Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)HydrocarbonsHydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Benzene DerivativesBenzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.PhenanthrenesCytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedToluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Coke: A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.Coal Tar: A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Chrysenes: 1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Bay-Region, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon: A concave exterior region on some POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS that have three phenyl rings in a non-linear arrangement.Creosote: A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.Acenaphthenes: Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.Sorbic Acid: Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide: 7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.HydroquinonesAnthracenes: A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Dihydroxydihydrobenzopyrenes: Benzopyrenes saturated in any two adjacent positions and substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. The majority of these compounds have carcinogenic or mutagenic activity.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Benzoflavones: Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Gulf of Mexico: A body of water located at the southeastern corner of North America. It is bordered by the states to the north of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas; by five Mexican states to the west: Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan; and by Cuba to the southeast.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.beta-Naphthoflavone: A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Hydrocarbons, Alicyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen. Three or more carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic structure and they possess aliphatic properties.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Naphthols: Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2: A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Coal Ash: Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.SmokeMetabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Dominican Republic: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Kerosene: A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)InkBenzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Benzopyrene Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Epoxide Hydrolases: Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.PolandHeterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Ilex paraguariensis: A plant species of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. An infusion of the leaves is commonly drunk in South America for stimulating effect in much the same manner as coffee is in other cultures.Beluga Whale: The species Delphinapterus leucas, in the family Monodontidae, found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas. They are small WHALES lacking a dorsal fin.Hydrocarbons, Acyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.7-Alkoxycoumarin O-Dealkylase: A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.ChlorobenzenesSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.New York CityHeating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Hydroxybenzoate Ethers: Benzoate derivatives that contain one or more alkyl or aryl groups linked to the benzene ring structure by OXYGEN.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Cyclohexanes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Astronomical Phenomena: Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective: Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.CresolsTobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
"Oxidative degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons by microorganisms. I Enzymatic formation of catechol from benzene". Biochemistry ... Axcell BC, Geary PJ (1973). "The metabolism of benzene by bacteria. Purification and some properties of the enzyme cis-1,2- ... Other names in common use include cis-benzene glycol dehydrogenase, cis-1,2-dihydrocyclohexa-3,5-diene (nicotinamide adenine, ... dihydroxycyclohexa-3,5-diene (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) oxidoreductase (cis-benzene glycol dehydrogenase)". Biochem. J ...
U. Beck, E. Löser (2012). "Chlorinated Benzenes and other Nucleus-Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... Trichlorobenzene (TCB) may refer to any of three isomeric chlorinated derivatives of benzene with the molecular formula C6H3Cl3 ... they are structurally different by the positions of the chlorine atoms attached to the benzene ring. 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene and ...
"Chlorinated Benzenes and other Nucleus-Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ... It is not formed upon chlorination of benzene. Instead it is prepared by the Sandmeyer reaction from 3,5-dichloroaniline. 1,3,5 ...
ISBN 0-13-643669-2. Beck, U.; Löser, E. (2011). "Chlorinated Benzenes and Other Nucleus-Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons". ... is an aromatic compound in which one or more hydrogen atoms directly bonded to an aromatic ring are replaced by a halide. The ... Chlorinated and brominated aromatic compounds are also numerous, e.g. derivatives of tyrosine, tryptophan, and various pyrrole ... This reaction takes place because the pKa of the aromatic protons is much lower-generally around 45, while that of the ...
It is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon made of five fused benzene rings. It is a fused five ringed, cyclopenta, PAHs compound ...
... is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composed of three fused benzene rings. The name 'phenanthrene' is a composite ... In February 2014, NASA announced a greatly upgraded database for tracking polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including ... Dehydrogenation using selenium converts the other rings into aromatic ones as well. The aromatization of six-membered rings by ... This process involves electrophilic aromatic substitution using a tethered cyclohexanol group using diphosphorus pentoxide, ...
Both phenanthrene and picene are called phenanthrene-edge-type polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. The increasing number of ... benzene rings results in higher Tc. Putting foreign molecules or atoms between hexagon graphite sheets leads to ordered ... The building molecules are no longer manipulated hydrocarbons but pure carbon molecules. In addition these molecules are no ... molecules or the fairly big Buckminster fullerenes recently it became possible to synthesize crystals from the hydrocarbon ...
benzene - the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon *ethylbenzene - made from benzene and ethylene *styrene made by dehydrogenation of ... Aromatics includes Benzene, toluene and xylenes, as a whole referred to as BTX and primarily obtained from petroleum refineries ... Benzene is a raw material for dyes and synthetic detergents, and benzene and toluene for isocyanates MDI and TDI used in making ... alkylbenzene - a general type of aromatic hydrocarbon, which can be used as a precursor for a sulfonate surfactant (detergent) ...
