Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. They combine with CLOCK PROTEINS to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.
An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.

PER and TIM inhibit the DNA binding activity of a Drosophila CLOCK-CYC/dBMAL1 heterodimer without disrupting formation of the heterodimer: a basis for circadian transcription. (1/398)

The Drosophila CLOCK (dCLOCK) and CYCLE (CYC) (also referred to as dBMAL1) proteins are members of the basic helix-loop-helix PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) superfamily of transcription factors and are required for high-level expression of the circadian clock genes period (per) and timeless (tim). Several lines of evidence indicate that PER, TIM, or a PER-TIM heterodimer somehow inhibit the transcriptional activity of a putative dCLOCK-CYC complex, generating a negative-feedback loop that is a core element of the Drosophila circadian oscillator. In this report we show that PER and/or TIM inhibits the binding of a dCLOCK-CYC heterodimer to an E-box-containing DNA fragment that is present in the 5' nontranscribed region of per and acts as a circadian enhancer element. Surprisingly, inhibition of this DNA binding activity by PER, TIM, or both is not accompanied by disruption of the association between dCLOCK and CYC. The results suggest that the interaction of PER, TIM, or both with the dCLOCK-CYC heterodimer induces a conformational change or masks protein regions in the heterodimer, leading to a reduction in DNA binding activity. Together with other findings, our results strongly suggest that daily cycles in the association of PER and TIM with the dCLOCK-CYC complex probably contribute to rhythmic expression of per and tim.  (+info)

mCRY1 and mCRY2 are essential components of the negative limb of the circadian clock feedback loop. (2/398)

We determined that two mouse cryptochrome genes, mCry1 and mCry2, act in the negative limb of the clock feedback loop. In cell lines, mPER proteins (alone or in combination) have modest effects on their cellular location and ability to inhibit CLOCK:BMAL1 -mediated transcription. This suggested cryptochrome involvement in the negative limb of the feedback loop. Indeed, mCry1 and mCry2 RNA levels are reduced in the central and peripheral clocks of Clock/Clock mutant mice. mCRY1 and mCRY2 are nuclear proteins that interact with each of the mPER proteins, translocate each mPER protein from cytoplasm to nucleus, and are rhythmically expressed in the suprachiasmatic circadian clock. Luciferase reporter gene assays show that mCRY1 or mCRY2 alone abrogates CLOCK:BMAL1-E box-mediated transcription. The mPER and mCRY proteins appear to inhibit the transcriptional complex differentially.  (+info)

Requirement of circadian genes for cocaine sensitization in Drosophila. (3/398)

The circadian clock consists of a feedback loop in which clock genes are rhythmically expressed, giving rise to cycling levels of RNA and proteins. Four of the five circadian genes identified to date influence responsiveness to freebase cocaine in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Sensitization to repeated cocaine exposures, a phenomenon also seen in humans and animal models and associated with enhanced drug craving, is eliminated in flies mutant for period, clock, cycle, and doubletime, but not in flies lacking the gene timeless. Flies that do not sensitize owing to lack of these genes do not show the induction of tyrosine decarboxylase normally seen after cocaine exposure. These findings indicate unexpected roles for these genes in regulating cocaine sensitization and indicate that they function as regulators of tyrosine decarboxylase.  (+info)

Light-independent role of CRY1 and CRY2 in the mammalian circadian clock. (4/398)

Cryptochrome (CRY), a photoreceptor for the circadian clock in Drosophila, binds to the clock component TIM in a light-dependent fashion and blocks its function. In mammals, genetic evidence suggests a role for CRYs within the clock, distinct from hypothetical photoreceptor functions. Mammalian CRY1 and CRY2 are here shown to act as light-independent inhibitors of CLOCK-BMAL1, the activator driving Per1 transcription. CRY1 or CRY2 (or both) showed light-independent interactions with CLOCK and BMAL1, as well as with PER1, PER2, and TIM. Thus, mammalian CRYs act as light-independent components of the circadian clock and probably regulate Per1 transcriptional cycling by contacting both the activator and its feedback inhibitors.  (+info)

Cycling vrille expression is required for a functional Drosophila clock. (5/398)

We identified a novel regulatory loop within Drosophila's circadian clock. A screen for clock-controlled genes recovered vrille (vri), a transcription factor essential for embryonic development. vri is expressed in circadian pacemaker cells in larval and adult brains. vri RNA levels oscillate with a circadian rhythm. Cycling is directly regulated by the transcription factors dCLOCK and CYCLE, which are also required for oscillations of period and timeless RNA. Eliminating the normal vri cycle suppresses period and timeless expression and causes long-period behavioral rhythms and arrhythmicity, indicating that cycling vri is required for a functional Drosophila clock. We also show that dCLOCK and VRI independently regulate levels of a neuropeptide, pigment dispersing factor, which appears to regulate overt behavior.  (+info)

ARNT2 acts as the dimerization partner of SIM1 for the development of the hypothalamus. (6/398)

One major function of the hypothalamus is to maintain homeostasis by modulating the secretion of pituitary hormones. The paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei are major integration centers for the output of the hypothalamus to the pituitary. The bHLH-PAS transcription factor SIM1 is crucial for the development of several neuroendocrine lineages within the PVN and SON. bHLH-PAS proteins require heterodimerization for their function. ARNT, ARNT2, and BMAL1 are the three known general heterodimerization partners for bHLH-PAS proteins. Here, we provide evidence that Sim1 and Arnt2 form dimers in vitro, that they are co-expressed in the PVN and SON, and that their loss of function affects the development of the same sets of neuroendocrine cell types within the PVN and SON. Together, these results implicate ARNT2 as the in vivo dimerization partner of SIM1 in controlling the development of these neuroendocrine lineages.  (+info)

dCLOCK is present in limiting amounts and likely mediates daily interactions between the dCLOCK-CYC transcription factor and the PER-TIM complex. (7/398)

In Drosophila melanogaster four circadian clock proteins termed PERIOD (PER), TIMELESS (TIM), dCLOCK (dCLK), and CYCLE (CYC/dBMAL1) function in a transcriptional feedback loop that is a core element of the oscillator mechanism. dCLK and CYC are members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) superfamily of transcription factors and are required for high-level expression of per and tim and repression of dClk, whereas PER and TIM inhibit dCLK-CYC-mediated transcription and lead to the activation of dClk. To understand further the dynamic regulation within the circadian oscillator mechanism, we biochemically characterized in vivo-produced CYC, determined the interactions of the four clock proteins, and calculated their absolute levels as a function of time. Our results indicate that throughout a daily cycle the majority of the dCLK present in adult heads stably interacts with CYC, indicating that CYC is the primary in vivo partner of dCLK. dCLK-CYC dimers are bound by PER and TIM during the late evening and early morning, suggesting the formation of a tetrameric complex with impaired transcriptional activity. Although dCLK is present in limiting amounts and CYC is by far the most abundant of the four clock proteins that have been examined, PER and TIM appear to interact preferentially with dCLK. Our results suggest that dCLK is the main component regulating the daily abundance of transcriptionally active dCLK-CYC complexes.  (+info)

Asynchronous oscillations of two zebrafish CLOCK partners reveal differential clock control and function. (8/398)

Most clock genes encode transcription factors that interact to elicit cooperative control of clock function. Using a two-hybrid system approach, we have isolated two different partners of zebrafish (zf) CLOCK, which are similar to the mammalian BMAL1 (brain and muscle arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1). The two homologs, zfBMAL1 and zfBMAL2, contain conserved basic helix-loop-helix-PAS (Period-Arylhydrocarbon receptor-Singleminded) domains but diverge in the carboxyl termini, thus bearing different transcriptional activation potential. As for zfClock, the expression of both zfBmals oscillates in most tissues in the animal. However, in many tissues, the peak, levels, and kinetics of expression are different between the two genes and for the same gene from tissue to tissue. These results support the existence of independent peripheral oscillators and suggest that zfBMAL1 and zfBMAL2 may exert distinct circadian functions, interacting differentially with zfCLOCK at various times in different tissues. Our findings also indicate that multiple controls may be exerted by the central clock and/or that peripheral oscillators can differentially interpret central clock signals.  (+info)

Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Vikram R Shende, Marianna M Goldrick, Suchitra Ramani, David J Earnest].
Honor Morris is a PhD student in the Division of Cell Matrix Biology & Regenerative Medicine at the University of Manchester, working under the supervision of Prof. Judith Hoyland and Prof. Qing-Jun Meng. Her research seeks to address the role of intrinsic circadian rhythms in intervertebral disc homeostasis and degeneration. Honors current work focuses on the influence of clock gene BMAL1 on the ossification of cartilage tissues, and the development of circadian rhythms within the embryonic spine.. As part of the RUBICON exchange, Honor visited the laboratory of Prof. Danny Chan at the University of Hong Kong. Here she examined the development of the circadian clock within the mouse musculoskeletal system and studied growth plate and intervertebral disc phenotypes arising from circadian disruption.. ...
Animals. Mice were maintained at 20°C to 22°C under an LD schedule (light on at 7 am; light off at 7 pm), with ad libitum access to standard rodent chow. Bmal1fl/fl mice (24) were crossed onto a PER2::luc background. PER2::luc mice carry the firefly luciferase gene fused in-frame with the 3′ end of the Per2 gene, creating a fusion protein reporter (25). Bmal1fl/fl PER2::luc mice were subsequently crossed with Col2a1Cre mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the Col2a1 promoter (23) to generate cartilage-specific Bmal1-KO mice. All mice were bred in-house at the University of Manchester.. Genotyping of Col2a1-Bmal1-/- mice. DNA was extracted from the ear clips from Col2a1 Bmal1-/- mice using a QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN). The PCR reactions were carried out using a Bmal1 forward primer (5′-CTCCTAACTTGGTTTTTGTCTGT-3′) and a Bmal1 reverse primer (5′-CTGACCAACTTGCTAACAATTA-3′) with BioMix Red reaction mix (Bioline). The PCR amplification was performed in an Eppendorf ...
Adipocytes play multiple roles in energy balance: they store and release energy and also provide signals to the CNS about energy storage. One example of the importance of white adipose tissue in energy balance involves release of fatty acids into the circulation. When this occurs, fatty acid concentrations increase in the hypothalamus-a change that results in signals that decrease food intake. Growing interest in circadian control of the systems underpinning appetite and feeding led to the observation that mice with germline knockout of Arntl (a gene encoding a key molecular clock element) are heavier and have more adipose tissue than their wild-type counterparts and that these differences become evident as early as 4-8 weeks. A new report by Paschos et al. takes this line of investigation further by determining the impact on weight and food intake when Arntl is specifically deleted from adipocytes. The investigators demonstrate that in contrast to mice in which Arntl is deleted in hepatocytes ...
In mice, mutations or targeted disruptions of the core circadian gene Bmal1 have been implicated in early onset of ocular pathologies, including premature/congenital cataract development. The aim of the present study was to analyze probands of consanguineous Pakistani cataract families to identify the novel pathogenic variants in the BMAL1 gene. We have studied 21 congenital cataract families. Ophthalmic examination was performed for the probands and available family members. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood. PCR and Sanger sequencing was performed for the entire coding region of the BMAL1 gene. Targeted Sanger sequencing of BMAL1 revealed a heterozygous variant c.41A>T; p.(Asp14Val) in one proband, but it did not co-segregate with the disease phenotype in the family. In addition, a nonsynonymous variant (rs2290037) was identified in five probands. Our study is the first one to analyze the role of BMAL1 gene mutations in humans for their association with congenital cataract. Although we
Jujube also contains a flavonoid compound, spinosin, which appears to trigger sleepiness through its effects on serotonin. Valerian-its, actually the root of the valerian plant that is used medicinally-boosts the levels of calming neurotransmitters in the brain, including GABA, a neurochemical that is critical for healthy sleep. While melatonin is a hormone found in the human body, valerian root certainly is not, therefore it works in a much different way. have taken two benadryl and 2 Ambien so far. Research has shown that the omega-3 fatty acid DHA reduces disruptions to the circadian clock gene Bmal1, one of several core clock genes that keep circadian clocks and rhythms functioning in sync. I have had no side effects. These two systems work alongside one another to regulate sleep and wakefulness throughout the night, to ensure we get the rest we need AND have the alertness, energy and focus we require to perform in our daily lives. Medically reviewed by Drugs.com on Sep 29, 2020 - Written ...
Mammalian circadian rhythms are generated by a feedback loop in which BMAL1 and CLOCK, players of the positive limb, activate transcription of the cryptochrome and period genes, components of the negative limb. Bmal1 and Per transcription cycles display nearly opposite phases and are thus governed b …
ARNTL - ARNTL (untagged)-Human aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (ARNTL), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Circadian oscillators are expressed in various peripheral tissues including the ovary and uterus and may play critical roles in the regulation of reproductive physiological processes (Dolatshad et al. 2006; He et al. 2007a; Hirata et al. 2009; Akiyama et al. 2010; Uchikawa et al. 2011). To address these possible roles, we focused on the function of the circadian oscillators in the expression of Gdf family members by using rat UESCs. The results indicate that a few Gdf family members are repressed by the binding of REV‐ERBα, a canonical clock component, to the RORE sites located at Gdf putative promoters. We found that the expression levels of Gdf10 and Gdf15 were significantly increased in the embryo implantation sites of the pregnant D6.5 rat uterus compared to that at pregnant D4.5. We and other research group also observed that the canonical clock genes Bmal1, Rev‐erbα, and Per2 were downregulated in UESCs during the in vitro decidualization (Isayama et al. 2015; Muter et al. 2015; ...
Expression of ARNTL2 (bHLHe6, BMAL2, CLIF, MOP9, PASD9) in smooth muscle tissue. Antibody staining with HPA059074 in immunohistochemistry.
Transcriptional repressor which coordinates circadian rhythm and metabolic pathways in a heme-dependent manner. Integral component of the complex transcription machinery that governs circadian rhythmicity and forms a critical negative limb of the circadian clock by directly repressing the expression of core clock components ARNTL/BMAL1 and CLOCK. Also regulates genes involved in metabolic functions, including lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response. Acts as a receptor for heme which stimulates its interaction with the NCOR1/HDAC3 corepressor complex, enhancing transcriptional repression. Recognizes two classes of DNA response elements within the promoter of its target genes and can bind to DNA as either monomers or homodimers, depending on the nature of the response element. Binds as a monomer to a response element composed of the consensus half-site motif 5-[A/G]GGTCA-3 preceded by an A/T-rich 5 sequence (RevRE), or as a homodimer to a direct repeat of the core motif spaced by two
INOUE Ikuo , HAYASHI Kenji , YAGASAKI Fumiharu , NAKAMURA Koh-ichi , MATSUNAGA Toshiyuki , XU Haiyuan , INUKAI Koh-ichi , AWATA Takuya , KOMODA Tsugikazu , KATAYAMA Shigehiro Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 10(2), 99-108, 2003-04-01 医中誌Web 参考文献23件 被引用文献4件 ...
In liver, most metabolic pathways are under circadian control, and hundreds of protein-encoding genes are thus transcribed in a cyclic fashion. Here we show that rhythmic transcription extends to the locus specifying miR-122, a highly abundant, hepatocyte-specific microRNA. Genetic loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments have identified the orphan nuclear receptor REV-ERBalpha as the major circadian regulator of mir-122 transcription. Although due to its long half-life mature miR-122 accumulates at nearly constant rates throughout the day, this miRNA is tightly associated with control mechanisms governing circadian gene expression. Thus, the knockdown of miR-122 expression via an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) strategy resulted in the up- and down-regulation of hundreds of mRNAs, of which a disproportionately high fraction accumulates in a circadian fashion. miR-122 has previously been linked to the regulation of cholesterol and lipid metabolism. The transcripts associated w
Circadian rhythms are generated by well-conserved interlocked transcriptional feedback loops in animals. In Drosophila, the dimeric transcription factor CLOCK/CYCLE (CLK/CYC) promotes period (per), timeless (tim), vrille (vri), and PAR-domain protein 1 (Pdp1) transcription. PER and TIM negatively feed back on CLK/CYC transcriptional activity, whereas VRI and PDP1 negatively and positively regulate Clk transcription, respectively. Here, we show that the ? isoform of the Drosophila FOS homolog KAYAK (KAY) is required for normal circadian behavior. KAY-? downregulation in circadian pacemaker neurons increases period length by 1.5 h. This behavioral phenotype is correlated with decreased expression of several circadian proteins. The strongest effects are on CLK and the neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR, which are both under VRI and PDP1 control. Consistently, KAY-? can bind to VRI and inhibit its interaction with the Clk promoter. Interestingly, KAY-? can also repress CLK activity. Hence, in ...
Expression of ARNTL2 (bHLHe6, BMAL2, CLIF, MOP9, PASD9) in lymph node tissue. Antibody staining with HPA059074 in immunohistochemistry.
Transcriptional repressor which coordinates circadian rhythm and metabolic pathways in a heme-dependent manner. Integral component of the complex transcription machinery that governs circadian rhythmicity and forms a critical negative limb of the circadian clock by directly repressing the expression of core clock components ARNTL/BMAL1 and CLOCK. Also regulates genes involved in metabolic functions, including lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response. Acts as a receptor for heme which stimulates its interaction with the NCOR1/HDAC3 corepressor complex, enhancing transcriptional repression. Recognizes two classes of DNA response elements within the promoter of its target genes and can bind to DNA as either monomers or homodimers, depending on the nature of the response element. Binds as a monomer to a response element composed of the consensus half-site motif 5-[A/G]GGTCA-3 preceded by an A/T-rich 5 sequence (RevRE), or as a homodimer to a direct repeat of the core motif spaced by two
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Dysfunction of the circadian transcriptional factor CLOCK in mice resists chemical carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Their protein products act as modifiers - they may add or remove phosphate groups on core clock genes, inhibit or stimulate expression of some of the core clock genes, degrade the core clock proteins either spontaneusly or upon receiving a signal that the retinae have perceived light, etc ...
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Fat cells store excess energy and signal these levels to the brain. In a new study this week in Nature Medicine researches show that deletion of the clock gene Arntl, also known as Bmal1, in fat cells, causes mice to become obese, with a shift in the timing of when this nocturnal species normally eats. These findings shed light on the complex causes of obesity in humans.
LMU researchers have shown that circadian oscillations in the influx of immune cells into the damaged tissue play a crucial role in exacerbating the effects of an acute heart attack in the early morning hours.
The classical notion of a centralized clock that governs circadian rhythmicity has been challenged with the discovery of peripheral oscillators that enable organisms to cope with daily changes in their environment. The present study aimed to identify the molecular clock components in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and to investigate their daily gene expression in fast skeletal muscle. Atlantic cod clock genes were closely related to their orthologs in teleosts and tetrapods. Synteny was conserved to varying degrees in the majority of the 18 clock genes examined. In particular, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 2 (arntl2), RAR-related orphan receptor A (rora) and timeless (tim) displayed high degrees of conservation. Expression profiling during the early ontogenesis revealed that some transcripts were maternally transferred, namely arntl2,cryptochrome 1b and 2 (cry1b and cry2), and period 2a and 2b(per2a and per2b). Most clock genes were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, ...
Many organisms have ≈24-h rhythms in metabolism, physiology, and behavior that are driven by cell autonomous circadian pacemakers (1). These circadian rhythms allow organisms to coordinate a myriad of physiological processes with the changing environment. In mammals, the circadian pacemaker is composed of interlocked transcription-translation feedback loops: the primary loop is composed of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1, which drive transcription of the Period (Per1, Per2) and Cryptochrome (Cry1, Cry2) genes (1, 2). PER and CRY proteins form the negative limb of the feedback loop by inhibiting their own CLOCK:BMAL1-induced transcription; turnover of PER and CRY allows the cycle to begin anew. The interlocked loop consists of REV-ERB-α and RORα, which repress and activate the Bmal1 gene, thereby modulating its function (3, 4). Mutation or deletion of Clock (5), Bmal1 (6), Per1/2 genes (7, 8), or Cry1/2 (9, 10) genes results in behavioral arrhythmicity and ...
Circadian clocks regulate daily patterns of behavior, metabolism, and immune system function. At the core of the clock are transcriptional and translational feedback loops that generate periodic, oscillating changes in the abundance of clock components. One of these loops involves the action of the transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1, heterodimers of which stimulate the expression of genes encoding the transcription factors Period 1 and Period 2 (PER1 and PER2). PER1 and PER2 accumulate in the cytoplasm, translocate into the nucleus, and inhibit transcription of Clock and Bmal1. The timing of transcription and translation of clock components is important for determining the clocks periodicity, and Chen et al. report that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in this timing mechanism. Because the circadian clock is essential for early development, the authors used mice harboring a conditional knockout of Dicer, which encodes a critical component of the miRNA processing machinery, to assess the ...
CLOCK and BMAL1 are bHLH-PAS-containing transcription factors that bind to E-box elements and are indispensable for expression of core circadian clock components such as the Per and Cry genes. A key step in expression is the heterodimerization of CLOCK and BMAL1 and their accumulation in the nucleus …
