ARNTL Transcription Factors: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. They combine with CLOCK PROTEINS to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.CLOCK Proteins: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLSOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Transcription Factors, TFIII: Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor: A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Early Growth Response Protein 1: An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1: An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.

PER and TIM inhibit the DNA binding activity of a Drosophila CLOCK-CYC/dBMAL1 heterodimer without disrupting formation of the heterodimer: a basis for circadian transcription. (1/398)

The Drosophila CLOCK (dCLOCK) and CYCLE (CYC) (also referred to as dBMAL1) proteins are members of the basic helix-loop-helix PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) superfamily of transcription factors and are required for high-level expression of the circadian clock genes period (per) and timeless (tim). Several lines of evidence indicate that PER, TIM, or a PER-TIM heterodimer somehow inhibit the transcriptional activity of a putative dCLOCK-CYC complex, generating a negative-feedback loop that is a core element of the Drosophila circadian oscillator. In this report we show that PER and/or TIM inhibits the binding of a dCLOCK-CYC heterodimer to an E-box-containing DNA fragment that is present in the 5' nontranscribed region of per and acts as a circadian enhancer element. Surprisingly, inhibition of this DNA binding activity by PER, TIM, or both is not accompanied by disruption of the association between dCLOCK and CYC. The results suggest that the interaction of PER, TIM, or both with the dCLOCK-CYC heterodimer induces a conformational change or masks protein regions in the heterodimer, leading to a reduction in DNA binding activity. Together with other findings, our results strongly suggest that daily cycles in the association of PER and TIM with the dCLOCK-CYC complex probably contribute to rhythmic expression of per and tim.  (+info)

mCRY1 and mCRY2 are essential components of the negative limb of the circadian clock feedback loop. (2/398)

We determined that two mouse cryptochrome genes, mCry1 and mCry2, act in the negative limb of the clock feedback loop. In cell lines, mPER proteins (alone or in combination) have modest effects on their cellular location and ability to inhibit CLOCK:BMAL1 -mediated transcription. This suggested cryptochrome involvement in the negative limb of the feedback loop. Indeed, mCry1 and mCry2 RNA levels are reduced in the central and peripheral clocks of Clock/Clock mutant mice. mCRY1 and mCRY2 are nuclear proteins that interact with each of the mPER proteins, translocate each mPER protein from cytoplasm to nucleus, and are rhythmically expressed in the suprachiasmatic circadian clock. Luciferase reporter gene assays show that mCRY1 or mCRY2 alone abrogates CLOCK:BMAL1-E box-mediated transcription. The mPER and mCRY proteins appear to inhibit the transcriptional complex differentially.  (+info)

Requirement of circadian genes for cocaine sensitization in Drosophila. (3/398)

The circadian clock consists of a feedback loop in which clock genes are rhythmically expressed, giving rise to cycling levels of RNA and proteins. Four of the five circadian genes identified to date influence responsiveness to freebase cocaine in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Sensitization to repeated cocaine exposures, a phenomenon also seen in humans and animal models and associated with enhanced drug craving, is eliminated in flies mutant for period, clock, cycle, and doubletime, but not in flies lacking the gene timeless. Flies that do not sensitize owing to lack of these genes do not show the induction of tyrosine decarboxylase normally seen after cocaine exposure. These findings indicate unexpected roles for these genes in regulating cocaine sensitization and indicate that they function as regulators of tyrosine decarboxylase.  (+info)

Light-independent role of CRY1 and CRY2 in the mammalian circadian clock. (4/398)

Cryptochrome (CRY), a photoreceptor for the circadian clock in Drosophila, binds to the clock component TIM in a light-dependent fashion and blocks its function. In mammals, genetic evidence suggests a role for CRYs within the clock, distinct from hypothetical photoreceptor functions. Mammalian CRY1 and CRY2 are here shown to act as light-independent inhibitors of CLOCK-BMAL1, the activator driving Per1 transcription. CRY1 or CRY2 (or both) showed light-independent interactions with CLOCK and BMAL1, as well as with PER1, PER2, and TIM. Thus, mammalian CRYs act as light-independent components of the circadian clock and probably regulate Per1 transcriptional cycling by contacting both the activator and its feedback inhibitors.  (+info)

Cycling vrille expression is required for a functional Drosophila clock. (5/398)

We identified a novel regulatory loop within Drosophila's circadian clock. A screen for clock-controlled genes recovered vrille (vri), a transcription factor essential for embryonic development. vri is expressed in circadian pacemaker cells in larval and adult brains. vri RNA levels oscillate with a circadian rhythm. Cycling is directly regulated by the transcription factors dCLOCK and CYCLE, which are also required for oscillations of period and timeless RNA. Eliminating the normal vri cycle suppresses period and timeless expression and causes long-period behavioral rhythms and arrhythmicity, indicating that cycling vri is required for a functional Drosophila clock. We also show that dCLOCK and VRI independently regulate levels of a neuropeptide, pigment dispersing factor, which appears to regulate overt behavior.  (+info)

ARNT2 acts as the dimerization partner of SIM1 for the development of the hypothalamus. (6/398)

One major function of the hypothalamus is to maintain homeostasis by modulating the secretion of pituitary hormones. The paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei are major integration centers for the output of the hypothalamus to the pituitary. The bHLH-PAS transcription factor SIM1 is crucial for the development of several neuroendocrine lineages within the PVN and SON. bHLH-PAS proteins require heterodimerization for their function. ARNT, ARNT2, and BMAL1 are the three known general heterodimerization partners for bHLH-PAS proteins. Here, we provide evidence that Sim1 and Arnt2 form dimers in vitro, that they are co-expressed in the PVN and SON, and that their loss of function affects the development of the same sets of neuroendocrine cell types within the PVN and SON. Together, these results implicate ARNT2 as the in vivo dimerization partner of SIM1 in controlling the development of these neuroendocrine lineages.  (+info)

dCLOCK is present in limiting amounts and likely mediates daily interactions between the dCLOCK-CYC transcription factor and the PER-TIM complex. (7/398)

In Drosophila melanogaster four circadian clock proteins termed PERIOD (PER), TIMELESS (TIM), dCLOCK (dCLK), and CYCLE (CYC/dBMAL1) function in a transcriptional feedback loop that is a core element of the oscillator mechanism. dCLK and CYC are members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) superfamily of transcription factors and are required for high-level expression of per and tim and repression of dClk, whereas PER and TIM inhibit dCLK-CYC-mediated transcription and lead to the activation of dClk. To understand further the dynamic regulation within the circadian oscillator mechanism, we biochemically characterized in vivo-produced CYC, determined the interactions of the four clock proteins, and calculated their absolute levels as a function of time. Our results indicate that throughout a daily cycle the majority of the dCLK present in adult heads stably interacts with CYC, indicating that CYC is the primary in vivo partner of dCLK. dCLK-CYC dimers are bound by PER and TIM during the late evening and early morning, suggesting the formation of a tetrameric complex with impaired transcriptional activity. Although dCLK is present in limiting amounts and CYC is by far the most abundant of the four clock proteins that have been examined, PER and TIM appear to interact preferentially with dCLK. Our results suggest that dCLK is the main component regulating the daily abundance of transcriptionally active dCLK-CYC complexes.  (+info)

Asynchronous oscillations of two zebrafish CLOCK partners reveal differential clock control and function. (8/398)

Most clock genes encode transcription factors that interact to elicit cooperative control of clock function. Using a two-hybrid system approach, we have isolated two different partners of zebrafish (zf) CLOCK, which are similar to the mammalian BMAL1 (brain and muscle arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1). The two homologs, zfBMAL1 and zfBMAL2, contain conserved basic helix-loop-helix-PAS (Period-Arylhydrocarbon receptor-Singleminded) domains but diverge in the carboxyl termini, thus bearing different transcriptional activation potential. As for zfClock, the expression of both zfBmals oscillates in most tissues in the animal. However, in many tissues, the peak, levels, and kinetics of expression are different between the two genes and for the same gene from tissue to tissue. These results support the existence of independent peripheral oscillators and suggest that zfBMAL1 and zfBMAL2 may exert distinct circadian functions, interacting differentially with zfCLOCK at various times in different tissues. Our findings also indicate that multiple controls may be exerted by the central clock and/or that peripheral oscillators can differentially interpret central clock signals.  (+info)

*ARNTL

... encodes a transcription factor with a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and two PAS domains. The human ARNTL gene has a ... in March and Ikeda and Nomura in April as part of a superfamily of PAS domain transcription factors. The ARNTL protein, also ... is a paralog of Arntl (Bmal1) that encodes for a basic helix-loop-helix PAS domain transcription factor. It, too, has been ... Arntl, Npas2, and Per2 have also been associated with seasonal affective disorder in humans. Lastly, Arntl has been identified ...

*RAR-related orphan receptor gamma

This protein can bind to and activate the promoter of the ARNTL (BMAL1) gene, a transcription factor central to the generation ... The transcription factor is essential for lymphoid organogenesis, in particular lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, but not the ... The RORγ protein is a DNA-binding transcription factor and is a member of the NR1 subfamily of nuclear receptors. Although the ... RORγ is member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. Two isoforms are produced from the same RORC gene, ...