... is an aromatic hydrocarbon. It can be produced by a Friedel-Crafts alkylation between 1-chlorohexane and benzene ... or by the reaction of benzene and 1-hexene with various acid catalysts such as antimony pentafluoride, scandium(III) triflate, ... a novel and recyclable catalytic system for Friedel-Crafts alkylation of aromatic compounds with alkenes". Chem. Commun. 2000 ( ...
Benzo[c]phenanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C18H12. It is a white solid that is soluble ... It is a nonplanar molecule consisting of the fusion of four fused benzene rings. The compound is of mainly theoretical interest ... M. Levy, Melvin S. Newman, M. Szwarc "Methyl Affinities of Non-planar Aromatic Hydrocarbons" J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1955, 77 (16), ... "Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal caspian Sea sediments". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 48 (1-2): 44-60. doi:10.1016/ ...
As an aromatic hydrocarbon, naphthalene's structure consists of a fused pair of benzene rings. It is best known as the main ... This theorem would describe naphthalene as an aromatic benzene unit bonded to a diene but not extensively conjugated to it (at ... Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula C 10H 8. It is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and is a white ... In electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions, naphthalene reacts more readily than benzene. For example, chlorination and ...
Organic scintillators are aromatic hydrocarbon compounds which contain benzene ring structures interlinked in various ways. ... The most common bases used in plastic scintillators are the aromatic plastics, polymers with aromatic rings as pendant groups ... Aside from the aromatic plastics, the most common base is polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), which carries two advantages over many ... The lack of fluorescence associated with PMMA is often compensated through the addition of an aromatic co-solvent, usually ...
... (ortho-xylene) is an aromatic hydrocarbon with the formula C6H4(CH3)2. with two methyl substituents bonded to adjacent ... carbon atoms of a benzene ring (the ortho configuration). It is a constitutional isomer of m-xylene and p-xylene, the mixture ... Most o-xylene is produced by cracking petroleum, which affords a distribution of aromatic compounds, including xylene isomers. ...
... refers to 2 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with the molecular formula C42H18 and C48H24.[clarification ... needed] They both consist of a central coronene molecule surrounded by 6 fused benzene rings. The [bc,ef,hi,kl,no,qr] analogue ...
Baudisch, O. (1941). "Preparation of o-Nitrosophenols from Benzene or Other Aromatic Hydrocarbons at Room Temperature". J. Am. ... Of the benzene derivatives that do not undergo the Baudisch reaction, aromatic aldehydes tend to form hydroxamic acid or oximes ... The Baudisch reaction is more profitably applied to substituted aromatic substrates, especially phenols. In these cases the NO ... Konecny, J. O. (1955). "Hydroxylation of Benzene in Aqueous Solution in the Presence of Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride". J. Am. ...
... is an aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of a benzene core with three cyclobutane rings fused onto it. This ... On the other hand, no change is recorded in the aromatic bond length alternation. Similar chemistry yielded the six-fold ketone ...
... is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) of formula C14H10, consisting of three fused benzene rings. It is a ... Anthracene, as many other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, is generated during combustion processes. Exposure to humans ... Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fact Sheet European Chemicals Agency - ECHA "Anthracene". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). ... Early experiments suggested otherwise because crude samples were contaminated with other polycyclic aromatic compounds. ...
... is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C6HCl5 which is a chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon. It consists of a benzene ... PeCB can be produced as a byproduct of the manufacture of carbon tetrachloride and benzene. It is extracted by distillation and ... Since PeCB is generally produced in small quantities in the chlorination of benzene, it is also contained in other ...
It is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) made of four benzene rings around a 5-membered ring. On February 22, 2014, NASA ... International Chemical Safety Card 0720 National Pollutant Inventory - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fact Sheet. ... A Tracer of N in the Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Population". Astrophysical Journal. 632: 316-332. doi:10.1086 ... Benzene List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules Staff (2011). "Benz[e]acephenanthrylene". NIST. Retrieved March 5, ...