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a major drug target in inflammatory disease. However, chronic glucocorticoid (GC) treatment leads to disordered energy metabolism, including increased weight gain, adiposity, and hepatosteatosis - all programs modulated by the circadian clock. We demonstrated that while antiinflammatory GC actions were maintained irrespective of dosing time, the liver was significantly more GC sensitive during the day. Temporal segregation of GC action was underpinned by a physical interaction of GR with the circadian transcription factor REVERBa and co-binding with liver-specific hepatocyte nuclear transcription factors (HNFs) on chromatin. REVERBa promoted efficient GR recruitment to chromatin during the day, acting in part by maintaining histone acetylation, with REVERBa-dependent GC responses providing segregation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Importantly, deletion of Reverba inverted circadian liver GC sensitivity and protected mice from hepatosteatosis induced by ...
Manipulating Plants Circadian Clock May Make All-Season Crops Possible http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110901134643.htm...
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Author: Nakamura, Y. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published online: 2014-07; Title: Diurnal and circadian expression profiles of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis
This gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein expressed in various tissues. The encoded protein can interact with ARNTL or compete for E-box binding sites in the promoter of PER1 and repress CLOCK/ARNTLs transactivation of PER1. This gene is believed to be involved in the control of circadian rhythm and cell differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014 ...
As the rhythmic expression of many genes falls out of sync in older human brains, a subset of transcripts gain rhythmicity with age.. 0 Comments. ...
Core Clock: 1506MHz, Boost Clock: 1708MHz, Memory: 6144MB 8008MHz GDDR5, Stream Processors: 1280, VR Ready, PhysX/CUDA Enabled, 2 Years Warranty.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The relationships between clinical characteristics, alcohol and psychotropic exposure, and circadian gene expression in human postmortem samples of affective disorder and control subjects. AU - Gonzalez, Robert. AU - Bernardo, Carmina. AU - Cruz, Dianne. AU - Walss-Bass, Consuelo. AU - Thompson, Peter M.. PY - 2014/8/30. Y1 - 2014/8/30. N2 - Circadian abnormalities may be related to mood disorders. Circadian gene expression was measured in postmortem brain tissue from individuals with affective disorders and controls. Relationships between circadian gene expression, clinical characteristics, and alcohol and psychotropic medication use were noted. Further study is warranted to characterize these relationships.. AB - Circadian abnormalities may be related to mood disorders. Circadian gene expression was measured in postmortem brain tissue from individuals with affective disorders and controls. Relationships between circadian gene expression, clinical characteristics, and alcohol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adrenergic regulation of clock gene expression in mouse liver. AU - Terazono, Hideyuki. AU - Mutoh, Tatsushi. AU - Yamaguchi, Shun. AU - Kobayashi, Masaki. AU - Akiyama, Masashi. AU - Udo, Rhyuta. AU - Ohdo, Shigehiro. AU - Okamura, Hitoshi. AU - Shibata, Shigenobu. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2003/5/27. Y1 - 2003/5/27. N2 - A main oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) conveys circadian information to the peripheral clock systems for the regulation of fundamental physiological functions. Although polysynaptic autonomic neural pathways between the SCN and the liver were observed in rats, whether activation of the sympathetic nervous system entrains clock gene expression in the liver has yet to be understood. To assess sympathetic innervation from the SCN to liver tissue, we investigated whether injection of adrenaline/ noradrenaline (epinephrine/norepinephrine) or sympathetic nerve stimulation could induce mPer gene expression ...
article{3062551, abstract = {Previously, we identified HISTONE MONOUBIQUITINATION1 (HUB1) as an unconventional ubiquitin E3 ligase that is not involved in protein degradation but in the histone H2B modification that is implicated in transcriptional activation in plants. HUB1-mediated regulation of gene expression played a role in periodic and inducible processes such as the cell cycle, dormancy, flowering time and defense responses. Here, we determined the effects of the hub1-1 mutation on expression of a set of diurnally induced circadian clock genes identified from a comparative microarray analysis between the hub1-1 mutant and an HUB1 over-expression line. The hub1-1 mutation reduced the amplitudes of a number of induced clock gene expression peaks, as well as the HUB1-mediated histone H2BUb and H3K4Me3 marks associated with the coding regions, suggesting a role for HUB1 in facilitating transcriptional elongation in plants. Furthermore, double mutants between hub1-1 and elongata (elo) showed ...
Circadian rhythm is an internal biological clock, which enables to sustain an approximately 24-hour rhythm in the absence of environmental cues. In mammals, the circadian clock mechanism consists of cell-autonomous transcription-translation feedback loops that drive rhythmic, 24-hour expression patterns of core clock components. The first negative feedback loop is a rhythmic transcription of period genes (PER1, PER2, and PER3) and chryptochrome genes (CRY1 and CRY2). PER and CRY proteins form a heterodimer, which acts on the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer to repress its own transcription. PER and CRY proteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase epsilon (CKIepsilon), which leads to degradation and restarting of the cycle. The second loop is a positive feedback loop driven by the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer, which initiates transcription of target genes containing E-box cis-regulatory enhancer sequences ...
Organisms possess endogenous clocks that enable them to synchronize to diurnal environmental cycles and anticipate time of day. In several model systems, it is known that the circadian molecular clock consists of transcriptional/translational autoregulatory feedback loops in which clock proteins translocate to the nucleus and regulate clock gene transcription (Reppert and Weaver, 2002; Dunlap and Loros, 2005; Hardin, 2005). In Drosophila, the molecular oscillator is composed of three feedback loops which are interlocked by virtue of the CLK control of per and tim gene transcription. The first loop results in rhythmic PERIOD (PER) and TIMELESS (TIM) clock protein production, the second generates rhythms in the CLOCK (CLK) transcription factor and the third (Clockwork Orange) modulates the expression of several clock genes known to be regulated by the CLK transcription factor by binding to the E-box regulatory element (Glossop et al., 1999; Cyran et al., 2003; Glossop et al., 2003; Yu et al., ...
The tick-tock of your biological clock may have just gotten a little louder.. Researchers at the University of Georgia report that the number of genes under control of in living things than suspected only a few years ago. The biological clock in a much-studied model organism is dramatically higher than previously reported. The new study implies that the clock may be much more important. This new finding may help to explain why the clock is so far-reaching in its effects on the organism, said Jonathan Arnold, a professor in the UGA department of genetics and director of the research project. We found that some 25 percent of the genes in our model organism appear to be under clock control. I wasnt suspecting anything remotely like that.. The new research, just published in the Public Library of Science One, also shows how Arnolds team used a new methodology called Computing Life to yield these new discoveries about biological clocks. And this tool of systems biology was the key to showing ...
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Circadian rhythms are mechanisms that measure time on a scale of about 24 h and that adjusts our body to external environmental signals. Core circadian clock genes are defined as genes whose protein products are necessary components for the generation and regulation of circadian rhythms. Circadian proteins also regulate genes involved in either cell division or death; and a perturbation of the balance among these processes leads to cancer development and progression.. A key aspect of cancer research is identifying new regulatory pathways involved in proliferation and differentiation of cell. Disruption of circadian rhythm has recently emerged as a new potential risk factor in the development of cancer, pointing to the core gene period 2 (per2) as a tumor suppressor. However, it remains unclear how the circadian network regulates tumor suppression, nor which, if any, of its components is either the ultimate effector that influences the fate of the cell.. Initial experiments were devoted to ...
This is the first study to show that RICTOR/mTORC2 acts as a regulator for coordinated diurnal expression of clock genes in PVAT, but not in the SCN. At the whole body level, RICTOR/mTORC2 in adipose and brain tissue contributes to the diurnal regulation of blood pressure and locomotor activity. The presented data demonstrate the importance of the mTORC2 signaling pathway in the brain to adipocyte axis for daily fluctuations of physiological processes.. We and others have recently shown that mTORC2 activity controls inflammatory molecule expression using tissue-specific Rictor knockout mouse models.7,20 We showed that vascular contractility in RictoraP2KO mice is increased because of enhanced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in PVAT.7 Ablation of Rictor strongly reduced AKTSer473 phosphorylation, resulting in impaired mTORC2 signaling.5-7 Consequently, we assign the observed changes in RictoraP2KO mice to the impaired mTORC2 downstream signaling.. In this study, we explored these findings ...
SR9011 Description:. SR9011 is a trifunctional methacrylate monomer that provides exceptional adhesion to metal substrates.. SR9011 is recommended for use in peroxide cured coatings, sealants, and PVC-based plastisols. Usage levels of 5% to 10% by weight are recommended.. SR9011 is a potent and specific synthetic REV-ERB. It also has good in vivo plasma/brain exposure. The nuclear receptors REV-ERB-α and REV-ERB-β play an integral role in regulating the expression of core clock proteins, driving rhythms in activity and metabolism. Administration of SR9011 alters circadian behavior and the circadian pattern of core clock gene expression in the hypothalami of mice. The circadian expression pattern of an array of metabolic genes in the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was also altered, resulting in increased energy expenditure. Treatment of diet-induced obese mice with SR9011 decreased obesity by reducing fat mass and markedly improved dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. These results ...
Sundowning or sundown syndrome causes a sudden worsening of confusion, agitation, and aggression in patients with Alzheimers disease and dementia, which was found to be governed by the bodys internal biological clock.
Hodžić A, Ristanović M, Zorn B, Tulić C, Maver A, Novaković I, Peterlin B. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59220. A case-control study was performed to determine the role of circadian genes in male infertility. The study consisted of 517 cases and 444 controls, all of which were of Slavic origin and recruited from three outpatient fertility centres. A chi-square test found…
Synchronization of circadian oscillators with the outside world is achieved by the acute effects of light on the levels of one or more clock components. In mammals the PAS transcription factors Clock, NPAS2, and BMAL1 regulate gene expression as a function of the day-night cycle. Both PAS domains of NPAS2 were found to bind heme as a prosthetic group, form a gas-regulated sensor, and exert heme-status control of DNA binding in vitro. In a microarray analysis comparing overall changes in brain transcript levels between mice subjected to light pulses during the dark phase with animals maintained in darkness, we traced consistent changes in more than 200 different transcripts. Of these, 20 are associated with heme and iron biosynthesis and catabolism. A model for the pathway of induction of heme and iron homeostasis-related transcripts resulting from light pulses suggests that light signals (as stressors) induce transcription of heme oxygenase 2 (Hmox2) and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por), ...
A 2/N mode dock generator that generates bus clock signals through the use of bus clock enable signals selecting bus clock pulses that are in phase and out of phase with a core clock signal. The clock generator maintains synchronization between the bus clock signal and the core clock signal so that they are always in a predetermined phase relationship.
Circadian rhythms are intrinsic ?24 hour cycles that regulate diverse aspects of physiology, and in turn are regulated by interactions with the external environment. Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1?, CSNK1D) is a key regulator of the clock, phosphorylating both stabilizing and destabilizing sites on the PER2 protein, in a mechanism known as the phosphoswitch. CK1? can itself be regulated by phosphorylation on its regulatory domain, but the specific sites involved, and the role this plays in control of circadian rhythms as well as other CK1-dependent processes is not well understood. Using a sensitized ...
King DP, Zhao Y, Sangoram AM, Wilsbacher LD, Tanaka M, Antoch MP, Steeves TD, Vitaterna MH, Kornhauser JM, Lowrey PL, Turek FW, Takahashi JS. Cell. 1997;89(4):641-53. Genetic mapping and sequencing in mice confirmed the identification of the mammalian gene, clock, involved in the circadian system. A comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the wildtype gene with…
Disruption of two genes that control circadian rhythms can lead to diabetes, a researcher at UT Southwestern Medical Center has found in an animal study.. Mice with defective copies of the genes, called CLOCK and BMAL1, develop abnormalities in pancreatic cells that eventually render the cells unable to release sufficient amounts of insulin.. These results indicate that disruption of the daily clock may contribute to diabetes by impairing the pancreas ability to deliver insulin, said Dr. Joseph Takahashi, an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at UT Southwestern and co-senior author of the study, which appeared in the journal Nature. Dr. Takahashi, who recently joined UT Southwestern as chairman of neuroscience, performed the research with colleagues when he was at Northwestern University.. Circadian rhythms are cyclical patterns in biological activities, such as sleeping, eating, body temperature and hormone production.. The mammalian CLOCK gene, which Dr. Takahashi ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Translation-independent circadian control of the cell cycle in a unicellular photosynthetic eukaryote. AU - Miyagishima, Shin Ya. AU - Fujiwara, Takayuki. AU - Sumiya, Nobuko. AU - Hirooka, Shunsuke. AU - Nakano, Akihiko. AU - Kabeya, Yukihiro. AU - Nakamura, Mami. N1 - Funding Information: We thank A. Yamashita for technical support and K. Fukaya and BSIs Research Resources Center of RIKEN for LC-MS/MS analyses. This study was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (no. 19870033 to S.-y.M.) and by Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) Program of Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) (to S.-y.M.).. PY - 2014/5/8. Y1 - 2014/5/8. N2 - Circadian rhythms of cell division have been observed in several lineages of eukaryotes, especially photosynthetic unicellular eukaryotes. However, the mechanism underlying the circadian regulation of the cell cycle and the nature of the advantage conferred remain ...
