An ancient country in western Asia, by the twentieth century divided among the former USSR, Turkey, and Iran. It was attacked at various times from before the 7th century B.C. to 69 B.C. by Assyrians, Medes, Persians, the Greeks under Alexander, and the Romans. It changed hands frequently in wars between Neo-Persian and Roman Empires from the 3d to 7th centuries and later under Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantines, and Mongols. In the 19th century Armenian nationalism arose but suffered during Russo-Turkish hostilities. It became part of the Soviet Republic in 1921, with part remaining under Turkey. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.
Standards or regulations for construction which are designed to ensure safety against electrical hazards, fires, etc.

Mutation and haplotype studies of familial Mediterranean fever reveal new ancestral relationships and evidence for a high carrier frequency with reduced penetrance in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. (1/54)

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a recessive disorder characterized by episodes of fever with serositis or synovitis. The FMF gene (MEFV) was cloned recently, and four missense mutations were identified. Here we present data from non-Ashkenazi Jewish and Arab patients in whom we had not originally found mutations and from a new, more ethnically diverse panel. Among 90 symptomatic mutation-positive individuals, 11 mutations accounted for 79% of carrier chromosomes. Of the two mutations that are novel, one alters the same residue (680) as a previously known mutation, and the other (P369S) is located in exon 3. Consistent with another recent report, the E148Q mutation was observed in patients of several ethnicities and on multiple microsatellite haplotypes, but haplotype data indicate an ancestral relationships between non-Jewish Italian and Ashkenazi Jewish patients with FMF and other affected populations. Among approximately 200 anonymous Ashkenazi Jewish DNA samples, the MEFV carrier frequency was 21%, with E148Q the most common mutation. Several lines of evidence indicate reduced penetrance among Ashkenazi Jews, especially for E148Q, P369S, and K695R. Nevertheless, E148Q helps account for recessive inheritance in an Ashkenazi family previously reported as an unusual case of dominantly inherited FMF. The presence of three frequent MEFV mutations in multiple Mediterranean populations strongly suggests a heterozygote advantage in this geographic region.  (+info)

MEFV-Gene analysis in armenian patients with Familial Mediterranean fever: diagnostic value and unfavorable renal prognosis of the M694V homozygous genotype-genetic and therapeutic implications. (2/54)

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a recessively inherited disorder that is common in patients of Armenian ancestry. To date, its diagnosis, which can be made only retrospectively, is one of exclusion, based entirely on nonspecific clinical signs that result from serosal inflammation and that may lead to unnecessary surgery. Renal amyloidosis, prevented by colchicine, is the most severe complication of FMF, a disorder associated with mutations in the MEFV gene. To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of MEFV-gene analysis, we investigated 90 Armenian FMF patients from 77 unrelated families that were not selected through genetic-linkage analysis. Eight mutations, one of which (R408Q) is new, were found to account for 93% of the 163 independent FMF alleles, with both FMF alleles identified in 89% of the patients. In several instances, family studies provided molecular evidence for pseudodominant transmission and incomplete penetrance of the disease phenotype. The M694V homozygous genotype was found to be associated with a higher prevalence of renal amyloidosis and arthritis, compared with other genotypes (P=.0002 and P=.006, respectively). The demonstration of both the diagnostic and prognostic value of MEFV analysis and particular modes of inheritance should lead to new ways for management of FMF-including genetic counseling and therapeutic decisions in affected families.  (+info)

Epidemic investigation of diphtheria in the Republic of Armenia, 1990-1996. (3/54)

While incidence rates of diphtheria steadily declined in Armenia after World War II, reemergence of the disease in 1990 brought about changes in public health practices and identified resource needs. The Armenian Ministry of Health (MOH) routinely collected diphtheria case reports, as a reportable health outcome. Diphtheria incidence rates increased from 0.02/100,000 in 1993 to 1/100,000 (36 cases) in 1994. The distribution of cases showed that the greatest number of illnesses and deaths occurred among persons 5-14 years old, yet incidence rates among persons 1-4 and 5-14 years old were similar (4. 4 cases/ and 4.3 cases/100,000, respectively). During 1990-1996, 9 (75%) of 12 cases who died and 18 (21%) of 84 cases who survived had not been vaccinated. The diphtheria epidemic in Armenia was an important, serious, and signal public health event. The Armenian MOH responded by revising immunization practices (1994), improving epidemic control measures (1995), and soliciting international resources (1992-1996).  (+info)

