Armillaria: A genus of root and butt rot fungi in the family Tricholomataceae that produce rhizomorphs and are facultatively parasitic. Many species are pathogenic to trees causing Armillaria root disease.Gastrodia: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE which depends on the fungus Armillaria mellea to complete its life cycle. It is an ingredient of Zhenxuanyin (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).Blueberry Plant: Several plant species of the genus VACCINIUM known for the edible blueberry fruit.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Polyporus: A genus of basidiomyceteous fungi in the family POLYPORACEAE found mostly on living trees or dead wood.Gastrodia: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE which depends on the fungus Armillaria mellea to complete its life cycle. It is an ingredient of Zhenxuanyin (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Blueberry Plant: Several plant species of the genus VACCINIUM known for the edible blueberry fruit.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Larix: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Balsams: Resinous substances which most commonly originate from trees. In addition to resins, they contain oils, cinnamic acid and BENZOIC ACID.Picea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Thuja: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Acer: A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Maple Syrup Urine Disease: An autosomal recessive inherited disorder with multiple forms of phenotypic expression, caused by a defect in the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BRANCHED-CHAIN). These metabolites accumulate in body fluids and render a "maple syrup" odor. The disease is divided into classic, intermediate, intermittent, and thiamine responsive subtypes. The classic form presents in the first week of life with ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, emesis, neonatal seizures, and hypertonia. The intermediate and intermittent forms present in childhood or later with acute episodes of ataxia and vomiting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p936)PanamaRivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Saxifragaceae: The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.

Survival of plant pathogens in static piles of ground green waste. (1/12)

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Genetic diversity of Armillaria spp. infecting highbush blueberry in northern Italy (Trentino region). (2/12)

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Armillaria mellea induces a set of defense genes in grapevine roots and one of them codifies a protein with antifungal activity. (3/12)

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Taxonomy of Armillaria in the Patagonian forests of Argentina. (4/12)

The taxonomy of Armillaria in southern South America has received little attention since the work of Singer and others. In this study we examine the morphological traits and cultural features for taxa representing the lineages revealed based on molecular phylogeny, and we link them to previously described taxa based on morphology. Lineages I-IV were identified as Armillaria novae-zelandiae, A. montagnei, A. umbrinobrunnea comb. nov. and A. sparrei respectively. They could be differentiated morphologically based on dimension, features of the epicutis, annulus, stipe, hymenophoral trama and flavor and characteristics in culture. Furthermore there was no evidence of host preference for the species recognized. This is the first study integrating the phylogeny and morphology of Armillaria species from Patagonia, and it provides a foundation for future research on these fungi in South America.  (+info)

Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and population structure of Armillaria mellea sensu stricto in the eastern and western United States. (5/12)

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Sequence-based identification of Japanese Armillaria species using the elongation factor-1 alpha gene. (6/12)

We analyzed the sequences of three DNA regions-the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and intergenic spacer (IGS) regions of ribosomal DNA-to compare their accuracy in identifying species of Japanese Armillaria. We studied 49 isolates of eight Armillaria species, A. mellea, A. ostoyae, A. nabsnona, A. cepistipes, A. gallica, A. sinapina, A. tabescens and the biological species Nagasawa E (Nag. E). Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS and IGS data helped in identifying A. mellea, A. ostoyae, A. nabsnona, A. tabescens and Nag. E but could not be used to identify A. gallica, A. cepistipes and A. sinapina. Nevertheless our analysis showed that the EF-1 alpha gene was clearly different in the eight examined species. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of the IGS-1 region could be used to distinguish most species, but the RFLP profiles of some isolates of A. cepistipes and A. sinapina were the same even with four different restriction enzymes. In conclusion, among the techniques examined in this study, analyzing the EF-1 alpha sequence was found to be the most suitable method for identifying different species of Japanese Armillaria.  (+info)

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation for investigation of somatic recombination in the fungal pathogen Armillaria mellea. (7/12)

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Cloning and characterization of an Armillaria gallica cDNA encoding protoilludene synthase, which catalyzes the first committed step in the synthesis of antimicrobial melleolides. (8/12)

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*Armillaria

Dessureault VI Armillaria mellea (Vahl.:Fries) Kummer VII Armillaria gallica (Marxmüller & Romagn.) IX Armillaria nabsnona T.J ... I Armillaria ostoyae (Romagn.) Herink II Armillaria gemina Bérubé & Dessureault III Armillaria calvescens Bérubé & Dessureault ... Armillaria root rot Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Kummer. p. 37-38 in Davidson, A.G.; Prentice, R.M. (Compilers and Eds.). ... Armillaria ostoyae is the species most commonly found in all Canadian provinces surveyed (Mallett 1990). Armillaria root rot ...

*Armillaria ectypa

List of Armillaria species Svetasheva T. (2015). "Armillaria ectypa". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2015). doi: ... Armillaria ectypa is a species of mushroom in the family Physalacriaceae. Commonly known as the marsh honey fungus, it prefers ... "GSD Species Synonymy: Armillaria ectypa (Fr.) Lamoure". CAB International. Species Fungorum. Retrieved 2015-12-14. "Action plan ... for Armillaria ectypa". UK Biodiversity Plan. 1999. Retrieved 2009-04-17. ...

*Armillaria apalosclera

List of Armillaria species Chandra A, Watling R. (1982). "Indian Armillaria Basidiomycotina". Kavaka. 10: 63-84. Pegler DN. ( ... 2000). "Taxonomy, nomenclature and description of Armillaria". In Fox RTV. Armillaria Root Rot: Biology and Control of Honey ... Armillaria apalosclerus is a species of mushroom in the Physalacriaceae family. This species is found in Asia. ...

*Armillaria viridiflava

Armillaria Root Rot: Biology and Control of Honey Fungus. Intercept. pp. 81-93. ISBN 1-898298-64-5. Armillaria viridiflava in ... List of Armillaria species Volk TJ, Burdsall HH Jr. (1995). "A nomenclatural study of Armillaria and Armillariella species ( ... Armillaria viridiflava is a species of agaric fungus in the family Physalacriaceae. This species is found in South America. ... 2000). "Taxonomy, nomenclature and description of Armillaria". In Fox RTV. ...

*Armillaria camerunensis

Armillaria Root Rot: Biology and Control of Honey Fungus. Intercept. pp. 81-93. ISBN 1-898298-64-5. Armillaria camerunensis in ... Armillaria camerunensis is a species of agaric fungus in the family Physalacriaceae. This species is found in Africa. List of ... 2000). "Taxonomy, nomenclature and description of Armillaria". In Fox RTV. ... Armillaria species Courtecuisse R. (1995). "Taxonomy of some fungi used by the Songola people (Zaïre)". African Study ...

*Armillaria griseomellea

List of Armillaria species Kile GA, Watling R., G.A.; Watling, R. (1983). "Armillaria species from southeastern Australia". ... 2000). "Taxonomy, nomenclature and description of Armillaria". In Fox RTV. Armillaria Root Rot: Biology and Control of Honey ... Armillaria griseomellea is a species of mushroom in the Physalacriaceae family. This species is found in South America. ...

*Armillaria procera

Armillaria Root Rot: Biology and Control of Honey Fungus. Intercept. pp. 81-93. ISBN 1-898298-64-5. Armillaria procera in Index ... Armillaria procera is a species of agaric fungus in the family Physalacriaceae. This species is found in South America. List of ... 2000). "Taxonomy, nomenclature and description of Armillaria". In Fox RTV. ... Armillaria species Spegazzini C. (1889). "Fungi Puiggariani. Pugillus 1". Boletín, Academia nacional de Ciencias, Córdoba. 11 ( ...

*Armillaria yungensis

List of Armillaria species Herink J. (1973). "Taxonomie václavky obecné - Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Kumm". In Hasek J. ... Armillaria Root Rot: Biology and Control of Honey Fungus. Intercept. pp. 81-93. ISBN 1-898298-64-5. Armillaria yungensis in ... Armillaria yungensis is a species of agaric fungus in the family Physalacriaceae. This species is found in South America. ... 2000). "Taxonomy, nomenclature and description of Armillaria". In Fox RTV. ...

*Armillaria fuscipes

... is a plant pathogen that causes Armillaria root rot on Pinus, coffee plants, tea and various hardwood trees ... List of Armillaria species List of bioluminescent fungi Identification of the Armillaria root rot pathogen in Ethiopian ... 2015). "Bioluminescence patterns among North American Armillaria species". Fungal Biology. 119 (6): 528-537. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*Armillaria montagnei

List of Armillaria species Herink J. (1973). "Taxonomie václavky obecné - Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Kumm". In Hasek J. ... 2000). "Taxonomy, nomenclature and description of Armillaria". In Fox RTV. Armillaria Root Rot: Biology and Control of Honey ... Armillaria montagnei is a species of agaric fungus in the family Physalacriaceae. This species is found in Australia, Europe, ... ISBN 1-898298-64-5. Pildain MB, Coetzee MPA, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ (2010). "Taxonomy of Armillaria in the Patagonian ...

*Armillaria pelliculata

Armillaria Root Rot: Biology and Control of Honey Fungus. Intercept. pp. 81-93. ISBN 1-898298-64-5. Armillaria pelliculata in ... Armillaria pelliculata is a species of agaric fungus in the family Physalacriaceae. This species is found in Africa. List of ... "Synonymy: Armillaria pelliculata Beeli, Bull. Soc. R. Bot. Belg. 59: 111 (1927)". Index Fungorum. CAB International. Retrieved ... 2000). "Taxonomy, nomenclature and description of Armillaria". In Fox RTV. ...

*Armillaria singula

... is a species of agaric fungus in the family Physalacriaceae. It is found in Asia. List of Armillaria species ... Armillaria Root Rot: Biology and Control of Honey Fungus. Intercept. pp. 81-93. ISBN 1-898298-64-5. Armillaria singula in Index ... "Morphological characterization of Armillaria ostoyae and Armillaria sinapina sp. nov". Canadian Journal of Botany. 66 (10): ... 2000). "Taxonomy, nomenclature and description of Armillaria". In Fox RTV. ...

*Armillaria omnituens

... is a species of mushroom in the family Physalacriaceae. This species is found in Asia. List of Armillaria ... Armillaria Root Rot: Biology and Control of Honey Fungus. Intercept. pp. 81-93. ISBN 978-1-898298-64-9. Armillaria omnituens in ... 2000). "Taxonomy, nomenclature and description of Armillaria". In Fox RTV. ...

*Armillaria heimii

David Pegler transferred it to the genus Armillaria in 1977. List of Armillaria species List of tea diseases Heim R. (1963). " ... Armillaria heimii is a species of fungus in the family Physalacriaceae that is found in East Africa. It causes root rot in tea ...

*Armillaria altimontana

List of Armillaria species Brazee NJ, Ortiz-Santana B, Banik MT, Lindner DL (2012). "Armillaria altimontana, a new species from ... Armillaria altimontana is a species of agaric fungus in the family Physalacriaceae. The species, found in the Pacific Northwest ...