Circadian clock gene expression in in vitro cultured CD4+ T cells and PER2::Luciferase CD4+ reporter T cells. Blood was sampled from 3 nutritious younger males
The 527-02 Clock Slicer is the most flexible way to generate a CMOS output clock from a PECL input clock with zero skew. The user can easily configure the device to produce nearly any output clock that is multiplied or divided from the input clock. The part supports non-integer multiplications and divisions. A SYNC pulse indicates when the rising clock edges are aligned with zero skew. Using Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) techniques, the device accepts an input clock up to 200 MHz and produces an output clock up to 160 MHz. The 527-02 aligns rising edges on PECLIN with FBIN at a ratio determined by the reference and feedback dividers. For a PECL input and output clock with zero delay, use the 527-04. For a CMOS input and PECL output with zero delay, use the 527-03. ...
The 527-01 Clock Slicer is the most flexible way to generate an output clock from an input clock with zero skew. The user can easily configure the device to produce nearly any output clock that is multiplied or divided from the input clock. The part supports non-integer multiplications and divisions. A SYNC pulse indicates when the rising clock edges are aligned with zero skew. Using Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) techniques, the device accepts an input clock up to 200 MHz and produces an output clock up to 160 MHz. The 527-01 aligns rising edges on ICLK and FBIN at a ratio determined by the reference and feedback dividers. For configurable clocks that do not require zero delay, use the 525.. ...
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Modulates the circadian rhythm of contrast sensitivity by regulating the rhythmic expression of NPAS2 in the retinal ganglion cells which in turn regulates the rhythmic expression of the ADCY1 gene in the ganglian cell layer (By similarity). ...
Buy Ticking Clock Loops Pack by ShahruhAudio on AudioJungle. 4 various ticking clock loops Durations: ticking clock1 0:04 ticking clock2 0:08 ticking clock3 0:08 ticking clock4 0...
The CDCM1802 clock driver distributes one pair of differential clock input to one LVPECL differential clock output pair, Y0 and Y0, and one single-ended LVCMOS output, Y1.
Rukeias paper in EBioMedicine is online. A Systems-Level Analysis Reveals Circadian Regulation of Splicing in Colorectal Cancer. El-Athman R, Fuhr L, Relógio A ...
As the rhythmic expression of many genes falls out of sync in older human brains, a subset of transcripts gain rhythmicity with age.. 0 Comments. ...
Neophytus writes An interesting story on the BBC reports on how a new type of atomic clock is near completion that would only loose about a second in every 100 million years. Within ten years they hope to have a clock with billion year accuracy which would potentially bring advances in disease rese...
This very simple, very loud talking clock is nothing but button, making it extremely easy to find & to use. The round clock base measures 4 & 1/2 inches wide.
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ASUS Limited Edition Dual-GPU ROG ARES II boasts dual-Radeon HD 7970 GHz Edition GPUs and 6GB GDDR5 VRAM with a boost core clock speed of 1100MHz.
This is an ingeneous and excellent add-on that is basically a really neat total waste of time :-) When you download the library to your calculator it will put a ticking clock at the bottom of the HOME view. It displays both the date and the time (once youve set them) and uses both 12hr and 24hr time format and both US and European date format ...
Moving the clocks forward by one extra hour all year in the UK could lead to children getting more exercise every day, say researchers, reports BBC News. In the UK...
Opaque type representing a time filter state. The purpose of this filter is to provide a way to compute accurate time stamps that can be compared to wall clock time, especially when dealing with two clocks: the system clock and a hardware device clock, such as a soundcard. Definition at line 30 of file timefilter.c.. ...
(Phys.org)-A team of researchers with Harvard University and the University of Cambridge has successfully improved the accuracy of a synthetic clock known as a repressilator. In their paper published in the journal Nature, ...
The most beautiful Countdown app for your Mac. The Nixie tube clock is not only showing you the time to an event. It als…
EDIT: It occurs to me that you probably have to put in the dates yourself. RCP is frequently updating all of its polling data and constantly refreshing the site. The dates can be entered in the bottom of the graph for you to make any comparisons youd like between any candidates that youd wish to compare. It doesnt look as though you can share exact date ranges with others via a link and you would have to take screenshots and upload the pictures somewhere if you wanted to do that directly. Easy enough to do on your own though. Just had to apologize that I cant give you links to the specific dates because of how the site is designed is all.] ...
Define ADCIN parameters Define ADC_BITS 10 Set number of bits in result Define ADC_CLOCK 3 Set clock source (3=rc)...
I really dont get how people dont see the autonomous vehicles arent some hard puzzle to be solved, but instead a if we can do that we can await skynets activation level thing. Sure the technology works surprisingly well. Its neat! But to be actually useful...And self-driving cabs are the hardest version of that ...
Much like CYCLE, the ARNTL proteins have a basic helix-loop-helix and a PAS domain containing transcription factors responsible ... and transcription factor activity. Other non-arthropods containing the functional ortholog of the Drosophila cycle ARNTL and ... repressing CYC-CLK dependent transcription. Thus, CLK and CYC act as positive factors and PER and TIM as negative factors. CYC ... The cyc gene is located on the left arm of chromosome 3 and codes for a transcription factor containing a basic helix-loop- ...
This protein can bind to and activate the promoter of the ARNTL (BMAL1) gene, a transcription factor central to the generation ... The transcription factor is essential for lymphoid organogenesis, in particular lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, but not the ... The RORγ protein is a DNA-binding transcription factor and is a member of the NR1 subfamily of nuclear receptors. Although the ... RORγ is member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. It is mainly expressed in immune cells (Th17 cells) and ...
... better known as BMAL1 or ARNTL, revealed in 1998 that its role as a partner of the bHLH-PAS transcription factor CLOCK was ... BMAL1 and CLOCK are now the two most well recognized bHLH-PAS domain transcription factors. Later work revealed that Bmal1 is ... These transcription factors were initially named MOP1-5. Hogenesch's later characterization of MOP3, ... In 1999 Hogenesch completed a Ph.D. in Neuroscience at Northwestern University's Chicago campus, studying transcription factors ...
It is a type of hypoxia-inducible factor, a group of transcription factors involved in the physiological response to oxygen ... EPAS1 has been shown to interact with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator and ARNTL. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Tian H, Hammer RE, Matsumoto AM, Russell DW, McKnight SL (November 1998). "The hypoxia-responsive transcription factor EPAS1 is ... Cross-talk between basic helix-loop-helix/per-Arnt-Sim homology transcription factors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
BMAL1 encodes a transcription factor with a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and two PAS domains. The human Arntl gene has a ... is a paralog of Arntl (Bmal1) that encodes for a basic helix-loop-helix PAS domain transcription factor. It, too, has been ... and hypoxia-inducible factors. The names BMAL1 and ARNTL were adopted in later papers. One of ARNTL protein's earliest ... in March under the name Mop3 and Ikeda and Nomura in April as part of a superfamily of PAS domain transcription factors. In ...
... are recruited to DNA-bound transcription factors to activate transcription. Coactivators can associate with promoters and ... Human and animal proteins: ARNTL (BMAL1) ATF1 ATF4 (CREB2) BRCA1 CREB Cubitus interruptus (in D. melanogaster) ELK4 (SAP1) ... Goto NK, Zor T, Martinez-Yamout M, Dyson HJ, Wright PE (November 2002). "Cooperativity in transcription factor binding to the ... It serves as a docking site for the formation of heterodimers between the coactivator and specific transcription factors. ...
Consisting of about 110 amino acids, the domain in winged-helix transcription factors (see Regulation of gene expression) has ... Winged-Helix+Transcription+Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Winged-helix_transcription_factors&oldid=730546101" ...
Zinc finger transcription factors or ZF-TFs, are transcription factors composed of a zinc finger-binding domain and any of a ... Zinc finger transcription factor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Zinc finger protein transcription ... genes in order to control the transcription of all these genes with a single transcription factor. Also, it is possible to ... Zinc finger protein transcription factors can be encoded by genes small enough to fit a number of such genes into a single ...
bHLH transcription factors are often important in development or cell activity. For one, BMAL1-Clock is a core transcription ... ARNTL; ARNTL2; ASCL1; ASCL2; ASCL3; ASCL4; ATOH1; ATOH7; ATOH8; BHLHB2; BHLHB3; BHLHB4; BHLHB5; BHLHB8; CLOCK; EPAS1; FERD3L; ... In general, transcription factors including this domain are dimeric, each with one helix containing basic amino acid residues ... Neurogenins MAX C-Myc, N-Myc TCF4 (Transcription Factor 4) These proteins contain two additional PAS domains after the bHLH ...
... is recognized and bound by transcription factors to initiate gene transcription. Once the transcription factors bind to the ... There are several proteins that bind to the E-box and affect gene transcription. The CLOCK-ARNTL (BMAL1) complex is an integral ... 2002). "Evidence that E-box promoter elements and MyoD transcription factors play a role in the induction of cathepsin B gene ... MYC (c-Myc), a gene that codes for a transcription factor Myc, is important in regulating mammalian cell proliferation and ...
This results in an inhibition of the transcription factors of per and tim thereby lowering the respective mRNA levels and ... Bmal1 - Bmal1 also known as ARNTL or Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like, encodes a protein that forms a ... It has been shown to affect the period of circadian rhythms through its repression of transcription factors. This was found ... Clock - Clock, also known as Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput, is a transcription factor in the circadian pacemaker of ...
The NPAS2 protein is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS transcription factor family and is expressed in the SCN ... ARNTL, and CLOCK polymorphisms. These genes may influence seasonal variations through metabolic factors such as body weight and ... Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) also known as member of PAS protein 4 (MOP4) is a transcription factor protein that in ... NPAS2 has been shown to interact with: ARNTL (also known as BMAL1). Like Clock, Npas2 mRNA cycles with a similar phase to that ...
The first is the basic-region (b), which is involved in the binding of the transcription factor to DNA. The second is the helix ... In addition to the protein interactions mentioned above, AhR has also been shown to interact with: AIP, ARNTL, CCNT1, ESR1, ... The bHLH motif is located in the N-terminal of the protein and is a common entity in a variety of transcription factors. ... Sequential recruitment of transcription factors and differential phosphorylation of C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II at ...
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, also known as HIF-1-alpha, is a subunit of a heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia- ... HIF1A has been shown to interact with: ARNTL, ARNT, CREBB, EP300, HIF1AN, Mdm2, NR4A, P53, PSMA7, STAT3, UBC, VH and VHL. GR ( ... The human HIF1A gene encodes for the alpha subunit, HIF1A of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1). Its ... "Entrez Gene: HIF1A hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor)". Wang GL, Jiang BH ...
Hung MS, Avner P, Rogner UC (September 2006). "Identification of the transcription factor ARNTL2 as a candidate gene for the ... Recent work suggest that this interaction may be in concert with ARNTL/CLOCK heterodimeric complexes. Arntl (Bmal1) GRCh38: ... "cDNA cloning of a novel bHLH-PAS transcription factor superfamily gene, BMAL2: its mRNA expression, subcellular distribution, ... Arntl2 is a paralog to Arntl, which are both homologs of the Drosophila Cycle. Homologs were also isolated in fish, birds and ...
Handbook of Transcription Factor NF-κB. Boca Raton: CRC. 2006. ISBN 0-8493-2794-6.. ... ATOH1 · AhR · AHRR · ARNT · ASCL1 · BHLHB2 · BMAL(ARNTL、ARNTL2) · CLOCK · EPAS1 · HAND(1、2) · HES(5、6) ·. HEY(1、2、L) · HES1 · ... ELF(2、4、5) · EGF · ELK(1、3、4) · ERF · ERG · ETS(1、2、SPIB) · ETV(1、4、5、6) · FLI1 · Interferon regulatory factors(1、2、3、4、5、6、7、8 ... 核因子活化B细胞κ轻链增强子(英語:nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells,简称为NF-κB)是一种
Transcription Factor Classification, A classification of transcription factors based on their DNA-binding domains". BIOBASE ... ATOH1 • AhR • AHRR • ARNT • ASCL1 • BHLHB2 • BMAL (ARNTL, ARNTL2) • CLOCK • EPAS1 • HAND (1, 2) • HES (5, 6) • HEY (1, 2, L) • ... Latchman DS (1997). „Transcription factors: an overview". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 29 (12): 1305-12. PMID 9570129. doi: ... DBD: Transcription factor database Home". Приступљено 2. 3. 2008.. *. Wilson D, Charoensawan V, Kummerfeld SK, Teichmann SA ( ...
repressing transcription factor binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ... activating transcription factor binding. Cellular component. • cytosol. • nucleoplasm. • protein complex. • nucleolus. • ... Myc (c-Myc) is a regulator gene that codes for a transcription factor. The protein encoded by this gene is a multifunctional, ... transcription factor binding. • RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding. • E-box binding ...
transcription factor complex. • nuclear transcription factor complex. Biological process. • intracellular signal transduction. ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding. • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • mitogen- ... transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription ... transcription factor binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence- ...
M type MADS family at PlantTFDB: Plant Transcription Factor Database. *MIKC type MADS family at PlantTFDB: Plant Transcription ... Gramzow L, Ritz MS, Theissen G (April 2010). "On the origin of MADS-domain transcription factors". Trends in Genetics. 26 (4): ... Shore P, Sharrocks AD (April 1995). "The MADS-box family of transcription factors". European Journal of Biochemistry. 229 (1): ... the protein shows homology to transcription factors". The EMBO Journal. 9 (3): 605-13. PMC 551713 . PMID 1968830.. ...
transcription factor binding. • activating transcription factor binding. • E-box binding. • protein binding. • protein ... transcription regulatory region DNA binding. Cellular component. • transcription factor complex. • protein complex. • nuclear ... In addition, this transcription factor plays an important role in limb and branchial arch development.[6] In one study, it was ... Shen L, Li XF, Shen AD, Wang Q, Liu CX, Guo YJ, Song ZJ, Li ZZ (July 2010). "Transcription factor HAND2 mutations in sporadic ...