*Cycle (gene)

Much like CYCLE, the ARNTL proteins have a basic helix-loop-helix and a PAS domain containing transcription factors responsible ... and transcription factor activity. Other non-arthropods containing the functional ortholog of the Drosophila cycle ARNTL and ... repressing CYC-CLK dependent transcription. Thus, CLK and CYC act as positive factors and PER and TIM as negative factors. CYC ... The cyc gene is located on the left arm of chromosome 3 and codes for a transcription factor containing a basic helix-loop- ...

*John B. Hogenesch

... better known as BMAL1 or ARNTL, revealed in 1998 that its role as a partner of the bHLH-PAS transcription factor CLOCK was ... BMAL1 and CLOCK are now the two most well recognized bHLH-PAS domain transcription factors. Later work revealed that BMAL1 is ... These transcription factors were initially named MOP1-5. Hogenesch's later characterization of MOP3, ... In 1999 Hogenesch completed a Ph.D. in Neuroscience at Northwestern University's Chicago campus, studying transcription factors ...

*EPAS1

It is a type of hypoxia-inducible factor, a group of transcription factors involved in body response to oxygen level. The gene ... EPAS1 has been shown to interact with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator and ARNTL. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Tian H, Hammer RE, Matsumoto AM, Russell DW, McKnight SL (November 1998). "The hypoxia-responsive transcription factor EPAS1 is ... Cross-talk between basic helix-loop-helix/per-Arnt-Sim homology transcription factors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...

*KIX domain

The coactivators CBP (CREBBP) and P300 (EP300) are recruited to DNA-bound transcription factors to activate transcription. ... Human and animal proteins: ARNTL (BMAL1) ATF1 ATF4 (CREB2) BRCA1 CREB Cubitus interruptus (in D. melanogaster) ELK4 (SAP1) ... Goto, N. K.; Zor, T; Martinez-Yamout, M; Dyson, H. J.; Wright, P. E. (2002). "Cooperativity in transcription factor binding to ... It serves as a docking site for the formation of heterodimers between the coactivator and specific transcription factors. ...

*Aryl hydrocarbon receptor

The first is the basic-region (b), which is involved in the binding of the transcription factor to DNA. The second is the helix ... In addition to the protein interactions mentioned above, AhR has also been shown to interact with: ARNTL, CCNT1, ESR1, NCOA1, ... The bHLH motif is located in the N-terminal of the protein and is a common entity in a variety of transcription factors. ... Sequential recruitment of transcription factors and differential phosphorylation of C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II at ...

*Basic helix-loop-helix

Transcription Factor 4) BHLHE41, also known as DEC2, SHARP1, and BHLHB3 bHLH transcription factors are often important in ... ARNTL; ARNTL2; ASCL1; ASCL2; ASCL3; ASCL4; ATOH1; ATOH7; ATOH8; BHLHB2; BHLHB3; BHLHB4; BHLHB5; BHLHB8; CLOCK; EPAS1; FERD3L; ... Examples of transcription factors containing a bHLH include: AhR Beta2/NeuroD1 BMAL-1-CLOCK C-Myc, N-Myc MyoD Myf5 Pho4 HIF ... In general, transcription factors including this domain are dimeric, each with one helix containing basic amino acid residues ...

*E-box

... is recognized and bound by transcription factors to initiate gene transcription. Once the transcription factors bind to the ... There are several proteins that bind to the E-box and affect gene transcription. The CLOCK-ARNTL (BMAL1) complex is an integral ... 2002). "Evidence that E-box promoter elements and MyoD transcription factors play a role in the induction of cathepsin B gene ... MYC (c-Myc), a gene that codes for a transcription factor Myc, is important in regulating mammalian cell proliferation and ...

*Oscillating gene

This results in an inhibition of the transcription factors of per and tim thereby lowering the respective mRNA levels and ... Bmal1 - Bmal1 also known as ARNTL or Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like, encodes a protein that forms a ... It has been shown to affect the period of circadian rhythms through its repression of transcription factors. This was found ... Clock - Clock, also known as Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput, is a transcription factor in the circadian pacemaker of ...

*NPAS2

The NPAS2 protein is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS transcription factor family and is expressed in the SCN ... ARNTL, and CLOCK polymorphisms. These genes may influence seasonal variations through metabolic factors such as body weight and ... Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) also known as member of PAS protein 4 (MOP4) is a transcription factor protein that in ... NPAS2 has been shown to interact with: ARNTL (also known as BMAL1). Like Clock, Npas2 mRNA cycles with a similar phase to that ...

*HIF1A

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, also known as HIF-1-alpha, is a subunit of a heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia- ... HIF1A has been shown to interact with: ARNTL, ARNT, CREBB, EP300, HIF1AN, Mdm2, NR4A, P53, PSMA7, STAT3, UBC, VH and VHL. GR ( ... The human HIF1A gene encodes for the alpha subunit, HIF1A of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1). HIF1A ... "Entrez Gene: HIF1A hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor)". Wang GL, Jiang BH ...

*ARNTL2

Hung MS, Avner P, Rogner UC (September 2006). "Identification of the transcription factor ARNTL2 as a candidate gene for the ... Recent work suggest that this interaction may be in concert with ARNTL/CLOCK heterodimeric complexes. Arntl (Bmal1) GRCh38: ... "cDNA cloning of a novel bHLH-PAS transcription factor superfamily gene, BMAL2: its mRNA expression, subcellular distribution, ... Arntl2 is a paralog to Arntl, which are both homologs of the Drosophila Cycle. Homologs were also isolated in fish, birds and ...