Identification of MEFV-independent modifying genetic factors for familial Mediterranean fever. (4/54)

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a recessively inherited disorder predisposing to renal amyloidosis and associated with mutations in MEFV, a gene encoding a protein of unknown function. Differences in clinical expression have been attributed to MEFV-allelic heterogeneity, with the M694V/M694V genotype associated with a high prevalence of renal amyloidosis. However, the variable risk for patients with identical MEFV mutations to develop this severe complication, prevented by lifelong administration of colchicine, strongly suggests a role for other genetic and/or environmental factors. To overcome the well-known difficulties in the identification of modifying genetic factors, we investigated a relatively homogeneous population sample consisting of 137 Armenian patients with FMF from 127 independent families living in Armenia. We selected the SAA1, SAA2, and APOE genes-encoding serum amyloid proteins and apolipoprotein E, respectively-as well as the patients' sex, as candidate modifiers for renal amyloidosis. A stepwise logistic-regression analysis showed that the SAA1alpha/alpha genotype was associated with a sevenfold increased risk for renal amyloidosis, compared with other SAA1 genotypes (odds ratio [OR] 6. 9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-19.0). This association, which was present whatever the MEFV genotype, was extremely marked in patients homozygous for M694V (11/11). The risk for male patients of developing renal amyloidosis was fourfold higher than that for female patients (OR=4.0; 95% CI=1.5-10.8). This association, particularly marked in patients who were not homozygous for M694V (34.0% vs. 11.6%), was independent of SAA1-allelic variations. Polymorphisms in the SAA2 or APOE gene did not appear to influence susceptibility to renal amyloidosis. Overall, these data, which provide new insights into the pathophysiology of FMF, demonstrate that susceptibility to renal amyloidosis in this Mendelian disorder is influenced by at least two MEFV-independent factors of genetic origin-SAA1 and sex-that act independently of each other.  (+info)

Phenotype-genotype correlation in 91 patients with familial Mediterranean fever reveals a high frequency of cutaneomucous features. (5/54)

OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical manifestations of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) in 91 patients from 47 families and provide data from the genetic study. P:atients and methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 91 patients (including 83 children aged <15 yr) from 47 families through a questionnaire and a specific database. The genetic analysis included complete screening of known mutations of the MEFV gene on chromosome 16p13.3. A positive diagnosis required at least two mutations, one on each chromosome. RESULTS: Our panel included 52 females and 39 males, with a mean age of 7.27 yr. Of the 47 families, 31 were non-Ashkenazi Jews, 10 were Armenians and six were from other ethnic groups. Clinical features included fever (100%), peritonitis (86%), pleuritis (56%), arthritis (34%) and myalgias (27%). We observed a high rate of cutaneous manifestations (47%); erythema, oedema and recurrent oral ulcers were the most frequent. Phenotype-genotype correlations showed a significant association of M694V homozygosity with earlier age of onset (P: = 0.044), fever >39 degrees C (P: = 0. 002), pleural crisis (P: = 0.0044), splenomegaly (P: = 0.0005) and arthritis (P: = 0.001). Associations with mucocutaneous features were as follows: erysipelas-like erythema (P: = 0.012), oedema (P: = 0.61, not significant) and oral ulcers (P: = 0.45, not significant). CONCLUSION: New phenotype-genotype correlations emerged from our study: homozygosity for the M694V mutation was associated with intensity of fever, splenomegaly and with erysipelas-like erythema. Apart from erysipelas-like erythema, no significant association was found between other cutaneous features and the genotype.  (+info)

Republican Scientific-Medical Library, The Republic of Armenia: progress and programs. (6/54)

