Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Adenine NucleotidesPolycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)HydrocarbonsBenzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Benzene DerivativesProtocatechuate-3,4-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of protocatechuate to 3-carboxy-cis-cis-muconate in the presence of molecular oxygen. It contains ferric ion. EC 1.13.11.3.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Adipates: Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedToluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Shikimic Acid: A tri-hydroxy cyclohexene carboxylic acid important in biosynthesis of so many compounds that the shikimate pathway is named after it.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.CresolsDioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)BenzaldehydesVanillic Acid: A flavoring agent. It is the intermediate product in the two-step bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin. (J Biotechnol 1996;50(2-3):107-13).Creosote: A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.ChlorobenzenesHepatophyta: A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).Chlorobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Azoarcus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria including species which are often associated with grasses (POACEAE) and which fix nitrogen as well as species which anaerobically degrade toluene and other mono-aromatic hydrocarbons.Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Laccase: A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Sorbic Acid: Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Aminophenols: Phenols substituted in any position by an amino group.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Acenaphthenes: Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Cupriavidus necator: A gram-negative, facultatively chemoautotrophic bacterium, formerly called Wautersia eutropha, found in water and soil.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.beta-Naphthoflavone: A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase: Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.2.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Pseudomonas stutzeri: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, containing multiple genomovars. It is distinguishable from other pseudomonad species by its ability to use MALTOSE and STARCH as sole carbon and energy sources. It can degrade ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS and has been used as a model organism to study denitrification.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.1 and EC 1.99.2.2.Smilax: A plant genus of the family SMILACACEAE. Members contain smiglasides (phenylpropanoid glycosides) and steroidal saponins. Commercially it is sometimes adulterated with HEMIDESMUS, which would affect experimental results.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Lorisidae: A family of Primates of the suborder Strepsirhini containing six genera. The family is distributed in parts of Africa, India, Asia, and the Philippines. The six genera are: Arctocebus (golden potto), GALAGO (bush babies), Loris (slender loris), Nycticebus (slow loris), and Perodicticus (potto). Lorises and pottos are relatively common except for Arctocebus, the golden potto. All are arboreal and nocturnal.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Phthalic Acids: A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)Biphenyl CompoundsAniline CompoundsGeobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Lactobacillus brevis: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.Gentisates: Salts and esters of gentisic acid.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Bacteria, AnaerobicLignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.Benzoflavones: Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptonate from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. It is one of the first enzymes in the biosynthesis of TYROSINE and PHENYLALANINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.2.15.Nitroso CompoundsAdenine Nucleotide Translocator 1: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Thauera: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria able to anaerobically oxidize and degrade toluene.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Comamonas: A genus of gram-negative, straight or slightly curved rods which are motile by polar flagella and which accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate within the cells.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Delftia acidovorans: A species of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria found ubiquitously and formerly called Comamonas acidovorans and Pseudomonas acidovorans. It is the type species of the genus DELFTIA.Rhizophoraceae: A plant family of the order Rhizophorales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, that includes mangrove trees.Quinic Acid: An acid which is found in cinchona bark and elsewhere in plants. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Desulfitobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, gram-positive bacteria in the family Peptococcaceae, that reductively dechlorinates CHLOROPHENOLS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.CinnamatesCatalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Homogentisic AcidRoseobacter: A genus of obligately aerobic marine phototrophic and chemoorganotrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE.Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Dicarboxylic AcidsProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.ResorcinolsSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Oxidoreductases, O-Demethylating: Drug metabolizing enzymes which oxidize methyl ethers. Usually found in liver microsomes.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Caffeic Acids: A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Pleurotus: A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Porphyrinogens: Colorless reduced precursors of porphyrins in which the pyrrole rings are linked by methylene (-CH2-) bridges.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.PeroxidasesPhenoxyacetatesFlavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.PhenanthrenesAdenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.HydroquinonesActinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Platts, Simon Nicholas, "The PAH World - Discotic polynuclear aromatic compounds as a mesophase scaffolding at the origin of ... I. Adenine from hydrogen cyanide". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 94: 217-27. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(61)90033-9. PMID ... In 1961, Joan Oró found that the nucleotide base adenine could be made from hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and ammonia in a water ... However PAH rings, while forming, tend to swivel around on one another, which will tend to dislodge attached compounds that ...