*Circadian rhythm

... which encode closely related MYB transcription factors that regulate circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis, as well as PRR 7 and 9 ( ... ARNTL ARNTL2 Bacterial circadian rhythms Circadian rhythm sleep disorders, such as Advanced sleep phase disorder Delayed sleep ... Obesity and diabetes are associated with lifestyle and genetic factors. Among those factors, disruption of the circadian ... The CLK/CYC loop occurs during the day and initiates the transcription of the per and tim genes. But their proteins levels ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Vikram R Shende, Marianna M Goldrick, Suchitra Ramani, David J Earnest].
Adipocytes play multiple roles in energy balance: they store and release energy and also provide signals to the CNS about energy storage. One example of the importance of white adipose tissue in energy balance involves release of fatty acids into the circulation. When this occurs, fatty acid concentrations increase in the hypothalamus-a change that results in signals that decrease food intake. Growing interest in circadian control of the systems underpinning appetite and feeding led to the observation that mice with germline knockout of Arntl (a gene encoding a key molecular clock element) are heavier and have more adipose tissue than their wild-type counterparts and that these differences become evident as early as 4-8 weeks. A new report by Paschos et al. takes this line of investigation further by determining the impact on weight and food intake when Arntl is specifically deleted from adipocytes. The investigators demonstrate that in contrast to mice in which Arntl is deleted in hepatocytes ...
ARNTL - ARNTL (untagged)-Human aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (ARNTL), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Circadian oscillators are expressed in various peripheral tissues including the ovary and uterus and may play critical roles in the regulation of reproductive physiological processes (Dolatshad et al. 2006; He et al. 2007a; Hirata et al. 2009; Akiyama et al. 2010; Uchikawa et al. 2011). To address these possible roles, we focused on the function of the circadian oscillators in the expression of Gdf family members by using rat UESCs. The results indicate that a few Gdf family members are repressed by the binding of REV‐ERBα, a canonical clock component, to the RORE sites located at Gdf putative promoters. We found that the expression levels of Gdf10 and Gdf15 were significantly increased in the embryo implantation sites of the pregnant D6.5 rat uterus compared to that at pregnant D4.5. We and other research group also observed that the canonical clock genes Bmal1, Rev‐erbα, and Per2 were downregulated in UESCs during the in vitro decidualization (Isayama et al. 2015; Muter et al. 2015; ...
Expression of ARNTL2 (bHLHe6, BMAL2, CLIF, MOP9, PASD9) in smooth muscle tissue. Antibody staining with HPA059074 in immunohistochemistry.
Transcriptional repressor which coordinates circadian rhythm and metabolic pathways in a heme-dependent manner. Integral component of the complex transcription machinery that governs circadian rhythmicity and forms a critical negative limb of the circadian clock by directly repressing the expression of core clock components ARNTL/BMAL1 and CLOCK. Also regulates genes involved in metabolic functions, including lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response. Acts as a receptor for heme which stimulates its interaction with the NCOR1/HDAC3 corepressor complex, enhancing transcriptional repression. Recognizes two classes of DNA response elements within the promoter of its target genes and can bind to DNA as either monomers or homodimers, depending on the nature of the response element. Binds as a monomer to a response element composed of the consensus half-site motif 5-[A/G]GGTCA-3 preceded by an A/T-rich 5 sequence (RevRE), or as a homodimer to a direct repeat of the core motif spaced by two
INOUE Ikuo , HAYASHI Kenji , YAGASAKI Fumiharu , NAKAMURA Koh-ichi , MATSUNAGA Toshiyuki , XU Haiyuan , INUKAI Koh-ichi , AWATA Takuya , KOMODA Tsugikazu , KATAYAMA Shigehiro Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 10(2), 99-108, 2003-04-01 医中誌Web 参考文献23件 被引用文献4件 ...
In liver, most metabolic pathways are under circadian control, and hundreds of protein-encoding genes are thus transcribed in a cyclic fashion. Here we show that rhythmic transcription extends to the locus specifying miR-122, a highly abundant, hepatocyte-specific microRNA. Genetic loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments have identified the orphan nuclear receptor REV-ERBalpha as the major circadian regulator of mir-122 transcription. Although due to its long half-life mature miR-122 accumulates at nearly constant rates throughout the day, this miRNA is tightly associated with control mechanisms governing circadian gene expression. Thus, the knockdown of miR-122 expression via an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) strategy resulted in the up- and down-regulation of hundreds of mRNAs, of which a disproportionately high fraction accumulates in a circadian fashion. miR-122 has previously been linked to the regulation of cholesterol and lipid metabolism. The transcripts associated w
Circadian rhythms are generated by well-conserved interlocked transcriptional feedback loops in animals. In Drosophila, the dimeric transcription factor CLOCK/CYCLE (CLK/CYC) promotes period (per), timeless (tim), vrille (vri), and PAR-domain protein 1 (Pdp1) transcription. PER and TIM negatively feed back on CLK/CYC transcriptional activity, whereas VRI and PDP1 negatively and positively regulate Clk transcription, respectively. Here, we show that the ? isoform of the Drosophila FOS homolog KAYAK (KAY) is required for normal circadian behavior. KAY-? downregulation in circadian pacemaker neurons increases period length by 1.5 h. This behavioral phenotype is correlated with decreased expression of several circadian proteins. The strongest effects are on CLK and the neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR, which are both under VRI and PDP1 control. Consistently, KAY-? can bind to VRI and inhibit its interaction with the Clk promoter. Interestingly, KAY-? can also repress CLK activity. Hence, in ...
Expression of ARNTL2 (bHLHe6, BMAL2, CLIF, MOP9, PASD9) in lymph node tissue. Antibody staining with HPA059074 in immunohistochemistry.
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Fat cells store excess energy and signal these levels to the brain. In a new study this week in Nature Medicine researches show that deletion of the clock gene Arntl, also known as Bmal1, in fat cells, causes mice to become obese, with a shift in the timing of when this nocturnal species normally eats. These findings shed light on the complex causes of obesity in humans.
LMU researchers have shown that circadian oscillations in the influx of immune cells into the damaged tissue play a crucial role in exacerbating the effects of an acute heart attack in the early morning hours.
Many organisms have ≈24-h rhythms in metabolism, physiology, and behavior that are driven by cell autonomous circadian pacemakers (1). These circadian rhythms allow organisms to coordinate a myriad of physiological processes with the changing environment. In mammals, the circadian pacemaker is composed of interlocked transcription-translation feedback loops: the primary loop is composed of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1, which drive transcription of the Period (Per1, Per2) and Cryptochrome (Cry1, Cry2) genes (1, 2). PER and CRY proteins form the negative limb of the feedback loop by inhibiting their own CLOCK:BMAL1-induced transcription; turnover of PER and CRY allows the cycle to begin anew. The interlocked loop consists of REV-ERB-α and RORα, which repress and activate the Bmal1 gene, thereby modulating its function (3, 4). Mutation or deletion of Clock (5), Bmal1 (6), Per1/2 genes (7, 8), or Cry1/2 (9, 10) genes results in behavioral arrhythmicity and ...
Circadian clocks regulate daily patterns of behavior, metabolism, and immune system function. At the core of the clock are transcriptional and translational feedback loops that generate periodic, oscillating changes in the abundance of clock components. One of these loops involves the action of the transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1, heterodimers of which stimulate the expression of genes encoding the transcription factors Period 1 and Period 2 (PER1 and PER2). PER1 and PER2 accumulate in the cytoplasm, translocate into the nucleus, and inhibit transcription of Clock and Bmal1. The timing of transcription and translation of clock components is important for determining the clocks periodicity, and Chen et al. report that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in this timing mechanism. Because the circadian clock is essential for early development, the authors used mice harboring a conditional knockout of Dicer, which encodes a critical component of the miRNA processing machinery, to assess the ...
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a major drug target in inflammatory disease. However, chronic glucocorticoid (GC) treatment leads to disordered energy metabolism, including increased weight gain, adiposity, and hepatosteatosis - all programs modulated by the circadian clock. We demonstrated that while antiinflammatory GC actions were maintained irrespective of dosing time, the liver was significantly more GC sensitive during the day. Temporal segregation of GC action was underpinned by a physical interaction of GR with the circadian transcription factor REVERBa and co-binding with liver-specific hepatocyte nuclear transcription factors (HNFs) on chromatin. REVERBa promoted efficient GR recruitment to chromatin during the day, acting in part by maintaining histone acetylation, with REVERBa-dependent GC responses providing segregation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Importantly, deletion of Reverba inverted circadian liver GC sensitivity and protected mice from hepatosteatosis induced by ...
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Author: Nakamura, Y. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published online: 2014-07; Title: Diurnal and circadian expression profiles of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis
This gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein expressed in various tissues. The encoded protein can interact with ARNTL or compete for E-box binding sites in the promoter of PER1 and repress CLOCK/ARNTLs transactivation of PER1. This gene is believed to be involved in the control of circadian rhythm and cell differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014 ...
Core Clock: 1506MHz, Boost Clock: 1708MHz, Memory: 6144MB 8008MHz GDDR5, Stream Processors: 1280, VR Ready, PhysX/CUDA Enabled, 2 Years Warranty.
article{3062551, abstract = {Previously, we identified HISTONE MONOUBIQUITINATION1 (HUB1) as an unconventional ubiquitin E3 ligase that is not involved in protein degradation but in the histone H2B modification that is implicated in transcriptional activation in plants. HUB1-mediated regulation of gene expression played a role in periodic and inducible processes such as the cell cycle, dormancy, flowering time and defense responses. Here, we determined the effects of the hub1-1 mutation on expression of a set of diurnally induced circadian clock genes identified from a comparative microarray analysis between the hub1-1 mutant and an HUB1 over-expression line. The hub1-1 mutation reduced the amplitudes of a number of induced clock gene expression peaks, as well as the HUB1-mediated histone H2BUb and H3K4Me3 marks associated with the coding regions, suggesting a role for HUB1 in facilitating transcriptional elongation in plants. Furthermore, double mutants between hub1-1 and elongata (elo) showed ...
Circadian rhythm is an internal biological clock, which enables to sustain an approximately 24-hour rhythm in the absence of environmental cues. In mammals, the circadian clock mechanism consists of cell-autonomous transcription-translation feedback loops that drive rhythmic, 24-hour expression patterns of core clock components. The first negative feedback loop is a rhythmic transcription of period genes (PER1, PER2, and PER3) and chryptochrome genes (CRY1 and CRY2). PER and CRY proteins form a heterodimer, which acts on the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer to repress its own transcription. PER and CRY proteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase epsilon (CKIepsilon), which leads to degradation and restarting of the cycle. The second loop is a positive feedback loop driven by the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer, which initiates transcription of target genes containing E-box cis-regulatory enhancer sequences ...
The tick-tock of your biological clock may have just gotten a little louder.. Researchers at the University of Georgia report that the number of genes under control of in living things than suspected only a few years ago. The biological clock in a much-studied model organism is dramatically higher than previously reported. The new study implies that the clock may be much more important. "This new finding may help to explain why the clock is so far-reaching in its effects on the organism," said Jonathan Arnold, a professor in the UGA department of genetics and director of the research project. "We found that some 25 percent of the genes in our model organism appear to be under clock control. I wasnt suspecting anything remotely like that.". The new research, just published in the Public Library of Science One, also shows how Arnolds team used a new methodology called Computing Life to yield these new discoveries about biological clocks. And this tool of systems biology was the key to showing ...