A sigma factorfactor) is a protein needed only for initiation of transcription.[1] It is a bacterial transcription ... Sigma factors in E. coli:. *σ70(RpoD) - σA - the "housekeeping" sigma factor or also called as primary sigma factor, ... It is homologous to archaeal transcription factor B and to eukaryotic TFIIB.[2] The specific sigma factor used to initiate ... The number of sigma factors varies between bacterial species.[1][4] E. coli has seven sigma factors. Sigma factors are ...
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence- ... "Pituitary homeobox factor 1, a novel transcription factor in the adrenal regulating steroid 11beta-hydroxylase". Hormone and ... transcription factor complex. • nucleolus. • cell nucleus. Biological process. • skeletal system development. • pituitary gland ... "Entrez Gene: PITX1 paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 1".. *^ Philippi A, Tores F, Carayol J, Rousseau F, Letexier M ...
Interferon regulatory factor 7, also known as IRF7, is a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription ... transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. ... IRF7 encodes interferon regulatory factor 7, a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family. IRF7 has ... "Interferon regulatory factor-7 synergizes with other transcription factors through multiple interactions with p300/CBP ...
transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding. • metal ion binding. • transcription factor activity, RNA ... EGR-1 is a mammalian transcription factor. It was also named Krox-24, TIS8, and ZENK. It was originally discovered in mice. ... EGR-1 is an important transcription factor in memory formation. It has an essential role in brain neuron epigenetic ... transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • BMP signaling pathway. • transcription, DNA-templated. • positive regulation ...
transcription factor binding. • protein domain specific binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence- ... Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-gamma (HNF-3G), also known as forkhead box protein A3 (FOXA3) or transcription factor 3G (TCF-3G) ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • sequence- ... transcription, DNA-templated. • spermatogenesis. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • ...
RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding. • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription ... negative regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. • regulation of transcription, DNA- ... negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of transcription ... Members of the ID family inhibit the functions of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in a dominant-negative manner by ...
... which encode closely related MYB transcription factors that regulate circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis, as well as PRR 7 and 9 ( ... ARNTL ARNTL2 Bacterial circadian rhythms Circadian rhythm sleep disorders, such as Advanced sleep phase disorder Delayed sleep ... Obesity and diabetes are associated with lifestyle and genetic factors. Among those factors, disruption of the circadian ... in A.thaliana.LNKs binds to the 5'region of PRR5 and TOC1 and interacts with RNAP II and other transcription factors. Moreover ...
BHLH Transcription Factors in Development and Disease. Current Topics in Developmental Biology. bHLH Transcription Factors in ... "Basic helix-loop-helix family, member e41", or BHLHE41, is a gene that encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor ... bHLH transcription factor binding. • E-box binding. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • ... transcription factor binding. • sequence-specific DNA binding. • sequence-specific double-stranded DNA binding. ...
GO:0000975 transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • GO:0001200, GO:0001133, GO:0001201 DNA-binding transcription factor ... transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • transcription, DNA-templated. • regulation of cell cycle. • positive ... Taniguchi T., Ogasawara K., Takaoka A., Tanaka N. (2001). IRF family of transcription factors as regulators of host defense.. ... GO:0001131, GO:0001151, GO:0001130, GO:0001204 DNA-binding transcription factor activity. • GO:0001077, GO:0001212, GO:0001213 ...
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ... The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive ... "The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339-47. PMC ...
转录激活因子(英语:Activating transcription factor)(AATF(英语:Apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor)、1、2、3、4、5、6、7) · AP-1(c-Fos、 ... ATOH1 · AhR · AHRR · ARNT · ASCL1 · BHLHB2 · BMAL(ARNTL、ARNTL2) · CLOCK · EPAS1 · HAND(1、2) · HES(5、6) · HEY(1、2、L) · HES1 · ... sequence-specific enhancer binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity. · transcription factor binding. · zinc ion ... Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor)(I、II)、Ear-2(英语:V-erbA-related gene)、HNF4(英语:Hepatocyte nuclear factor ...
Lüscher B (2001). "Function and regulation of the transcription factors of the Myc/Max/Mad network". Gene 277 (1-2): 1-14. PMID ... ATOH1 • AhR • AHRR • ARNT • ASCL1 • BHLHB2 • BMAL (ARNTL, ARNTL2) • CLOCK • EPAS1 • HAND (1, 2) • HES (5, 6) • HEY (1, 2, L) • ... a widespread euchromatic program in the human genome partially independent of its role as a classical transcription factor". ... Coller HA, Forman JJ, Legesse-Miller A (2007). ""Myc'ed Messages": Myc Induces Transcription of E2F1 while Inhibiting Its ...
... s (SREBPs) are transcription factors that bind to the sterol regulatory element DNA ... SREBPs belong to the basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper class of transcription factors.[2] Unactivated SREBPs are attached ... Sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1. X-ray crystallography of Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1A ... The precursor has a hairpin orientation in the membrane, so that both the amino-terminal transcription factor domain and the ...
transcription corepressor activity. • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription coactivator ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. Cellular component. • nuclear euchromatin. • ... transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding. • chenodeoxycholic acid binding. • ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding. • bile acid receptor activity ...
... transcription factor regulating cell cycle progression),[25] TAL1 (a transcription factor),[26] FOG2 (a transcription factor ... also termed Erythroid transcription factor) is the founding member of the GATA family of transcription factors. This protein is ... "Entrez Gene: GATA1 GATA binding protein 1 (globin transcription factor 1)".. *^ a b c Da Costa L, O'Donohue MF, van Dooijeweert ... transcription factor complex. • protein-DNA complex. Biological process. • negative regulation of cell proliferation. • ...
transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription factor recruiting. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor ... Arabidospsis thaliana MYB family at Database of Arabidopsis Transcription Factors (DATF). This article incorporates text from ... Myb proto-oncogene protein is a member of the MYB (myeloblastosis) family of transcription factors. The protein contains three ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive ...
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription factor binding. • RNA polymerase II core promoter ... Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-beta (HNF-3B), also known as forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2) or transcription factor 3B (TCF-3B) is ... transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. ... negative regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. • transcription, DNA-templated. • positive ...
"A phylogenomic analysis of bacterial helix-turn-helix transcription factors.". FEMS Microbiol Rev 33 (2): 411-29. PMID 19076237 ... ATOH1 • AhR • AHRR • ARNT • ASCL1 • BHLHB2 • BMAL (ARNTL, ARNTL2) • CLOCK • EPAS1 • HAND (1, 2) • HES (5, 6) • HEY (1, 2, L) • ... "Prokaryotic transcription regulators: more than just the helix-turn-helix motif.". Curr Opin Struct Biol 12 (1): 98-106. PMID ...
transcription factor complex. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor complex. • Ядерце. • клітинне ядро. • nucleoplasm. • ... 0001204 DNA-binding transcription factor activity. • GO:0001105 transcription coactivator activity. • transcription factor ... GO:0000975 transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer ... transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • cellular response to tumor necrosis factor. • positive regulation of DNA- ...
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription factor binding. ... repressing transcription factor binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. ... transcription factor complex. • cytoplasm. • cell nucleus. • nucleoplasm. • transcriptional repressor complex. Biological ... RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding. • protein binding. • recombinase activity. • chromatin binding. • ...
0001204 DNA-binding transcription factor activity. • GO:0001200, GO:0001133, GO:0001201 DNA-binding transcription factor ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription, DNA-templated. • regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase ... "Human KLF17 is a new member of the Sp/KLF family of transcription factors". Genomics. 87 (4): 474-82. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno. ... KLF17, ZNF393, Zfp393, Kruppel-like factor 17, Kruppel like factor 17, ZLF393. ...
... s (SREBPs) are transcription factors that bind to the sterol regulatory element DNA ... SREBPs belong to the basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper class of transcription factors.[2] Unactivated SREBPs are attached ... The precursor has a hairpin orientation in the membrane, so that both the amino-terminal transcription factor domain and the ... Wang X, Sato R, Brown MS, Hua X, Goldstein JL (Apr 1994). "SREBP-1, a membrane-bound transcription factor released by sterol- ...
... , ODD, odd-skipped related transcription factor 1, odd-skipped related transciption factor 1. ... Protein odd-skipped-related 1 is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the OSR1 gene.[5][6][7] The OSR1 and OSR2 ... OSR1 and OSR2 are homologous to the Odd-skipped class transcription factors in Drosophila, encoded by odd,[5] bowl, sob[9] and ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence- ...
0001201 DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific. • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding. • GO:0001131, GO:0001151, GO:0001130, GO:0001204 DNA-binding transcription ... GO:0000975 transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cellular response to BMP stimulus. • зсідання крові. • transcription, DNA- ...
... , MTF-1, ZRF, metal-regulatory transcription factor 1, metal regulatory transcription factor 1. ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription coactivator activity. • transcriptional activator ... transcription, DNA-templated. • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • positive regulation of transcription ... Metal regulatory transcription factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTF1 gene.[5][6] ...
The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription from RNA ... GO:0001200, GO:0001133, GO:0001201 DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific. ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • organ induction. • anterior/posterior pattern specification. • ...
transcription corepressor activity. • metal ion binding. • nucleic acid binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor ... DC-SCRIPT is able to repress ER and PR mediated transcription, whereas it can activate transcription mediated by RAR and PPAR. ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • negative regulation of intracellular estrogen receptor ... than normal breast tissue from the same patient and that DC-SCRIPT mRNA expression is an independent prognostic factor for good ...
see also transcription factor/coregulator deficiencies. This article on a gene on the human X chromosome and/or its associated ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription, DNA-templated. • DNA geometric change. • negative regulation of B ...
Transcription factors and intracellular receptors. (1) Basic domains. (1.1) Basic leucine zipper (bZIP). *Activating ...
transcription, DNA-templated. • Сигнальна трансдукція. • cellular response to growth factor stimulus. • natural killer cell ... GO:0001131, GO:0001151, GO:0001130, GO:0001204 DNA-binding transcription factor activity. • DNA binding. • GO:0001077, GO: ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • ... GO:0001200, GO:0001133, GO:0001201 DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific. ...
RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. Cellular component. • cell nucleus. ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription, DNA-templated. • oogenesis. • regulation of transcription from RNA ...
... and transcription factor 1, TCF1, respectively) and of the hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor gene (HGF)". Genomics. 13 (2 ... and transcription factor 1, TCF1, respectively) and of the hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor gene (HGF)". Genomics. 13 (2 ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription, DNA-templated. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA ... DBP is a member of the PAR bZIP (Proline and Acidic amino acid-Rich basic leucine ZIPper) transcription factor family.[5][7] ...
CLOCK and BMAL1 are bHLH-PAS-containing transcription factors that bind to E-box elements and are indispensable for expression ... ARNTL Transcription Factors * ARNTL protein, human * Arntl protein, mouse * Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors ... CLOCK and BMAL1 are bHLH-PAS-containing transcription factors that bind to E-box elements and are indispensable for expression ... as well as E-box-dependent clock gene transcription. Moreover, in embryonic mouse fibroblasts, robust transcription of Per2 is ...
We show that cry transcription is under circadian regulati … ... ARNTL Transcription Factors * Basic Helix-Loop-Helix ... We show that cry transcription is under circadian regulation, influenced by the Drosophila clock genes period, timeless, Clock ...
In Drosophila, the transcription factors CLOCK (CLK) and CYCLE (CYC) activate the transcription of direct target genes like ... ARNTL Transcription Factors / genetics*, metabolism. Animals. CLOCK Proteins / genetics*, metabolism*. Circadian Rhythm / ... 0/ARNTL Transcription Factors; 0/CYCLE protein, Drosophila; 0/Clk protein, Drosophila; 0/Drosophila Proteins; 0/PER protein, ... In Drosophila, the transcription factors CLOCK (CLK) and CYCLE (CYC) activate the transcription of direct target genes like ...
0 (ARNTL Transcription Factors); 0 (Arntl protein, mouse); 0 (Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors); 0 (Membrane ... Fatores de Transcri o ARNTL/gen tica. Animais. Apoptose. Fatores de Transcri o H lice-Al a-H lice B sicos/gen tica. Prote nas ...