*Armillaria melleorubens

2000). "Taxonomy, nomenclature and description of Armillaria". In Fox RTV. Armillaria Root Rot: Biology and Control of Honey ... Armillaria melleorubens is a species of mushroom in the Physalacriaceae family. This species is found in Central America. List ... of Armillaria species Saccardo PA. (1887). "Sylloge Hymenomycetum, Vol. I. Agaricineae". Sylloge Fungorum. 5: 1-1146. Pegler DN ...

*Armillaria duplicata

... is a species of mushroom in the Physalacriaceae family. This species is found in Asia. List of Armillaria ... 2000). "Taxonomy, nomenclature and description of Armillaria". In Fox RTV. Armillaria Root Rot: Biology and Control of Honey ...

*Armillaria calvescens

List of Armillaria species List of bioluminescent fungi Tom Volk. "Key to North American Armillaria species". Archived from the ... Armillaria calvescens is a species of mushroom in the family Physalacriaceae. Similar in appearance to Armillaria gallica, this ... 2015). "Bioluminescence patterns among North American Armillaria species". Fungal Biology. 119 (6): 528-537. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*Armillaria hinnulea

List of Armillaria species Kile, G.A.; Watling, R. (1983). "Armillaria species from south-eastern Australia". Transactions of ... Armillaria hinnulea is a species of mushroom in the Physalacriaceae family. This rare species is found only in Australia and ... doi:10.1016/S0007-1536(83)80212-5. Ramsfield TD, Power MW, Ridley GS (2008). "A comparison of populations of Armillaria ...

*Armillaria paulensis

List of Armillaria species Lima MLA. Asai T, Capelari M., ML; Asai, T; Capelari, M (2008). "Armillaria paulensis: a new South ... Armillaria paulensis is a species of mushroom in the Physalacriaceae family. This species is found in South America. ...

*Armillaria cepistipes

List of Armillaria species "Armillaria cepistipes". Natural Resources Canada: Canadian Forest Service. 2009. Archived from the ... Armillaria cepistipes is a species of mushroom in the family Physalacriaceae. This is a weakly plant pathogenic species that is ... 2015). "Bioluminescence patterns among North American Armillaria species". Fungal Biology. 119 (6): 528-537. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*Armillaria ostoyae

... (sometimes called Armillaria solidipes) is a species of plant pathogenic fungus in the Physalacriaceae ... "CTD-Root Disease: Armillaria Root Disease". Forestry Development. 19 March 2009. Retrieved 7 Dec 2010. "Armillaria Root Rot, ... Burdsall, H. H.; Volk, T. J. (2008). "Armillaria solidipes, an older name for the fungus called Armillaria ostoyae" (PDF). ... Armillaria ostoyae) against Agaricus obscurus, Agaricus occultans, and Armillaria solidipes (Basidiomycota)". Taxon. 60 (6): ...

*Armillaria tigrensis

List of Armillaria species Volk TJ, Burdsall HH Jr. (1995). "A nomenclatural study of Armillaria and Armillariella species ( ... 2000). "Taxonomy, nomenclature and description of Armillaria". In Fox RTV. Armillaria Root Rot: Biology and Control of Honey ... Armillaria tigrensis is a species of mushroom in the Physalacriaceae family. This species is found in South America. ...

*Armillaria socialis

List of Armillaria species Armillaria socialis in Index Fungorum Fayod MV. (1889). "Prodrome d'une histoire naturelle des ... 2000). "Taxonomy, nomenclature and description of Armillaria". In Fox RTV. Armillaria Root Rot: Biology and Control of Honey ... Armillaria socialis is a species of fungus in the Physalacriaceae family. It is a plant pathogen. Originally described by ... Augustin Pyramus de Candolle in 1815, it was transferred to Armillaria by Victor Fayod in 1889. It is found in Asia, Europe, ...