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Circadian rhythms are mechanisms that measure time on a scale of about 24 h and that adjusts our body to external environmental signals. Core circadian clock genes are defined as genes whose protein products are necessary components for the generation and regulation of circadian rhythms. Circadian proteins also regulate genes involved in either cell division or death; and a perturbation of the balance among these processes leads to cancer development and progression.. A key aspect of cancer research is identifying new regulatory pathways involved in proliferation and differentiation of cell. Disruption of circadian rhythm has recently emerged as a new potential risk factor in the development of cancer, pointing to the core gene period 2 (per2) as a tumor suppressor. However, it remains unclear how the circadian network regulates tumor suppression, nor which, if any, of its components is either the ultimate effector that influences the fate of the cell.. Initial experiments were devoted to ...
This is the first study to show that RICTOR/mTORC2 acts as a regulator for coordinated diurnal expression of clock genes in PVAT, but not in the SCN. At the whole body level, RICTOR/mTORC2 in adipose and brain tissue contributes to the diurnal regulation of blood pressure and locomotor activity. The presented data demonstrate the importance of the mTORC2 signaling pathway in the brain to adipocyte axis for daily fluctuations of physiological processes.. We and others have recently shown that mTORC2 activity controls inflammatory molecule expression using tissue-specific Rictor knockout mouse models.7,20 We showed that vascular contractility in RictoraP2KO mice is increased because of enhanced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in PVAT.7 Ablation of Rictor strongly reduced AKTSer473 phosphorylation, resulting in impaired mTORC2 signaling.5-7 Consequently, we assign the observed changes in RictoraP2KO mice to the impaired mTORC2 downstream signaling.. In this study, we explored these findings ...
SR9011 Description:. SR9011 is a trifunctional methacrylate monomer that provides exceptional adhesion to metal substrates.. SR9011 is recommended for use in peroxide cured coatings, sealants, and PVC-based plastisols. Usage levels of 5% to 10% by weight are recommended.. SR9011 is a potent and specific synthetic REV-ERB. It also has good in vivo plasma/brain exposure. The nuclear receptors REV-ERB-α and REV-ERB-β play an integral role in regulating the expression of core clock proteins, driving rhythms in activity and metabolism. Administration of SR9011 alters circadian behavior and the circadian pattern of core clock gene expression in the hypothalami of mice. The circadian expression pattern of an array of metabolic genes in the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was also altered, resulting in increased energy expenditure. Treatment of diet-induced obese mice with SR9011 decreased obesity by reducing fat mass and markedly improved dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. These results ...
Sundowning or sundown syndrome causes a sudden worsening of confusion, agitation, and aggression in patients with Alzheimers disease and dementia, which was found to be governed by the bodys internal biological clock.
Hodžić A, Ristanović M, Zorn B, Tulić C, Maver A, Novaković I, Peterlin B. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59220. A case-control study was performed to determine the role of circadian genes in male infertility. The study consisted of 517 cases and 444 controls, all of which were of Slavic origin and recruited from three outpatient fertility centres. A chi-square test found…
Synchronization of circadian oscillators with the outside world is achieved by the acute effects of light on the levels of one or more clock components. In mammals the PAS transcription factors Clock, NPAS2, and BMAL1 regulate gene expression as a function of the day-night cycle. Both PAS domains of NPAS2 were found to bind heme as a prosthetic group, form a gas-regulated sensor, and exert heme-status control of DNA binding in vitro. In a microarray analysis comparing overall changes in brain transcript levels between mice subjected to light pulses during the dark phase with animals maintained in darkness, we traced consistent changes in more than 200 different transcripts. Of these, 20 are associated with heme and iron biosynthesis and catabolism. A model for the pathway of induction of heme and iron homeostasis-related transcripts resulting from light pulses suggests that light signals (as stressors) induce transcription of heme oxygenase 2 (Hmox2) and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por), ...
A 2/N mode dock generator that generates bus clock signals through the use of bus clock enable signals selecting bus clock pulses that are in phase and out of phase with a core clock signal. The clock generator maintains synchronization between the bus clock signal and the core clock signal so that they are always in a predetermined phase relationship.
King DP, Zhao Y, Sangoram AM, Wilsbacher LD, Tanaka M, Antoch MP, Steeves TD, Vitaterna MH, Kornhauser JM, Lowrey PL, Turek FW, Takahashi JS. Cell. 1997;89(4):641-53. Genetic mapping and sequencing in mice confirmed the identification of the mammalian gene, clock, involved in the circadian system. A comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the wildtype gene with…
Disruption of two genes that control circadian rhythms can lead to diabetes, a researcher at UT Southwestern Medical Center has found in an animal study.. Mice with defective copies of the genes, called CLOCK and BMAL1, develop abnormalities in pancreatic cells that eventually render the cells unable to release sufficient amounts of insulin.. "These results indicate that disruption of the daily clock may contribute to diabetes by impairing the pancreas ability to deliver insulin," said Dr. Joseph Takahashi, an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at UT Southwestern and co-senior author of the study, which appeared in the journal Nature. Dr. Takahashi, who recently joined UT Southwestern as chairman of neuroscience, performed the research with colleagues when he was at Northwestern University.. Circadian rhythms are cyclical patterns in biological activities, such as sleeping, eating, body temperature and hormone production.. The mammalian CLOCK gene, which Dr. Takahashi ...
The 527-02 Clock Slicer is the most flexible way to generate a CMOS output clock from a PECL input clock with zero skew. The user can easily configure the device to produce nearly any output clock that is multiplied or divided from the input clock. The part supports non-integer multiplications and divisions. A SYNC pulse indicates when the rising clock edges are aligned with zero skew. Using Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) techniques, the device accepts an input clock up to 200 MHz and produces an output clock up to 160 MHz. The 527-02 aligns rising edges on PECLIN with FBIN at a ratio determined by the reference and feedback dividers. For a PECL input and output clock with zero delay, use the 527-04. For a CMOS input and PECL output with zero delay, use the 527-03. ...
Transcriptional repressor which binds to the consensus sequence 5-GGTGTG-3. Plays a role in the regulation of the circadian clock; binds to the GC box sequence in the promoter of the core clock component ARTNL/BMAL1 and represses its transcriptional activity. Regulates the circadian expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in the liver. Represses the expression of PCK2, a rate-limiting step enzyme of gluconeogenesis (By similarity). May play a role in the cell cycle regulation.
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Modulates the circadian rhythm of contrast sensitivity by regulating the rhythmic expression of NPAS2 in the retinal ganglion cells which in turn regulates the rhythmic expression of the ADCY1 gene in the ganglian cell layer (By similarity). ...
Buy Ticking Clock Loops Pack by ShahruhAudio on AudioJungle. 4 various ticking clock loops Durations: ticking clock1 0:04 ticking clock2 0:08 ticking clock3 0:08 ticking clock4 0...
The CDCM1802 clock driver distributes one pair of differential clock input to one LVPECL differential clock output pair, Y0 and Y0, and one single-ended LVCMOS output, Y1.
Neophytus writes An interesting story on the BBC reports on how a new type of atomic clock is near completion that would only loose about a second in every 100 million years. Within ten years they hope to have a clock with billion year accuracy which would potentially bring advances in disease rese...
This very simple, very loud talking clock is nothing but button, making it extremely easy to find & to use. The round clock base measures 4 & 1/2 inches wide.
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ASUS Limited Edition Dual-GPU ROG ARES II boasts dual-Radeon HD 7970 GHz Edition GPUs and 6GB GDDR5 VRAM with a boost core clock speed of 1100MHz.
This is an ingeneous and excellent add-on that is basically a really neat total waste of time :-) When you download the library to your calculator it will put a ticking clock at the bottom of the HOME view. It displays both the date and the time (once youve set them) and uses both 12hr and 24hr time format and both US and European date format ...
Moving the clocks forward by one extra hour all year in the UK could lead to children getting more exercise every day, say researchers, reports BBC News. In the UK...
(Phys.org)-A team of researchers with Harvard University and the University of Cambridge has successfully improved the accuracy of a synthetic clock known as a repressilator. In their paper published in the journal Nature, ...
Define ADCIN parameters Define ADC_BITS 10 Set number of bits in result Define ADC_CLOCK 3 Set clock source (3=rc)...
I really dont get how people dont see the autonomous vehicles arent some hard puzzle to be solved, but instead a "if we can do that we can await skynets activation" level thing. Sure the technology works surprisingly well. Its neat! But to be actually useful...And self-driving cabs are the hardest version of that ...
The identification of circadian clocks in endocrine tissues has added considerable depth and complexity to our understanding of their physiology. A growing body of research reveals circadian clock gene expression in the uterus of non-pregnant and pregnant mammals. A key study to draw attention to the potential role of the circadian clock and pregnancy was that of Miller et al (2004), who reported that pregnant mice lacking the functional Clock gene (ClockΔ19) had prolonged and non-productive parturition, suggestive of a role for circadian clocks in the parturition event. Nakamura et al. (2010) showed changes in Per2::LUC rhythmic phase and amplitude in uterine explants treated with estrogen and progesterone. These results are consistent with the idea that ovarian steroid levels during the estrous cycle have a modulating influence of clock gene expression in the uterus. Ratajczak et al. (2010) examined expression of circadian clock genes in the mouse uterus in late pregnancy and
Purpose: : Circadian rhythms are driven by a central clock (suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) and peripheral clocks (tissues) and determined by expression of "clock genes". Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is associated with endothelial precursor cell (EPC) dysfunction. We asked whether DR is associated with changes in clock genes expression within the retina, bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood EPCs and whether this could influence EPC release from the BM and thus the ability of EPC to repair the vasodegenerative phase of DR. Methods: : Type 2 diabetic (n=3) rats with 4 months duration of disease and age matched controls (n=5) were placed in standard LD conditions for two weeks prior to sacrifice. With a 24-hr period divided into a 12-hr activity phase and a 12-hr rest phase. In nocturnal animals, such as rats, Zeitgeber time (ZT) 12 is at the beginning of the activity phase (dark) and ZT 0 (light) is at the start of the rest phase. At peak release of EPC at (ZT) 4, animals were sacrificed and their ...
Circadian clocks are molecular oscillators with ~24-hour periods that drive daily biological rhythms. Such clocks are found in all of the major branches of life, and they likely represent ancient timekeeping systems important for predicting daily environmental cycles on our rotating planet. In mammals, circadian clocks are present in most if not all cells. These distributed clocks control a myriad of processes, in aggregate creating coherent 24-hour programs of physiology and behavior.. A picture of how circadian clocks are built has emerged in the last two decades. The core mechanism is a transcriptional feedback loop, wherein the protein products of several clock genes build the molecular machinery to inhibit the transcription factor responsible for their own production. The molecular components of circadian clocks are conserved from insects to humans.. The Weitz lab uses molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and structural biology to investigate the mammalian circadian clock. The focus ...