... (also known as superbenzene) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) comprising six peri-fused benzene rings. Its ... Fetzer, J. C. (2000). The Chemistry and Analysis of the Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. New York: Wiley. Karpatite. ... A related compound lacking the central core: cyclooctadecanonaene A larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with the same ... Mackay, D.; Shiu, W. Y. (1977). "Aqueous solubility of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons". Journal of Chemical & Engineering ...
... s are a group of closely related aromatic hydrocarbons. Also known as diphenylbenzenes or triphenyls, they consist of ... a central benzene ring substituted with two phenyl groups. The three isomers are ortho-terphenyl, meta-terphenyl, and para- ...
Testing found the water of Sand Creek to be contaminated with abnormal levels of the aromatic hydrocarbon, benzene. The source ... The results showed benzene levels ranging from 140 ppb to 730 ppb - far above the national EPA limit of 5 ppb. Further ... Although the source of the benzene has been fixed, levels still remain above the EPA standard for drinking water. This is of ... In December 2011, the Colorado Department of Health and Environment began to monitor benzene levels at the junction of Sand ...
... is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, being composed of a benzene ring fused to a cyclobutadiene ... Though the benzene ring is stabilized by aromaticity, the cyclobutadiene portion has a destabilizing effect. For this reason, ...
Aromatic hydrocarbons show distinct molecular ion peak.benzylic cleavage is pretty common. When alkyl groups are attached to ... Alkyl substituted benzenes can fragment via the kinetic controlled process to form C6H5+, C6H6+ ions. Another common mode of ... Aromatic ethers can generate the C6H5O+ ion by loss of the alkyl group rather than H; this can expel CO as in the phenolic ... For aromatic carbonyl compounds, Alpha-cleavages are favorable primarily to lose G· (M - 1,15, 29…) to form the C6H5CO+ ion (m/ ...
... is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The molecule can be viewed as the fusion of naphthalene and benzene ... National Pollutant Inventory - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fact Sheet Chemical Profile for FLUORANTHENE from Scorecard ... NASA announced a greatly upgraded database for tracking polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including fluoranthene, in the ... "Hydrocarbons" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002 Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a13_227 " ...
Aromatic ketones can be prepared in the Friedel-Crafts acylation,[12] the related Houben-Hoesch reaction,[13] and the Fries ... The combustion of hydrocarbons is an uncontrolled oxidation process that gives ketones as well as many other types of compounds ... the tetrahedral intermediate expels phenyl anion to give benzamide and benzene as the organic products ... In industry, the most important method probably involves oxidation of hydrocarbons, often with air. For example, a billion ...
English dictionary definition of Benzene derivatives. n. A colorless, flammable, toxic, liquid aromatic hydrocarbon, C6H6, ... Benzene derivatives synonyms, Benzene derivatives pronunciation, Benzene derivatives translation, ... aromatic hydrocarbon - a hydrocarbon that contains one or more benzene rings that are characteristic of the benzene series of ... ben·zene. (bĕn′zēn′, bĕn-zēn′). n.. A colorless, flammable, toxic, liquid aromatic hydrocarbon, C6H6, derived from petroleum ...
Stormwater Best Management Practice: Coal-Tar Sealcoat, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and Stormwater Pollution. Washington ... Both coal tar and coal-tar pitch contain many chemical compounds, including carcinogens such as benzene. ...
Benzene aromatic hydrocarbon molecule. Important in petrochemistry, component of gasoline. Atoms are represented as spheres ... Keywords: 3 dimensional, 3d, aromatic, artwork, atomic, atoms, benzene, benzene aromatic hydrocarbon, benzyl, biological, ... Caption: Benzene aromatic hydrocarbon molecule. Important in petrochemistry, component of gasoline. Atoms are represented as ... hydrocarbon, hydrogen, illustration, model, molecular, molecular model, molecule, no one, no-one, nobody, octane, oil, organic ...
If you suffered injuries due to benzene exposure, call the personal injury attorneys of The Oshman Firm today for a free ... What Is Benzene?. Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is produced by the burning of natural products. It is a clear, ... Risks of Benzene Exposure. Research has shown benzene to cause cancer and central nervous system toxicity. It is classified as ... Benzene is a component of products derived from coal and petroleum, and is found in motor fuels. It is also used as a solvent ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
The hydrocarbons, C9, aromatics, estimated protozoan, Tetrahymena pyriformis, 48-hr EL50 and NOELR values for this substance ... The hydrocarbon concentrations at equilibrium will be characteristic of the loading of the substance, and therefore toxicity ... The WAF methodology is widely accepted for the testing of complex hydrocarbon substances and other UVCBs, and it has been ... different loadings of the substance are added to the test medium and equilibrium between the water and the hydrocarbons is ...