K02296 ARNTL; aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 K02296 ARNTL; aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear ... Transcription Factors - Scleropages formosus (Asian bonytongue). [ Brite menu , Download htext , Download json , Help ] ... hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha K08268 HIF1A; hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha K09095 HIF2A; hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha ... 108919562 hif1a; hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha 108928738 hypoxia-inducible factor 3-alpha-like isoform X1 108942753 epas1; ...
ARNTL. aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like. ARNTL. 193. ATF2. activating transcription factor 2. ATF2. ... hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor). HIF1A. ... nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2. NFE2L2. 82. NFKB1. nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1. ... transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha). TFAP2A. ...
Transcription factor, positive. Outline. ARNTL(BMAL) is one of the "core loop" gene.. ARNTL forms heterodimer with CLOCK. CLOCK ... Transcription factor, negative. Outline. NFIL3 and vri are transcription factor with bHLH domain.. NFIL3 and VRI bind to "VP- ... Transcription factor, positive. HAT. Outline. Clock is one of "core loop" gene.. CLOCK forms heterodimer with ARNTL(BMAL). ... ARNTL binds to E-Box and activates transcription of "clock genes" and "clock controlled genes (CGG)". KO mouse of ARNTL (BMAL1) ...
ARNTL Antibody, Peptide-affinity purified goat antibody validated in WB, E (AF1159a), Abgent ... Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the ... Promotes rhythmic chromatin opening, regulating the DNA accessibility of other transcription factors. The NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1 ... which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. ARNTL/BMAL1 ...
The CLOCK protein acts as a heterodimeric transcription factor with a partner known as BMAL1 (ARNTL). ... CLOCK and BMAL1 belong to the bHLH-PAS family of transcription factors, which participate in a wide array of functions ... time-dependent pattern of core circadian transcription factor binding, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment, RNA expression, ... BMAL1 complex to repress their own transcription. As the PER and CRY proteins are progressively phosphorylated during the night ...
The E2F transcription factors are essential for regulation of the cell cycle. Physiological E2F is a heterodimer composed of an ... Related Protein MTA1; ARNTL; NPAS2; E2F8; HDAC4; NEUROG3; FOXO3; HDAC6; INSM1A; NKX3 ... E2F1; E2F transcription factor 1; RBBP3; transcription factor E2F1; RBP3; PBR3; RBAP-1; RBBP-3; PRB-binding protein E2F-1; ... The E2F transcription factors are essential for regulation of the cell cycle. Physiological E2F is a heterodimer composed of an ...
NF-YA positively regulates the transcription of the core clock component ARNTL/BMAL1. ... Component of the sequence-specific heterotrimeric transcription factor (NF-Y) which specifically recognizes a 5-CCAAT-3 box ... "Transcription factor NF-Y is a functional regulator of the transcription of core clock gene Bmal1.". Xiao J., Zhou Y., Lai H., ... Nuclear transcription factor Y subunit alphaAdd BLAST. 346. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). Description ...
T-box genes encode transcription factors involved in the regulation of developmental processes. This gene product shares 98% ... T-box transcription factor TBX1; brachyury; Testis-specific T-box protein; T-box 1 transcription factor C; ... Related Protein RX3; PRRX2; ZGPAT; LHX1; ESR2A; GTF2E1; ARNTL; HOXA2B; IKZF4; ZNF397 ... Function transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. Related Protein CEBPA; ZNF498; ALX1; CDX1B; E2F4; ZNF584 ...
... transcription factor 7 (T-cell specific, HMG-box); NPAS2: neuronal PAS domain protein 2; ARNTL: aryl hydrocarbon receptor ... The ARNTL heterodimers also induce another regulatory loop that activates RORA & B and subsequent transcription of ARNTL. Many ... The primary transcription/translation feedback loop of the pathway includes ARNTL, which forms a heterodimer complex with ... While environmental factors influence sleep, a growing body of evidence suggests genetic modulation of sleep quality [36]. Its ...
... encodes for a member of the basic helix-loop-helix PAS class of transcription factors [49]. When dimerized with ARNTL, NPAS2 ... ARNTL-CLOCK or ARNTL-NPAS2 heterodimers promote the transcription of RORA, which in turn activates the transcription of ARNTL. ... putative protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix PAS family of transcription factors and forms heterodimers with ARNTL ( ... PER genes control their own transcription by directly repressing ARNTL heterodimers, their activators [49]. Moreover, it has ...
Regulates the circadian clock by repressing the transcriptional activator activity of the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer in a ... NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor which is present in almost all cell types and is involved in many biological ... Transcription factor RelB. Transcription factor RelB (V-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog B, nuclear factor of ... Transcription factor RelBAdd BLAST. 579. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view ...
DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific. ISM. 19274049. GO:0001222. transcription corepressor ... ARNTL). This protein may also be involved in regulating genes that function in metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular ... Transcription Factor. Binding Sites. Gene Targets. GH17J040088. Promoter/Enhancer. 2.8. EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE ... HOMER Transcription Factor Regulatory Elements motif NR1D1 * Consensus sequence: GTAGGTCACTGGGTCA Submotif: DR2 Cell Type: RAW ...
... controls expression of the circadian transcription factor DBP. Genes Dev. 2000;14(6):679-689.. View this article via: PubMed ... C) A similar hierarchy was observed for kidney, with fast adaptation for Per, Dbp, and Nr1d1, and a slow one for Arntl. (D) In ... A strong correlation between both factors for all groups was found (UT, r2 = 0.65; hWT/aWT, r2 = 0.79; hWT/aP2/C1, r2 = 0.87). ... The transcription factor D site albumin promoter binding protein (DBP) regulates rhythmic activation of downstream target genes ...
Much like CYCLE, the ARNTL proteins have a basic helix-loop-helix and a PAS domain containing transcription factors responsible ... and transcription factor activity. Other non-arthropods containing the functional ortholog of the Drosophila cycle ARNTL and ... repressing CYC-CLK dependent transcription. Thus, CLK and CYC act as positive factors and PER and TIM as negative factors. CYC ... The cyc gene is located on the left arm of chromosome 3 and codes for a transcription factor containing a basic helix-loop- ...
RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding. IPI. 21539536. GO:0001102. RNA polymerase II activating transcription factor ... NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1 and CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimers. Acetylates PCNA; acetylation promotes removal of chromatin-bound PCNA and ... Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include DNA-binding transcription factor activity and transcription factor ... No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CREBBP Gene ...
This protein can bind to and activate the promoter of the ARNTL (BMAL1) gene, a transcription factor central to the generation ... The transcription factor is essential for lymphoid organogenesis, in particular lymph nodes and Peyers patches, but not the ... The RORγ protein is a DNA-binding transcription factor and is a member of the NR1 subfamily of nuclear receptors. Although the ... RORγ is member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. It is mainly expressed in immune cells (Th17 cells) and ...
A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a ... A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that positively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and is a regulatory ... v-jun lacks a negative regulatory domain that regulates transcription in c-jun. ...
ETS transcription factors control transcription of EZH2 and epigenetic silencing of the tumor suppressor gene Nkx3.1 in ... Essential for the CRY1/2-mediated repression of the transcriptional activation of PER1/2 by the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer; ... EZH2 can also methylate non-histone proteins such as the transcription factor GATA4 and the nuclear receptor RORA. Regulates ... of histone H3 on PER1/2 promoters which is necessary for the CRY1/2 proteins to inhibit transcription. ...
Nuclear transcription factor Y References *↑ Kawata H, Yamada K, Shou Z, Mizutani T, Yazawa T, Yoshino M, Sekiguchi T, Kajitani ... NF-YA positively regulates the transcription of the core clock component ARNTL/BMAL1.[1] [NFYC_HUMAN] Stimulates the ... Here, we report the first peptide-derived inhibitor of the NF-Y transcription factor by first constraining the conformation of ... A peptide with fine-tuned flexibility inhibits NF-Y transcription factor assembly. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2019 Sep 20. doi: ...
ARNTL), which are encoded by core clock genes, binds directly to cis-regulatory elements, so-called E-boxes, in the Aanat ... The homeodomain transcription factor generated rhythmicity of Aanat transcription supports the classical NE/cAMP/CREB-driven ... Among these, the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor is believed to control pineal-specific Aanat expression. Based on ... In this paper, we review recent progress in our understanding of the biology of the CRX homeodomain transcription factor in the ...
Interestingly, the investigators found a gene, ARNTL, which codes for a transcription factor that suppress inflammation in mice ...
... there is growing evidence that factors affecting the biological clock, such as gene polymorphisms of the core clock machinery ... there is growing evidence that factors affecting the biological clock, such as gene polymorphisms of the core clock machinery ... thus representing a relevant factor to account for, especially when considering the individual susceptibility to disease. Mood ... and representing the behavioral correlate of a heightened sensitivity to factors influencing circannual rhythms in patients. ...
Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the ... Transcription and translation of core clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1, ARNTL2/BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1 and ... which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. Has a redundant role ... This gene is upregulated by CLOCK/ARNTL heterodimers but then represses this upregulation in a feedback loop using PER/CRY ...
... the aryl hydrogen receptor nuclear translocator-like factor ARNTL and the activating transcription factor-like factor BATF-all ... Influence of the transcription factor RORγt on the development of NKp46+ cell populations in gut and skin. Nat. Immunol. 10: 75 ... The AP-1 transcription factor Batf controls T(H)17 differentiation. Nature 460: 405-409. ... The basic leucine zipper transcription factor E4BP4 is essential for natural killer cell development. Nat. Immunol. 10: 1118- ...
... with Rev-erb alpha and that their competing activities on the same promoter element drive the rhythm in Bmal1 transcription. ... was thought to be the primary determinant of the feedback loop that regulates Bmal1 transcription. Results reported by Sato et ... ARNTL Transcription Factors; Animals; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; Biological Clocks; Humans; Nuclear Receptor ... was thought to be the primary determinant of the feedback loop that regulates Bmal1 transcription. Results reported by Sato et ...
ARNTL (or BMAL1), and NPAS2. These genes encode for the core set of transcription factors that drive rhythmic gene ... transcription throughout almost every cell of the body. ARNTL or NPAS2 polymorphisms were only associated with body weight and ... CLOCK and ARNTL polymorphisms have also been associated with bipolar disorder,2,3 antidepressant treatment response.4 and ... Moreover, an interaction between CLOCK (rs1801260) and ARNTL (rs2278749) polymorphisms predicted seasonality, suggesting the ...
  • CLOCK and BMAL1 are bHLH-PAS-containing transcription factors that bind to E-box elements and are indispensable for expression of core circadian clock components such as the Per and Cry genes. (nih.gov)
  • Transient-transfection experiments revealed that heterodimerization of CLOCK and BMAL1 accelerates their turnover, as well as E-box-dependent clock gene transcription. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, in embryonic mouse fibroblasts, robust transcription of Per2 is tightly associated with massive degradation of the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer. (nih.gov)
  • CRY proteins suppressed this process during the transcription-negative phase and led to nuclear accumulation of the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer. (nih.gov)
  • Hogenesch's later characterization of MOP3, better known as BMAL1 or ARNTL, revealed in 1998 that its role as a partner of the bHLH-PAS transcription factor CLOCK was essential to the function of the mammalian circadian clock. (wikipedia.org)
  • BMAL1 and CLOCK are now the two most well recognized bHLH-PAS domain transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • KO mouse of ARNTL (BMAL1) shows arrhythmic phenotype ( Bunger2000 ). (go.jp)
  • The CLOCK protein acts as a heterodimeric transcription factor with a partner known as BMAL1 (ARNTL). (hhmi.org)
  • The PER and CRY proteins associate and translocate into the nucleus during the evening and physically interact with the CLOCK:BMAL1 complex to repress their own transcription. (hhmi.org)
  • NF-YA positively regulates the transcription of the core clock component ARNTL/BMAL1. (uniprot.org)
  • Regulates the circadian clock by repressing the transcriptional activator activity of the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer in a CRY1/CRY2 independent manner. (uniprot.org)
  • Integral component of the complex transcription machinery that governs circadian rhythmicity and forms a critical negative limb of the circadian clock by directly repressing the expression of core clock components ARTNL/BMAL1, CLOCK and CRY1. (genecards.org)
  • Acts as a circadian transcriptional coactivator which enhances the activity of the circadian transcriptional activators: NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1 and CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimers. (genecards.org)
  • CLOCK , ARNTL (or BMAL1 ), and NPAS2 . (technologynetworks.com)
  • Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the form of a heterodimer and activate the transcription of core clock genes and clock-controlled genes (involved in key metabolic processes), harboring E-box elements (5'-CACGTG-3') within their promoters. (nih.gov)
  • This heterodimer also activates nuclear receptors NR1D1, NR1D2, RORA, RORB and RORG, which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Rev-erb alpha, through its role as a transcriptional repressor, was thought to be the primary determinant of the feedback loop that regulates Bmal1 transcription. (umassmed.edu)
  • in this issue of Neuron now show that the transactivator Rora acts coordinately with Rev-erb alpha and that their competing activities on the same promoter element drive the rhythm in Bmal1 transcription. (umassmed.edu)
  • NR1D1 and BMAL1 (zeige ARNTL Antikörper ) mRNA and protein levels were significantly reduced in OA compared to normal cartilage. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • In cultured human chondrocytes, a clear circadian rhythmicity was observed for NR1D1 and BMAL1 (zeige ARNTL Antikörper ). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • It is essential for the CRY1/2-mediated repression of the transcriptional activation of PER1/2 by the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer, involved in the di and trimethylation of Lys-27 of histone H3 on PER1/2 promoters which is necessary for the CRY1/2 proteins to inhibit transcription. (aarkstore.com)