Disruption of circadian homeostasis is frequently observed in tumour cells. In a comprehensive study of circadian clock genes in 21 cancer types that takes into account genomic, transcriptomic and phenotypic (clinical prognosis) data, we demonstrated that clock genes were substantially altered by somatically acquired deletions and amplifications. Recurrent deletions or amplifications that were accompanied by altered transcript expression in tumours could represent novel loss- or gain-of-function phenotypes. To exploit these circadian targets in a clinical setting, we analysed survival outcomes using the ClockLoss and ClockGain and confirmed the utility of both gene sets as prognostic tools in 2914 and 2784 patients involving seven diverse cancer cohorts.. Depending on cellular context, the circadian clock can exert both tumour-promoting or tumour-inhibiting properties. We observed that core clock genes, PERs, CRY2, CLOCK, NR1D2, RORA and RORB exhibited global patterns of somatic loss and ...
Cellular and Molecular Bases of Biological Clocks: Models and Mechanisms for Circadian Timekeeping by Leland N. Jr. Edmunds and a great selection of similar Used, New and Collectible Books available now at AbeBooks.com.
The majority of cells in the body have an internal clock which controls cell cycle factors. However, the internal clock of cancer cells is often non-functioning or malfunctioning.. In the study, the team compared the growth and cell cycle events of B16 melanoma cells and tumors with either a functional or dysfunctional clock. The team demonstrated that clock genes are suppressed in B16 melanoma cells and B16 tumors.. The team then went on to successfully adjust the internal clocks of melanoma B16 cells and human colon carcinoma cells, as to make them function normally. The repair, carried out in tissue cultures and mice, slowed the growth of tumor tissue; a week post-treatment, the treated tumor was two thirds smaller compared to the control tumor.. "There were indications suggesting that the malfunctioning clock contributed to rapid tumor growth, but this had never been demonstrated. Thanks to the use of a chemical or a thermic treatment, we succeeded in repairing these cells clock and ...
Marked circadian rhythms in myocardial metabolism are mediated by as yet unidentified mechanism(s). Virtually every mammalian cell possesses an intrinsic circadian clock, a transcriptionally-based molecular mechanism capable of regulating multiple cellular functions. Recent studies suggest that the transcriptional co-activator, PGC1α, is an integral component of the mammalian circadian clock, which links this molecular mechanism to oxidative metabolism. To test the hypothesis that the circadian clock directly influences myocardial metabolism, a cardiomyocyte-specific circadian clock mutant (CCM) mouse was generated. Wild-type (WT) and CCM hearts were isolated and perfused in the working mode, for simultaneous assessment of myocardial contractile function and metabolism. Compared to WT, CCM hearts exhibited decreased cardiac efficiency independent of the time of day (13% lower; p,0.05), with greatest differences observed during the middle of the dark (awake) phase (29% lower; p,0.01). ...
In the present study, it was demonstrated that icariin promoted osteogenic differentiation by upregulating BMAL1 expression through BMP signaling in BMSCs. These findings suggested that BMAL1 plays a critical role in icariin-mediated osteogenic differentiation.. In fact, a circadian clock exists in every cell of the human body. The central players in these are BMAL1 encoded by the gene ARNTL and clock circadian regulator (CLOCK) by the gene CLOCK (19). BMSCs are stem cells with the ability to differentiate in vitro into adipocytes, osteoblasts and cartilage-forming chondroblasts (20). Regardless of its exact developmental origin, the function of the circadian clock gene is related to the behavior of various stem cells involved in homeostasis and repair of bone and adipose tissue (21). A recent report revealed impairment of osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs from BMAL1−/− mice (5). This finding was in line with our present study as well as an observational study that showed that the numbers ...
Diurnal patterns of gene transcription are often conferred by complex interactions between circadian clock control and acute responses to environmental cues. Arabidopsis thaliana GIGANTEA (GI) contributes to photoperiodic flowering, circadian clock control, and photoreceptor signaling, and its transcription is regulated by the circadian clock and light. We used phylogenetic shadowing to identify three evolutionarily constrained regions (conserved regulatory modules [CRMs]) within the GI promoter and show that CRM2 is sufficient to confer a similar transcriptional pattern as the full-length promoter. Dissection of CRM2 showed that one subfragment (CRM2-A) contributes light inducibility, while another (CRM2-B) exhibits a diurnal response. Mutational analysis showed that three ABA RESPONSE ELEMENT LIKE (ABREL) motifs in CRM2-A and three EVENING ELEMENTs (EEs) in CRM2-B are essential in combination to confer a high amplitude diurnal pattern of expression. Genome-wide analysis identified ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Haematopoietic stem cell release is regulated by circadian oscillations. AU - Méndez-Ferrer, Simón. AU - Lucas, Daniel. AU - Battista, Michela. AU - Frenette, Paul S.. PY - 2008/3/27. Y1 - 2008/3/27. N2 - Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) circulate in the bloodstream under steady-state conditions, but the mechanisms controlling their physiological trafficking are unknown. Here we show that circulating HSCs and their progenitors exhibit robust circadian fluctuations, peaking 5 h after the initiation of light and reaching a nadir 5 h after darkness. Circadian oscillations are markedly altered when mice are subjected to continuous light or to a jet lag (defined as a shift of 12 h). Circulating HSCs and their progenitors fluctuate in antiphase with the expression of the chemokine CXCL12 in the bone marrow microenvironment. The cyclical release of HSCs and expression of Cxcl12 are regulated by core genes of the molecular clock through circadian noradrenaline secretion by the ...
Our results demonstrate that mammalian alternative splicing is regulated by both the circadian clock and feeding. Regulation by such oscillating physiological processes adds a novel temporal dimension to the regulation of alternative splicing, distinct from that involved in both acute and chronic responses to the environment. Circadian regulation of alternative splicing occurred in a tissue-dependent manner and, similarly to circadian mRNA abundance, we anticipate that the circadian regulation of alternative splicing will be important to tissue identity and function. Moreover, the circadian clock frequently modulates physiological systems so that they respond differently to acute stimuli at different times of the day. For example, mice display circadian variation in the ability to consolidate memories in response to hippocampal-dependent fear conditioning, responding less well when conditioned during the subjective night [45]. Furthermore, the susceptibility of mice to Escherichia coli ...
A method for routing clock signals in an integrated circuit provides a hierarchical routing scheme in which the lowest level clock buffers are first placed row by row in preallocated locations and routed to the input pins of standard cells receiving the output clock signals of these clock buffers. Under the method, the number of clock buffers to be placed in each row is computed according to estimates of their load capacitances and expected wiring lengths within a window. The output buffers of the same clock signal are gridded or strapped together to minimize clock skew. A second level of clock buffers are then assigned to drive the lowest level buffers. The hierarchy can be extended to any number of higher levels, until clock signals are routed for the entire integrated circuit. The higher level clock signals can also be strapped or gridded to minimize clock skew.
2. Time Clock Manager Pro 2.1 An employee time clock and a management tool. Its allows user to clock in/clock out. It works with touch screen monitors. Also has reports to show clocked in and clock out times. The application has integrated security and can work with networks... Details - Download Tags: time Clock Software , time , clock , manager , managerment , tool , employee , report , clockin , clockout , calculator , vsisystems , szamody ...
Clocks are synchronized using a reference clock in two possible ways. One method uses two-way communication between a reference clock and a moving clock. The other method uses one-way communication from the moving clock.
These clock-like mutational processes could ultimately be responsible for a large proportion of human cancer and contribute to human ageing.
An improved NRZ clock and data recovery system lends itself to integration, includes a NRZ phase detector, an NRZ frequency detector and a lock detector, and provides automatic centering of the clock edge within the bit interval in a manner that is independent of analog delays and process and temperature variations. NRZ data is applied to one side of an exclusive-OR gate and a twice delayed version of the NRZ data is applied to the other side. The output of the XOR gate, a blivet signal, is applied to a NRZ phase detector comprising two AND gates, one of which has as its other input a recovered clock signal output of a VCO and the other of which has as its other input an inverted version of the recovered clock signal. The up and down outputs of the AND gates indicate which direction a frequency control signal should change the VCO frequency. A data holding flip-flop whose input is a once delayed version of the NRZ data is clocked with the recovered clock signal. The NRZ frequency detector
How do I disable clock buffer (BUFG) insertion? By default, Synplify inserts global clock buffers on the clock signals with the highest fanout. The rules for insertion are defined internally in Synplify, but typically, Synplify assigns a BUFG to any input signal that directly drives a clock.
New research shows that the womb has a body clock that needs to synchronize with the mothers body clock to ensure optimal conditions for fetal growth.
Grasshopper escapement clock was designed in Autodesk Maya giving importance to the fine details of the real working clock from Brian Laws wooden clock works. From 3d works From 3d works
Just like a piece of art, a wall clock should be chosen carefully. Its best to choose a piece that complements your existing décor. That is, you may like an old world cuckoo clock but if your room has a modern look, this clock will look very out of the place.
Free download Happy Clock Screensaver. Do you like clock screensavers? If yes, this is your screensaver. You will get all features of the clock screensaver: ana ... [114500]
Hi friends, The arm advanced-HS std cell library we are using does not have clock buffers or clock inverters at all. Can I use the normal buffers and inverters with high drive strength for CTS? Will the chip work? Please help me.
Definition of Put the clock forward with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
I think on the higher end cards the 2d/3d is supose to be greyed out and the Setting for "Same Clock Settings For All Devices" is the way you clock2d/3d , if you want just 3d then leave box unselected , if you want 2d to be the same as 3d then check the setting ...
Heres some unique alarm clocks to possibly brighten up, or wake you up for the day! Do not smash these alarm clocks as they are not the one at fault here.
Healthy people with Aβ buildup have irregular circadian rhythms. In mice, circadian disruptions dull daily Aβ oscillations and lead to more plaques.. ...
Healthy people with Aβ buildup have irregular circadian rhythms. In mice, circadian disruptions dull daily Aβ oscillations and lead to more plaques.. ...
C108V3-2SDN-P6DNX, Core Clock: 1759MHz, Boost Clock: 1898MHz, Memory: 8192MB 10400MHz GDDR5X, Stream Processors: 2560, SLI Ready, VR Ready, PhysX/CUDA Enabled, 3 Years Warranty.
My 20 month old has always been an early riser but for a few months went through until 6 which I was thrilled about. Last few weeks have been 5.20 is
TheTribune: WASHINGTON: Cancer cells alter the body clock to boost tumour growth and survive conditions that would kill normal cells, a study has found.
Shop PerriconeMDs Around the Clock Brightening Duo to brighten, tighten and visibly minimize discoloration while preventing future damage with SPF protection.
Steve Kelman argues that Chinese spying through the popular video-sharing app is less of a threat than TikToks impact on young users brains.
Has anyone managed to sync time code between two EX1s? Heres how I tried... I set my timecode to CLOCK on both cams and attempted to SET clocks on
Shrewsburys player-coach Simon Evitts knows time is running out for his relegation-threatened side to pull off a great escape.
This blue trinket of item level 280 goes in the Trinket slot. It is looted from Ancient Jawbreaker. In the Trinkets category. Added in World of Warcraft: Battle for Azeroth.
should the ibook be allowed to surpass the tibook in cpu clock speed? what if tibook gets handcuffed at 800 mhz...would it make sense for a faster...