Similarly, benzene is a gas-phase single-ring aromatic hydrocarbon, is a known carcinogen, and also exceeds atmospheric health- ... a new high-resolution chemical transport model for North American polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene. GEM-MACH-PAH: ... a new high-resolution chemical transport model for North American polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene GEM-MACH-PAH: ... a new high-resolution chemical transport model for North American polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene, Geosci. Model ...
Benzene-In Presence Of Gasoline And/Or Other Aromatic Hydrocarbons 5-300 ppm Gas Detector Tube - Sensidyne is the Leader in Air ... Download Benzene-In Presence Of Gasoline And/Or Other Aromatic Hydrocarbons Detector Tube 118SB Datasheet. Benzene-In Presence ... Measured Gas: Benzene-In Presence Of Gasoline And/Or Other Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Tube Number: 118SB. Range: 5-300 ppm. Tubes ... Benzene-In Presence Of Gasoline And/Or Other Aromatic Hydrocarbons 5-300 ppm Gas Detector Tube. Sensidyne Gas Detector Tubes ...
One of the features producing the aromatic hydrocarbon benzene is flatness, enabling the appropriate π-bonds to establish a ... In Part One of The Quintessential Aromatic Hydrocarbon Benzene, we saw that the so-called 1,3,5-cyclohexatriene was really not ... benzene possesses an aromatic structure.. ¹ An ionic contributor means a structure that includes a partial positive and an ... 2 - Induced Aromatic Ring Current: current color-coded gold.. The resonance, discussed earlier, results in a lowering-or ...
... ... 13.15 Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Nomenclature and Isomerism. Structure of benzene, Resonance and Aromaticity. ... 13.15 Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Nomenclature and Isomerism. Structure of benzene, Resonance and Aromaticity. ... 13.15 Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Nomenclature and Isomerism. Structure of benzene, Resonance and Aromaticity. ...
Present in crude petroleum, benzene is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. ... BENZENE Benzene is a ubiquitous component of the petrochemical era. ... benzene aromatic liquid hydrocarbon XIX. f. BENZOIC acid, whence it is derived; earlier benzine (now used for a mixture of ... Benzene. A hydrocarbon with chemical formula C6H6, benzene contains six carbon atoms in a ring structure. A clear volatile ...
Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon. The term aromatic was derived from the fact that many of the compounds have a sweet scent ... How benzene works Benzene, or benzol, is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ... The configuration of six carbon atoms in aromatic compounds is known as a benzene ring, after the simplest possible such ... hydrocarbon, benzene.. Benzene works by causing cells not to work correctly. For example, it can cause bone marrow not to ...
Diesel Exhaust Particulate Characterization for Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Benzene Soluble Fraction. 2005-10-23 ... set out to characterize particulate emissions from diesel engines in terms of poly aromatic hydrocarbon emissions and Benzene ... and total particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). ... for Organic Matter in terms of Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) ... and Benzene Soluble Fraction (BSF). Therefore, the objectives of the present research are to characterize the diesel exhaust ...
Aromatic-hydrocarbons; Heavy-metals; Alcohols; Solvents; HHE-77-78-466; Region-5; Hazard-Confirmed; Author Keywords: benzene; ... The concentrations of benzene, methyl-ethyl-ketone, and the mixture of substances as they existed during the time of this ... Breathing zone and general area samples were taken for benzene (71432), toluene (108883), xylene (1330207), methyl-ethyl-ketone ... Concentrations of benzene, in nine samples, exceeded the evaluation criteria. The airborne concentration of methyl-ethyl-ketone ...
Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Who Is at Risk of Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)? ... 0.2 mg/m3 for benzene-. Regulation: (benzene soluble and Health workplace soluble coal tar pitch fraction of coal tar volatiles ... A. Polynuclear aromatics (PNAs). There may be B. Polynuclear hydrocarbons. more than one C. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. ... Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Where Are Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Found? Learning Upon ...
