A genus of root and butt rot fungi in the family Tricholomataceae that produce rhizomorphs and are facultatively parasitic. Many species are pathogenic to trees causing Armillaria root disease.
A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE which depends on the fungus Armillaria mellea to complete its life cycle. It is an ingredient of Zhenxuanyin (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).
Several plant species of the genus VACCINIUM known for the edible blueberry fruit.
An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.

Survival of plant pathogens in static piles of ground green waste. (1/12)


Genetic diversity of Armillaria spp. infecting highbush blueberry in northern Italy (Trentino region). (2/12)


Armillaria mellea induces a set of defense genes in grapevine roots and one of them codifies a protein with antifungal activity. (3/12)


Taxonomy of Armillaria in the Patagonian forests of Argentina. (4/12)

The taxonomy of Armillaria in southern South America has received little attention since the work of Singer and others. In this study we examine the morphological traits and cultural features for taxa representing the lineages revealed based on molecular phylogeny, and we link them to previously described taxa based on morphology. Lineages I-IV were identified as Armillaria novae-zelandiae, A. montagnei, A. umbrinobrunnea comb. nov. and A. sparrei respectively. They could be differentiated morphologically based on dimension, features of the epicutis, annulus, stipe, hymenophoral trama and flavor and characteristics in culture. Furthermore there was no evidence of host preference for the species recognized. This is the first study integrating the phylogeny and morphology of Armillaria species from Patagonia, and it provides a foundation for future research on these fungi in South America.  (+info)

Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and population structure of Armillaria mellea sensu stricto in the eastern and western United States. (5/12)


Sequence-based identification of Japanese Armillaria species using the elongation factor-1 alpha gene. (6/12)

We analyzed the sequences of three DNA regions-the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and intergenic spacer (IGS) regions of ribosomal DNA-to compare their accuracy in identifying species of Japanese Armillaria. We studied 49 isolates of eight Armillaria species, A. mellea, A. ostoyae, A. nabsnona, A. cepistipes, A. gallica, A. sinapina, A. tabescens and the biological species Nagasawa E (Nag. E). Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS and IGS data helped in identifying A. mellea, A. ostoyae, A. nabsnona, A. tabescens and Nag. E but could not be used to identify A. gallica, A. cepistipes and A. sinapina. Nevertheless our analysis showed that the EF-1 alpha gene was clearly different in the eight examined species. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of the IGS-1 region could be used to distinguish most species, but the RFLP profiles of some isolates of A. cepistipes and A. sinapina were the same even with four different restriction enzymes. In conclusion, among the techniques examined in this study, analyzing the EF-1 alpha sequence was found to be the most suitable method for identifying different species of Japanese Armillaria.  (+info)

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation for investigation of somatic recombination in the fungal pathogen Armillaria mellea. (7/12)


Cloning and characterization of an Armillaria gallica cDNA encoding protoilludene synthase, which catalyzes the first committed step in the synthesis of antimicrobial melleolides. (8/12)


Armillaria is a genus of fungi that includes several species commonly known as honey mushrooms or ringless honey mushrooms. These fungi are known for their characteristic yellow-brown to honey-colored caps and white, stringy rhizomorphs, which resemble shoestrings, that grow underground and help the fungus spread.

Armillaria species can be parasitic or saprophytic, meaning they can live off of other organisms (such as trees) either by killing them or by breaking down dead organic matter. Some species of Armillaria are known to cause a disease called armillaria root rot, which affects a wide range of plants and trees, including forest trees, ornamental shrubs, and agricultural crops.

In addition to their ecological significance, some species of Armillaria are also edible and considered a delicacy in certain cuisines. However, care must be taken to properly identify the fungi before consuming them, as some species can cause gastrointestinal symptoms if eaten.

Gastrodia is the name of a genus of plants, but in a medical context, "Gastrodia" most commonly refers to Gastrodia elata, a species of orchid that is native to China and other parts of East Asia. This plant has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries to treat various conditions, including headaches, seizures, and nervous disorders.