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with impaired conditioned fear extinction learning, a ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)-dependent process. PTSD is also associated with dysregulation of vmPFC, circadian, and glucocorticoid hormone function. Rats have rhythmic clock gene expression in the vmPFC that requires appropriate diurnal circulatory patterns of corticosterone (CORT), suggesting the presence of CORT-entrained intrinsic circadian clock function within the PFC. We examined the role of vmPFC clock gene expression and its interaction with CORT profiles in regulation of auditory conditioned fear extinction learning. Extinction learning and recall were examined in male rats trained and tested either in the night (active phase) or in the day (inactive phase). Using a viral vector strategy, Per1 and Per2 clock gene expression were selectively knocked down within the vmPFC. Circulating CORT profiles were manipulated via adrenalectomy (ADX) ± diurnal and acute CORT ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of protein kinase A phase delays the mammalian circadian clock. AU - Lee, Jennifer M.. AU - Schak, Kathryn M.. AU - Harrington, Mary E.. PY - 1999/7/24. Y1 - 1999/7/24. N2 - The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) contain the mammalian circadian clock whose rhythm of firing rate can be recorded in vitro for several days. Application of a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor onto the SCN at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 10 on the first day in vitro phase delayed the rhythm of firing rate expressed by SCN neurons on the subsequent day in vitro. Application of the inhibitor (Rp-cAMPS) at other circadian phases did not phase shift the rhythm. These results suggest that during approximately 1 h in the late subjective day the presence and activity of PKA plays a role in setting the phase of the mammalian circadian clock.. AB - The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) contain the mammalian circadian clock whose rhythm of firing rate can be recorded in vitro for several days. Application of a protein ...
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity and circadian rhythms are well-established determinants of human health and disease, but the relationship between muscle activity and the circadian regulation of muscle genes is a relatively new area of research. It is unknown whether muscle activity and muscle clock rhythms are coupled together, nor whether activity rhythms can drive circadian gene expression in skeletal muscle. METHODS: We compared the circadian transcriptomes of two mouse hindlimb muscles with vastly different circadian activity patterns, the continuously active slow soleus and the sporadically active fast tibialis anterior, in the presence or absence of a functional skeletal muscle clock (skeletal muscle-specific Bmal1 KO). In addition, we compared the effect of denervation on muscle circadian gene expression. RESULTS:We found that different skeletal muscles exhibit major differences in their circadian transcriptomes, yet core clock gene oscillations were essentially identical in fast and slow ...
Both epidemiological and clinical data suggest circadian involvement in the predisposition, etiology, and progression of immune-related morbidities, such as cancer and autoimmune diseases (37, 38). Inflammatory diseases, in particular, exhibit strong time-of-day symptoms. For example, rheumatoid arthritis has a strong diurnal variation in disease expression, which is accompanied by fluctuations in circulating IL-6 concentration (39). LPS-induced endotoxin shock displays temporal dependency (40), and circadian disruption mimicking jet lag can greatly magnify LPS response (41). According to recent evidence, components of the circadian clock regulate the expression of innate immune molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines (42) and pattern recognition receptors (14). Rev-erbα is a key clock gene that controls inflammatory cytokine genes, including Il6, in macrophages, indicating that it negatively regulates the inflammatory responses in macrophages (11). In the current study, we found that ...
Organisms face unforeseen short- and long-term changes in the environment (stressors). To defend against these changes, organisms have developed a stress system that includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which employs glucocorticoids and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) for signal transduction. In addition, organisms live under the strong influence of day-night cycles and, hence, have also developed a highly conserved circadian clock system for adjusting their activities to recurring environmental changes. This regulatory system creates and maintains internal circadian rhythmicity by employing a self-oscillating molecular pacemaker composed of the Clock-Bmal1 heterodimer and other transcription factors. The circadian clock consists of a central master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain hypothalamus and peripheral slave clocks in virtually all organs and tissues. The HPA axis and the circadian clock system communicate with each other at multiple levels. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Attenuating effect of clock mutation on triglyceride contents in the ICR mouse liver under a high-fat diet. AU - Kudo, Takashi. AU - Tamagawa, Toru. AU - Kawashima, Mihoko. AU - Mito, Natsuko. AU - Shibata, Shigenobu. PY - 2007/8. Y1 - 2007/8. N2 - Energy homeostasis is subjected to a circadian control that synchronizes energy intake and expenditure. The transcription factor CLOCK, a key component of the molecular circadian clock, controls many kinds of rhythms, such as those for locomotor activity, body temperature, and metabolic functions. The purpose of the present study is to understand the function of the Clock gene during lipid metabolism in the liver using Clock-mutant mice. Clock-mutant mice with an ICR background were fed a high-fat diet for 13 weeks, and liver triglyceride, serum triglyceride, and serum free fatty acid levels were examined. Triglyceride content in the liver was significantly less increased in Clock-mutant mice on a high-fat diet compared to wild-type ...
Purpose: CLOCK and NPAS2, homologous circadian clock proteins, are expressed in the mammalian retina. However, their specific roles in retinal gene regulation or function have not been elucidated. This study was conducted to determine whether NPAS2 and CLOCK are co-expressed in retinal neurons and their effects on retinal gene expression and function.. Methods: Studies were performed using C57BL/6 wildtype (WT), Clock-/-, and Npas2-/- mice. Laser capture microdissection and quantitative real-time PCR were performed to isolate the ganglion cell layers (GCL) at five time points for transcription expression analyses for Npas2, Clock, and Adcy1. Luciferase reporter assay in NG108-15 cells was conducted to determine whether CLOCK/BMAL1 and/or NPAS2/BMAL1 heterodimers could activate the Adcy1 promoter. Contrast sensitivity was measured using optokinetic tracking at mid-day and mid-night time points, and scotopic and photopic electroretinograms (ERG) were recorded to measure retinal responses to ...
A programmable clock generator circuit receives control signals and a global clock and generates a pulsed data clock and a scan clock in response to gating signals. The clock generator has data clock and scan clock feed-forward paths and a single feedback path. Delay control signals program delay elements in the feedback path and logic gates reshape and generate a feedback clock signal. The global clock and the feedback clock signal are combined to generates a pulsed local clock signal. A scan clock feed-forward circuit receives the local clock and generates the scan clock. A data clock feed-forward circuit receives the local clock and generates the data clock with a logic controlled delay relative to the local clock signal. The feedback clock is generated with controlled delay thereby modifying the pulse width of the data and scan clocks independent of the controlled delay of the data clock feed-forward path.
The circadian genetic machinery is so well conserved in the evolution that the study of Drosophila provides a cheap alternative to knockout experiments in rodents. Orthologs have been identified in mammals for most of the Drosophila circadian clock genes. In insects though, unlike in mammals, CRY1 function is light-dependent. Even cyanobacteria have a circadian genetic clock that can be reconstituted in vitro for detailed quantitative analysis and comparative simulations. One of the conclusions coming from studying cyanobacteria is that the TTFL clock may actually be a slave to a master biochemical oscillator called the PTO (post-translational oscillator) (Qin et al. 2010[1]). The initial suggestion on the role of biochemical oscillators came from the persistence of the circadian rhythm in conditions of inhibited transcription and translation (Iwasaki et al. 2005[2]). Beyond their circadian roles, the genes are also involved in other functions. Interestingly, cryptochromes have been shown to be ...
Video articles in JoVE about circadian rhythm include In Vitro Bioluminescence Assay to Characterize Circadian Rhythm in Mammary Epithelial Cells, Design and Analysis of Temperature Preference Behavior and its Circadian Rhythm in Drosophila, Parallel Measurement of Circadian Clock Gene Expression and Hormone Secretion in Human Primary Cell Cultures, Recording and Analysis of Circadian Rhythms in Running-wheel Activity in Rodents, Monitoring Cell-autonomous Circadian Clock Rhythms of Gene Expression Using Luciferase Bioluminescence Reporters, The FlyBar: Administering Alcohol to Flies, Blue-hazard-free Candlelight OLED, Assaying Locomotor Activity to Study Circadian Rhythms and Sleep Parameters in Drosophila, Slice Preparation, Organotypic Tissue Culturing and Luciferase Recording of Clock Gene Activity in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Measuring Circadian and Acute Light Responses in Mice using Wheel Running Activity, Analysis of Circadian Photoresponses in Drosophila Using Locomotor
All cells possess a molecular circadian ?clock? thought to coordinate various aspects of the physiology and behavior of an animal with the light/dark cycle of the external world. Light is the principle cue entraining molecular clocks via the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain. Recent evidence however, has also implicated food-borne signals as external stimuli capable of resetting clocks in the periphery. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of aberrant feeding on circadian energy metabolism in the rat by feeding a high fat diet and restricting feeding to the daylight hours. Here we show that rats on the daylight feeding and high-fat feeding schedules displayed various differences in metabolism including hormone and metabolite levels and gene and protein expression. In the liver the circadian expression pattern of molecular clock genes was completely reversed in response to the new feeding schedule. In contrast, circadian gene expression in muscle remained similar to an animal feeding ad
Circadian rhythms are endogenous, entrainable oscillations of physical, mental and behavioural processes in response to local environmental cues such as daylight, which are present in the living beings, including humans. Circadian rhythms have been related to cardiovascular function and pathology. However, the role that circadian clock genes play in heart development and function in a whole animal in vivo are poorly understood. The Drosophila cryptochrome (dCry) is a circadian clock gene that encodes a major component of the circadian clock negative feedback loop. Compared to the embryonic stage, the relative expression levels of dCry showed a significant increase (|100-fold) in Drosophila during the pupa and adult stages. In this study, we utilized an ultrahigh resolution optical coherence microscopy (OCM) system to perform non-invasive and longitudinal analysis of functional and morphological changes in the Drosophila heart throughout its post-embryonic lifecycle for the first time. The Drosophila
Video articles in JoVE about circadian clocks include Single-cell Resolution Fluorescence Live Imaging of Drosophila Circadian Clocks in Larval Brain Culture, Parallel Measurement of Circadian Clock Gene Expression and Hormone Secretion in Human Primary Cell Cultures, Monitoring Cell-autonomous Circadian Clock Rhythms of Gene Expression Using Luciferase Bioluminescence Reporters, In Vitro Bioluminescence Assay to Characterize Circadian Rhythm in Mammary Epithelial Cells, Assaying Locomotor Activity to Study Circadian Rhythms and Sleep Parameters in Drosophila, Analysis of Circadian Photoresponses in Drosophila Using Locomotor Activity, Rapid Analysis of Circadian Phenotypes in Arabidopsis Protoplasts Transfected with a Luminescent Clock Reporter, A Computational Method to Quantify Fly Circadian Activity, Desensitization and Recovery of Crayfish Photoreceptors Upon Delivery of a Light Stimulus, Flexible Measurement of Bioluminescent Reporters Using an Automated Longitudinal
TY - JOUR. T1 - Circadian profile of Per gene mRNA expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, and pineal body of aged rats. AU - Asai, Makoto. AU - Yoshinobu, Yuko. AU - Kaneko, Satoshi. AU - Mori, Akiko. AU - Nikaido, Takato. AU - Moriya, Takahiro. AU - Akiyama, Masashi. AU - Shibata, Shigenobu. PY - 2001/12/15. Y1 - 2001/12/15. N2 - Aging alters circadian components such as the free-running period, the day-to-night activity ratio and photic entrainment in behavioral rhythms, and 2-deoxyglucose uptakes and neuronal firing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). A core clock mechanism in the mouse SCN appears to involve a transcriptional feedback loop in which Period (Per) and Cryptochrome (Cry) genes play a role in negative feedback. The circadian rhythm systems include photic entrainment, clock oscillation, and outputs of clock information such as melatonin production. In this experiment, we examined clock gene expression to determine whether circadian input, ...