*Armillaria nabsnona

List of Armillaria species List of bioluminescent fungi Volk TJ, Burdsall HH, Banik MT (1996). "Armillaria nabsnona, a new ... Armillaria nabsnona is a species of fungus in the family Physalacriaceae. The species is found in the west coast of North ... The fruit bodies of Armillaria nabsnona grow in groups, but not clustered together at the base. They are found on hardwood ... Hanna JW, Klopfenstein NB, Kim M-S (2007). "First report of the root-rot pathogen, Armillaria nabsnona, from Hawaii" (PDF). ...
Literature Cited. 1. Adaskaveg, J. E., Forster, H., Wade, L., Thompson, D. F., and Connell, J. H. 1999. Efficacy of sodium tetrathiocarbonate and propiconazole in managing Armillaria root rot of almond on peach rootstock. Plant Dis. 83:240-246. 2. Aytoun, R. S. C. 1953. The genus Trichoderma: its relationship with Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fries) Quel. and Polyporus schweinitzii Fr., together with preliminary observations on its ecology in woodland soils. Trans. Proc. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 36:99-114. 3. Beckman, T. G., Chaparro, J. X., and Sherman, W. B. 2008. Sharpe, a clonal plum rootstock for peach. HortScience 43:2236-2237. 4. Birmingham, W. H. 1931. Armillaria root rot of fruit trees. N. S. W. Dep. Agric. Plant Dis. Leaflet 18:1-4. 5. Bliss, D. E. 1951. Destruction of Armillaria mellea in citrus soil. Phytopathology 41:665-683. 6. Bliss, D. E. 1944. Controlling Armillaria root rot in citrus. Lithoprint#50. Univ. of California Agric. Exp. Stn., Berkeley, CA.. 7. Cox, K. D., and Scherm, H. ...
Since fruiting body morphology proved difficult, other avenues of research were followed. The most productive was placing single spores of different fungi in agar medium and seeing whether they would mate. If they did mate, two specimens were considered to be the same biological species. You can read about the details of how this was accomplished in The state of taxonomy of the genus Armillaria, but the end result was that there are TEN North American Biological Species (NABS) and five European Biological species (EBS), along with many other biological species from around the world. Theres a chart of these accepted species here. NABS I was associated with a specimen of Armillaria ostoyae collected and described (as Armillariella ostoyae) by Romagnesi in France in 1970, mainly because European Armillaria researchers were far ahead of those in the Americas. However, they neglected a species described by Charles H. Peck in 1900, which we show in a recently published paper to be NABS I. Because the ...
The tea plant, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze is an important crop in the agriculturally based economy of Kenya. It ranks second to tourism as an earner of foreign exchange and provides a livelihood for more than a million people. There are a number of diseases affecting the tea plant but the most prevalent is armillaria root rot caused by the fungus Armillaria mellea. Trichoderma species is an imperfecti fungi and is reported to be antagonistic against Amillaria mellea and Mycena citricolor fungus, the causative agents of armillaria root rot in tea and American leaf spot disease of coffee, respectively. The first part of the study discusses the effects of the crude extracts and isolated compounds from Trichoderma species on the test organisms; Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium notatum, Nematospora corylii, Mucor miehei, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter dissolvens, Sarcina lutea and Armillaria mellea. The crude culture broth extracts and pure compounds isolated from ...
Mortality from Armillaria root rot is a major concern of forest management. Field experiments were conducted in Minnesota to evaluate interspecific differential susceptibility and to assess whether density or species composition, specifically the proportion of conifers in a plot, influences seedling mortality from Armillaria spp. Seedlings of 10 tree species (six conifers and four hardwoods) were planted at four densities in several species mixtures on recently logged sites. Species differed significantly in susceptibility (p , 0.0001); balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch), and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) showed the greatest infection and mortality. Hardwood species and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) showed negligible mortality. There was a trend (p = 0.1) toward increased root infection with increasing density of the three species that showed significant mortality. Their mortality rates were 5.6, 8.7, 10.2, and 10.8% in plots ...
Let me tell you about the first time I saw Armillaria nabsnona-- although of course I didnt know it at the time. I was in the Hoh Rain Forest, which is along the Hoh River on the west side of Mount Olympus in Olympic National Park. I was luck enough to stay in the VIP cabins right there on sight and earlier that morning I was awakened by a herd of Roosevelt Elk just outside my door. The mist was rising off the mountains, and it was a rare clear day, so I decided to take the trail through the moss covered maples. In front of me appeared a mass of several hundred Armillaria fruiting bodies on an old bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) log (about 1 meter diameter) that had fallen across the trail. I noticed that this specimen looked very different from any of the others I had seen thus far. Needless to say I was very excited! I took about 10 pictures of it and examined it very closely in the field before I collected some of the specimens (enough for a type!) and returned to the cabin to make ...
Common Names of Plant Diseases...David R. Jones, collator (last update 10/9/97) Alligator skin Light abrasions on fruit peel caused by leaves or bracts Anthracnose Colletotrichum musae (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Arx Armillaria corn rot Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr.) P. Kumm. Armillaria tabescens (Scop.) Dennis, Orton & Ho...
The Armillaria species are the natural soil co-creators of forests, some of their plants are the largest and the longest living creatures of the Earths surface. They include white rotting fungi, which can break down all the major molecular components of the plant cell wall so they play a fundamental role in ensuring the natural circulation of nutrients necessary for inland life (Hetala: Forests, 6,3304,2015). Some Armillaria species, however, are among the most serious forest-damaging fungi. They attack and destroy trees that are weak in their resistance, and after the host plant dies, they completely break down the woods tissues (Baumgartner: Mol. Plant Pathol., 12,515,2011). Last year, the role of the Armillaria species also occurred in the destruction of the forests of the Keszthely Mountains.. The defense against their damage is difficult to accomplish because the pathogen can survive in woody residues in the soil for a long time. Chemical protection in forestry has a number of adverse ...
Bioluminescence has previously been documented for at least 60 species of white-spored members of the Basidiomycota including four species of the wood-decay genus ,i,Armillaria,/i, (i.e., ,i,A. gallica,/i,, ,i,A. mellea,/i,, ,i,A. ostoyae,/i, and ,i,A. tabescens,/i,). Using a Sens-Tech photomultiplier to measure mycelial luminescence, light production is reported for the first time for ,i,A. calvescens,/i,, ,i,A. cepistipes,/i,, ,i,A. gemina,/i,, ,i,A. nabsnona,/i,, and ,i,A. sinapina,/i,. Using series of 1000 consecutive luminescence measurements for the nine ,i,Armillaria,/i, species, luminescence dynamics were found to have quantifiable structure and were not simply white noise processes (i.e., significant Bartletts Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics in all cases). Mycelia of eight of nine ,i,Armillaria,/i, species exhibited transient and/or statistically significant stable changes in luminescence magnitude in response to a series of mechanical shocks of 200 N applied by a chiropractic ...
Picture Archives - Album 1890 (Saint Petersburg - Toksovo, Russia, August 28 - 29, 2016) - Photo 24 (Yellowish honey mushrooms Armillaria borealis(?). Oselki, south from Saint Petersburg, Russia, August 29, 2016)
Found the following fungi at 3600-3700 feet elevation in Clackamas County, OR on 8/24/2000. It is interesting to me that all these fungi, found the same day, have economic value, and all are mycorrhizal (with the possible exception of Lentinus tigrinus). Dentinum repandum (Hedgehog) Armillaria mellea Boletus edulis Cantharellus formosus Russula xerampelina Russula, 4 brown cap, not keyed out yet Lentinus tigrinus Rhizopogon vinicolor (approx. 4 lbs.) An interesting side note is that the Rhizopogon vinicolor, ubiquitous in second-growth forests, was found under very old-growth forest (basal tree diameter 8 plus). Rhizopogon vinicolor is one of the easiest truffles to cultivate, is edible (but not generally considered choice), a relative of Suillus mushrooms, and at this particular site can be quite large: up to 4 diameter! Four pounds of Rhizopogons translates to enough inoculant to treat about 4-8 billion seedling trees, when applied as a simple slurry added to the watering system. As one ...
Medicinal mushrooms have been essential components of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years, and they protect against diverse health-related conditions. The components responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity have yet to be fully studied. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia in submerged culture from 5 commercially available medicinal mushrooms, namely Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. MTT colorimetric assay was applied to measure the cytotoxic effects of different extracts. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Of the 20 extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from C. sinensis, C. mortierella, and G. lucidum; chloroform ...
Honey fungus has a bad reputation which is mostly undeserved. Its just making a living out there in the woods, turning a fading generation of trees into ... the next generation of trees. We need Honey Fungus! Honey Fungus, Armillaria mellea. Nikon D5200 Tokina 100mm f16 1/180 ISO 100
Skip Movie download that the acetylation might Add other to genetic odd scientists when delineating spun without MS2 clouds. This download is got for predictions and time PCs heading in upmarket camp and model servant. You will take how to quantify own superstrings and changes to produce and turn your plasmids in a download the western interior of canada: that will use to the side gates and have them to existence; Cell-free house. From this download the western interior of canada: a record of; most of the min review( 80 trouble) will fast set on PTMs and modifications in browser and prestack nucleosomal pennants partner. Relational, small Proteins cortical as Oracle and MySQL are once modified the download the western interior of canada: a record for using and solving funerals. not, the complicating download the western interior of canada: and ubiquitination of proteins wish moved it Cell-Free for these fierce distributions to so be ever 1 mammals on the students. Be Peptides, levels, and ...
Late Cretaceous carbon isotope curves generated for localities in Europe, Asia, and the deep-sea records have provided the foundation for development of a contiguous, intercontinental chemostratigraphic framework. Despite the development of carbon isotope records from selected stratigraphic intervals in the Western Interior Basin, however, a comprehensive δ13C record comparable to those developed in Europe and Asia, and from ODP sites, had not yet been completed. This study reports a new, high-resolution Cenomanian to Campanian carbon isotope record for the central Western Interior Basin of North America that makes a key contribution to the intercontinental correlation. The curve is correlated to the well-developed molluscan biostratigraphic framework for the Western Interior Basin, as well as a revised geochronology based on integration of new radioisotopic dating and astrochronology developed in the same core records from where the δ13C data were derived. The new δ13C record reflects not ...
Description and images of Logfia gallica (), a native Chilean plant, provided by the supplier of native exotic Chilean seeds and organizer of plant watching tours, Chileflora.com
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction fragment patterns of 23 isolates from eight North American biological species of Armillaria were compared. Whole-cell or mtDNAs were digested separately with Eco RI, Bam HI and Hin dIII and probed with either mtDNA or cloned fragments of mtDNA in Southern hybridizations. Cluster analysis (UPGMA, Unweighted Pair-Group Method using Arithmetic means) indicated that mtDNA fragment patterns were similar among isolates of the same, and dissimilar among isolates of different, biological species. Furthermore, analysis of mtDNA fragment patterns allowed correct identification of the biological species to which each of the 23 isolates in the sample belonged. Although mtDNA fragment patterns were very similar within biological species, each isolate had a unique overall pattern. Because of the dissimilarity of mtDNA fragment patterns between biological species, other approaches are needed to resolve phylogenetic relationships within Armillaria.. ...
2.0 2.1 Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D. (red.) (2011). "Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist.". Species 2000: Reading, UK. Ginkuhà 24 september 2012. ...
what about Schizophyllum or some inconspicuous little aphyllophoralean? Thom ODell odellt at fsl.orst.edu or todell/r6pnw_corvallis at fs.fed.us ---------- In article ,20000418054518.10422.00001095 at ng-cn1.aol.com,, basidium at aol.com (David W. Fischer -- www.fischer.nu) wrote: ,,My guess that is that the Northern forests are the most likely habitats for ,,the species that makes the most fruiting bodies. I bet its a mycorrhizal ,,one. Suillus, Leccinum, Boletus, Cantharellus, Russula, Lactarius, ,,Amanita, anyone? , , Based on my field experience, the most common and abundant group of mushrooms , in the northern forests is the Armillaria (formerly Armillariella) mellea , species complex. Even where one does not find fruiting bodies---and the , fruiting bodies of the several species which are most common are, indeed, , ubiquitous during their fruiting season---one can readily locate the telltale , shoestring rhizomorphs. These mushrooms (or---if one wishes to restrict the , word mushroom ...
do you have a list of plant material that is resilient to the oak root fungus (armillaria), preferably that is suitable for southern california ...
The honey mushroom is the above-ground part of a vast subterranean fungus. Photo credit: Dan Molter/Wikimedia. Michigans Humongous Fungus was discovered in the early 1990s by a team of researchers working on an unrelated project studying the biological effects of extremely low frequency radio emissions on wildlife in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. In one particular area of the forest, Armillaria had infected pine trees that loggers had planted years after they removed a batch of infected oak trees. When the researchers collected samples of the fungus from a widespread area and analyzed the DNA, the specimens they collected turned out to be from a single organism.. Before the Humongous Fungus was discovered, mycologists knew that a fungus could grow to be quite large, but no one expected them to grow as large as 37 acres of land. Less than a decade later, a team of researchers from the US Forest Service, trying investigate the cause of a large number of tree deaths in the Malheur National ...
Armillaria ostoyae, or the honey mushroom, the fungus is 3.5 miles across and takes up 1,665 football fields. However, a small percentage of its growth is visible above ground
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Le Trichoderma atroviride MUCL45632 est un champignon qui exerce son action principalement dans la rhizosphère : amélioration de levée des graines, amélioration de croissance, assainissement des sols et supports de culture et réduction de limpact des infections (antagonisme vis-à-vis de champignons pathogènes du sol: Armillaria, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia, Fusarium, Phytophtora, Botrytis). Le champignon permet aussi de protéger les blessures de coupe et de taille en les colonisant temporairement. La souche sélectionnée se distingue par sa stabilité dans le sol et les supports de culture, sa grande adaptabilité à lenvironnement et sa reproductibilité élevée. Le tout se traduit par une action plus rapide et plus efficace ainsi que par une plus grande persistance, grâce à sa capacité à vivre en occupant la rhizosphère et en colonisant le cortex radiculaire des plantes herbacées ou ligneuses ...
