERACY (10570) CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE-WHITENESS (10568 & 10569 ...
3 cr.) This pro-seminar on writings and literatures in AAADS introduces graduate students to interdisciplinary and globalized approaches to Africans in the Diaspora and the Americas. Course also introduces graduate students to the history canons, paradigms, theories, methods, and seminal-thinker biographies of the field ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The opponent (appellant) filed an appeal against the interlocutory decision of the opposition division dated 26 August 2008 whereby the European patent no. 1 254 957 was maintained in amended form (Article 101(3)(a) EPC). II. The opposition division, finding that the main request before it, claims 1 to 7 as granted, did not meet the requirements of Article 54 EPC, decided that auxiliary request 1, claims 1 to 6 filed on 27 May 2008, met all requirements of the EPC.. Claim 1 of auxiliary request 1 read as follows:. A method for producing an L-amino acid utilizing a microorganism and comprising culturing the microorganism in a medium to produce and accumulate the L-amino acid in the medium and collecting the L-amino acid from the culture, wherein the microorganism is a mutant or recombinant strain of a microorganism in which maltose assimilation is controlled by an interaction between IIA**(Glc) protein of glucose PTS and Malk protein, and the interaction ...
A study published in Brain, led by researchers at UCL Institute of Neurology, has shown that genetic mutations which cause a decrease in dopamine production in the brain and lead to a form of childhood-onset Dystonia, also play a role in the development of Parkinsons disease ...
The Survey Control database contains coordinate, height, access and other information relating to survey control marks located at sites in the Australian Antarctic Territory, at Macquarie Island and in the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands. NOTE: Every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and integrity of the data contained in this database. It would be appreciated if users would report any factual errors via the support tab.. Users should carefully check the datum displayed with coordinates before using them.. ...
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, and they are integral to the chemistry of life. Without amino acids, life as we know it wouldnt exist.
Carbidopa presents a chemical denomination of N-amino-alpha-methyl-3-hydroxy-L-tyrosine monohydrate. It potently inhibits aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (DDC) and due to its chemical properties, it does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Due to its activity, carbidopa is always administered concomitantly with levodopa. An individual formulation containing solely carbidopa was generated to treat nausea in patients where the combination therapy levodopa/carbidopa is not efficient reducing nausea. The first approved product by the FDA containing only carbidopa was developed by Amerigens Pharmaceuticals Ltd and approved on 2014. On the other hand, the combination treatment of carbidopa/levodopa was originally developed by Watson Labs but the historical information by the FDA brings back to the approval of this combination therapy developed by Mayne Pharma in 1992.
Type II pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent decarboxylases are a group of enzymes with important roles in amino acid metabolism. This group of enzymes has undergone functional evolution from a shared ancient evolutionary origin to generate a selection of subfamilies with stringent substrate selectivitys [14]. Plant type II PLP decarboxylases include aromatic amino acid decarboxylases (AAADs), serine decarboxylases (SDCs) and glutamate decarboxylases (GDCs). Plant SDSs catalyze the decarboxylation of serine to ethanolamine [1], GDCs catalyze the decarboxylation of glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) [19] and AAADs catalyze the decarboxylation of aromatic amino acids to generate aromatic arylalkylamines [10]-[12]. Based on their respective substrate specificities each group is responsible for the biosynthesis of unique products [1],[10],[19]. Although all plant type II PLP decarboxylases have evolved from a common evolutionary ancestor, significant evolutionary divergence has occurred ...
The calcium-sensing receptor is a multimodal, multimetabolic sensor that mediates the feedback-dependent control of whole body calcium metabolism. Remarkably, in addition to its role in Ca(2+)(o) (extracellular Ca(2+)) sensing, the CaR (Ca(2+)-sensing receptor) also responds to L-amino acids. L-amino acids appear to activate, predominantly, a signalling pathway coupled with intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, require a threshold concentration of Ca(2+)(o) for efficacy and sensitize the receptor to activation by Ca(2+)(o). Here, we review the evidence that the CaR, like other closely related members of the class 3 GPCR (G-protein-coupled receptor) family including GPRC6A, is a broad-spectrum amino acid-sensing receptor, consider the nature of the signalling response to amino acids and discuss its physiological significance.
Y J He et al suggested that a net natural chiral right-handed helical force field, produced by the Earths orbital chirality (EOC) could affect the stability of molecule helical enantiomers and make the right-handed helical enantiomers more stable than their left- handed enantiomers. So, terrestrial living systems must select both right-handed nucleic acids based on D-sugars and right-handed proteins based on L-amino acids ...
星野, 照秀; 五月女, 寛明; 日高, 真吾; 市島, 丈裕; 野口, 沙希; 三條, 祐介; 浮地, 賢一郎; 澁井, 武夫; 片倉, 朗; 野村, 武史 ...
The transamination of aromatic l-amino acids (5-hydroxytryptophan, tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine and kynurenine) was shown to be catalysed by enzyme preparations from rat small intestine. On the basis of the partial purification and characterization of these aromatic amino acid transaminases, it is suggested that rat small intestine contains several kinds of aromatic amino acid transaminases.. ...
Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to clarify the modulation of the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-HT) via the [alpha]2-adrenoceptors in the brain. For this purpose. 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) accumulation was determined using an HPLC-ECD system in the presence of the inhibition of aromatic -amino acid decarboxylase. Administration of [alpha]2-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine, produced a reduction of the in vivo 5-HTP accumulation in the rat hippocampus and dorsal raphe nucleus. In addition, [alpha]2-adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan, increased the 5-HTP accumulation in both the hippocampus and the dorsal raphe nucleus. In rats with catecholaminergic neurons denervated by pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine, clonidine failed to produce a reduction of 5-HTP accumulation in the dorsal raphe nucleus. On the other hand, hippocampal 5-HTP accumulation was decreased significantly. Brain tryptophan levels were unaffected by either clonidine or idazoxan. These results suggest that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Replacement of infected aortic prosthetic graft with aortic homograft after heart transplantation. T2 - 13-year follow-up. AU - Macedo, Francisco Igor B. AU - Salerno, Tomas. AU - Pham, Si M.. PY - 2013/5/1. Y1 - 2013/5/1. N2 - Acute ascending aortic dissection (AAAD) is a rare complication after orthotopic heart transplantation. We report a patient with AAAD after heart transplantation in whom repair was complicated by infection of the ascending aortic prosthetic graft. This was successfully managed by re-do replacement with two cryopreserved aortic homografts. Despite extensive calcification in the wall, the homografts show no aneurysm or dilation after 10 years.. AB - Acute ascending aortic dissection (AAAD) is a rare complication after orthotopic heart transplantation. We report a patient with AAAD after heart transplantation in whom repair was complicated by infection of the ascending aortic prosthetic graft. This was successfully managed by re-do replacement with two ...
Binds to a DNA sequence element required for the expression of the dopa decarboxylase gene (Ddc) in specific dopaminergic neurons. Could also play an early role in specific ectodermal cells, and a subsequent role in the embryonic nervous system.
Design and synthesis of a boronic acid based artificial receptor which selectively and effectively bound to a neurotransmitter, l-DOPA (1), in aqueous media. In addition, the synthetic receptor was found to effectively inhibit the DDC (l-DOPA decarboxylase) enzymatic reaction under physiological conditions.
Summary The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify the aacA-aphD, aphA3 and aadC genes, encoding the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes AAC(6′)-APH(2′), APH(3′)III and ANT(4′ 4
Established in 1979 from the bone marrow aspirated from a 55-year-old white man with small cell lung carcinoma prior to treatment; corresponds to NCI-H209; described as expressing neuroendocrine biochemical markers, e.g. neuron-specific enolase, brain creatine kinase, L-DOPA decarboxylase and ...
PURPOSE: To study the PK interaction of L-dopa/benserazide in rats. METHODS: Male rats received a single oral dose of 80 mg/kg L-dopa or 20 mg/kg benserazide or 80/20 mg/kg L-dopa/benserazide. Based on plasma concentrations the kinetics of L-dopa, 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD), benserazide, and its metabolite Ro 04-5127 were characterized by noncompartmental analysis and a compartmental model where total L-dopa clearance was the sum of the clearances mediated by amino-acid-decarboxylase (AADC), catechol-O-methyltransferase and other enzymes. In the model Ro 04-5127 inhibited competitively the L-dopa clearance by AADC. RESULTS: The coadministration of L-dopa/benserazide resulted in a major increase in systemic exposure to L-dopa and 3-OMD and a decrease in L-dopa clearance. The compartmental model allowed an adequate description of the observed L-dopa and 3-OMD concentrations in the absence and presence of benserazide. It had an advantage over noncompartmental analysis because it could describe the ...
PURPOSE: To study the PK interaction of L-dopa/benserazide in rats. METHODS: Male rats received a single oral dose of 80 mg/kg L-dopa or 20 mg/kg benserazide or 80/20 mg/kg L-dopa/benserazide. Based on plasma concentrations the kinetics of L-dopa, 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD), benserazide, and its metabolite Ro 04-5127 were characterized by noncompartmental analysis and a compartmental model where total L-dopa clearance was the sum of the clearances mediated by amino-acid-decarboxylase (AADC), catechol-O-methyltransferase and other enzymes. In the model Ro 04-5127 inhibited competitively the L-dopa clearance by AADC. RESULTS: The coadministration of L-dopa/benserazide resulted in a major increase in systemic exposure to L-dopa and 3-OMD and a decrease in L-dopa clearance. The compartmental model allowed an adequate description of the observed L-dopa and 3-OMD concentrations in the absence and presence of benserazide. It had an advantage over noncompartmental analysis because it could describe the ...
The current, prevalent hypothesis, proposed by German researcher Dr. Heiko Braak, theorizes that the earliest signs of PD begin in the olfactory region of the brain, and in the lower brainstem, before traveling upwards through the brainstem, ultimately affecting the nerve cells in the midbrain responsible for dopamine production.
Add:Room 1311,No.1 Building,Rongle RD(East)2369,SongJiang District,Shanghai,China Tel:+86-21-67866961 Fax:+86-21-51686554 Email:[email protected] ...
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Sangha S, Ilenseer J, Sosulina L, Lesting J, Pape H-C (2012). Differential regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase gene expression after extinction of a recent memory versus intermediate memory. Learning & Memory, 19:194-200.. Christianson JP, Fernando ABP, Kazama AM, Jovanovic T, Ostroff LE, Sangha S (2012). Inhibition of fear by learned safety signals: minisymposium review. Journal of Neuroscience, 32(41): 14118-14124.. Sangha S, Chadick JZ, Janak PH (2013). Safety encoding in the basal amygdala. Journal of Neuroscience, 33: 3744-3751.. Sangha S, Robinson PD, Davies DA, Greba Q, Howland JG (2014). Alterations in reward, fear and safety cue discrimination after inactivation of the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39:2405-2413.. Sangha S, Greba Q, Robinson PD, Ballendine SA, Howland JG (2014). Normal fear and safety cue discrimination but alterations in fear regulation after extinction in an animal model of schizophrenia. Front Behav Neurosci, 8: 168.. Sangha S ...
A detailed cytogenetic investigation of 16 overlapping deficiencies in the 36C-40A region on the left arm of the second chromosome (2L) in Drosophila melanogaster is reported. These deficiencies permit a localization of both the dopa-decarboxylase-dosage-sensitive region and the α-methyl-dopa-hypersensitive locus, l(2)amd, to the same region, 37B10-37C7.. ...
Reference: Radiography, 18 (1), p.28-33, Feb 2012. doi: 10.1016/j.radi.2011.07.003. Keywords: Cancer; Epidemiology; Radiobiology; Non-targeted effects; Hypersensitivity; Radiation protection. Abstract: …radiation induced breast cancer beyond the age of 50…the variation in breast cancer risk with age suggests…occurs. 41 Radiogenic thyroid cancer ERR decreases strongly with age in the LSS and Chernobyl data 10,43 though the…. URL:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1078817411000691. ...