Many compounds, such as PAHs, aromatic amines, aflatoxin and pyrrolizidine alkaloids, may form reactive oxygen species ... N7 and O6 of guanine and the N3 and N7 of adenine are most susceptible to attack. N7-guanine adducts form the bulk of DNA ... Adenine is preferentially incorporated by DNA polymerases in an apurinic site. Cytidine may also become deaminated to uridine ... These metabolites form adducts with the DNA, which can cause errors in replication, and the bulky aromatic adducts may form ...
It is the source of reducing equivalents for cytochrome P450 hydroxylation of aromatic compounds, steroids, alcohols, and drugs ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Hanukoglu I, Rapoport R (Feb-May 1995). "Routes and regulation of NADPH production in ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP+ or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a ... position of the ribose ring that carries the adenine moiety. In photosynthetic organisms, NADPH is produced by ferredoxin-NADP+ ...
This compound is found in the shikimic acid biosynthesis pathway and is an intermediate in the production of aromatic amino ... Although this reaction requires nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a cofactor, the enzymic mechanism regenerates it, ... This acts in the cell by monitoring the concentrations of each of the three aromatic amino acids. When there is too much of any ... Patnaik, Ranjan; Spitzer, Richard G.; Liao, James C. (1995). "Pathway engineering for production of aromatics inEscherichia ...
Organic compounds that are not aromatic are classified as aliphatic compounds-they might be cyclic, but only aromatic rings ... Further, all 5 nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil) that make up the sequence of the genetic code in ... Aromatic compounds undergo electrophilic aromatic substitution and nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions, but not ... Chlorophyll also has a similar aromatic system. Aromatic compounds are important in industry. Key aromatic hydrocarbons of ...
As an aromatic compound, it undergoes electrophilic substitution reactions and transformations of its two functional groups. ... In NAD+, the nitrogen in the aromatic nicotinamide ring is covalently bonded to adenine dinucleotide. The formal charge on the ... It is also a critically important part of the structures of NADH and NAD+, where the N-substituted aromatic ring in the ... Nicotinamide, as a part of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH / NAD+) is crucial to life. In cells, ...
This organic compound is a white powdered solid with a slight aromatic, phenolic odor. Categorized as a polychloro phenoxy ... This binding increases the enzyme's affinity for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). This results in the formation of a ... triclosan is a chlorinated aromatic compound that has functional groups representative of both ethers and phenols. Phenols ... The compound has been found to bind with low affinity to both the androgen receptor and the estrogen receptor, where both ...
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. Purine ... Ferris, James P.; Orgel, L. E. (March 1966). "An Unusual Photochemical Rearrangement in the Synthesis of Adenine from Hydrogen ... Pyrimidine Simple aromatic rings Transition Transversion Gout, a disorder of purine metabolism Rosemeyer, Helmut (March 2004 ... They include the nucleobases adenine (2) and guanine (3). In DNA, these bases form hydrogen bonds with their complementary ...
Adenine is always paired with thymine, and guanine is always paired with cytosine. These are known as base pairs. Uracil is ... Nitrogenous bases are typically classified as the derivatives of two parent compounds, pyrimidine and purine. They are non- ... Both pyrimidines and purines resemble pyridine and are thus weak bases and relatively unreactive towards electrophilic aromatic ... Purines include adenine and guanine. They have a double ring structure. Nelson, David L. and Michael M Cox (2008). Lehninger ...
It is the source of reducing equivalents for cytochrome P450 hydroxylation of aromatic compounds, steroids, alcohols, and drugs ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. References[edit]. *^ Hanukoglu I, Rapoport R (Feb-May 1995). "Routes and regulation of NADPH ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP+ or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a ... position of the ribose ring that carries the adenine moiety. ...
Benzene is the prototypical example of an aromatic compound, a hitherto unknown class of compounds, and its synthesis was the ... All five of the bases found in DNA and RNA are aromatic - adenine and guanine (purine core structures), and cytosine, thyamine ... An aromatic (or aryl) compound contains a set of covalently bound atoms with specific characteristics: A delocalized conjugated ... The new understanding of benzene and all aromatic compounds was so important for both pure and applied chemistry that in 1890 ...