CLOCK deubiquitylation by USP8 inhibits CLK/CYC transcription in Drosophila.CLOCK deubiquitylation by USP8 inhibits CLK/CYC transcription in Drosophila.

In Drosophila, the transcription factors CLOCK (CLK) and CYCLE (CYC) activate the transcription of direct target genes like ... ARNTL Transcription Factors / genetics*, metabolism. Animals. CLOCK Proteins / genetics*, metabolism*. Circadian Rhythm / ... 0/ARNTL Transcription Factors; 0/CYCLE protein, Drosophila; 0/Clk protein, Drosophila; 0/Drosophila Proteins; 0/PER protein, ... In Drosophila, the transcription factors CLOCK (CLK) and CYCLE (CYC) activate the transcription of direct target genes like ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/CLOCK-deubiquitylation-by-USP8-inhibits/23154984.html

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (ARNTL Transcription Factors); 0 (Arntl protein, mouse); 0 (Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors); 0 (Membrane ... Fatores de Transcri o ARNTL/gen tica. Animais. Apoptose. Fatores de Transcri o H lice-Al a-H lice B sicos/gen tica. Prote nas ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=A11.118.637

Ras Activity Oscillates in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Modulates Circadian Clock Dynamics - PubMedRas Activity Oscillates in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Modulates Circadian Clock Dynamics - PubMed

ARNTL Transcription Factors / genetics Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... mediated transcription play a critical role in this photoentrainment. The small GTPase Ras is one of the major upstream ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25762011/

A rhythmic Ror by Patrick Emery and Steven M. Reppert"A rhythmic Ror" by Patrick Emery and Steven M. Reppert

... with Rev-erb alpha and that their competing activities on the same promoter element drive the rhythm in Bmal1 transcription. ... was thought to be the primary determinant of the feedback loop that regulates Bmal1 transcription. Results reported by Sato et ... ARNTL Transcription Factors; Animals; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; Biological Clocks; Humans; Nuclear Receptor ... was thought to be the primary determinant of the feedback loop that regulates Bmal1 transcription. Results reported by Sato et ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/neurobiology_pp/76/

Welcome to LibAge, the ageing reference resourceWelcome to LibAge, the ageing reference resource

Entries tagged ARNTL Transcription Factors/deficiency/genetics (2). Sort:. Number of citations. Author. Title. Year. PubMed ID ... 2012) "Obesity in mice with adipocyte-specific deletion of clock component Arntl." Nat. Med. 18(12):1768-1777 (PubMed) ...
more infohttp://libage.ageing-map.org/entries/tags/8737/

Molecular and Genetic Analysis of Mammalian Circadian Clocks | HHMI.orgMolecular and Genetic Analysis of Mammalian Circadian Clocks | HHMI.org

The CLOCK protein acts as a heterodimeric transcription factor with a partner known as BMAL1 (ARNTL). ... CLOCK and BMAL1 belong to the bHLH-PAS family of transcription factors, which participate in a wide array of functions ... time-dependent pattern of core circadian transcription factor binding, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment, RNA expression, ... BMAL1 complex to repress their own transcription. As the PER and CRY proteins are progressively phosphorylated during the night ...
more infohttps://www.hhmi.org/research/molecular-and-genetic-analysis-mammalian-circadian-clocks

Systematic Analysis of Circadian Genes in a Population-Based Sample Reveals Association of TIMELESS With Depression and Sleep...Systematic Analysis of Circadian Genes in a Population-Based Sample Reveals Association of TIMELESS With Depression and Sleep...

ARNTL Transcription Factors / genetics Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Circadian Rhythm Genes and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Identifies a Potential Functional Allele in the Transcription Factor ... FAT+ as well as between TIMELESS and ARNTL, RORA or NR1D1 in males to D+EMA+. These findings support a connection between ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=51238

GmBTB/POZ, a novel BTB/POZ domain-containing nuclear protein, positively regulates the response of soybean to Phytophthora...GmBTB/POZ, a novel BTB/POZ domain-containing nuclear protein, positively regulates the response of soybean to Phytophthora...