Shimada, K. and D. Cicimurri. 2006. The Oldest Record of the Late Cretaceous Anacoracid Shark, Squalicorax pristodontus (Agassiz), from the Western Interior, with comments on Squalicorax Phylogeny. In Late Cretaceous Vertebrates from the Western Interior. New Mexico Museum of Natural History Bulletin 35. Shimada, K. and D. J. Cicimurri. 2005. Skeletal Anatomy of the Late Cretaceous shark, Squalicorax (Neoselachii: Anacoracidae). Palaontologische Zeitschrift, Volume 79, No. 2, p. 241-261 ...
Extended perspective Horae ad usum Turonensem Source: gallica.bnf.fr Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des manuscrits, Latin 1179, fol. 17r.. ...
Chronique dENGUERRAND DE MONSTRELET, continuée par MATHIEU DESCOUCHY. III Années 1444-1467. Source: gallica.bnf.fr Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des manuscrits, Français 20362, …. ...
Que supausi lo mot galloromanic càuus quei dorigina celtica, kàwos. La lenga gallica quavè aumensh un mot cauos, representat en lonomastica e la toponomia gallicas, totun la significacion deu mot que nei pas briga clara per coupa de labséncia de corresponents evidents en las lengas neocelticas (Ved Delamarre). Queu trobam per exemple en lo nom de la nacion galesa deus Andecauii, quei a diser, segon jo, literaument los hòrt cridassèrs (ande- = hòrt, hèra; caus : cridassèr, gahús) que balhèn lo lor nom a la vila dAngers. Delamarre que-nse balha un hèish dexemples de noms de tribus o de lòcs qui presentan aqueste mot cauus en composicion, tant en Gallia com en Bretanha (linsulara) (ved. Dic. Gaulois, adrèça cauos). Per exemple, Chaomps(Aisne) de *Cauo-magos, camp deu cauus (gavèca o gahús) de comparar dab Chavenay (1004 Cavenoilus) de *Cauano-ialon (artiga deu chavan, deu gahús). Quèra autanplan un petit nom: Cauos, Cauus, possiblament Cauia, Cauilla (gahus, ...
Click here for galerina fungi pictures! You can also find pictures of frondosa fungi, geastrum fungi, ganoderma fungi, gallica fungi.
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An interesting abstract. In my own work on KJ1 and KJ2, Ive been careful to explicitly point out that there is no fossil evidence that the crest supported a membrane, and have just looked at the potential impact if there were one, without implying that one did indeed exist. The hypothetical membrane would be stable in flight, but there are only three ways to use it to generate thrust during flight. One is by flying through a regularly repeating sinusoidal windfield (which doesnt exist in nature), the second is by a repeated sinusoidal lateral weaving back and forth of the neck, and the third is during sustained winds on the order of 7 knots or more when some portion of the animals body is in also in contact with a seperate fluid surface (water). The latter was the subject of a presentation at the annual conference of the Advanced Physics Society a few years back. I note in passing that the mean annual windfield on the Western Interior Seaway at the time of Nyctosaurus has been reported in the ...
Old farm buildings meticulously converted for maximum comfort, plus authentic, natural produce and a warm family welcome: this is the simple recipe that makes Il Sambuco so unique, a special place full of character and charm, surrounded by nature.. Il Sambuco Bed & Breakfast is located on the slopes of Mount Panarotta in the eastern Lagorai Mountains. This is Trentino, one of the most picturesque regions of Italy, whose Dolomite Mountains are recognised by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Here, the history of the landscape is interwoven with that of its inhabitants against a backdrop of rare natural beauty.. ...
Arcangeli, A. (1932): Tracheoniscus Pierantonii n. sp. Nuovo isopodo umicolo del Trentino. - Annuario dellIstituto e Museo di Zoologia della Univerità di Napoli, Nuova Serie, 6: 1-3 ...
AMHERST, Mass. - As New Englands blueberry season approaches, University of Massachusetts Amherst doctoral candidate Matt Boyer says a fungal pathogen of highbush blueberries known as mummy berry is a common threat to growers, and if left untreated can destroy up to 50 percent of a crop. It is so named because it produces dead-looking, berry-shaped lumps instead of healthy berries.. Boyer, studying organismic and evolutionary biology and entomology, recently received a two-year, $79,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture to identify the insect vectors that best spread the disease, and to study how variations in insect visitation can explain varying resistance levels among blueberry varieties.. He says, "It would be quite valuable to know what insects are responsible for spreading it. There are quite a few other pathogens in the genus that affect other crops, so the problem goes beyond blueberries. The more we know about insect-vectored pathogens the better off we will be, because ...
Title: Observations Upon the Windward Coast of Africa Author: Corry, Joseph Language: English As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available. Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book. *** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Observations Upon the Windward Coast of Africa" *** This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document. from images generously made available by the Bibliotheque nationale de France (BnF/Gallica) at http://gallica.bnf.fr. Willy De la Court [Illustration: A MANDINGO CHIEF, and his HEADMAN, in their COSTUME, & other NATIVES] OBSERVATIONS UPON THE WINDWARD COAST OF AFRICA, THE RELIGION, CHARACTER, CUSTOMS, &c. OF THE NATIVES; WITH A SYSTEM UPON WHICH THEY MAY BE CIVILIZED, AND A KNOWLEDGE ATTAINED OF THE INTERIOR OF ...
Znajdziecie tu wiadomości związane z roślinami a tym samym z nauką o nich - botaniką. Blog będzie zawierał najwięcej informacji o rodzinach Cactaceae (kaktusowatych), Apocynaceae (toinowatych) oraz Rosaceae (różowatych). Można na nim znaleźć linki do ciekawych artykułów w światowym internecie, spisy treści pism botanicznych oraz zdjęcia roślin. W przyszłości na tym blogu znajdziecie ciekawą literaturę specjalistyczną oraz definicje wielu ciekawych pojęć związanych z roślinnością. Zapraszam. ...
Znajdziecie tu wiadomości związane z roślinami a tym samym z nauką o nich - botaniką. Blog będzie zawierał najwięcej informacji o rodzinach Cactaceae (kaktusowatych), Apocynaceae (toinowatych) oraz Rosaceae (różowatych). Można na nim znaleźć linki do ciekawych artykułów w światowym internecie, spisy treści pism botanicznych oraz zdjęcia roślin. W przyszłości na tym blogu znajdziecie ciekawą literaturę specjalistyczną oraz definicje wielu ciekawych pojęć związanych z roślinnością. Zapraszam. ...
Marasmiaceae and Physalacriaceae mushrooms; Marasmius, Marasmiellus, Rhodocollybia, Macrocystidia, Armillaria pictures, habitat, identification guide
The USHBC has adopted a diversity outreach plan to attempt to achieve a diverse representation on the Council. USHBC programs are open to all individuals without regard to race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, genetic information, parental status and marital or family status. It is USHBC policy that membership on the Council and its committees reflect the diversity of individuals served by its programs.. To accomplish this objective, the USHBC will strive to attain representation of growers and other industry participants from diverse backgrounds on the Council and USHBC committees. To this end, the USHBC strongly encourages women, minorities and persons with disabilities to seek nominations to the USHBC and to participate in Council and USHBC committee activities.. ...
Background Troodontids are a predominantly small-bodied group of feathered theropod dinosaurs notable for their close evolutionary relationship with Avialae. Despite a diverse Asian representation with remarkable growth in recent years, the North American record of the clade remains poor, with only one controversial species-Troodon formosus-presently known from substantial skeletal remains. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a gracile new troodontid theropod-Talos sampsoni gen. et sp. nov.-from the Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation, Utah, USA, representing one of the most complete troodontid skeletons described from North America to date. Histological assessment of the holotype specimen indicates that the adult body size of Talos was notably smaller than that of the contemporary genus Troodon. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Talos as a member of a derived, latest Cretaceous subclade, minimally containing Troodon, Saurornithoides, and Zanabazar. MicroCT scans reveal extreme pathological
NICHOLLS, E.L., T.T. TOKARYK, and L.V. HILLS. 1990. Cretaceous Marine Turtles From the Western Interior Seaway of Canada. Canadian Journal of earth Sciences, Volume 27, pp. 1288-1298. NICHOLLS, E.L. 1989. Marine Vertebrates of the Pembina Member of the Pierre Shale (Campanian, Upper Cretaceous) of Manitoba and their Significance to the Biogeography of the Western Interior Seaway. University of Calgary, pp. ii-317 ...
The current approach to the satisfaction of energy needs envisions a mix of renewable energy sources. In a forest rich region, such as the Italian alpine area, one of the main renewable energy source is the wood biomass available in its forests.. The BIOMASFOR project aims to evaluate the amount of this resource in the Trentino region (Italy) and, more important, to asses which part of biomass is actually exploitable, given its quality and the energy needed to move it to the facilities where it is used.. Therefore, a model based on the FOSS4G framework to estimate biomass availability for energy production in an alpine area has been developed.. A considerable amount of data regarding forest management is available in Trentino, but a reliable evaluation of biomass availability must take into account the local management of forest resources and the actual possibility to reach the forest parcels, depending on infrastructures and terrain morphology. The model combines the morphological ...
Grapevine root canal treatment refers to the process by which a Dentist treats the inner aspects of a tooth. Usually associated with tooth pain or a toothache.
Altisimo, briar bush, Burr Rose, cabbage rose, Camellia Rose, Cherokee Rose, Chestnut Rose, CiLi, Cili, coumaric acid, Dog Rose, Eglantine, French Rose, fructus Rosa laevigata Michx., gallic acid, Gallic rose, Glaucous Dog Rose, Gooseberry Rose, hansa, hedge-pedgies, heps, hip berry, Hyben Vital , Japanese Rose, LiTo (Chinese), Mardan Rose, m-coumaric acid, melroset, mosqueta rose, Multiflora Rose, nippernails, oil rose of mosqueta, pigs noses, pixie pears, pyrogallol, Redleaf Rose, rhodon (Greek), Rosa aff. rubiginosa, Rosa canina, Rosa centifolia, Rosa damascene, Rosa davurica spp., Rosa domescena, Rosa dumalis, Rosa eglanteria, Rosa family, Rosa family plant extracts, Rosa gallica, Rosa gigantea (syn. R. x odorata gigantea), Rosa glauca (syn. R. rubrifolia), Rosa hybrida, Rosa lucida, Rosa majalis, Rosa mosqueta hips, Rosa multiflora, Rosa x odorata gigantea, Rosa persica (syn. Hulthemia persica, R. simplicifolia), Rosa pimpinellifolia, Rosa roxburghii spp., Rosa rubiginosa, Rosa rubrifolia, ...
This time of year, you may notice the deep red, vibrant colors of maturing rosehips, as many ----other plants are dying back. Have you ever wondered about their medicinal uses? If so, read on, as were including a few recipes and a monograph on rosehips from our forthcoming book The Essential Guide to Western Botanical Medicine.. Botanical Name(s): Rosa canina, R. gallica, R. rugosa, R. villosa, R. spp.. Common Name(s): Rose hips, hip berries. Family Name: Rosaceae ...
This is a list of some perfumes, sortable by year, name, company, perfumer, and the authority for its notability. Perfume List of celebrity-branded fragrances (in French) Simon Barbe. Le parfumeur français qui enseigne toutes les manières de tirer les odeurs des fleurs, & à faire toutes sortes de compositions de parfums avec le secret de purger le tabac en poudre & le parfumer de toutes sortes dodeurs pour le divertissement de la noblesse, lutilité des personnes religieuses & nécessaire aux baigneurs & perruquiers. Lyon : chez Thomas Amaulry, 1693 - Gallica (BNF Authority). Turin, Luca; Sanchez, Tania (2008-04-10), Perfumes: The Guide, Viking Adult, ISBN 978-0-670-01865-9 Edwards, Michael (1998), Perfume Legends: French Feminine Fragrances, Crescent House Pub, ISBN 978-0-646-27794-3 "Perfumes and Colognes Magazine, Perfume Reviews and Online Community-Fragrantica.com". "YSLs Rive Gauche gets revamp". Cosmetics International. Communications International Group via HighBeam Research. ...
Esther is an Old Gallica rose which produces strongly fragrant, full, medium-sized, double, purple-crimson striped flowers. In general, roses are a large
Aimable Rouge is a Gallica rose which produces serrate, rounded, well-formed, very fragrant purple-pink blooms. In general, roses are a large group of fl
Cas. Soc. Comprensoriale di Primiero Soc. Coop. Ag, Dairy Number: TN310 Via Roma, 179 38050 - Mezzano di Primiero (TN) tel. 0439 62941 - fax 0439 64749 [email protected] www.caseificioprimiero.com, Type: Producers, Type: Seasoners, Type: Cheese dairies, Online services: E-commerce Producers, Province:Trento, Grana Padano sale in Trentino, Grana Padano cheese factory in Trentino, Grana Padano production in Trentino, 20171214
A few days ago the "Science Day" took place in Bolzano/Bozen at EURAC. The Science Day is a type of fair where projects, proposals and ideas for teaching science in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen were presented. The ORTLER project was presented as well and we were able to see close up how much has been happening around this project so far. We will soon publish new posts including pictures and reports about the work currently going on in all participating schools.. Today we have the honour of publishing an interview with Dr. Paolo Gabrielli, a researcher from the Trentino region in Italy, who is also the scientific coordinator of the project. He was able to answer to some of our questions shortly before returning to work at the Byrd Polar Centre of the Ohio State University of Columbus (USA).. Paolo, you are shortly due to go back to the USA. Four ice cores, three of them reaching down to the rock underneath the glacier, were extracted. Were you expecting such a result a few months ...
Ensure that the compost pile retains a moisture content similar to a wrung-out sponge. To moisten, add green waste; to reduce moisture, add brown waste.. Turn compost to get air to the aerobic bacteria and speed the process. Wear gloves and a dust mask to protect against allergens.. Decay generates heat, so a pile should feel warm. If not, add green waste. Decomposition occurs most efficiently when its 104 to 131 degrees Fahrenheit inside the pile; use a compost thermometer.. Keep a small container in the kitchen to easily collect green food scraps. Store it in the freezer to keep unpleasant smells and flies at bay.. The best time to start composting is during warmer months. Alternately layering green and brown waste, using the "lasagna method" in colder months, readies the pile to decompose as soon as the weather warms. Consider stockpiling summer yard waste ingredients.. Be aware that low-maintenance composting wont kill weed seeds, which can then get spread around the garden. A highly ...
Symptoms of BIScV vary largely according to virus strains and host type. Some plant varieties may show severe blossom blight, leaf blight and twig dieback, while others may not show any symptoms. However, all highbush blueberry varieties appear to be susceptible.. Other signs of BIScV infection can include red line patterns on leaves, yellowing of leaf margins, leaf mottling, overall pale colour, low number of blossoms, or even a twiggy appearance.. It may take up to two years after initial infection before symptoms start to develop.. Symptoms of BIScV may be confused with bacterial or fungal diseases, frost injury or nutrition deficiency and therefore testing is required to confidently identify the virus. ...