The viral polymerase incorporates these compounds with non-canonical bases. These compounds are activated in the cells by being ... is used instead of adenine (host evasion). Diaminopurine basepairs perfectly with thymine as it is identical to adenine but has ... The artificial nucleotides featured two fused aromatic rings which formed a (d5SICS-dNaM) complex mimicking the natural (dG-dC ... Furthermore, adenine is not the most stable choice for base pairing: in Cyanophage S-2L diaminopurine (DAP) ...
Carbon forms more compounds than all other elements combined. The great versatility of the carbon atom makes it the element ... In August 2011, findings by NASA, based on studies of meteorites found on Earth, suggest DNA and RNA components (adenine, ... Kwok, Sun; Zhang, Yong (26 October 2011). "Mixed aromatic-aliphatic organic nanoparticles as carriers of unidentified infrared ... One of the scientists suggested that these compounds may have been related to the development of life on Earth and said that, " ...
Pyrimidine, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most carbon-rich chemical found in the Universe, may have been ... One of the scientists suggested that these complex organic compounds may have been related to the development of life on Earth ... Researchers found a molecule called cyanomethanimine, which produces adenine, one of the four nucleobases that form the "rungs ... These results demonstrate that many organic compounds which are components of life on Earth were already present in the early ...
... as degradative plasmids that harbor the genes that allow bacteria to degrade a variety of substances such as aromatic compounds ... The adenine-thymine rich hairpin loops of the Borrelia bacteria range in size from 5 kilobase pairs (kb) to over 200 kb and ...
This atmosphere, exposed to energy in various forms, produced simple organic compounds ("monomers"). These compounds ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are the most common and abundant of the known polyatomic molecules in the observable ... In 1961, it was shown that the nucleic acid purine base adenine can be formed by heating aqueous ammonium cyanide solutions. ... Some of these compounds like hydrocyanic acid (HCN) have been proven in the experiments of Miller. This is the environment in ...
... is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine. One of the three diazines (six-membered ... In RNA, the complement of adenine (A) is uracil (U) instead of thymine (T), so the pairs that form are adenine:uracil and ... Therefore, electrophilic aromatic substitution is more difficult while nucleophilic aromatic substitution is facilitated. An ... The parent compound was first prepared by Gabriel and Colman in 1900, by conversion of barbituric acid to 2,4,6- ...
The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). In RNA, uracil binds to adenine via two hydrogen bonds. In DNA, the ... compound] is therefore represented as the methyl derivative of the compound [illustration of uracil's structure], which I will ... Pyrimidine, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most carbon-rich chemical found in the Universe, may have been ... Uracil pairs with adenine through hydrogen bonding. When base pairing with adenine, uracil acts as both a hydrogen bond ...
Pyrimidine, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most carbon-rich chemical found in the Universe, may have been ... In March 2015, NASA scientists reported that, for the first time, complex DNA and RNA organic compounds of life, including ... In DNA, thymine (T) binds to adenine (A) via two hydrogen bonds, thereby stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. Thymine ... The others are adenine, guanine, and cytosine. Thymine is also known as 5-methyluracil, a pyrimidine nucleobase. In RNA, ...
Pyrimidine, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most carbon-rich chemical found in the universe, may have been ... Adenine Press. 29 (4): 647-50. doi:10.1080/073911012010525017. ISSN 0739-1102. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 January ... It is of historical significance because for the first time an organic compound was produced in inorganic reactions. During the ... NASA findings in 2011, based on studies with meteorites found on Earth, suggest DNA and RNA components (adenine, guanine and ...
"The Chemistry and Analysis of the Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons". Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds. New York: Wiley. 27 ( ... either adenine or guanine). Such mutations, if they are not repaired, can transform genes encoding for normal cell signaling ... Although PAHs clearly are aromatic compounds, the degree of aromaticity can be different for each ring segment. According to ... Wakeham, S. G.; Schaffner, C.; Giger, W. (1980). "Poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Recent lake sediments-II. Compounds ...
Adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. It was represented by A-T base pairs and G-C base pairs. The ... Pyrimidine, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most carbon-rich chemical found in the universe, may have been ... Complex DNA and RNA organic compounds of life, including uracil, cytosine, and thymine, have also been formed in the laboratory ... The four bases found in DNA are adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). These four bases are attached to the ...
Redirected from Aromatic). "Aromatic" and "aromatic compound" redirect here. For meanings related to odor, see aroma compound. ... Further, all 5 nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil) that make up the sequence of the genetic code in ... Types of aromatic compoundsEdit. The overwhelming majority of aromatic compounds are compounds of carbon, but they need not be ... Characteristics of aromatic (aryl) compoundsEdit. An aromatic (or aryl) compound contains a set of covalently bound atoms with ...
... backbones of Flavonoids Chalcones are aromatic ketones with two phenyl rings that are important in many biological compounds. ... An example of gossypol's enzyme inhibition is its ability to inhibit nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked enzymes of ... The compounds of these secondary metabolites (As seen in Figure 1) are found in over 2000 plant species. Its structure allows ... Primary metabolites are compounds that are directly involved in the growth and development of a plant whereas secondary ...
Half-cell potential of aromatic compounds against the SCE (Fc+/0)[24]. Compound Potential (V) ... either adenine or guanine).[81] Such mutations, if they are not repaired, can transform genes encoding for normal cell ... A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) is a hydrocarbon-a chemical compound containing only carbon and hydrogen-whose molecule ... Polycyclic aromatic compounds characteristically yield radical anions upon treatment with alkali metals. The large PAH form ...
Discotic polynuclear aromatic compounds as a mesophase scaffolding at the origin of life" Archived 2011-02-03 at the Wayback ... RNA also uses a different set of bases than DNA-adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil, instead of adenine, guanine, cytosine ... Adenine readily binds uracil or thymine. Uracil is, however, one product of damage to cytosine that makes RNA particularly ... Pyrimidine, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), may have been formed in giant red stars or in interstellar dust and ...
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5-phosphate (NMN) coupled by ... Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound. show 40 more. Molecular Framework. Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds. External ... Organic oxygen compound / Organic nitrogen compound / Amine / Organonitrogen compound / Organooxygen compound / Organic oxide ... Heteroaromatic compounds / Tetrahydrofurans / Secondary alcohols / Oxacyclic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Carboximidic ...
Organooxygen compound / Organosulfur compound / Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound. show 39 more. Molecular Framework. Aromatic ... This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as (5->5)-dinucleotides. These are dinucleotides where the two ... Azacyclic compounds / Thiocarboxylic acid amides / Oxacyclic compounds / Organic salts / Primary amines / Organic oxides / ... Organoheterocyclic compound / Oxacycle / Azacycle / Amine / Alcohol / Organic nitrogen compound / Primary amine / Organic ...
It is the source of reducing equivalents for cytochrome P450 hydroxylation of aromatic compounds, steroids, alcohols, and drugs ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Hanukoglu I, Rapoport R (Feb-May 1995). "Routes and regulation of NADPH production in ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP+ or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a ... position of the ribose ring that carries the adenine moiety. In photosynthetic organisms, NADPH is produced by ferredoxin-NADP+ ...
Xanthine Oxidase Monoamine Oxidase Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Aldehyde Oxidase Aromatic Nitro Compound These ... The term drug is used here in its widest sense and includes any physiologically useless compound, either synthetic or naturally ... H.M. Hassan and L. Fridovich, Intracellular production of superoxide radical and of hydrogen peroxide by redox active compounds ... A.G. Hildebrandt and Roots, Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent formation and breakdown of ...
Purines: Purines are nitrogenous organic aromatic compounds with two fused heterocyclic rings. Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are ... nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) during cellular respiration. Adenine pairs with ... Adenine: Adenine is a purine derivative nucleobase found in both DNA and RNA as a structural component. It is used as a ... Pyrimidines: A class of nitrogenous aromatic organic compounds consisting of one heterocyclic ring. Thymine (T) and cytosine (C ...