May catalyze the decarboxylation of aspartate, cysteine sulfinic acid, and cysteic acid to beta-alanine, hypotaurine and taurine, respectively. Does not exhibit any decarboxylation activity toward glutamate.
Looking for online definition of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine in the Medical Dictionary? 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine explanation free. What is 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine? Meaning of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine medical term. What does 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine mean?
The API profiles for all the pathogenic strains showed that they differed in three respects: production of lysine decarboxylase (LDC) and L-ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and utilisation of saccharose. Variation in these three properties has been observed before in E. coli isolated from untreated surface waters and soil.29,30 It has furthermore been reported that E. coli can induce production of amino acid decarboxylases (such as LDC and ODC) in response to reduced pH conditions.31 This report illustrates the highly adaptable nature of E. coli which helps it survive in more acidic environments.32. Because the PCR-based detection method of Clermont20 was used to identify E. coli phylogenetic groups (genogroups), the four main groups (A, B1, B2 and D) can further be subdivided into seven subgroups to increase discrimination: A0, A1, B1, B22, B23, D1 and D2.33 It has been reported that ExPEC strains usually belong to genogroups B2 and D, while InPEC strains that cause severe diarrhoea-related ...
[Purification and isolation of isoenzymes of L-amino acid oxidase from the venom of Bothrops asper].: L-amino acid oxidase (E.C. 1.4.3.2) was purified from the
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Vitamin B6-responsive seizures symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for Vitamin B6-responsive seizures (Glutamate decarboxylase deficiency) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, prevention, and prognosis.
Parkinsons disease (PD) is a debilitating condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Pathophysiologically the illness is due to a disruption of dopamine production in the basal ganglia and leads to a wide array of symptoms. These symptoms are not restricted to the nervous system; thus, the illness often presents acutely to a wide range of specialties, many of which may have limited experience in the condition. Patients often become unwell with illnesses unrelated to their PD. However, these conditions frequently lead to a deterioration in PD control. In addition, there exist certain acute complications of PD which are often difficult to recognise and carry significant mortality. Discussing the acute presentations of the illness under the umbrella of PD is important as it enables clinicians to focus upon the specific concerns involved in managing patients with the illness. A number of conditions are extremely common in PD and include falls, orthostatic hypotension, swallowing ...
Carbidopa will be useful as an adjunct to levodopa in treating patient with Parkinsonism. Carbidopa is useful as it will inhibit the action of DOPA decarboxylase.
The invention concerns a method for producing a cyclic L-amino acid of formula (I), characterised in that it consists in reacting a L-diamino acid of formula (II) or an enantiomeric mixture comprising such a L-diamino acid and a corresponding D-diamino acid in variable proportions, ...
Gad2 - Gad2 (untagged) - Mouse glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 (Gad2), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Abstract : Lesch-Nyhan disease is a neurogenetic disorder caused by deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). Affected individuals exhibit a characteristic pattern of neurological and behavioral features attributable in part to dysfunction of basal ganglia dopamine systems. In the current studies, striatal dopamine loss was investigated in five different HPRT-deficient strains of mice carrying one of two different HPRT gene mutations. Caudoputamen dopamine concentrations were significantly reduced in all five of the strains, with deficits ranging from 50.7 to 61.1%. Mesolimbic dopamine was significantly reduced in only three of the five strains, with a range of 31.6-38.6%. The reduction of caudoputamen dopamine was age dependent, emerging between 4 and 12 weeks of age. Tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, two enzymes responsible for the synthesis of dopamine, were reduced by 22.4-37.3 and 22.2-43.1%, respectively. These ...
VOLUMEoXXVIIi; MOUNT YERNON, OHIO:" Octobeii8;i: 1864. JCathairon la from ta Qreak;- wor Kathro," er Kathairo," algalftag to (Imih, rejnvanaU and raster. TbMdioU ia wkat iU aam sirnifia. For nairitU the .most rmrkaM pnarittoa la the world. It la again owned aad pat np by the original proprietor, aad ia bow aaad with the samaCara, ... f ntioa which gave it a aale of ever oae bullion bottlea per aannm. , "It is a moat delightful Tlalr Dressing. - IteradieateakaaHraad aaadraftV . It keepa the head cool and oleaa, It makea the hair, aoft aad glossy. It prereata the hair from falling off. tt prevents the hair from turning gray. . It reatorea hair npoa bald heada. A a J lady or gentlemaa who raises a beautiful nead of hair ahould oae-Lyona Kathairon. It ia known and aaed throaghoat the civilised world. Bold by all respectable dealer. DEHAS 8. BABNES ft CO. New York. Mar. 56-ly llagamfl Ffttgaeliat Balm. Thia ia the moat delightful aad extraordinary arti-ticle ever discovered. It change the ann ...
VOLUMEoXXVIIi; MOUNT YERNON, OHIO:" Octobeii8;i: 1864. JCathairon la from ta Qreak;- wor Kathro," er Kathairo," algalftag to (Imih, rejnvanaU and raster. TbMdioU ia wkat iU aam sirnifia. For nairitU the .most rmrkaM pnarittoa la the world. It la again owned aad pat np by the original proprietor, aad ia bow aaad with the samaCara, ... f ntioa which gave it a aale of ever oae bullion bottlea per aannm. , "It is a moat delightful Tlalr Dressing. - IteradieateakaaHraad aaadraftV . It keepa the head cool and oleaa, It makea the hair, aoft aad glossy. It prereata the hair from falling off. tt prevents the hair from turning gray. . It reatorea hair npoa bald heada. A a J lady or gentlemaa who raises a beautiful nead of hair ahould oae-Lyona Kathairon. It ia known and aaed throaghoat the civilised world. Bold by all respectable dealer. DEHAS 8. BABNES ft CO. New York. Mar. 56-ly llagamfl Ffttgaeliat Balm. Thia ia the moat delightful aad extraordinary arti-ticle ever discovered. It change the ann ...
Schott, H. (1951). Dopa decarboxylase inhibitor through interaction of coenzyme & substrate .. Retrieved 28 October 2016, from http://www.jbc.org/content/196/1/449.full. ...
Specialized in the manufacture of Vindoline,2182-14-1,API,This product is synthesis of vinblastine sulfate, vinorelbine, vinblastine and other raw materials for dehydration.