The primary active component of Gastrodia is thought to be gastrodin, a phenolic glycoside that has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects in laboratory studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the medicinal properties of this plant and its potential therapeutic uses.

It's important to note that while Gastrodia has a long history of use in traditional medicine, it should not be used as a substitute for modern medical treatment. If you are considering using Gastrodia or any other herbal supplement, it's important to talk to your healthcare provider first to ensure that it is safe and appropriate for your individual health needs.

A blueberry plant (Vaccinium spp.) is a shrub that belongs to the heath family (Ericaceae) and is known for its small, round, blue-purple berries. The term "blueberry plant" generally refers to several species within the genus Vaccinium that produce edible fruits, including highbush blueberries (V. corymbosum), lowbush blueberries (V. angustifolium), and rabbiteye blueberries (V. ashei). These plants are native to North America and can be found growing in woodlands, swamps, and sandy areas.

Blueberry plants have simple, elliptical leaves that are typically green in color but may turn red or yellow in the fall. The flowers of blueberry plants are bell-shaped and range in color from white to pink. The fruit is a small berry that contains numerous tiny seeds and is rich in antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals.

Blueberry plants are popular for their delicious fruits, which can be eaten fresh or used in a variety of culinary applications, such as pies, jams, and smoothies. The plants are also grown for ornamental purposes due to their attractive flowers and foliage. Blueberry plants prefer acidic soil with a pH between 4.0 and 5.5 and require consistent moisture and well-drained conditions to thrive.

Agaricales is an order of fungi that includes mushrooms, toadstools, and other gilled fungi. These fungi are characterized by their distinctive fruiting bodies, which have a cap (pileus) and stem (stipe), and gills (lamellae) on the underside of the cap where the spores are produced. Agaricales contains many well-known and economically important genera, such as Agaricus (which includes the common button mushroom), Amanita (which includes the deadly "death cap" mushroom), and Coprinus (which includes the inky cap mushrooms). The order was established by the Swedish mycologist Elias Magnus Fries in 1821.

Mycelium is not a specifically medical term, but it is a biological term used in fungi and other organisms. Medically, it might be relevant in certain contexts such as discussing fungal infections. Here's the general definition:

Mycelium (my-SEE-lee-um) is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. It is the underground portion of the fungus that supports the growth of the organism and is often responsible for the decomposition of organic material. Mycelium can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and dead or living organisms.

A fruiting body, in the context of mycology (the study of fungi), refers to the part of a fungus that produces spores for sexual or asexual reproduction. These structures are often what we typically think of as mushrooms or toadstools, although not all fungal fruiting bodies resemble these familiar forms.

Fungal fruiting bodies can vary greatly in size, shape, and color, depending on the species of fungus. They may be aboveground, like the caps and stalks of mushrooms, or underground, like the tiny, thread-like structures known as "corals" in some species.

The primary function of a fruiting body is to produce and disperse spores, which can give rise to new individuals when they germinate under favorable conditions. The development of a fruiting body is often triggered by environmental factors such as moisture, temperature, and nutrient availability.

Basidiomycota is a phylum in the kingdom Fungi that consists of organisms commonly known as club fungi or club mushrooms. The name Basidiomycota is derived from the presence of a characteristic reproductive structure called a basidium, which is where spores are produced.

The basidiomycetes include many familiar forms such as mushrooms, toadstools, bracket fungi, and other types of polypores. They have a complex life cycle that involves both sexual and asexual reproduction. The sexual reproductive stage produces a characteristic fruiting body, which may be microscopic or highly visible, depending on the species.

Basidiomycota fungi play important ecological roles in decomposing organic matter, forming mutualistic relationships with plants, and acting as parasites on other organisms. Some species are economically important, such as edible mushrooms, while others can be harmful or even deadly to humans and animals.

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