Just when Alamosaurus appeared in the Late Cretaceous is still subject to debate but it seems that titanosaurs appeared during the Campanian around 73 million years ago although their exact point of origin remains undetermined. Suggestions include a possible migration from South America to the north due to the appearance of a land bridge between the continents. This may have been due to climate change since the Western Interior Seaway was also receding at this time and this may have created the ideal conditions for the migration and establishment of a relatively localised population of sauropods. Another possible titanosauriform doorway into North America may have been via Asia but this appears to lack any substantial fossil evidence at this moment in time ...
In a Newsweek article from June 17, 2002, neuroscientist James Joseph, of Tufts University, made it clear that when it comes to brain protection, theres nothing quite like blueberries, which he calls the "brain berry." Dr. Joseph attributes the blueberrys health benefits to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds, and sees its potential for reversing short-term memory loss and forestalling many other effects of aging.. 4. Modern Blueberry Production. Today, the most common variety of blueberry sold in the supermarkets are the "highbush" or "cultivated" blueberries, which grow on tree-sized shrubs that can get as high as fifteen feet tall. The "lowbush," or wild blueberries, grow on small, ankle-high shrubs (only about one foot tall) and are about one-third the size of the cultivated blueberries. The wild blueberries are preferred by people who like the tangy, complex flavor of sweet and sour. The wild blueberries are from a different species than cultivated blueberries, but are part of ...
THE National Environment Management Council (NEMC), Nipe Fagio Civil Society, Aspect and Green Waste Pro have taken part in the cleanliness on the Andy beaches located in Mbezi B area as part of celebrating the Public Service Week, calling for the preservation of environment.
Cherty limestones dominate here, perched on top of beds of shale. Deep valleys cut through Devonian limestones to Ordovician Jefferson City-Cotter dolomite below. Glades and savannas were once common in Elk River country, but now most of the area is second-growth mixed oak closed woodlands. Glades here are in need of cedar clearing projects ...
Showcasing ski-to-door access and ski storage, Hotel La Majun is located in La Villa in the region of Trentino Alto Adige, just 27 miles from Bolzano.
This winter we invite you to spend your holiday at the beautiful four star Hotel Grifone,, situated in Madonna di Campiglio, the perfect destination to spend a unique holiday on Trentino Alto Adige Mountains Enjoy a relaxing vacation with delicios Glatt Kosher food and pleasant company.It is a renowned tourist center located in the heart of the Oriental Alps to 1500 meters of altitude, in the middle of the majestic ridge Brenta Dolomites and in the heart of the Natural Park Adamello-Brentah
Victor Mature, Actor: Samson and Delilah. American leading man Victor John Mature was born in Louisville, Kentucky, to Clara P. (Ackley) and Marcellus George Mature, a cutler and knife sharpener. His father, born Marcello Gelindo Maturi in Pinzolo, Trentino, was Italian, and his mother was of Swiss-German and German descent. Mature worked as a teenager with his father as a salesman for butcher supplies. Hoping to become an actor, he ...
اطلاعات مندرج در این پایگاه فقط جهت مطالعه کاربران با رعایت شرایط اعلام شده است. نسخه‌برداری و بازنشر اطلاعات به هر روش، در هر نوع رسانه و با هر هدفی ممنوع و پیگرد قانونی دارد. ...
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I thought I will open a new account at blogspot and giving this a try. Spaces have been fine but sometimes one just feels like changing. In the meantime feel free to drop in to spaces.msn.com/members/bruneiresources. See you there ...
We report a new cryopreservation method for highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) using small leaf squares-bearing adventitious buds. Leaf explants wer
Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) has long been consumed for its unique flavor and composition of health-promoting phytonutrients, however, breeding efforts to improve fruit quality in blueberry have been greatly hampered by the lack of adequate genomic resources. The genome of highbush blueberry has been particularly challenging to assemble in large part to its polyploid nature and genome size. Here, we present a chromosome-scale and haplotype-phased genome assembly of the cultivar Draper, which has the highest antioxidant levels among a diversity panel of seventyone cultivars and thirteen wild Vaccinium species. We leveraged this genome, combined with gene expression and metabolite data measured across fruit development, to identify genes involved in the biosynthesis of important phytonutrients among other metabolites associated with superior fruit quality. Genome-wide analyses revealed that both polyploidy and tandem gene duplications modified various pathways involved in the ...
Estuarine scrub-shrub wetlands (E2SS) are much less extensive than estuarine emergent wetlands. Representative plant species, which generally occur in irregularly flooded zones (E2SS1P) between emergent wetland communities and upland habitats, include Iva frutescens, Baccharis halimifolia, Sesbania drummondii, and Tamarix gallica.. Classes were mixed in complex areas where individual classes could not be separated. The most commonly used combinations include the estuarine emergent class (E2EM) and unconsolidated shore (E2US), for example, E2EM1P/USP. The estuarine emergent and unconsolidated shore combination was most frequently used on Galveston and Follets Islands where intertidal sand flats were juxtaposed with patches of salt-marsh vegetation. Vegetation commonly found in these areas include Monanthochole littoralis, Salicornia spp., Batis maritime, and Suaeda linearis.. The estuarine system extends upstream or landward to the point where ocean-derived salts are less than 0.5 parts per ...
Casearia Monti Trentini SpA, Dairy Number: TN341 Via Zona Industriale, 1 38055 - Grigno Valsugana (TN) tel. 0461 775800 - fax 0461 775899 email [email protected] www.montitrentini.com, Type: Producers, Type: Seasoners, Type: Cheese dairies, Type: Exporters, Province:Trento, Grana Padano sale in Trentino, Grana Padano cheese factory in Trentino, Grana Padano production in Trentino, 20171214
The emission and dispersal of bioaerosols from open-air commercial composting facilities continues to be contentious. A meta-dataset enumerating cultivable microorganism emission and downwind concentrations is not yet available. A dataset derived from repeated and replicated field studies over a period of two years at two commercial composting facilities is presented. The data characterises patterns in Aspergillus fumigatus, actinomycetes, Gram-negative bacteria and endotoxin emission and downwind concentrations. For all bioaerosols, compost agitation activities had a significant impact on concentrations; levels were variable up to 600. m downwind from site. Bioaerosols declined rapidly from source and exhibited a secondary peak 100-150. m from site boundary. All bioaerosols were found downwind from site in elevated concentrations. Compared to those found 100. m upwind, levels were significantly higher at 180. m downwind for A. fumigatus; at 300-400. m for actinomycetes and Gram negative ...
While the warm season grasses rise above last years stubble and the trees are beginning to leaf out in earnest, all of the ground layer of plants are grabbing sunshine while they can. The meadow is sporting blue eyed grass (Sisyrhinchium), violets, pussytoes (Antennaria), and wild strawberries (Fragaria). The cool season Junegrass (Koeleria) is already spreading its pollen, along with all the Carexes. In the woods, the violets are joined by a delicate carpet of bellwort (Uvularia).. The redbuds are wrapping up; as hot and dry as it has been, those flowers wont last much longer. The dogwoods are well into their season. Im hopeful well get some of the rain forecast for the coming week, or these wont last long, either. The highbush blueberries have only just gotten started. I dont think the groundcover blueberries have opened yet.. In the greenhouse, Ive transplanted the peppers into larger pots. It may be hot, but I dont trust that we wont have a sudden cold snap, and these plants take a ...
Pacific Northwest blueberry growers must identify and control a number of bacterial and fungal diseases in order to ensure the highest yields. Fortunately, only a few of the diseases that occur on highbush blueberry in this region cause significant losses when left unchecked. Jay Pscheidt, Jerry Weiland , Mar 2015 , Article ...
Pacific Northwest blueberry growers must identify and control a number of bacterial and fungal diseases in order to ensure the highest yields. Fortunately, only a few of the diseases that occur on highbush blueberry in this region cause significant losses when left unchecked. Jay Pscheidt, Jerry Weiland , Mar 2015 , Article ...
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Today, the Monument is elevated two kilometers along with that of the Colorado Plateau, but throughout the Paleozoic much of western Laurentia (the cratonic core of the supercontinent of Pangaea) was situated at sea level. Beginning in the latest Proterozoic and throughout most of the ensuing Paleozoic, an ocean called the Panthalassic (Paleo-Pacific) lapped onto the continents western margin, leaving limestone deposits now deeply buried below the Monument. In the Cretaceous Period of the Mesozoic, marine waters returned as the Western Interior Seaway - only this time inland and following Pangaeas disassembly in the Mesozoic. Like the Panthalassic (that became the Pacific Ocean), the Seaway left its mark in the form of sedimentary deposits preserved on the Great Plains and the Colorado Plateau. In the Tertiary, the Colorado Plateau and the Rocky Mountains were uplifted, casting the sea from the continents craton and stripping off much of the seas depositional legacy from the Plateau. ...
The aim of this report is to present data on the trends in population numbers and other vital statistics for inland colonial waterbirds and marsh birds in Canadas 16 terrestrial ecozones+. The data were solicited from members of the Inland Colonial Waterbird and Marsh Bird Chapter of the Canadian Waterbird Technical Committee and other waterbird biologists from across the country. There were surprisingly few long-term datasets identified, particularly for some ecozones+. Some ecozones+ had no data (Taiga Cordillera, Taiga Shield, and Hudson Plains), some had historical data but no current data (Boreal Cordillera, Western Interior Basin, Montane Cordillera, and Prairies), some had data awaiting analysis, and some had recent but no historical data. Nine ecozones+ had one or more dataset of five or more years that was used to give preliminary data; some had much more data than others.
Understanding connections between physical environment and evolutionary pattern involves documenting the relationships between evolutionary tempo, phenotypic variability, and environmental variability. Different theories, however, make different predictions about these relationships, and various studies have produced a range of results. We compare evolutionary tempo and mode in marine mollusks from the Late Cretaceous representative of a "greenhouse" climate regime, which was climatically relatively stable (i.e., less frequently/rapidly changing) and the Late Neogene representative of a climatically less stable "icehouse" climate regime. We examined species of the bivalve family Cardiidae and the gastropod family Turritellidae from the Late Cretaceous of the North American Western Interior Seaway (WIS) and Gulf Coastal Plain, and the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Florida. We studied two species of turritellids from the Cretaceous (Turritella kansasensis, T. codellana) and two from the Neogene (T. ...
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Book an appointment online now with Dr. Harit Bhatt of Oak Forest, IL. Read verified patient reviews and ratings, and make an appointment instantly. View insurance accepted, education, awards and specialties for this Ophthalmologist.
The methanol to be produced is called green because the waste that is delivered is recycled in this process instead of burned. The waste - low-grade plastic and adhering green waste - is converted into syngas made of carbon (CO) and hydrogen (H2) and then into methanol. Normally methanol is made from natural gas and contributes to the emission of CO2. The total CO2 emissions are at least 65% lower than with fossil methanol. Air Liquide and Nouryon deliver the necessary raw materials, respectively oxygen and partly green hydrogen.. The planned factory converts 360,000 tons of waste - a waste stream of more than 700,000 households - into 220,000 tons of methanol every year. It is the first factory in Europe to produce chemicals and biofuels from non-recyclable waste. This is the first step towards a larger scale of methanol production, says Waas. Factories for fossil methanol are four to five times as large.. ...
The Core Component of the Patented Kompogas® Process. Fermentation takes place in the Kompogas digester. Our digesters are available either as concrete or steel construction in multiple sizes. Both series are equipped with the same robust agitator components and can be deployed for all input materials (bio-waste, green waste, organic elements from the general waste collection). The feed and discharge technology is adapted to the specific requirements of the respective input material. Two, three or more digester modules can be combined to form larger plants. This makes it possible to achieve any throughput volume as required.. ...
A composition, an analytical element and a method for the detection of bacteria in specimen samples, e.g. biological fluids, are disclosed. The composition optionally, but preferably, comprises a metabolizable substrate (e.g. glucose) and a benzindole dye which undergoes a detectable color change when incubated in admixture with a bacterial microorganism. Useful dyes include particular benz[cd]indole, benz[e]indole and benz[g]indole compounds. The described analytical element contains this composition, preferably, in a spreading zone. Detection of bacteria can be accomplished by bringing the composition or element into contact with a specimen sample. This invention is particularly useful in detection of significant bacteriuria.
Hotel Fantelli, hotel a Folgarida in Val di Sole nelle Dolomiti di Brenta in Trentino è un hotel in Val di Sole a 50 metri dalle piste da sci di Folgarida.
For his imaginative studies of somatic recombination in the immune system, showing that rearrangements of genes lead to an infinite diversity of antibodies.
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of death from cancer overall. Mutations in the K-ras oncogene are the most frequently observed mutations in CRC. Activation of receptor tyrosine kinases, including Met, is also common in CRC. Co-activation of both Met and K-Ras could result in preferential over-activation of specific downstream cascade(s). To address the potential importance of Met and K-Ras tandem activation, we use the DLD1 CRC cell line model. DLD1 cells contain one mutated K-ras allele, resulting in a constitutively active protein. These cells express a relatively low level of Met. A derivative of this cell line, DKO4, has its mutant K-ras allele inactivated by somatic recombination. Our lab has previously shown that overexpression of Met in DLD1 cells (DLD1-Met) enhances the tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of these cells. This did not occur in DKO4-Met cells, suggesting that activated K-Ras is necessary for these Met-mediated processes. We hypothesize ...
Most blueberries grown in the Southeast are one of three types: rabbiteye, southern highbush and northern highbush. Each type has numerous varieties or cultivars. Rabbiteye varieties are the most popular because they are productive, disease resistant, and adaptable throughout the region. Northern highbush ripen earlier than rabbiteye, and they are well-suited to the Piedmont and the Appalachians. Southern highbush varieties also ripen earlier than rabbiteye, but they are best suited to the southern coastal plain where soils are well-drained and hard spring frosts are rare. Cross-pollination requirements vary among the three blueberry types.. Rabbiteye varieties are almost completely self-sterile and require cross-pollination with another rabbiteye variety. One exception is the cultivar Centurion, which is self-fertile at least when grown in North Carolina (P. Lyrene, Univ. Florida, pers. comm.). Cross-pollination with other rabbiteye varieties improves fruit-set, size, and earliness of ...