EarthTurns.com sells only American made 5-HTP supplements. We offer discount 5 HTP supplements that are shipped same day as ordered. 5 HTP is also known as 5-Hydroxytryptophan, a naturally occurring precursor to serotonin.
The formulation of drug compounds into medicines will increasingly rely on the use of specially tailored molecules, which fundamentally alter the drugs pharmacokinetics to enable its therapeutic activity. This is particularly true of the more challenging hydrophobic drugs or therapeutic biological molecules. The demand for such enabled medicines will translate into a demand for advanced highly functionalised drug delivery materials. Polymers have been used to formulate medicines for many decades and this is unlikely to change soon. Amphiphilic polymers based on amino acids are the subject of this review. These molecules, which present as either poly(L-amino acid) block copolymers or poly(L-amino acid) backbones with hydrophobic substituents, self assemble into micelles, vesicles, nanofibres and solid nanoparticles and such self assemblies, have drug delivery capabilities. The nature of the self-assembly depends on the chemistry of the constituent molecules, with the more hydrophilic molecules ...
Life Line has numerous useful tips for men regarding their health. They warn the cortisol level may rise from stress and cause weakness in the immune system, affect critical thinking and reduce energy. Meditation, relaxation and music can help alleviate this stress.. Cardiovascular health can be improved with swimming and running to increase blood flow, stimulate the thyroid gland and boost dopamine production. When exercising consistently cholesterol and blood pressure may both be reduced. Exercise also releases norepinephrine which decreases stress, improves motivation and enhances cognitive functions.. Weight gain and chronic fatigue can be signs of a thyroid condition. A screening can analyze the thyroid and prevent serious future issues. Supplements such as cyanocobalamin, tyrosine, magnesium and green tea extracts can help with functionality. An antioxidant called selenium can help by increasing the triiodothyronine found in the blood and more information click here.. Life Line Screening ...
levodopa drug combination benserazide: combination of L-Dopa and seryltrihydroxybenzylhydrazine; used in treatment of parkinsonism
... This part of the eMedTV library takes an in-depth look at this question and highlights some important warnings and precautions with 5-hydroxytryptophan. This page also explains why many doctors do not recommend the product.
2 injections of GAD-Alum vaccine and one injection with Aluminum hydroxide alone. GAD-Alum: Participants will receive 3 injections subcutaneously. The first two will contain 20 micrograms GAD-Alum vaccine and are given 4 weeks apart. The third injection will be Aluminum hydroxide alone and will be given 8 weeks after the second injection.. ...
Kondisi ibu hamil itu berbeda-beda. Bersyukurlah bila mengalami kehamilan yang mudah, jangan membandingkan dengan yang orang lain alami. Pernah lihat foto saya nyengir di pantai Johor Baru dan Langkawi? Itu semua cengiran palsu, sebenarnya saya sedang menahan gatal luar biasa di seluruh tubuh. Senyum-senyum itu akting saja, Dian Sastro di AADC2 sih lewat banget. Saya…
Learn about the potential side effects of 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Gut bacterial tyrosine decarboxylases restrict levels of levodopa in the treatment of Parkinsons disease. AU - van Kessel, Sebastiaan P. AU - Frye, Alexandra K. AU - El-Gendy, Ahmed O. AU - Castejon, Maria. AU - Keshavarzian, Ali. AU - van Dijk, Gertjan. AU - El Aidy, Sahar. PY - 2019/1/18. Y1 - 2019/1/18. N2 - Human gut microbiota senses its environment and responds by releasing metabolites, some of which are key regulators of human health and disease. In this study, we characterize gut-associated bacteria in their ability to decarboxylate levodopa to dopamine via tyrosine decarboxylases. Bacterial tyrosine decarboxylases efficiently convert levodopa to dopamine, even in the presence of tyrosine, a competitive substrate, or inhibitors of human decarboxylase. In situ levels of levodopa are compromised by high abundance of gut bacterial tyrosine decarboxylase in patients with Parkinsons disease. Finally, the higher relative abundance of bacterial tyrosine decarboxylases at the ...
Amino acid decarboxylation activity in dispersed rat pancreas acinar cells and fractions derived by differential centrifugation of homogenate of these cells was studied. The rate of decarboxylation was measured by determining the rate of production of the [3H]-amine from [3H]-amino acid or the rate of production of 14CO2 from the [14C]-carboxy-labelled amino acid. Only the hydroxylated amino acids L-dopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan are decarboxylated by intact dispersed pancreas acinar cells or cell homogenates at all pH values and amino acid concentrations tested. The decarboxylase activity is located exclusively in the cell cytosol. Each substrate competitively inhibits the decarboxylation of the other and the decarboxylation of each is inhibited by NSD-1055. The estimated Km and Vmax are, for L-dopa, 4.8 X 10(-5) M and 2.5 nmol/mg protein/min and for 5-hydroxytryptophan, 2.9 X 10(-5) M and 0.3 nmol/mg protein/min. The pH optimum for 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylation is from 7.0-8.5 while that for L
TestoTEK also uses a combination of 12 all-natural ingredients. All of which have extreme potency and have shown to be effective at naturally boosting testosterone levels in the body. Those ingredients include;. Zinc - is an extremely important ingredient to successful muscle growth and overall health. It will promote dopamine production, which is vital during high stress levels like working out. It has also been shown to be useful towards prostate health. Zinc also helps keep your brain sharp and focused.. D Aspartic Acid - is an amino acid that directly promotes testosterone production.. Tribulus Fruit Powder - has been shown to elevate sex drive and libido as well as increase testosterone levels and help develop lean muscle mass.. Velvet Bean Seed Powder - has been used for centuries as a sexual tonic. Research has shown that it can increase fertility, sperm count and motility, reduce cortisol and boost dopamine levels.. Stinging Nettle Root Extract - On its own it is not a powerhouse for ...