A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a ... A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that positively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and is a regulatory ... v-jun lacks a negative regulatory domain that regulates transcription in c-jun. ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2128236/GmBTB-POZ-a-novel-BTB-POZ-domain-containing-nuclear-protein-positively-regulates.html

ARNTL - WikipediaARNTL - Wikipedia

ARNTL encodes a transcription factor with a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and two PAS domains. The human ARNTL gene has a ... in March and Ikeda and Nomura in April as part of a superfamily of PAS domain transcription factors. The ARNTL protein, also ... is a paralog of Arntl (Bmal1) that encodes for a basic helix-loop-helix PAS domain transcription factor. It, too, has been ... Arntl, Npas2, and Per2 have also been associated with seasonal affective disorder in humans. Lastly, Arntl has been identified ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ARNTL

Associations of clock genes polymorphisms with soft tissue sarcoma susceptibility and prognosis | SpringerLinkAssociations of clock genes polymorphisms with soft tissue sarcoma susceptibility and prognosis | SpringerLink

... encodes for a member of the basic helix-loop-helix PAS class of transcription factors [49]. When dimerized with ARNTL, NPAS2 ... ARNTL-CLOCK or ARNTL-NPAS2 heterodimers promote the transcription of RORA, which in turn activates the transcription of ARNTL. ... putative protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix PAS family of transcription factors and forms heterodimers with ARNTL ( ... PER genes control their own transcription by directly repressing ARNTL heterodimers, their activators [49]. Moreover, it has ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs12967-018-1715-0

TLR5 Signaling Stimulates the Innate Production of IL-17 and IL-22 by CD3negCD127+ Immune Cells in Spleen and Mucosa | The...TLR5 Signaling Stimulates the Innate Production of IL-17 and IL-22 by CD3negCD127+ Immune Cells in Spleen and Mucosa | The...

... the aryl hydrogen receptor nuclear translocator-like factor ARNTL and the activating transcription factor-like factor BATF-all ... Influence of the transcription factor RORγt on the development of NKp46+ cell populations in gut and skin. Nat. Immunol. 10: 75 ... The AP-1 transcription factor Batf controls T(H)17 differentiation. Nature 460: 405-409. ... The basic leucine zipper transcription factor E4BP4 is essential for natural killer cell development. Nat. Immunol. 10: 1118- ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/185/2/1177?ijkey=5683edcaa54c5603bcd6d319843fa55367c6d39b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and ProtocolsJoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

In particular, we identify a highly influential cluster of 13 genes--including three transcription factors (Arntl, Bhlhe41 and ... RESULTS: We identified 22 transcription factors specific to early mesoderm commitment. Among these factors, FOXA2 was observed ... suggesting the transcription factor may be a key regulator of hESC differentiation. CONCLUSION: This enhanced knowledge of the ... Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? is one of the main fibrogenic cytokines that drives the pathophysiology of progressive renal ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/visualize?author=John+D+McClure

CLOCK - Circadian locomoter output cycles protein kaput - Homo sapiens (Human) - CLOCK gene & proteinCLOCK - Circadian locomoter output cycles protein kaput - Homo sapiens (Human) - CLOCK gene & protein

Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the ... regulating the DNA accessibility of other transcription factors. The CLOCK-ARNTL2/BMAL2 heterodimer activates the transcription ... which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. Regulates the ... while ARNTL binds to the half-site 5-GTGA-3 (PubMed:23229515). The CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer also recognizes the non- ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O15516

PER2 - Period circadian protein homolog 2 - Homo sapiens (Human) - PER2 gene & proteinPER2 - Period circadian protein homolog 2 - Homo sapiens (Human) - PER2 gene & protein

Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the ... Represses the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 induced transcription of BHLHE40/DEC1 and ATF4. Negatively regulates the formation of the ... which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. PER1 and PER2 ... A transcription/translation feedback loop (TTFL) forms the core of the molecular circadian clock mechanism. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O15055

anti-NR1D1 Primary Antibodiesanti-NR1D1 Primary Antibodies

... mostly bound by two key circadian transcription factors, BMAL1 (zeige ARNTL Antikörper) and REV-ERBalpha. ... Rev-erbalpha, a core repressive transcription factor of the clock, opposes functional loop formation between Rev-erbalpha- ... This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the nuclear receptor subfamily 1. The encoded protein is a ligand- ... In particular this protein represses the circadian clock transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator- ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/nuclear-receptor-transcription-pathway-pathway-23/nr1d1-antibody-10438/

PER3 gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIHPER3 gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIH

Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the ... Transcription and translation of core clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1, ARNTL2/BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1 and ... which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. Has a redundant role ... This gene is upregulated by CLOCK/ARNTL heterodimers but then represses this upregulation in a feedback loop using PER/CRY ...
more infohttps://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/PER3

e2f1 Protein, E2F transcription factor 1 - Creative BioMarte2f1 Protein, E2F transcription factor 1 - Creative BioMart

The E2F transcription factors are essential for regulation of the cell cycle. Physiological E2F is a heterodimer composed of an ... Related Protein MTA1; ARNTL; NPAS2; E2F8; HDAC4; NEUROG3; FOXO3; HDAC6; INSM1A; NKX3 ... E2F1; E2F transcription factor 1; RBBP3; transcription factor E2F1; RBP3; PBR3; RBAP-1; RBBP-3; PRB-binding protein E2F-1; ... The E2F transcription factors are essential for regulation of the cell cycle. Physiological E2F is a heterodimer composed of an ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/symbolsearch_E2F1.htm

RAR-related orphan receptor gamma - WikipediaRAR-related orphan receptor gamma - Wikipedia

This protein can bind to and activate the promoter of the ARNTL (BMAL1) gene, a transcription factor central to the generation ... The transcription factor is essential for lymphoid organogenesis, in particular lymph nodes and Peyers patches, but not the ... The RORγ protein is a DNA-binding transcription factor and is a member of the NR1 subfamily of nuclear receptors. Although the ... RORγ is member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. Two isoforms are produced from the same RORC gene, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAR-related_orphan_receptor_gamma

Anti-Cryptochrome I/CRY1 antibody (ab171860) | AbcamAnti-Cryptochrome I/CRY1 antibody (ab171860) | Abcam

Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the ... Represses the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 induced transcription of BHLHE40/DEC1. Represses the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 induced transcription of ... Transcription and translation of core clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1, ARNTL2/BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1 and ... Interacts with CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 independently of PER proteins and is found at CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1-bound sites, suggesting that ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/cryptochrome-icry1-antibody-ab171860.html

Anti-BMAL1 antibody - ChIP Grade (ab3350) | AbcamAnti-BMAL1 antibody - ChIP Grade (ab3350) | Abcam

Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the ... Promotes rhythmic chromatin opening, regulating the DNA accessibility of other transcription factors. The NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1 ... It also stabilizes the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer thereby increasing CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1-mediated transcription of genes in ... which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. ARNTL/BMAL1 ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/bmal1-antibody-chip-grade-ab3350.html

Goat Anti-BMAL1 / ARNTL Antibody - Peptide-affinity purified goat antibody WB, E - Buy Now! |AbgentGoat Anti-BMAL1 / ARNTL Antibody - Peptide-affinity purified goat antibody WB, E - Buy Now! |Abgent

ARNTL Antibody, Peptide-affinity purified goat antibody validated in WB, E (AF1159a), Abgent ... Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the ... Promotes rhythmic chromatin opening, regulating the DNA accessibility of other transcription factors. The NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1 ... which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. ARNTL/BMAL1 ...
more infohttp://www.abgent.com/products/AF1159a-BMAL1--ARNTL-Antibody

Circadian Clock (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathwaysCircadian Clock (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathways

The ROR-alpha transcription factor binds the RORE element of the BMAL1 (ARNTL) promoter and activates transcription of the ... ARNTL gene. R-HSA-1368069 (Reactome) ARNTL gene. R-HSA-1368087 (Reactome) ARNTL gene. R-HSA-400342 (Reactome) ARNTL. Arrow. R- ... p-S-ARNTL NR1D1 UBB(1-76) p-S-NPAS2 p-S-NPAS2 p-S-PER2 CRY1. UBC(153-228) NCOA1 p-S-ARNTL CRY1 CSNK1D p-PPARGC1A. NCOR1 NCOR1. ... ARNTL gene p-S-PER1 p-S-CLOCK UBA52(1-76) CRY1 RORA gene. NCOR1 CSNK1E PPP1CB MED1 UBC(609-684) Ub-p-S-PER1 p-S-ARNTL p-S-CRY1 ...
more infohttps://www.wikipathways.org/index.php?title=Pathway:WP1797&oldid=101184

Emergence of noise-induced oscillations in the central circadian pacemaker.  - PubMed - NCBIEmergence of noise-induced oscillations in the central circadian pacemaker. - PubMed - NCBI

ARNTL Transcription Factors/genetics. *ARNTL Transcription Factors/metabolism. *Animals. *Cell Communication/physiology ... and the coupling factor). In theory, any possible variable could be used for the bifurcation diagram and the same behavior (i.e ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20967239
  • Thus, seasonality plays a major role in mood disorders, affecting psychopathology, and representing the behavioral correlate of a heightened sensitivity to factors influencing circannual rhythms in patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • The activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1,2) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription play a critical role in this photoentrainment. (nih.gov)
  • Together with previous reports it indicates that theCLOCKvariations we found here may be a vulnerability factor to depression given the exposure to alcohol in individuals having AUD. (jcircadianrhythms.com)