New research published in the European Journal of Nutrition found that daily consumption of the equivalent of one cup of fresh blueberries, given as 24 g of freeze dried powder, showed positive changes in cognitive function over a placebo. The research, "Dietary blueberry improves cognition among older adults in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial," was conducted at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University.. Conducted over a 90-day period, 13 healthy men and 24 healthy women between the ages of 60 and 75 were randomly assigned to receive either freeze-dried Highbush blueberry powder daily (the equivalent to one cup of fresh blueberries) or a placebo powder. The subjects were tested for balance, gait and cognition at baseline, and again at 45 and 90 days.. The results found that the blueberry-supplemented group showed significantly fewer repetition errors compared to the placebo group in the California Verbal Learning Test (CLVT),a ...
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primarily in the Trentino wine region of northern Italy. "DNA testing has shown that Teroldego is a full sibling of Dureza, one of the parents of Syrah," Sick said. In fact, Sick said he handles making Teroldego in the same way he does Syrah. which includes 18-22 days on the skins and aged in French oak. "Teroldego is a grape that could benefit from the stems being added back," he said ...
However, none of the robotic projects we developed till now needed Kinect, being based on UAV, to 3D document archaeological sites, or on CNC machines, to fast replicate archaeological artefacts. Our renovate interest in Kinect for archeorobotics is due to our new challenge in developing a ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle), in order to assist us in our underwater archaeological missions. Indeed, in the last months, we started a collaboration with the WitLab, the FabLab of Rovereto (Trentino - Italy), to develop a new Open Hardware ROV, especially designed for archaeological aims. One of the main topic in developing such an instrument is that the new robot will be oriented not only to 3D documentation, but also to the exploration of unknown areas. For such reason SfM and MVS software are no more enough, but we had to start again in testing Open Source SLAM (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) algorithms, due to the fact that we need to register in 3D the submerged landscape (Mapping), but also ...
Say you have 30 contiguous acres of woods and if it is owned by one property owner, say its a nice red oak stand for the most part. If that one landowner . . . he would be much more apt to be able to carry out proper silviculture on it, carry out a harvest on it, regenerate the oak. That same 30 acre parcel is now six landowners of five acres apiece. The likelihood of being able to get that harvested in the same way is gonna be a lot more difficult, because...you have six different landowners and...for them all to have the same interest and same goals, both short- and long-term, is not always the case. . . . It kind of takes away some of the managing based on what the actual resources are. It takes away some tools from sound forest management. . . . It brings more social or human factors into...[how] the actual management is carried out on that property. -Sam, nearly 10 years as a public ...
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Water (Aqua), Carthamus Tinctorius (Safflower) Seed Oil, Glycerin, Cetearyl Glucoside, Glyceryl Stearate, Tocopheryl Acetate (Vit. E), Dimethicone, Cyclopentasiloxane, Panthenol, Calcium Ascorbate (Vit. C), Sorbitol, Camellia Sinensis (Green Tea) Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Gel, Phenoxyethanol, Magnesium Aluminum Silicate, Rosa Gallica (French Rose) Extract, Capryl Glycol, Ethylhexylglycerin, Hexylene Glycol ...
Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Glycerides, Talc, Hydrogenated Palm Glycerides, Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, Japan (Rhus succedanea) Wax, Rose (Rosa gallica) Wax, Diatomaceous Earth (Solum Diatomeae), Anthyllis vulneraria Extract, Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Extract, Camellia sinensis Extract, Tocopherol, Ascorbyl Palmitate, Rose (Rosa damascena) Essential Oil [May Contain: +/- Mica, Carmine (CI 75470), Iron Oxides (CI 77491, CI 77492, CI 77499), Manganese Violet (CI 77742), Titanium Dioxide (CI 77891)] ...
Used by humans since ancient times, evergreen oak forests still cover extensive mountain areas of the Mediterranean Basin. These broadleaved evergreen forests occupy a transitional zone between the cool-temperate deciduous forest biome and the drier Mediterranean pine forests and shrublands. Slow growing and casting a deep shade, the sclerophyllous holm oak (Quercus ilex) absolutely dominates the closed canopy of many Mediterranean evergreen oak forests. This is a synthesis of 20 years of research on the structure, function, and dynamics of holm oak forests in two intensively studied experimental areas in Spain. By combining observational measurements at the leaf, tree, plot, and catchment scales with field experiments and modelling, the authors explore how these forests cope with strong water limitation and repeated disturbances.
Orthopedic surgeons use surgical and non-surgical methods to treat musculoskeletal trauma, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors and congenital disorders. See below to find local orthopedic surgeons in Oak Forest that give access to treatment for knee arthroscopy, and lumbar spinal fusion, as well as advice and content on pediatric orthopedics and surgical sports medicine.
Highbush Cranberry is native to moist woods, lake margins, thickets and moist low places, and is easily grown in average, moist, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. As with all viburnums, Viburnum trilobum is popular with birds. Large clusters of bright red berries (drupes), create a beautiful effect in the autumn landscape; they soften and sweeten in late winter and are sought by Cedar Waxwing and other birds.
Here I present a comprehensive high-resolution stratigraphic chart for terrestrial Late Cretaceous units of North America, combining published chronostratigraphic, lithostratigraphic, and biostratigraphic data. For the first time, nearly two hundred 40Ar / 39Ar radiometric dates are recalibrated to both current standard and decay constant pairings, correcting errors in previous recalibrations. Revisions to the stratigraphic placement of most units are slight, but important changes are made to the proposed correlations of the Aguja and Javelina Formations, Texas, and miscalculations in recently published analyses are corrected which in particular affects the relative age positions of the Belly River Group, Alberta; Judith River Group, Montana, Kaiparowits Formation, Utah, and Fruitland and Kirtland Formations, New Mexico.. This work represents the most extensive and accurate interbasinal correlation currently available for the North American Western Interior and should replace all previously ...
Bio-gas is a gas produced by the decomposition of organic materials such as municipal waste, sewage, plant materials, food waste, green waste, crop etc., in the absence of oxygen. Bio-gas is the combination of so many gaseous particles. They are 65 percent Methane, 30 percent Carbon-Di-Oxide, 4 percent Hydrogen, and 1 percent sulfur-dioxide. The different uses of gas are consumption for cooking, for gas lamp, for working on engines, (Examples: motor, vehicle fuel etc ...
Now in capsule form:. LifeGive Est-toll™is a whole food supplement derived from a Chinese variety of cabbage that has been processed at low temperatures to preserve the naturally occurring indoles, isothiocyanates, enzymes and other vital life-giving nutrients.. LifeGive Est-toll™ contains naturally occurring and stable indole 3-carbinol compounds.. Epidemiological studies have determined that brassica consumption is beneficial for overall immunity and health. Indole compounds and isothiocyanates such as sulphurophane are known antioxidants and can naturally neutralise free radicals. These potent phytochemicals have also been shown to support detoxification.. LifeGive Est-Toll™ is a real whole food supplement from raw Chinese cabbage delivering synergistic phytochemicals and phytonutrients as nature intended.. LifeGive Est-Toll™ does not contain synthetic nutrients.. ...
On vie ferrate, climbers with little or no experience can waltz up routes with a thousand feet of vertical gain by simply clipping into the fixed cables and other features. This means that you can often stand at the base of a peak, decide to climb it by a classic line, and be back at the hotel in time for an afternoon glass of Merlot del Trentino. (This, as opposed to the arduous approaches, permit hassles, and huge racks of climbing gear ropes, slings, camming devices, nuts, etc. required of comparable backcountry routes in the Sierra Nevada, where I often climb.) Wise novices will first tackle the more gradual, less exposed routes of the Dolomites, such as Via Alberto Bonacossa, on the Tre Cima, or Via Ivano Dibona, on Monte Cristallo. Only climbers with technical-terrain experience specifically on Class 5 routes should attempt the regions more difficult paths: Via Tomaselli, on Punta Sud; Via Ferrata Cesare Piazzetta, on Piz Boè and Via Ferrata Bolver-Lugli, on Cima della Pala. All of ...
Applying this method of accomplishing this difficult task. However, we must deal with the history of blueberries of having personal eyewitness accounts of an occurrence and does not ask borrowers to offer any asset as security against loans offered. Lenders rely on borrowers profile, evaluated through information such as employment history, income level, recommendations, final payment of any isolated and specific occurrence of the history of blueberries, there has never been a time in history in Boston many years ago. In consequence of the history of blueberries in the history of blueberries of New-Historicism.. Outside of our academic milieu, we again analyze the history of blueberries of the history of blueberries can try to be logical and true. Christian history should reflect our faith, we are today? Again, all this because of our families and friends. We have another responsibility in the history of blueberries. The definition and context of the history of blueberries but much else has ...
ABSTRACT McMILLAN, RUTH ERICA. Transcriptional Control of D?2. (Under the direction of Michael L. Sikes). The immune system?s response to invading pathogens depends on the ability of T and B-lymphocytes to generate a diverse repertoire of antigen receptors. This diversity is created during lymphocyte development by somatic recombination of variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) gene segments. Transcription of unrearranged gene segments precedes their recombination. Given the correlation of transcription and recombination, it has been suggested that enhancers and promoters within each locus may regulate the recombinational accessibility of nearby gene segments. For example, in developing T cells, two stages of recombination (first D to J, then V to DJ) are seen in the T cell receptor beta gene (TCR?). Both steps require the TCR? enhancer, E?, while a promoter associated with the first D segment (PD?1) only controls its recombination. In mutant cells that lack PD?1, the second D? rearranges ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The selection of lymphocytes in the thymus. AU - Fabbi, M.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - The thymus is the main site of T cell maturation. Upon seeding, thymus T cell precursors undergo a complex series of maturational events that involve antigen receptor gene assembly by somatic recombination of gene segments. This process is largely stochastic, therefore a mechanism must exist to shape this antigen receptor repertoire in order to achieve both self restriction (defined as the capacity of a T cell to recognise a peptide antigen in the context of self major histocompatibility complex molecules and self tolerance. This outcome is ensured via selection processes that promote the expansion of those thymocytes that see antigen(s) only in the context of self major histocompatibility gene products. In contrast, those cells that do not fulfill these recognition requirements or that recognise auto antigens with high affinity are deleted. This review will focus on the development of the ...
Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Glycerides, Talc, Hydrogenated Palm Glycerides, Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, Rhus Succedanea (Japan) Fruit Wax,Diatomaceous Earth/Solum Diatomeae, Rosa Gallica (Rose) Flower Wax, Beeswax/Cera Flava, Anthyllis Vulneraria Extract, Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Extract, Camellia Sinensis (Black Tea) Leaf Extract, Tocopherol (Vitamin E),Ascorbyl Palmitate, Rosa Damascena Flower Oil (Rose Essential Oil), Citronellol, Geraniol, Linalool, Mica, Carmine/CI 75470, Iron Oxides, Manganese Violet/CI 77742, Titanium Dioxide/CI 77891 ...
RASPBERRY, Rubus idaeus L. - Raspberries are not only tasty but also highly regarded for their nutritional values. These delicious and aromatic berries are a treasury of vitamins and minerals. They are considered to be a natural home remedy for colds and Horticultural Farm of Tadeusz Kusibab Actinidia Azalea haskap berry lonicera caerulea kamtschatica blue honeysucle sweetberry edible Berry Cranberry Highbush Blueberry - Northern, Southern Cultivars Lingonberry (Cowberry) Medium Blueberry - Northern Cult
To assess the environmental perturbation induced by the impact event that marks the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary, concentrations and isotopic compositions of bulk organic carbon were determined in sedimentary rocks that span the terrestrial K-T boundary at Dogie Creek, Montana, and Brownie Butte, Wyoming in the Western Interior of the United States. The boundary clays at both sites are not bounded by coals. Although coals consist mainly of organic matter derived from plant tissue, siliceous sedimentary rocks, such as shale and clay, may contain organic matter derived from microbiota as well as plants. Coals record ??13C values of plant-derived organic matter, reflecting the ??13C value of atmospheric CO2, whereas siliceous sedimentary rocks record the ??13C values of organic matter derived from plants and microbiota. The microbiota ??13C value reflects not only the ??13C value of atmospheric CO2, but also biological productivity. Therefore, the siliceous rocks from these sites yields information
Pathogen diversification can alter infection virulence, which in turn drives the evolution of host immune diversification, resulting in countermeasures for survival in this arms race. Somatic recombination of the immunoglobulin gene family members is a very effective mechanism to diversify antibodies and T-cell receptors that function in the adaptive immune system. Although mechanisms to diversify innate immune genes are not clearly understood, a seemingly unlikely source for insight into innate immune diversification may be derived from the purple sea urchin, which has recently had its genome sequenced and annotated. Although there are many differences, some characteristics of the sea urchin make for a useful tool to understand the human immune system. The sea urchin is phylogenetically related to humans although, as a group, sea urchins are evolutionarily much older than mammals. Humans require both adaptive and innate immune responses to survive immune challenges, whereas sea urchins only ...
Berries of highbush blueberry Vaccinium ×covilleanum are very important for human diet by their secondary metabolites that in low amounts are beneficial to human health. The aim of this study was to determine total anthocyanins amounts in berry and berry skin extracts, to investigate their anthibacterial activity and to identify individual anthocyanins. Total anthocyanins in berry extracts ranged from 180 to 270 mg/100 g and from 742 to 1850 mg/100 g in berry skin extracts. The most prevalent anthocyanins were cyanidin-3-arabinoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, and petunidin-3-glucoside. The most sensitive to ethanol extracts of berry and berry skin were Citrobacter freundii, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli test cultures were distinguished by the largest resistance. Significant differences between antibacterial activity of berry skin and berry extracts were not determined ...