We investigated the impact of temperature on the microbial turnover of organic matter (OM) in a hydrothermal vent system in Guaymas Basin, by calculating microbial bio- and necromass turnover times based on the culture-independent D:L-amino acid model. Sediments were recovered from two stations near hydrothermal mounds (8 to 106 cells cm-3 within ∼5 m of sediment depth resulting in a 100-fold lower cell number at this depth than at the cold site where numbers remained constant at 108 cells cm-3 throughout the recovered sediment. There were strong indications that the drop in cell abundance was controlled by decreasing OM quality. The quality of the sedimentary OM was determined by the diagenetic indicators %TAAC (percentage of total organic carbon present as amino acid carbon), %TAAN (percentage of total nitrogen present as amino acid nitrogen), aspartic acid:β-alanine ratios, and glutamic acid:γ-amino butyric acid ratios. All parameters indicated that the OM became progressively degraded with
Some human brains just cant handle the constant stimulation produced by computers and the internet thanks to our evolutionary history, a respected psychologist has warned.. "The computer is electronic cocaine for many people," Dr. Peter Whybrow, director of the Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), told Pacific Standard. "Our brains are wired for finding immediate reward. With technology, novelty is the reward. You essentially become addicted to novelty.". Whybrow, a former scientist with the British Medical Research Council and a specialist in human brain chemistry, postulates that computers activate dopamine producers in the older parts of our brains, the medulla and cerebellum. These can start dopamine production to flood our brains with pleasure when we find something new and interesting, and computers can cause a constant state of production.. "Despite our superior intelligence, we remain driven by our ancient desires," he ...
Product name : Vindoline CAS 2182-14-1Reference standardCAS-Nr. : 2182-​14-​1 | MW: 456.53 DFormula: C25H32N2O6Purity: >98%Format: solidKeywords:
Get tips on using 5-HTP supplements once you talk with your doctor about them. Here's a partial list of possible drug-herb interactions.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of maternal care and selection for low mortality on tyrosine hydroxylase concentrations and cell soma size in hippocampus and nidopallium caudolaterale in adult laying hen. AU - Nordquist, R.E.. AU - Zeinstra, E.C.. AU - Rodenburg, T.B.. AU - van der Staay, F.J.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Feather pecking and cannibalism in farm-kept laying hens are damaging behaviors both in terms of animal welfare and economic loss, and a major challenge in modern poultry farming. Both rearing with a foster hen and genetic selection have been demonstrated to reduce feather pecking in laying hens. We examined the effects of rearing with a foster hen, genetic selection for low mortality from cannibalism, and interactions between both, using cellular morphology and levels of the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine production, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the hippocampus and nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL) as a potential measure for laying hen welfare. Hens from the second generation of a ...
Objective: To determine whether the excess mortality observed in patients who received both levodopa and selegiline in a randomised trial could be explained by revised diagnosis of Parkinsons disease, autonomic or cardiovascular effects, more rapid disease progression, or drug interactions.. Design: Open randomised trial and blind comparison and reclassification of the cause of death of patients who were recruited from 93 hospitals between 1985 and 1990 and who had died before December 1993 in arms 1 and 2.. Setting: United Kingdom.. Subjects: 624 patients with early Parkinsons disease who were not receiving dopaminergic treatment and a subgroup of 120 patients who died during the trial.. Interventions: Levodopa and a dopa decarboxylase inhibitor (arm 1), levodopa and a dopa decarboxylase inhibitor in combination with selegiline (arm 2), or bromocriptine alone (arm 3).. Main outcome measures: All cause mortality for 520 subjects in arms 1 and 2 and for 104 subjects who were randomised into ...
Bromocriptine definition, an ergot derivative, C 32 H 40 BrN 5 O 5 , that inhibits prolactin and growth hormone secretions and stimulates dopamine production in the brain, used to prevent postpartum lactation and in the treatments of acromegaly and Parkinsons disease. See more.
article{ce9b13ef-bf0d-4a03-8269-d106243e7bcb, abstract = {Some women with gestational diabetes (GDM) present with autoantibodies associated with type 1 diabetes. These are usually directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and suggested to predict development of type 1 diabetes. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if GADA IgG subclasses at onset of GDM could assist in predicting postpartum development. Of 1225 women diagnosed with first-time GDM only 51 were GADA-positive. Total GADA was determined using ELISA. GADA subclasses were determined with radioimmunoassay. Approximately 25% of GADA-positive women developed type 1 diabetes postpartum. Titers of total GADA were higher in women that developed type 1 diabetes (142.1 vs 74.2u/mL; p=0.04) and they also had lower titers of GADA IgG4 (index=0.01 vs 0.04; p=0.03). In conclusion we found that that women with high titers of total GADA but low titers of GADA IgG4 were more prone to develop type 1 diabetes postpartum.}, author ...
Goat polyclonal DOPA Decarboxylase antibody validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
FinaleBoost is an organo-mineral maturation and finishing booster. FinaleBoost is an essential component to finishing a crop with firm and high quality end product. It contains organic L-amino acids combined with natural potassium and sulfur. Potassium is needed in higher quantities toward the end of the blooming stage.. Potassium tends to combine with other minerals and become unavailable to plants. This results in deficiencies and mineral antagonism in the medium. By combining with organic L-amino acids, the potassium is buffered and protected from these mineral interactions. This ultimately means you can use far less fertilizer input and achieve the same or better results. Sulfur is an essential element in all plant cells, amino acids, and many flavors and quality compounds.. FinaleBoost is a better option than many combined P/K boosters because it allows the targeted application of potassium when and where the plant needs. Often when P and K are added in high quantities at the same time, one ...
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This website is intended as an informational guide. The described approaches and suggested therapies are meant to complement, not replace, professional medical advice and treatment. You are encouraged to seek advice from your doctor on matters related to MS ...
N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidaseHydrolyzes the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell-wall glycopeptides ...
5-HTP has a recommended dosage of 300-500 mg/day. Do NOT buy until you read this REAL 5-HTP Review. 5-HTP, also known as 5-Hydroxytryptophan or Oxitri