Platts, Simon Nicholas, "The PAH World - Discotic polynuclear aromatic compounds as a mesophase scaffolding at the origin of ... I. Adenine from hydrogen cyanide". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 94: 217-27. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(61)90033-9. PMID ... In 1961, Joan Oró found that the nucleotide base adenine could be made from hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and ammonia in a water ... However PAH rings, while forming, tend to swivel around on one another, which will tend to dislodge attached compounds that ...
All the DNA bases, including adenine, also shown here, have aromatic character. Because theyre so stable, aromatic compounds ... These fused aromatic compounds are found in coal.. Aromatic compounds come in rings of all sizes, and many include heteroatoms ... and wintergreen are due to the presence of aromatic compounds in these products. But many aromatic compounds are unpleasant ... Aromatics are a class of ring compounds that contain double bonds. The name aromatic comes from the fact that many of the ...
DNA anyone? The DNA base pairs: guanine, cytosine, adenine, and thymine all have aromatic elements. These aromatic groups are ... It is simple, determine whether these compounds are aromatic or not? I will post the answers next week so leave them in the ... The next question is why are aromatic compounds important? The simple answer is they are the building blocks for some of lifes ... Disciples of organic chemistry know that aromatic compounds compose one of the most important classes of molecules. Very ...
... a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. Uracil is a planar, unsaturated compound that has the ability to absorb light. Found ... Adenine=== Adenine is derived from the two-ring parent molecule purine. Adenine is comprised a six-carbon pyrimidine ring fused ... As a pyrimidine nucleobase, thymine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. Thymine may be derived by methylation of ... In [[DNA]] base pairing, adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, while in [[RNA]] adenine pairs with ...
Uracil is a pyrimidine nucleobase, a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. Uracil is a planar, unsaturated compound that has ... Adenine. Adenine is derived from the two-ring parent molecule purine. Adenine is comprised a six-carbon pyrimidine ring fused ... As a pyrimidine nucleobase, thymine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. Thymine may be derived by methylation of ... A, T, G, and C stand for the chemicals adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, respectively. In DNA base pairing, adenine ...
Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine ... Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused ... the others being adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. ... Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to ... For the programming language Adenine, see Adenine (programming language). ... Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found ... Purine (Adenine, Guanine) , Pyrimidine (Uracil, Thymine, Cytosine). Nucleosides:. Adenosine/Deoxyadenosine , Guanosine/ ...
They include adenine and guanine. "Pyrimidines" are a family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds. They are planar and aromatic ... "Salts" are the neutral compounds formed by the union of an acid base. "Vitamins" are essential organic compounds required in ... "Minerals" are naturally occurring chemical compounds or a limited mixture of chemical compounds that form crystals and have ... "Peptides" are any member of a class of compounds which yield two or more amino acids on hydrolysis. They are formed by loss of ...
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds. External Descriptors. *flavin adenine dinucleotide (CHEBI:16238 ). Ontology. Physiological ... Flavin is a compound that contains the tricyclic isoalloxazine ring system, which bears 2 oxo groups at the 2- and 4-positions. ... Flavin is a compound that contains the tricyclic isoalloxazine ring system, which bears 2 oxo groups at the 2- and 4-positions ... FAD is a strong basic compound (based on its pKa). FAD exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. In humans ...
... dependent reduction of a wide variety of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds, is implicated in the development of ... NADP NICOTINAMIDE-ADENINE-DINUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHATE. 2-MONOPHOSPHOADENOSINE 5-DIPHOSPHORIBOSE. C21 H28 N7 O17 P3. XJLXINKUBYWONI ... dependent reduction of a wide variety of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds, is implicated in the development of ... The highly hydrophobic nature of the active site pocket greatly favors aromatic and apolar substrates over highly polar ...
... adenine and guanine are purines, which are aromatic compounds attached to an imidazole group, while cytosine and thymine and ... which are one ring-aromatic compounds. Nitrogenous bases, being hydrophobic, tend to face inwards of the double helix, pointing ... The four nitrogenous bases present in DNA are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). In RNA, the only ... bases of two DNA strands are Hydrogen bonds with 3 H-bonds connecting cytosine and guanine and 2 H-bonds connecting adenine and ...
aromatic compound catabolic process Source: UniProtKB-KW. *lipid catabolic process Source: UniProtKB-KW ... flavin adenine dinucleotide binding Source: InterPro. *oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-CH group of donors Source: ...