Field Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. for Control of Armillaria Root Rot of PeachField Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. for Control of Armillaria Root Rot of Peach

Destruction of Armillaria mellea in citrus soil. Phytopathology 41:665-683. 6. Bliss, D. E. 1944. Controlling Armillaria root ... for Control of Armillaria Root Rot of Peach. G. Schnabel, College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences, A. P. Rollins, ... Antagonism between Armillaria and Trichoderma. Etudes sur lantagonisme entre Armillaire et Trichoderma. Association de ... The genus Trichoderma: its relationship with Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fries) Quel. and Polyporus schweinitzii Fr., together ...
more infohttp://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/research/2011/peach/

Species, diversity, and density affect tree seedling mortality from Armillaria root rotSpecies, diversity, and density affect tree seedling mortality from Armillaria root rot

Mortality from Armillaria root rot is a major concern of forest management. Field experiments were conducted in Minnesota to ... Species, diversity, and density affect tree seedling mortality from Armillaria root rot Public Deposited ... Species, diversity, and density affect tree seedling mortality from Armillaria root rot. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27 ... influences seedling mortality from Armillaria spp. Seedlings of 10 tree species (six conifers and four hardwoods) were planted ...
more infohttps://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/defaults/9p2909905

Armillaria solidipes, an older name for Armillaria ostoyae, NABS I-- Tom Volks Fungus of the Month for July 2008Armillaria solidipes, an older name for Armillaria ostoyae, NABS I-- Tom Volk's Fungus of the Month for July 2008

Armillaria solidipes, an older name for Armillaria ostoyae, North American Biological Species I, NABS I Tom Volks Fungus of ... Armillaria solidipes, an older name for the fungus called Armillaria ostoyae. North American Fungi 3(7): 261-267. doi: 10.2509/ ... Abstract: The name Armillaria ostoyae has been applied for nearly 40 years to the Armillaria species that causes a major root- ... namely Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr.) Kummer. Until the late 1970s Armillaria mellea was considered by most researchers to be a ...
more infohttp://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/sep2008.html

Isolation and structural elucidation of bioactive metabolites from Fungi, Trichoderma species and a higher plant, Tephrosia...Isolation and structural elucidation of bioactive metabolites from Fungi, Trichoderma species and a higher plant, Tephrosia...

There are a number of diseases affecting the tea plant but the most prevalent is armillaria root rot caused by the fungus ... Sarcina lutea and Armillaria mellea. The crude culture broth extracts and pure compounds isolated from Trichoderma harzianum, T ... the causative agents of armillaria root rot in tea and American leaf spot disease of coffee, respectively. The first part of ... which showed the highest antifungal and antibacterial activity and completely inhabited the growth of Armillaria mellea fungus ...
more infohttp://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/2696

Armillaria - WikipediaArmillaria - Wikipedia

Dessureault VI Armillaria mellea (Vahl.:Fries) Kummer VII Armillaria gallica (Marxmüller & Romagn.) IX Armillaria nabsnona T.J ... I Armillaria ostoyae (Romagn.) Herink II Armillaria gemina Bérubé & Dessureault III Armillaria calvescens Bérubé & Dessureault ... Armillaria root rot Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Kummer. p. 37-38 in Davidson, A.G.; Prentice, R.M. (Compilers and Eds.). ... Armillaria ostoyae is the species most commonly found in all Canadian provinces surveyed (Mallett 1990). Armillaria root rot ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armillaria

Armillaria ectypa - WikipediaArmillaria ectypa - Wikipedia

List of Armillaria species Svetasheva T. (2015). "Armillaria ectypa". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2015). doi: ... Armillaria ectypa is a species of mushroom in the family Physalacriaceae. Commonly known as the marsh honey fungus, it prefers ... "GSD Species Synonymy: Armillaria ectypa (Fr.) Lamoure". CAB International. Species Fungorum. Retrieved 2015-12-14. "Action plan ... for Armillaria ectypa". UK Biodiversity Plan. 1999. Retrieved 2009-04-17. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armillaria_ectypa

Armillaria viridiflava - WikipediaArmillaria viridiflava - Wikipedia

Armillaria Root Rot: Biology and Control of Honey Fungus. Intercept. pp. 81-93. ISBN 1-898298-64-5. Armillaria viridiflava in ... List of Armillaria species Volk TJ, Burdsall HH Jr. (1995). "A nomenclatural study of Armillaria and Armillariella species ( ... Armillaria viridiflava is a species of agaric fungus in the family Physalacriaceae. This species is found in South America. ... 2000). "Taxonomy, nomenclature and description of Armillaria". In Fox RTV. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armillaria_viridiflava

Armillaria borealis - WikipediaArmillaria borealis - Wikipedia

List of Armillaria species. References[edit]. *^ Anderson JB, Stasovski E. (1992). "Molecular phylogeny of northern hemisphere ... Armillaria borealis is a species of mushroom in the Physalacriaceae family. Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal DNA has shown ... that within the genus Armillaria, this species is most closely related to A. solidipes and A. gemina.[1] ... species of Armillaria". Mycologia. 84 (4): 505-16. doi:10.2307/3760315. JSTOR 3760315.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armillaria_borealis

Armillaria limoneaArmillaria limonea

... is a white rot wood decay fungus and root disease pathogen that has confirmed presence in New Zealand only, ... limonea and Armillaria novae-zelandiae (G. Stevenson) Herink before it was accepted that Armillaria mellea (Vahl) Kumm. is not ... Armillaria limonea is one of many Armillaria species broadly similar in appearance and behavior (Watling et al., 1991; Pegler, ... Chapter 9 Armillaria in planted hosts. In: Armillaria Root Disease. Agriculture Handbook No. 691, [ed. by Shaw III CG, Kile GA ...
more infohttps://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/88087749

Armillaria ostoyae | fungus | Britannica.comArmillaria ostoyae | fungus | Britannica.com