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase - wikidocAromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase - wikidoc

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC or AAAD), also known as DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), tryptophan decarboxylase, and 5- ... Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid+Decarboxylases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, a class of anti-Parkinson drugs ... "Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: clinical features, treatment, and prognosis". Neurology. 62 (7): 1058-65. doi: ...
more infohttps://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Aromatic_L-amino_acid_decarboxylase

dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) ELISA Kits | Biocompare.comdopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com

... aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... Mouse Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase, DDC ELISA Kit *Detection Target: dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid ... Your search returned 67 dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. ... dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) ELISA Kits. dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) ...
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Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase-immunohistochemistry in the cat lower brainstem and midbrain.Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase-immunohistochemistry in the cat lower brainstem and midbrain.

... showing immunoreactivity to aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), which catalyzes the convers ... Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases / analysis*. Cats / anatomy & histology*. Dopamine / metabolism. Female. Immunoenzyme ... 0/Nerve Tissue Proteins; 50-67-9/Serotonin; EC 4.1.1.28/Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases ... showing immunoreactivity to aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), which catalyzes the conversion of L-3, 4- ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Aromatic-L-amino-acid-decarboxylase/2081822.html

Gene Therapy for Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency | Science Translational MedicineGene Therapy for Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency | Science Translational Medicine

Gene Therapy for Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency. By Wuh-Liang Hwu, Shin-ichi Muramatsu, Sheng-Hong Tseng, Kai- ... Gene Therapy for Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency. By Wuh-Liang Hwu, Shin-ichi Muramatsu, Sheng-Hong Tseng, Kai- ... Gene Therapy for Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is required for the synthesis of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. ...
more infohttp://stm.sciencemag.org/content/4/134/134ra61

Welcome to The AADC Research Trust Childrens Charity | AADC Research Trust - Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase DeficiencyWelcome to The AADC Research Trust Children's Charity | AADC Research Trust - Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency

Copyright ©2018 AADC Research Trust - Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency All Rights Reserved. , Powered by: ROI ... Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency. ...
more infohttp://aadcresearch.org

DOPA Decarboxylase抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-DOPA Decarboxylase抗体(ab32587)DOPA Decarboxylase抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-DOPA Decarboxylase抗体(ab32587)