... organic compounds (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and biological fractions (such as endotoxins) 35, 36. The ... from the surface of soluble compounds; altered function of mitochondria or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate ... Muñoz-Olivas R, Donard OFX, Gilon N, Potin-Gautier M. Speciation of organic selenium compounds by high-performance liquid ... David GL, Romieu I, Sienra-Monge JJ, et al. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) reduced:quinone oxidoreductase and ...
Since (hetero)aromatic compounds usually exhibit well resolved chemical shifts, they are NMR friendly fragments for hit ... Since such fragment hits should mimic the adenine base of ATP, almost all of them can be characterized as flat sp2-rich ... compounds with diverse and well-developed 3D-shapes have become the most attractive ones on the market of screening compounds ... More than 1100 compounds meet strict Astex Rule of Three criteria [] (MW ≤ 300, cLogP ≤ 3, H-bond donors ≤ 3, H-bond acceptors ...
Aromatic compounds are crucial in biochemistry. NAD+, and the purines and pyrimidines of nucleic acids are examples of ... For example, the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) contains an aromatic pyridinium ring, while the ... Pyrimidines are aromatic. The two nitrogens are of the sp2 hybridized pyrolle type. ... important aromatic species in biochemistry, with their aromatic nature playing a significant roll in the biochemical behavior. ...
Or it could be a non-peptidic compound. For example, the antagonist of the invention could be a small organic compound or an ... Oligonucleotides as used herein refers to any heteropolymeric material containing purine, pyrimidine and other aromatic bases. ... Oligonucleotides may present commonly found purine and pyrimidine bases such as adenine, thymine, guanine, cytidine and uridine ... In one version of this embodiment, the putative antagonist is a non-peptidic compound, for example, a small organic compound or ...
The infrared spectra have presented several organic molecules, including nitriles and aromatic CN compounds. After the ... revealing the presence of adenine (C5H5N5), one of the constituents of the DNA molecule. ... has an atmosphere chiefly made up of N2 and CH4 and includes traces of many simple organic compounds. This atmosphere also ... which showed that the organic chemistry on the Titan surface can be very complex and extremely rich in prebiotic compounds. ...
adenine salvage. cellular aromatic compound metabolic process. cellular metabolic process. cellular nitrogen compound metabolic ... Involved in adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. Specific Function:. Catalyzes a salvage reaction resulting in the ...
Id like to know more about that - though obviously as it is a 2-ring heterocyclic aromatic compound, it would be expected to ... These are, apparently molecules such as adenine, guanine etc.. These are not nucleotides, or even nucleosides, but some of the ... 2-ring heterocyclic aromatic compound , that stirs your curiosity , enough to know more about this , compound ?. I would like ... Id like to know more about that - though obviously as it is a 2-ring heterocyclic aromatic compound, it would be expected to ...
... ligand screen of the purified protein then identifies possible substrates or products from a library of candidate compounds ... In contrast, similar compounds containing bicyclic aromatic rings such as adenine and guanine derivatives do not bind to MA0940 ... Typically we use 1-5 compounds per protein sample depending on how many compounds need to be screened. Pooled compounds need to ... Compounds that bind the protein will give positive peaks whereas peaks generated from non-binding compounds will be negative in ...
... compounds: A. {Adenine} [AD-uh-neen] and {guanine} [GWAH-neen] are derivatives of this bicyclic compound with formula C,5,H,4,N ... Just so were all on the same page here For 10 points each--name these precursors of {aromatic} {nitrogen} ...