  • BMAL1:CLOCK/NPAS2 activates transcription of CRY, PER, and several other genes in the morning. (wikipathways.org)
  • Transcription of the BMAL1 (ARNTL) gene is controlled by ROR-alpha and REV-ERBA (NR1D1), both of which are targets of BMAL1:CLOCK/NPAS2 in mice and both of which compete for the same element (RORE) in the BMAL1 promoter. (wikipathways.org)
  • REV-ERBA represses transcription of BMAL1. (wikipathways.org)
  • The mammalian circadian clock involves a transcriptional feed back loop in which CLOCK and BMAL1 activate the Period and Cryptochrome genes, which then feedback and repress their own transcription. (nih.gov)
  • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (also known as BMAL1) and its target D site-binding protein (DBP) are both pivotal transcription factors of the circadian core clock. (springer.com)
  • We used liver-specific Bmal1 (also known as Arntl )-knockout mice and recombinant adenoviruses expressing short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) specific for Dbp or Rbp4 in the liver. (springer.com)
  • The current molecular model for the circadian clock is based on a transcriptional feedback loop in which aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (BMAL1)/clock circadian regulator (CLOCK) heterodimers drive the transcription of cryptochrome 1 and 2 ( Cry1 and Cry2 ) and period circadian clock 1, 2 and 3 ( Per1 , Per2 and Per3 ) by binding to the E-boxes on their promoters. (springer.com)
  • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (ARNTL/BMAL1) is associated with bevacizumab resistance in colorectal cancer via regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor A. (rcsi.com)
  • Aryl-Hydrocarbon-Receptor-Nuclear-Translocator-Like (ARNTL/BMAL1) is a circadian clock-regulated transcription factor promoting expression of genes involved in angiogenesis and tumour progression. (rcsi.com)
  • We hypothesised that BMAL1 increases expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor A VEGFA gene and, thereby, confers resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab (Beva), a clinically used antibody for neutralization of VEGFA. (rcsi.com)
  • Phosphorylates the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer and plays a role in the regulation of the circadian clock (PubMed:22441692). (biomol.com)
  • Represses the activity of the circadian transcriptional activator: NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer (By similarity). (nih.gov)
  • In the positive loop NPAS2 (MOP4) protein [ 7 ], which plays an overlapping role with the CLOCK protein [ 8 ], pairs up with ARNTL (BMAL1 or MOP3) protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The circadian clock of mammals is constituted by the core transcription factor BMAL1/CLOCK, which rhythmically activates expression of clock genes including CRYs, PERs, REV-ERBs, and RORs. (db-engine.de)
  • Inhibition of the circadian clock is crucially dependent on the formation of repressive complexes of MYC with MIZ1 and subsequent downregulation of the core clock genes BMAL1 (ARNTL), CLOCK and NPAS2. (db-engine.de)
  • Regulates the circadian clock by repressing the transcriptional activator activity of the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer. (innatedb.com)
  • Restricts the CLOCK and ARNTL/BMAL1 localization to the cytoplasm. (innatedb.com)
  • Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL /BMAL1 in the blood vessels (By similarity). (rcsb.org)
  • The preferred binding motif for the CLOCK - ARNTL /BMAL1 heterodimer is 5'-CACGTGA-3', which contains a flanking Ala residue in addition to the canonical 6-nucleotide E-box sequence (PubMed:23229515). (rcsb.org)
  • The CLOCK - ARNTL /BMAL1 heterodimer also recognizes the non-canonical E-box motifs 5'-AACGTGA-3' and 5'-CATGTGA-3' (PubMed:23229515). (rcsb.org)
  • Plays an important role in the circadian clock function by phosphorylating ARNTL/BMAL1 at 'Ser-90' which is pivotal for its interaction with CLOCK and which controls CLOCK nuclear entry. (novoprolabs.com)
  • CLOCK has an intrinsic acetyltransferase activity, which enables circadian chromatin remodeling by acetylating histones and nonhistone proteins, including its own partner ARNTL/BMAL1. (nih.gov)
  • Human NPAS2 is a basic-helix-loop-helix (BHLH) transcription factor with two N-terminal PAS domains that forms a hetero-dimeric complex with BMAL1/ARNTL to regulate the transcription of key circadian clock genes like Period and Cryptochrome. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • Class II members include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT, also called HIF-1β), ARNT2, brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1 (BMAL1, also called ARNTL), and BMAL2 (ARNTL2). (ox.ac.uk)
  • The expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), RUNX family transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and BMAL1 in BMSCs was evaluated by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blotting. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Involved in the circadian transcription of the core circadian clock component ARNTL/BMAL1 by altering the chromatin structure around the ROR response elements (ROREs) on the ARNTL/BMAL1 promoter. (swisspalm.org)
  • CLOCK:BMAL1 dimers also drive the expression of circadian effector genes, such as those encoding transcription factors albumin d -element-binding protein (DBP) and REV-ERBα, implicated in a multitude of physiological functions ( 6 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • PER, in concert with the product of the mammalian timeless gene (TIM), negatively regulates its own transcription by blocking the activity of the CLOCK-BMAL1 transactivation complex. (thermofisher.com)
  • This CYC-CLK protein complex binds to E-box elements in promoter regions of the genes period and timeless, functioning as a transcription factor in the translation of the proteins PER and TIM. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show that cry transcription is under circadian regulation, influenced by the Drosophila clock genes period, timeless, Clock, and cycle. (nih.gov)
  • It forms a heterodimer with CLOCK to initiate transcription of target genes that contain E-box sequences, such as Period and Cryptochrome in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila, the transcription factors CLOCK (CLK) and CYCLE (CYC) activate the transcription of direct target genes like period (per) and timeless (tim). (biomedsearch.com)
  • T-box genes encode transcription factors involved in the regulation of developmental processes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Component of the sequence-specific heterotrimeric transcription factor (NF-Y) which specifically recognizes a 5'-CCAAT-3' box motif found in the promoters of its target genes. (uniprot.org)
  • The biological clock is a self-sustained mechanism able to maintain and synchronize circadian rhythms via transcription-translation feedback loops, constituted by core circadian clock genes. (springer.com)
  • NFYB_HUMAN ] Stimulates the transcription of various genes by recognizing and binding to a CCAAT motif in promoters, for example in type 1 collagen, albumin and beta-actin genes. (proteopedia.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Initiation of transcription and translation elongation at the HIV-1 LTR and TP53 Regulates Transcription of Cell Death Genes . (genecards.org)
  • These genes encode for the core set of transcription factors that drive rhythmic gene transcription throughout almost every cell of the body. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Moreover, an interaction between CLOCK (rs1801260) and ARNTL (rs2278749) polymorphisms predicted seasonality, suggesting the interaction of these genes may further contribute to SAD susceptibility. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processes, are also expressed in the mature rodent pineal gland. (hindawi.com)
  • Homeobox genes encode a large group of transcription factors involved in developmental processes throughout the animal kingdom [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we observed that the TLR5 agonist flagellin induced swift and transient transcription of genes encoding IL-17 and IL-22 in lymphoid, gut, and lung tissues. (jimmunol.org)
  • Depression and AUD are both complex disorders meaning that both genetic and environmental risk factors have an influential role, with the interplay between genes of modest effect with several environmental risk factors contributing to disease susceptibility. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • We have gained insights into the factors that can affect the production of the cuticle especially clock genes and immediate early genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This heterodimer binds E-box enhancer elements upstream of Period (PER1, PER2, PER3) and Cryptochrome (CRY1, CRY2) genes and activates transcription of these genes. (origene.com)
  • In the absence of activated GR, other transcription factors such as NF-κB or AP-1 themselves are able to transactivate target genes. (bionity.com)
  • However activated GR can complex with these other transcription factors and prevent them from binding their target genes and hence repress the expression of genes that are normally upregulated by NF-κB or AP-1. (bionity.com)
  • Zinc finger protein transcription factors can be encoded by genes small enough to fit a number of such genes into a single vector , allowing the medical intervention and control of expression of multiple genes and the initiation of an elaborate cascade of events. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this respect, it is also possible to target a sequence that is common to multiple (usually functionally related) genes in order to control the transcription of all these genes with a single transcription factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, it is possible to target a family of related genes by targeting and modulating the expression of the endogenous transcription factor(s) that control(s) them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only 22% of messenger RNA (mRNA) cycling genes are driven by de novo transcription, suggesting that both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms underlie the mammalian circadian clock. (nih.gov)
  • This core clock machinery regulates the rhythmic expression of downstream genes, largely by coordinating with other transcription factors, including their direct targets (e.g. (springer.com)
  • Transcription factor cebpb is regulated by the Clock-Arntl/Bmal heterodimer and induces autophagy rhythms in zebrafish and mice, while Nr1d1 directly controls autophagy genes through RORE. (zfin.org)
  • Sirt1 is required for high-magnitude circadian transcription of several core clock genes. (denigma.de)
  • It deacetylates Per2, Arntl and histones of clock-controlled genes [ 18662546 ]. (denigma.de)
  • In order to extend the applicability of gene therapy, the scientific community is focusing on discovery of additional deafness genes, identifying new genetic variants associated with hearing loss, and revealing new factors that can be manipulated in a coordinated manner to improve hair cell regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, we searched for enrichment of transcription factor binding motifs in genes differentially expressed between the tissues and between developmental ages of mouse sensory epithelium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Responding to cues (stimuli), these transcription factors turn on/off the transcription of the appropriate genes which in turn allows for changes in cell morphology or activities needed for cell fate determination and cellular differentiation . (wikidoc.org)
  • If the signal requires upregulation or downregulation of genes in the recipient cell, often transcription factors will be downstream in the signaling cascade. (wikidoc.org)
  • Examples include heat shock factor (HSF) which upregulates genes necessary for survival at higher temperatures, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) which upregulates genes necessary for cell survival in low oxygen environments, and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) which helps maintain proper lipid levels in the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • The encoded protein forms both homodimers and heterodimers that bind to DNA E box sequences and regulate the transcription of genes involved in cranial suture closure during skull development. (nih.gov)
  • The D-box-specific transcription factors E4BP, DBP, TEF and, HLF additionally contribute to the regulation of specific clock genes. (db-engine.de)
  • Transcription induced inactivation of promoters/transcriptional memory mRNA transcripts are often present at only a few copies per cell and many genes are transcribed in bursts, with brief periods of high activity interspersed by long periods of inactivity. (db-engine.de)
  • CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) [1] is a cellular transcription factor that binds to certain DNA sequences called cAMP response elements (CRE), thereby increasing or decreasing the transcription of the genes. (wikiversity.org)
  • In the nucleus the complex acts as transcription factors , augmenting or suppressing transcription of particular genes by its action on DNA. (chemeurope.com)
  • Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. (rcsb.org)
  • Interacts with NCOA6 coactivator, leading to a strong increase in transcription of target genes. (rcsb.org)
  • In mammals, several genes that encode members of the basic helix-loop helix (bHLH) PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) transcription factor family have been shown to play a significant role in regulating circadian oscillations. (thermofisher.com)
  • CLOCK forms heterodimer with ARNTL(BMAL) . (go.jp)
  • Activates transcription as a heterodimer with E proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The heterodimer with the retinoic acid receptor RXRA is called adipocyte-specific transcription factor ARF6 . (rcsb.org)
  • ARNTL 2/BMAL2 heterodimer inhibiting its activity and thereby negatively regulating their own expression. (rcsb.org)
  • The CLOCK - ARNTL 2/BMAL2 heterodimer activates the transcription of SERPINE1 /PAI1 and BHLHE40 / DEC1 . (rcsb.org)
  • The TIM protein in these complexes mediate the accumulation of the dimeric PER-TIM protein complex and their subsequent importation into the nucleus, where the PER protein in these complexes then mediates the release of CYC-CLK from the chromatin, repressing CYC-CLK dependent transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation thus occurs primarily through the negative feedback by the PER-TIM protein complex in the transcription-translation feedback loop described above. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1999 Hogenesch completed a Ph.D. in Neuroscience at Northwestern University's Chicago campus, studying transcription factors with basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) and PAS protein domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein is a ligand-sensitive transcription factor that negatively regulates the expression of core clock proteins. (genecards.org)
  • In particular this protein represses the circadian clock transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (ARNTL). (genecards.org)