Defects in DDC are the cause of aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase deficiency (AADCD) [MIM:608643]. AADCD deficiency is an ... Synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids from the N terminus of DOPA Decarboxylase (Human) conjugated to KLH. ... Aromatic L Amino Acid Decarboxylase antibody. *Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase antibody ... Anti-DOPA Decarboxylase antibody (ab32587) at 1/1000 dilution + bovine adrenal medulla lysate at 5 µg. Predicted band size : 54 ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/dopa-decarboxylase-antibody-ab32587.html

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor - WikipediaAromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor - Wikipedia

An aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor (synonyms: DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor, DDCI and AAADI) is a medication which ... inhibits the synthesis of dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC, AAAD, or DOPA decarboxylase). ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aromatic_L-amino_acid_decarboxylase_inhibitor&oldid=907336753" ... "Editorial: Dopa decarboxylase inhibitors". British Medical Journal. 4 (5939): 250-1. November 1974. doi:10.1136/bmj.4.5939.250 ...
more infohttp://www.let.rug.nl/~gosse/termpedia2/termpedia.php?language=dutch_general&density=7&link_color=000000&termpedia_system=perl_db&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FAromatic_L-amino_acid_decarboxylase_inhibitor

Cross-references: Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (IPR010977) | InterPro | EMBL-EBICross-references: Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (IPR010977) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Cross-references: Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (IPR010977). The following external resources were found for this entry: ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR010977/xrefs

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase - WikipediaAromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase - Wikipedia

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, a class of anti-Parkinson drugs Aromatic amino acids Histidine decarboxylase PDB ... Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC or AAAD), also known as DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), tryptophan decarboxylase, and 5- ... Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... "Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: clinical features, treatment, and prognosis". Neurology. 62 (7): 1058-65. doi: ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aromatic_L-amino_acid_decarboxylase

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor - WikipediaAromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor - Wikipedia

An aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor (synonyms: DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor, DDCI and AAADI) is a drug which ... inhibits the synthesis of dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC, AAAD, or DOPA decarboxylase). ... ISBN 3-8047-1763-2. "Editorial: Dopa decarboxylase inhibitors". British Medical Journal. 4 (5939): 250-1. November 1974. doi: ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aromatic_L-amino_acid_decarboxylase_inhibitor

Purification and characterisation of tyrosine decarboxylase and aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase.  - PubMed - NCBIPurification and characterisation of tyrosine decarboxylase and aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. - PubMed - NCBI

... for tyrosine decarboxylase and aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. In SDS electrophoresis, tyrosine decarboxylase had the ... Microbial tyrosine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.25) and mammalian aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.28) catalyse the ... Purification and characterisation of tyrosine decarboxylase and aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase.. Børresen T1, Klausen NK, ... tyrosine decarboxylase eluted at pH 4.3 and aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase at pH 5.0. Isoelectric focusing of tyrosine ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2508758?dopt=Abstract

Pathobiochemical implications of hyperdopaminuria in patients with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency | SpringerLinkPathobiochemical implications of hyperdopaminuria in patients with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency | SpringerLink

Hyland K, Clayton PT (1990), Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency in twins. J Inherit Metab Dis 13: 301-304.Google ... Chang YT, Mues G, McPherson JD, Bedell J, Marsh JL, Hyland K (1998) Mutations in the human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase ... Jahng JW, Wessel TC, Houpt TA, Son JH, Joh TH (1996) Alternate promoters in the rat aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase gene ... Abeling NG, van Gennip AH, Barth PG, van Cruchten A, Westra M, Wijburg FA (1998) Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1005650325003

British Library EThOS: The neurochemical consequences of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiencyBritish Library EThOS: The neurochemical consequences of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency

The neurochemical consequences of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency Author: Allen, G. F. G. ISNI: 0000 0004 2729 ... Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) catalyses the conversion of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and L-3,4- ...
more infohttps://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.565267

Gene Therapy for Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency | Science Translational MedicineGene Therapy for Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency | Science Translational Medicine

Gene Therapy for Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency. By Wuh-Liang Hwu, Shin-ichi Muramatsu, Sheng-Hong Tseng, Kai- ... Gene Therapy for Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency. By Wuh-Liang Hwu, Shin-ichi Muramatsu, Sheng-Hong Tseng, Kai- ... Gene Therapy for Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Patients with aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency cannot produce the neurotransmitter dopamine from its ...
more infohttps://stm.sciencemag.org/content/4/134/134ra61.editor-summary

Clinical and genetic analysis of two pedigrees affected with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency.Clinical and genetic analysis of two pedigrees affected with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency.

To delineate the clinical and genetic features of two pedigrees affected with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) ... Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Inhibitors. Compounds and drugs that block or inhibit the enzymatic action of AROMATIC AMINO ... Determining Total Aromatic Amino Acid Requirements in Pregnant Women. Phenylalanine and tyrosine are aromatic amino acids that ... Dopa Decarboxylase. One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of dopa to ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2528012/Clinical-and-genetic-analysis-of-two-pedigrees-affected-with-aromatic-L-amino.html

Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxy lase deficiency: c linica l features, drug therapy and fo l low-up | SpringerLinkAromatic l-amino acid decarboxy lase deficiency: c linica l features, drug therapy and fo l low-up | SpringerLink

Background Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a disorder of biogenic amine metabolism resulting in ... Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: OMIM #608643. Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase: EC 4.1.1.28. ... Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: unusual neonatal presentation and additional findings in organic acid analysis ... Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a disorder of biogenic amine metabolism resulting in generalized ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10545-009-1076-1

ddc, dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) - Creative Biogeneddc, dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) - Creative Biogene