Aromatic hydrocarbons. Chemical industry. © 1996-2017 International Labour Organization (ILO) , Copyright and Permissions , ... Benzene may be present as a trace impurity in many petroleum-derived products. In this article, the historical benzene content ... benzene by volume, and 8-hr TWA airborne concentrations of benzene in the workplace during the use of these products would not ... chemical industry; benzene; job-exposure relation; exposure evaluation; petrochemicals. Descriptors (secondary). literature ...
Aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and isomeric xylenes (BTEX) are volatile organic compounds widespread in ... Aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and isomeric xylenes (BTEX) are volatile organic compounds widespread in ...
C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons ... C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons ... Hydrocarbons, C9, aromatics: Hydrocarbons, C9, Aromatics can be dermally absorbed, albeit at low levels. When dermally absorbed ... of aromatic hydrocarbons. The diffusion coefficients (Dsc, cm2/min x 10^-8) of aromatic hydrocarbons were determined to be: ...
1995) Biological and environmental monitoring of exposure to airborne benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons in Milan traffic ... Benzene and alkylated benzenes. eds Fishbein L, ONeill IK (IARC, Lyon, France), 4:67-108, . (IARC Sci Publ No 85.). ... 1989) Levels of benzene and other volatile aromatic compounds in the blood of non-smokers and smokers. Int Arch Occup Environ ... Reliable correlations between benzene in the breathing zone and both blood benzene and urinary TMA and S-PMA were mainly found ...
Aromatic hydrocarbons (32). Benzene (32). Cyclohexanone (18). Diisononyl phthalate (34). Esters (34). ... Acrylic acid (4) is not compatible with Group 9, Aromatic Amines. Acrylonitrile (15) is not compatible with Group 5 (Caustics ... 1,6-Hexanediol distillation overheads (4) is not compatible with Group 3, Nitric acid, and Group 9, Aromatic amines. ... Diethylenetriamine (7) is not compatible with 1,2,3-Trichloropropane, Group 36, Halogenated hydrocarbons. ...
Whether Ring Formation or Not: Cyclic Hydrocarbon. *Whether Containing Benzene Ring: Aromatic Hydrocarbon ... Whether Ring Formation or Not: Cyclic Hydrocarbon. *Whether Containing Benzene Ring: Aromatic Hydrocarbon ... Whether Ring Formation or Not: Cyclic Hydrocarbon. *Whether Containing Benzene Ring: Aromatic Hydrocarbon ... Whether Ring Formation or Not: Cyclic Hydrocarbon. *Whether Containing Benzene Ring: Aromatic Hydrocarbon ...
... of aromatic hydrocarbons has since been expanded to isomerizations and automerizations of benzene and polycyclic aromatic ... similar atom scramblings of other aromatic hydrocarbons such as pyrene, azulene, benz[a]anthracene and even benzene have been ... Formation Mechanism of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Fullerenes in Premixed Benzene Flames. Combustion and Flame 1999, ... Thermal rearrangements of aromatic hydrocarbons have been shown to be important in areas of chemical research and industry ...
benzene - the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon *ethylbenzene - made from benzene and ethylene *styrene made by dehydrogenation of ... Aromatics includes Benzene, toluene and xylenes, as a whole referred to as BTX and primarily obtained from petroleum refineries ... Benzene is a raw material for dyes and synthetic detergents, and benzene and toluene for isocyanates MDI and TDI used in making ... alkylbenzene - a general type of aromatic hydrocarbon, which can be used as a precursor for a sulfonate surfactant (detergent) ...
Alkylated benzenes. Six-carbon, aromatic rings with hydrocarbon chain substituent groups. Toluene, C7H8. Ethylbenzene, C8H10. ... Aliphatic hydrocarbons are less soluble than aromatic hydrocarbons of similar molecular weight. As hydrocarbons commonly occur ... Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). National Biomonitoring Program - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) ... Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Vapor pressure at 25°C (atm). Vapor pressure is inversely related to PAH size. PAHs with more aromatic ...