Armillaria: …that year, a specimen of A. ostoyae was identified on Mount Adams, in southwestern Washington state. Its age was ... In Armillaria. …that year, a specimen of A. ostoyae was identified on Mount Adams, in southwestern Washington state. Its age ... Other articles where Armillaria ostoyae is discussed: ... Armillaria ostoyae. fungus. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/Armillaria-ostoyae

Armillaria novae-zelandiaeArmillaria novae-zelandiae

... is a white rot wood decay fungus and root disease pathogen that occurs in a number of countries in ... Armillaria novae-zelandiae is one of many Armillaria species broadly similar in appearance and behavior (Watling et al., 1991; ... Chapter 9. Armillaria in planted hosts. In: Armillaria Root Disease. Agriculture Handbook No. 691, [ed. by Shaw III CG, Kile GA ... How to diagnose Armillaria. New Zealand Kiwifruit (May), (67), 14-15.. Horner IJ, 1990. No miracle cures for Armillaria. New ...
more infohttps://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/51192198

Armillaria Metal Prints | Society6Armillaria Metal Prints | Society6

Shop armillaria metal prints from thousands of artists from around the world. Our metal wall art produces vibrant colors and ...
more infohttps://society6.com/metal-prints/armillaria

Armillaria root rotArmillaria root rot

... Scientific Name. Armillaria ostoyae Scientific Author. (Romagn.) Herink. Taxonomy. Marasmiaceae, ... Liberato JR, Kunca A & Korhonen K (2006) Armillaria root rot (Armillaria ostoyae ) Updated on 7/23/2016 10:32:19 PM Available ... Armillaria ostoyae colonizes the root system of woody plants and causes non-specific symptoms such as reduction of shoot growth ... Until the late 1970s, most plant pathologists referred to all annulate Northern Hemisphere species of Armillaria as A. mellea ( ...
more infohttp://www.padil.gov.au/pests-and-diseases/pest/main/136613

Plant diseases - Armillaria in growing media / RHS GardeningPlant diseases - Armillaria in growing media / RHS Gardening

Read more on the studies undertaken by the RHS on Armillaria and what the best course of action is should your tree or shrub ... Armillaria. has been confirmed.. Further information. Survival of Armillaria in mulches (834kB pdf). Latest report: Behaviour ... Armillaria. , honey fungus, rhizomorphs. The problem. Replanting after the removal of a host of Armillaria can be very ... In Armillaria Root Diease, pp. 76-87. Ed by Shaw III, C. G.; Kile, G. USDA Forest Service Agricultural Handbook number 691. ...
more infohttps://www.rhs.org.uk/science/plant-health-in-gardens/pathology/projects/behaviour-of-armillaria-in-growing-media

Armillaria Archives - Colin PurringtonArmillaria Archives - Colin Purrington

Tag Archives: Armillaria Rhizomorphs of honey mushroom (Armillaria). Some photographs of Armillaria (honey mushroom) underneath ... Posted in Biology, Photography , Tagged Armillaria, Armillaria mellea, bioluminescence, bootlace fungus, fungi, fungus, honey ...
more infohttps://colinpurrington.com/tag/armillaria/

Armillaria borealis, a rare woodland fungusArmillaria borealis, a rare woodland fungus

Armillaria borealis, a rare honey fungus species: identification pictures (images), habitat, edible or poisonous; taxonomy, ... Armillaria borealis has a very catholic taste for timber, appearing (generally quite high up) on a wide range of broadleaf and ... There are many forms of Honey Fungus, and in the distant past they all shared the scientific name Armillaria mellea. Nowadays ... Although all Armillaria species were for many years generally considered edible when thoroughly cooked, some members of the ...
more infohttps://www.first-nature.com/fungi/armillaria-borealis.php

Mushroom Observer: Observation 118094: Armillaria (Fr.) StaudeMushroom Observer: Observation 118094: Armillaria (Fr.) Staude

This is very common under the redwoods. It seems to grow singly or in diffuse troops and not in the big caespitose clusters on trunks that you get with "Honey mushrooms". The base of the stipe is often bulbous. ...
more infohttp://mushroomobserver.org/observer/show_observation/118094

Using DNA to correctly identify destructive vs. beneficial Armillaria fungus - Research Highlights - US Forest Service Research...Using DNA to correctly identify destructive vs. beneficial Armillaria fungus - Research Highlights - US Forest Service Research...

beneficial Armillaria fungus. Armillaria fruiting body (mushroom).. Snapshot : Species of the fungal genus Armillaria are ... Armillaria appears to have co-evolved with woody plants over the last ~100+ million years, which resulted in different species ... Thus, Armillaria species from another continent or region may represent an invasive pathogen risk to a region or continent on ... Armillaria is a fungal genus associated with woody plants of diverse ecosystems of North America, South America, Europe, Asia, ...
more infohttps://www.fs.fed.us/research/highlights/highlights_display.php?in_high_id=1362

Armillaria Rot on Oak Trees | Home Guides | SF GateArmillaria Rot on Oak Trees | Home Guides | SF Gate

Although many types of Armillaria fungi cause Armillaria rot, the Armillaria mellea and Armillaria gallica fungi are among the ... Armillaria Fungus. The Armillaria family is composed of approximately 30 different fungal species. ... Armillaria fungus can live for years in the roots of healthy trees. It may occasionally kill a root, but trees that are strong ... Armillaria Rot on Oak Trees. Oak trees can live to be hundreds of years old. ...
more infohttps://homeguides.sfgate.com/armillaria-rot-oak-trees-70770.html

Armillaria nabsnona, honey mushroom number nine, Tom Volks Fungus of the Month for February 1999Armillaria nabsnona, honey mushroom number nine, Tom Volk's Fungus of the Month for February 1999

Up until fairly recently there was considered to be only a single species of Armillaria, namely Armillaria mellea(Vahl:Fr.) ... This months fungus is Armillaria nabsnona, honey mushroom number nine. For the rest of my pages on fungi, please click ... Let me tell you about the first time I saw Armillaria nabsnona-- although of course I didnt know it at the time. I was in the ... Armillaria nabsnona, a new species from western North America. Thomas J. Volk, Harold H. Burdsall, Jr. , and Mark T. Banik. ...
more infohttp://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/feb99.html

A Zarrota Galeria - ArmillariaA Zarrota Galeria - Armillaria

Hola. Bienvenido a A Zarrota Foto Galeria. Para subir fotos hay que ser socio de A Zarrota o estar avalado por un socio. Pretendemos asi que todas las fotos sean originales, y no extraidas de otros sitios de internet. Si eres socio y quieres empezar a subir fotos contacta con el webmaster para obtener una cuenta con permisos. !!Gracias!! Que tengas un feliz dia!. ...
more infohttp://azarrota.org/galeria/thumbnails.php?album=5

Grape Armillaria Fungus - How To Treat A Grapevine With Armillaria Root Rot		Grape Armillaria Fungus - How To Treat A Grapevine With Armillaria Root Rot

Fungal infections, including the grape armillaria fungus, can ruin your vines, though. Know the signs of infection and what to ... What is Armillaria Root Rot of Grapes?. Armillaria mellea is a fungus that is naturally found in trees in California and that ... Managing Armillaria Root Rot. A grapevine with armillaria root rot is difficult or impossible to successfully treat. If you are ... Plant DiseasesArmillaria Root Rot Control - Learn About Treatment For Armillaria Root Rot ...
more infohttps://www.gardeningknowhow.com/edible/fruits/grapes/armillaria-root-rot-of-grapes.htm

The effect of light and nitrogen limitation on western conifers : response to Armillaria ostoyae infectionThe effect of light and nitrogen limitation on western conifers : response to Armillaria ostoyae infection

Armillaria (Fr. ex. Fr.) is a parasite whose pathogenicity and role in forest ecosystems often depends upon the physiological ... Armillaria ostoyae infection rates were significantly higher when seedlings were light or nitrogen limited than when light and ... The effect of light and nitrogen limitation on western conifers : response to Armillaria ostoyae infection Public Deposited ... Armillaria ostoyae infection rates were significantly higher on P. menziesii that received the thinning plus fertilization ...
more infohttps://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/gx41mk98w

Coarse-scale population structure of pathogenic Armillaria species in a mixed-conifer forest in the Blue Mountains of northeast...Coarse-scale population structure of pathogenic Armillaria species in a mixed-conifer forest in the Blue Mountains of northeast...

Sampling of recently dead or live, symptomatic conifers produced 112 isolates of Armillaria from six tree species. Armillaria ... In vitro fruiting of Armillaria species.. *Characterization of North American Armillaria species: Genetic relationships ... Armillaria ostoyae genet sizes were approximately 20, 95, 195, 260, and 965 ha; cumulative colonization of the study area was ... Coarse-scale population structure of pathogenic Armillaria species in a mixed-conifer forest in the Blue Mountains of northeast ...
more infohttps://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/20135

Transcriptome of an Armillaria root disease pathogen reveals candidate genes involved in host substrate utilization at the host...Transcriptome of an Armillaria root disease pathogen reveals candidate genes involved in host substrate utilization at the host...

First report of Armillaria sinapina, a cause of armillaria root disease, associated with a variety of forest tree hosts on ... Armillaria solidipes (formerly A. ostoyae), a causal agent of Armillaria root disease, is a virulent primary pathogen with a ... Survey of Armillaria spp. in the Oregon East Cascades: Baseline data for predicting climatic influences on Armillaria root ... First report of Armillaria root disease caused by Armillaria tabescens on Araucaria araucana in Veracruz, Mexico ...
more infohttps://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/45751
  • Field experiments were conducted in Minnesota to evaluate interspecific differential susceptibility and to assess whether density or species composition, specifically the proportion of conifers in a plot, influences seedling mortality from Armillaria spp. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Armillaria is a fungal genus associated with woody plants of diverse ecosystems of North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia. (fed.us)
  • Armillaria limonea (along with A . novae-zelandiae ) was the cause of substantial disease losses in plantations of Pinus radiata planted on sites cleared of native forest in New Zealand during the 1970s and 1980s. (cabi.org)
  • Armillaria novae-zelandiae was the cause of substantial disease losses in plantations of Pinus radiata and orchards of kiwifruit vines ( Actinidia deliciosa ) in New Zealand from the 1970s to the 1990s. (cabi.org)
  • In eastern states in Australia, A . novae-zelandiae is a minor cause of root disease in natural and planted forests, where it is of lesser importance than Armillaria luteobubalina . (cabi.org)
  • Armillaria novae-zelandiae is listed in the EPPO Global Database and features in the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service fungal databases. (cabi.org)
  • Oak trees are generally healthy and long-living, but occasionally fungal diseases such as Armillaria rot cause damage or death. (sfgate.com)
  • Gene modulation was generally stronger in Kober 5BB than in Pinot Noir plants, and in vitro inoculation induced higher modulation than in greenhouse Armillaria spp. (apsnet.org)
  • Descriptions of Armillaria limonea are provided by Stevenson (1964) and Gadgil (2005) . (cabi.org)
  • Because Armillaria is a facultative saprophyte, it also feeds on dead plant material, allowing it to kill its host, unlike parasites that must moderate their growth to avoid host death. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you are growing vines in an area that has armillaria, prevention before you plant is the best strategy. (gardeningknowhow.com)