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP+ or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tightest binding compounds were quinate, shikimate, 3-dehydroshikimate and protocatechuate, which are at the interception of the biosynthetic shikimate and catabolic quinate pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • An NMR-based ligand screen of the purified protein then identifies possible substrates or products from a library of candidate compounds chosen from the putative pathway and other related pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Converting between these compounds is a frequent event in many biological pathways. (libretexts.org)
  • The N. hamburgensis chromosome also harbors many unique genes, including those for heme-copper oxidases, cytochrome b 561 , and putative pathways for the catabolism of aromatic, organic, and one-carbon compounds, which help verify and extend its mixotrophic potential. (asm.org)
  • The scientific community is hopeful that future elucidation of the full biosynthetic pathways of cannabinoids will promote the discovery of novel compounds for various medical purposes. (news-medical.net)
  • The pivotal compound for many pathways. (canixalife.com)
  • They have been shown to be involved in programmed cell death by signal transduction3 and in detoxification of a wide variety of aromatic compounds.4 They also have a function in regulating biological clocks,5 in DNA damage repair,6 and plant phototropism.7 These unique properties of flavins are always controlled by specific noncovalent or covalent interactions with the apoproteins to which they are bound. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • A nucleobase is a nitrogen-containing compound that when attached to a pentose sugar ribose or deoxyribose forms nucleotide . (biology-online.org)
  • The most active were 2-cyclopentylamino- N 6 -cyclopentyladenosine (compound NA42) and 2-cyclopentylamino- N 6 -cyclopentyladenine (compound NA134), with the nucleobase an order of magnitude more potent than the nucleoside, at 26 ± 4 nM. (asm.org)
  • We now describe a series of fluorinated aromatic nucleoside analogues having a wide range of dipole and quadrupole moments. (docme.ru)
  • The invention relates to new nucleoside-lipid compounds with pH-sensitive dialkylorthoesterchains, to the process for their preparation and to their uses, in particular their use for transportation or vectorization of at least one therapeutic agent. (sumobrain.com)
  • Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogen-containing aromatic base attached to a pentose (five-carbon) sugar , which is in turn attached to a phosphate group. (britannica.com)
  • Changes in the fluorescence intensity of these complexes originating from interactions between the single-stranded nucleic acid and aromatic compounds were also evaluated. (mdpi.com)
  • A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. (statemaster.com)
  • The receptor has thus binds preferentially compounds that serve as C-sources and amongst them those that rapidly promote growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aromatic portion of the inhibitor binds to the adenine-binding pocket of CDK2, and the position of the phenyl group of the inhibitor enables the inhibitor to make contacts with the enzyme not observed in the ATP complex structure. (pnas.org)
  • IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. (statemaster.com)
  • Its cause has been traced to the potent chemical compounds contained in all nightshades, alkaloids. (clubalthea.com)
  • Pesticide-like action of bio-active amines (chemical compounds also belonging to the broader group of alkaloids) is based on their chemical structure resembling that of some of our hormones, such as adrenaline. (clubalthea.com)
  • This review describes previous reports regarding the effect of different postharvest abiotic stresses on the accumulation of phenolic compounds. (mdpi.com)
  • Taking this into account, alternative technologies are needed to use plants for the production of bioactive compounds. (mdpi.com)
  • Brown seaweed lipids from Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame), Sargassum horneri (Akamoku), and Cystoseira hakodatensis (Uganomoku) contained several bioactive compounds, namely, fucoxanthin, polyphenols, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • However, there is a chemoreceptor family that has a broad ligand specificity including many compounds that are not of metabolic value. (frontiersin.org)
  • We present the possible effect of a derivative of thiazolidinone core in the active site of T. gondii ROP18 and described some characteristics of substituent groups that could improve the affinity and specificity of compounds derived from the thiazolidinone core against T. gondii . (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study indicates that the metabolic potential of compounds is an important parameter in the molecular recognition by broad ligand range chemoreceptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have studied the stacking thermodynamics of these compounds in short synthetic DNA duplexes, with all four neighboring nucleobases. (docme.ru)
  • 3.3 Which of the following compounds contains the longest carbon- carbon bonds? (docplayer.net)
  • However, they also have the ability to assimilate a narrow range of simple organic carbon (C) compounds (pyruvate, acetate, α-ketoglutarate, and glycerol) in the absence of nitrite ( 3 , 52 ). (asm.org)
  • The cometabolic degradation phenomenon was first reported in 1958, observing that methane-utilizing bacterium Pseudomonas methanica (renamed as Methylomonas methanica ) could oxidize ethane and propane, but was unable to use these compounds as a carbon and energy source . (erwiki.net)