DDC; dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase); aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase; AADC; dopa decarboxylase; ... Defects in this gene are the cause of aromatic;L-amino-acid decarboxylase deficiency (AADCD). AADCD deficiency is an inborn ... zgc:65801; zgc:76929; wu:fa56d05; wu:fd59h03; wu:fk20h01; aromatic amino acid decarboxylase ... Endotoxin Removal KitPCR Diagnostic KitsCell Assay KitsNucleic Acid Kits ...
more infohttps://www.creative-biogene.com/symbolsearch_ddc.html

Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase | Regulation of human neutrophil-mediated cartilage proteoglycan degradationAromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase | Regulation of human neutrophil-mediated cartilage proteoglycan degradation

Category Archives: Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase This study demonstrates that this mucosal immune response to cholera ... By Celina Scott in Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase June 12, 2017. ... By Celina Scott in Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase May 30, 2017. ... By Celina Scott in Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase May 29, 2017. ...
more infohttp://acmbcb.org/category/aromatic-l-amino-acid-decarboxylase/

A Clinical Trial for Treatment of Aromatic L-amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Deficiency Using AAV2-hAADC - An Expansion - Full...A Clinical Trial for Treatment of Aromatic L-amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Deficiency Using AAV2-hAADC - An Expansion - Full...

Genetics Home Reference related topics: Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency Drug Information available for: Amino ... A Clinical Trial for Treatment of Aromatic L-amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Deficiency Using AAV2-hAADC - An Expansion. The ... A Clinical Trial for Treatment of Aromatic L-amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Deficiency Using AAV2-hAADC - An Expansion (NTUH- ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Aromatic L-amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02926066?term=gene+therapy&cond=AADC+Deficiency&draw=1&rank=2

Frontiers | Heterogenic Distribution of Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Neurons in the Rat Spinal Cord | Frontiers in...Frontiers | Heterogenic Distribution of Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Neurons in the Rat Spinal Cord | Frontiers in...

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is an essential enzyme in the synthesis of serotonin, dopamine and certain trace ... Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is an essential enzyme in the synthesis of serotonin, dopamine and certain trace ... Tison, F., Normand, E., Jaber, M., Aubert, I., and Bloch, B. (1991). Aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase (DOPA decarboxylase) ... FIGURE 7. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase cells and fibers/fiber bundles around the CC. (A-D) AADC cells around the CC from ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnint.2017.00031/full

aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase(EC 4.1.1.28) - Creative Enzymesaromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase(EC 4.1.1.28) - Creative Enzymes

The enzyme also acts on some other aromatic L-amino acids, including L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine. ... L-DOPA decarboxylase; aromatic amino acid decarboxylase; 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase; aromatic-L-amino-acid carboxy-lyase ... The enzyme also acts on some other aromatic L-amino acids, including L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine. ... DOPA decarboxylase; tryptophan decarboxylase; hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase; ...
more infohttps://www.creative-enzymes.com/product/AromaticLaminoacid-Decarboxylase_14940.html

ddc Protein, dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) - Creative BioMartddc Protein, dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) - Creative BioMart

Defects in this gene are the cause of aromatic;L-amino-acid decarboxylase deficiency (AADCD). AADCD deficiency is an inborn ... DDC; dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase); aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase; AADC ... DDC has several biochemical functions, for example, L-dopa decarboxylase activity, amino acid binding, aromatic-L-amino-acid ... Defects in this gene are the cause of aromatic;L-amino-acid decarboxylase deficiency (AADCD). AADCD deficiency is an inborn ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/symbolsearch_DDC.htm

In the biosynthetic pathway of catecholamines, the enzyme L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase catalyzes the following reaction:...In the biosynthetic pathway of catecholamines, the enzyme L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase catalyzes the following reaction:...

... the enzyme L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase catalyzes the following reaction: ... In the biosynthetic pathway of catecholamines, the enzyme L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase catalyzes the following reaction: ...
more infohttp://www.physiologyweb.com/test_questions/physiology_test_question_sXoyz7nBELx6QgZjbb1Lzv72G6RxSMiN.html

A probe for intracerebral aromatic amino-acid decarboxylase activity: Distribution and kinetics of [18F]6-fluoro-L-m-tyrosine...A probe for intracerebral aromatic amino-acid decarboxylase activity: Distribution and kinetics of [18F]6-fluoro-L-m-tyrosine...

A probe for intracerebral aromatic amino-acid decarboxylase activity: Distribution and kinetics of [18F]6-fluoro-L-m-tyrosine ...
more infohttps://experts.mcmaster.ca/display/publication894482

Aromatic L-amino Acid Decarboxylase DeficiencyAromatic L-amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency

Newborn Screening for Aromatic L-amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency. Condition: Aromatic L-amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency ... Aromatic L-amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency - 4 Studies Found. Status. Study Completed. Study Name: ... Condition: Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency. Date: 2016-10-03. Interventions: Drug: AAV2-hAADC Dosage form: Aqueous ... Condition: Aromatic L-amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Deficiency. Date: 2011-06-12. Interventions: Drug: gene therapy AAV2- ...
more infohttp://webhealthnetwork.com/clinicaltrials-search.php?q=Aromatic+L-amino+Acid+Decarboxylase+Deficiency
  • This is study to investigate the plasma free amino acids profile in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy and its relation to the nutritional state of thes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This research may explain whether a shortage of three special compounds called aromatic amino acids is responsible for the severe illness and high death rate of children with the kwashiork. (bioportfolio.com)