  • Individuals with exposure to benzene of less than 5 years have developed one of the varied types of leukemia and displayed these symptoms. (oshmanlaw.com)
  • OBJECTIVES To evaluate the contribution of traffic fumes to exposure to benzene in urban workers, an investigation on personal exposure to benzene in traffic police from the city of Rome was carried out. (bmj.com)
  • Moreover, as biomarkers of internal exposure to benzene, blood benzene, and urinary trans, trans-muconic and S-phenyl mercapturic acids were measured at the beginning and at the end of the workshift in 124 traffic police and 58 office police. (bmj.com)
  • RESULTS Time weighted average (TWA) exposure to benzene was consistently higher among traffic police than among indoor workers (geometric mean 6.8 and 3.5 μg/m 3 , respectively). (bmj.com)
  • Among the exposure biomarkers investigated, only blood benzene correlated slightly with on-shift exposure to benzene, but significant increases in both urinary trans, trans-muconic and S-phenylmercapturic acids were found in active smokers compared with non-smokers, irrespective of their job. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSION The exposure to traffic fumes during working activities in medium to high traffic areas in Rome may give a relatively greater contribution to personal exposure to benzene than indoor sources present in confined environments. (bmj.com)
  • Smoking significantly contributed to internal exposure to benzene in both indoor and outdoor workers. (bmj.com)
  • 8 Despite benzene sources primarily contaminating the outdoor environment, the pattern of exposure to benzene in urban residents is complex. (bmj.com)
  • However, it is conceivable that exposure to benzene from direct exposure to traffic fumes, as experienced by some categories of outdoor workers, may be considerably higher than the mean exposure of the general population. (bmj.com)
  • HarrisMartin's Benzene & Emerging Toxic Torts Litigation Report will track recent developments in litigation stemming from exposure to benzene, as well as a number of other emerging areas of toxic tort litigation, such as talc, silica, pesticides and other chemical exposures. (harrismartin.com)
  • The occupational exposure to benzene is characterized by industrial environments that use in their production processes. (usp.br)
  • In Brazil the threshold limit value recommended by law in environmental exposure to benzene is 1 ppm. (usp.br)
  • The hematological cancer is considered one of the main risk factors for the health of workers occupationally exposed to benzene and the use of biomarkers in monitoring these professionals has been suggested in different countries. (usp.br)
  • The liquid hydrocarbons collected for use as a fuel were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), two-dimensional gas chromatography/time of flight mass spectrometry (2D-GCxGC/TOFMS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen (CHNS/O) elemental analysis. (rsc.org)
  • Environmental samples were analyzed for vinyl- chloride (75014), styrene (100425), benzene (71432), and hydrogen - chloride (7647010) at New York Telephone and Telegraph Company (SIC-4811), New York City, in October, 1974. (cdc.gov)
  • The author concludes that since the concentrations of benzene, styrene, vinyl- chloride , and hydrogen - chloride were below detectable limits, there is no health hazard for cable splicers. (cdc.gov)
  • Diffusive Radiello personal samplers were used to measure external exposures to benzene and alkyl benzenes during the workshift in 139 policemen who controlled medium to high traffic areas and in 63 office police. (bmj.com)
  • Also, information on molecular mechanisms and pathways of hydrocarbon degradation in high salinity is scarce and only recently there have been a few reports describing genes, enzymes and breakdown steps for some hydrocarbons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Molecular model of the aromatic hydrocarbon benzine (C6.H6). (sciencephoto.com)
  • In both groups were performed blood cell counts, cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN), FISH assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes for translocation t(15;17), and molecular tests for evaluation of genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in benzene metabolism (MPO, NQO1, CYP1A1 e CYP2E1) and detoxification (GSTM1/GSTT1). (usp.br)
  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry - ATSDR (2007) Toxicological profile for benzene. (springer.com)
  • Mean ambient benzene concentrations measured by municipal air monitoring stations during workshifts of traffic police were generally higher (geometric mean 12.6 μg/m 3 ) and did not correlat with personal exposure values. (bmj.com)
  • Several studies highlighted that personal exposure in indoor environments may exceed both outdoor exposures and ambient benzene concentrations measured at fixed sites. (bmj.com)
  • Agencies set "safe levels" such as 5 parts per billion in drinking water for benzene (benzene is a carcenogen produced by asphalt plants). (google.com)
  • Air sampling for the benzene-soluble particulate fraction of asphalt showed a strander operator's time-weighed average (TWA) exposure as high as 0.8 mg/m3, a concentration which exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) time-adjusted Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 0.25 mg/m3 for a 12-hour TWA concentration. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers who handle liquid asphalt are overexposed to asphalt fume (measured as benzene-soluble particulate). (cdc.gov)