  • First isolated as a nuclear protein that binds to cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), this gene is now known to play critical roles in embryonic development, growth control, and homeostasis by coupling chromatin remodeling to transcription factor recognition. (genecards.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity and also acts as a scaffold to stabilize additional protein interactions with the transcription complex. (genecards.org)
  • Zinc finger transcription factors or ZF-TFs , are transcription factors composed of a zinc finger - binding domain and any of a variety of transcription-factor effector-domains that exert their modulatory effect in the vicinity of any sequence to which the protein domain binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the field of molecular biology , a transcription factor (sometimes called a sequence-specific DNA binding factor) is a protein that binds to specific parts of DNA using DNA binding domains and is part of the system that controls the transfer (or transcription ) of genetic information from DNA to RNA . (wikidoc.org)
  • Transcription factors perform this function alone, or by using other proteins in a complex, by increasing (as an activator ), or preventing (as a repressor ) the presence of RNA polymerase , a protein which transcribes genetic information. (wikidoc.org)
  • This is just as true with transcription: not only do rates of transcription regulate the amounts of gene products (RNA and protein) available to the cell, but the process of transcription itself is regulated. (wikidoc.org)
  • Transcription factor synthesis Transcription factors (like all proteins) are transcribed from a gene on a chromosome into RNA, and then the RNA is translated into protein. (wikidoc.org)
  • Promotes stressed cell apoptosis by phosphorylating key regulatory factors including p53/TP53 and Yes-associates protein YAP1. (jensenlab.org)
  • Phosphorylates several other substrates including heat shock factor protein 4 (HSF4), the deacetylase SIRT1, ELK1, or the E3 ligase ITCH. (jensenlab.org)
  • JSAP1, a novel jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-binding protein that functions as a scaffold factor in the JNK signaling pathway. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • JLP: a scaffolding protein that tethers JNK/p38MAPK signaling modules and transcription factors. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • It inactivates the transcription factor via phosphorylation by CK1a and thereby inhibits synthesis of frq RNA and FRQ protein in a negative feedback. (db-engine.de)
  • The protein encodes a transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family and contains DNA binding histone acetyltransferase activity. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • We study ligand-dependent transcription factors, with a current focus on the human basic Helix Loop Helix-PAS (bHLH-PAS) protein family. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The encoded protein can interact with ARNTL or compete for E-box binding sites in the promoter of PER1 and repress CLOCK/ARNTL's transactivation of PER1. (senescence.info)
  • Using the western blot analysis, we determined the expressions of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and factors related to the neurogenesis and memory consolidation, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine kinase B, p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinas B, protein kinase C alpha, early-growth-response gene 1. (einj.org)
  • Orthologs performing the same function in other species include ARNTL and ARNTL2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our findings link circadian gene variants to the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome, since Npas2 was associated with hypertension (P-value corrected for multiple testing = 0.0024) and Per2 was associated with high fasting blood glucose (P-value corrected for multiple testing = 0.049). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The homeodomain recognizes specific DNA binding sites and thereby enables the homeodomain proteins to function as transcription factors [ 2 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • EZH2 methylates non-histone proteins such as the transcription factor GATA4 and the nuclear receptor RORA. (aarkstore.com)
  • PER and CRY proteins heterodimerize and repress their own transcription by interacting in a feedback loop with CLOCK/ARNTL complexes. (origene.com)
  • CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that are composed of six members C/EBP α to C/EBP ζ. (bionity.com)
  • Transcription factors are one of the groups of proteins that read and interpret the genetic "blueprint" in the DNA. (wikidoc.org)
  • involved in the di and trimethylation of 'Lys-27' of histone H3 on PER1/2 promoters which is necessary for the CRY1/2 proteins to inhibit transcription. (selfdecode.com)
  • Upon binding by the hormone the receptor undergoes a conformational change, the heat shock proteins come off, and the receptor together the with bound hormone enter the nucleus to act upon transcription. (chemeurope.com)
  • We have recently reported a series of crystal structures showing the bHLH-PAS proteins comprise a distinct family of ligand-binding transcription factors in mammals. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The glucocorticoid receptor ( GR ) also known as NR3C1 ( nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that binds with high affinity to cortisol and other glucocorticoids . (bionity.com)
  • CLOCK specifically binds to the half-site 5'-CAC-3', while ARNTL binds to the half-site 5'-GTGA-3' (PubMed:23229515). (rcsb.org)
  • Rhythmic expression of ARNTL was mediated by RORE sequences in the promoter (Preitner2002) . (go.jp)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include DNA-binding transcription factor activity and RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding . (genecards.org)
  • Challenging the frequency ( frq ) promoter with consecutive light pulses revealed that the promoter supports transcription of ~1 mRNA molecule and then becomes refractory towards further activation for about 45 min. (db-engine.de)
  • The diagram shows an overview of the four core promoter elements B recognition element (BRE), TATA box , initiator element (Inr), and downstream promoter element (DPE), with their respective consensus sequences and their distance from the transcription start site . (wikiversity.org)
  • This gene is upregulated by CLOCK/ARNTL heterodimers but then represses this upregulation in a feedback loop using PER/CRY heterodimers to interact with CLOCK/ARNTL. (nih.gov)
  • The different members of C/EBP family can form homodimers, heterodimers with another form of the C/EBPs and with other transcription factors that may or may not contain the leucine zipper domain. (bionity.com)
  • Transcriptional regulator (lacking a basic DNA binding domain) which negatively regulates the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors by forming heterodimers and inhibiting their DNA binding and transcriptional activity. (innatedb.com)
  • CLOCK-ARNT3 heterodimers bind to E box regulatory elements and stimulate gene transcription. (thermofisher.com)
  • It is involved in controlling both the sleep-wake cycle and circadian regulation of gene expression by promoting transcription in a negative feedback mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription for circadianly regulated mRNA shows regular peaks in morning and evening, which then has implications for the regulation of drug targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The E2F transcription factors are essential for regulation of the cell cycle. (creativebiomart.net)
  • In this paper, we review recent progress in our understanding of the biology of the CRX homeodomain transcription factor in the rodent pineal gland and propose a revised working model for the function of homeodomain transcription factors in regulation of rodent pineal Aanat transcription. (hindawi.com)
  • The regulation of C/EBPβ is exerted in many manners, phosphorylation , acetylation , activation and repression via others transcription factors, oncogenic elements or chemokines , autoregulation, etc. (bionity.com)
  • Consisting of about 110 amino acids , the domain in winged-helix transcription factors (see Regulation of gene expression ) has four helices and a two-strand beta-sheet . (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that enhancers can act as transcriptional units for the production of enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), which are hallmarks of activity enhancers and are involved in the regulation of gene transcription. (jcancer.org)
  • MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. (biomol.com)
  • Basal transcription regulation In eukaryotes , an important class of transcription factors called general transcription factors (GTFs) are necessary for transcription to occur. (wikidoc.org)
  • Taken together with the facts that usp8 mRNA cycles and that its transcription is activated directly by CLK/CYC, USP8, like PER and TIM, contributes to the transcriptional feedback loop cycle that underlies circadian rhythms. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Regulates the alternative splicing of tissue factor (F3) pre-mRNA in endothelial cells. (swisspalm.org)
  • Cycle is primarily known for its role in the genetic transcription-translation feedback loop that generates circadian rhythms in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significant heritability of sleepiness, usual bedtime, and usual sleep duration has been discovered [ 9 ], which suggests that genetic factors may make some individuals more susceptible to sleep disturbance. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Lifespan factors often but not always originate from defined genetic elements. (denigma.de)
  • There was also some evidence of interaction between TIMELESS and PER1 in females to D+FAT+ as well as between TIMELESS and ARNTL, RORA or NR1D1 in males to D+EMA+. (cdc.gov)
  • CLOCK and ARNTL polymorphisms have also been associated with bipolar disorder, 2,3 antidepressant treatment response. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The high hereditary factor of Bipolar Disorder has been proven by many twin-, adoption- and family-studies already decades ago. (peterlang.com)
  • ARNTL or NPAS2 polymorphisms were only associated with body weight and appetite subscales, respectively, which do differ from previous studies reporting significant associations with winter depression. (technologynetworks.com)
  • BHLHE40, 41 and CWO bind to E-Box and suppress transcription by CLOCK/ARNTL. (go.jp)
  • Expression of frq is controlled by the heterodimeric transcription factor White Collar Complex (WCC), which activates clock-controlled frq transcription. (db-engine.de)
  • The circadian clock is cell-autonomous and some, but not all cells of the body exhibit circadian rhythms in metabolism, cell division, and gene transcription. (wikipathways.org)
  • A direct mechanism of action involves homodimerization of the receptor, translocation via active transport into the nucleus , and binding to specific DNA responsive elements activating gene transcription . (bionity.com)
  • Ding M, Liu Y, Liao X, Zhan H, Liu Y, Huang W. Enhancer RNAs (eRNAs): New Insights into Gene Transcription and Disease Treatment. (jcancer.org)
  • Enhancers are cis-regulatory elements that bind to specific transcription factors to enhance corresponding gene transcription regardless of their orientation and location relative to the promoters [ 5 ] . (jcancer.org)
  • Although we have not yet fully understood the molecular mechanisms of eRNAs and their roles in gene transcription, mounting evidence suggests that the abnormal expressions of eRNAs are closely related to various human diseases. (jcancer.org)
  • They bind DNA and help initiate a program of increased or decreased gene transcription. (wikidoc.org)
  • The CRE boxes are gene transcription factors (TF). (wikiversity.org)
  • The 9aaTAD motif is a transactivation domain present in a large number of yeast and animal transcription factors. (rcsb.org)
  • We have interrogated the transcriptional architecture of the circadian transcriptional regulatory loop on a genome scale in mouse liver and find a stereotyped, time-dependent pattern of transcription factor binding, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment, RNA expression, and chromatin states. (nih.gov)
  • Promotes rhythmic chromatin opening, regulating the DNA accessibility of other transcription factors. (rcsb.org)
  • Using a combined approach of positional cloning and transgenic (functional) rescue of the Clock mutation in mice, we found that the Clock gene encodes a novel member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS family of transcription factors. (hhmi.org)
  • This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the nuclear receptor subfamily 1. (genecards.org)
  • This gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that plays an important role in embryonic development. (nih.gov)
  • PIT1 is a pituitary-specific transcription factor responsible for pituitary development and hormone expression in mammals and is a member of the POU family of transcription factors that regulate mammalian development. (wikidoc.org)
  • Cell cycle control Many transcription factors, especially some that are oncogenes or tumor suppressors , help regulate the cell cycle and as such determine how large a cell will get and when it can divide into two daughter cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • The cyc gene is located on the left arm of chromosome 3 and codes for a transcription factor containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and a PAS domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, the investigators found a gene, ARNTL, which codes for a transcription factor that suppress inflammation in mice that was much more active in the summer and less in the winter. (genengnews.com)
  • In turn, MAPK9/JNK2 phosphorylates a number of transcription factors, primarily components of AP-1 such as JUN and ATF2 and thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. (biomol.com)
  • Phosphorylates the replication licensing factor CDT1, inhibiting the interaction between CDT1 and the histone H4 acetylase HBO1 to replication origins. (jensenlab.org)
  • Phosphorylates the heat shock transcription factor HSF1, suppressing HSF1-induced transcriptional activity. (jensenlab.org)
  • The peripheral clocks can also be entrained independently by different factors such as external nutritional, hormonal and chemical cues that in many cases come from ligand modulation of nuclear receptors and kinase activators. (omicsonline.org)
  • They also have the advantage that the targeted sequence need not be symmetrical unlike with most other DNA-binding motifs based on natural transcription factors that bind as dimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these GTFs don't actually bind DNA but are part of the large transcription preinitiation complex that interacts with RNA polymerase directly. (wikidoc.org)
  • We describe here the role of ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) in circadian transcriptional repression as well as the importance of CLK ubiquitylation in CLK/CYC transcription activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2004). "Attenuation of HIV-1 replication in primary human cells with a designed zinc finger transcription factor" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrogen signaling is an example of a fairly short signaling cascade that involves the estrogen receptor transcription factor: estrogen is secreted by tissues such as the ovaries and placenta , crosses the cell membrane of the recipient cell, and is bound by the estrogen receptor in the cell's cytoplasm . (wikidoc.org)