In 1990, the Republican Scientific-Medical Library (RSML) of the Ministry of Health of Armenia in collaboration with the Fund for Armenian Relief created a vision of a national library network supported by information technology. This vision incorporated four goals: (1) to develop a national resource collection of biomedical literature accessible to all health professionals, (2) to develop a national network for access to bibliographic information, (3) to develop a systematic mechanism for sharing resources, and (4) to develop a national network of health sciences libraries. During the last decade, the RSML has achieved significant progress toward all four goals and has realized its vision of becoming a fully functional national library. The RSML now provides access to the literature of the health sciences including access to the Armenian medical literature, provides education and training to health professionals and health sciences librarians, and manages a national network of libraries of the major health care institutions in Armenia. The RSML is now able to provide rapid access to the biomedical literature and train health professionals and health sciences librarians in Armenia in information system use. This paper describes the evolution of the RSML and how it was accomplished.  (+info)

Chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of persons exposed to an earthquake in Armenia. (7/54)

OBJECTIVE: This study attempted to determine the level of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of victims of the 1988 earthquake in Armenia. METHODS: Chromosome aberrations were measured in blood samples taken from 41 victims of the earthquake that hit Armenia in 1988 and in samples of 47 reference blood donors. The victims suffered from severe psychoemotional stress but were otherwise healthy. All the samples were taken 2 to 3 weeks after the earthquake. All the subjects were lifetime nonsmokers. The cells were scored blind as to the exposure status. RESULTS: The subjects exposed to the earthquake had a higher proportion of cells with chromosome aberrations [3.1 (SD 2.1)%] than the referents [1.7 (SD 1.3)%, P-value for the difference 0.0009]. The difference persisted when the values were adjusted for age and gender [relative risk (RR) 1.9, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.4-2.5]. The difference was present for double breaks (RR 4.1, 95% CI 2.6-6.4), but not for single breaks (RR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.7). The exposed subjects also had a lower percentage of cells with 46 chromosomes (P=0.03) than the referents. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests an increase in chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of victims of a severe earthquake as compared with the levels of referents. If not due to bias or confounding, the difference may reflect the effect of either environmental exposures related to the earthquake or severe psychogenic stress. The levels of chromosome aberrations found among the earthquake victims in this study are comparable with those found in prospective studies of long-term cancer risk.  (+info)

MEFV mutations and phenotype-genotype correlations in North African Jews and Armenians with familial Mediterranean fever. (8/54)

BACKGROUND: Familial Mediterranean fever is a genetic disease in which some characteristic gene mutations have been found. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the phenotype-genotype correlations in North African Jews and Armenians with FMF. METHODS: We studied MEFV gene mutations and phenotype-genotype correlations in North African Jews and Armenians with Familial Mediterranean Fever living in France. RESULTS: M694V mutation was the most common mutation in Jews and in Armenians. Patients with M680I homozygosity or M680I/M694V compound heterozygosity had a phenotype as severe as patients with M694V homozygosity. CONCLUSIONS: This study characterizes the phenotype-genotype in specific ethnic groups of patients with FMF.  (+info)

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Each of us can significantly reduce the amount of waste that goes to landfill - learn about what can be recycled in Armenia and ... Did you know that 90% of adolescents in Armenias regions are interested in learning more about climate change? Children, ... Experts foresee that climate of Armenia can be warmed up to 4.7 Celsius in this century. ...
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Armenia from The World Bank: Data
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Armenia is a nation of 3.3 million in a territory a fourth the size of Pennsylvania. Its small scale belies a much larger ... Armenias survivors. by Philip Jenkins in the Jun 12, 2013 issue. ShareShare on TwitterShare on FacebookEmail to a friendPrint ... Although Armenias Christian past is little known in the West, it is an awe-inspiring tale of endurance in a profoundly hostile ... Armenia today is a small nation of some 3.3 million people in a territory barely a quarter the size of Pennsylvania. Officially ...
Copyright © Amnesty International Australia ABN: 640 0280 6233. We acknowledge the Traditional Owners of this land and pay our respects to their Elders past and present. We acknowledge that this land was and always will be Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander land. WARNING: This website may contain images or names of people who have passed away.. ...
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Armenia - Travel and vacation weather averages, current conditions and forecasts. ... Home > Asia > Armenia Elevation: 1861 meters Latitude: 40 32N Longitude: 045 43E ...
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Armenia - Travel and vacation weather averages, current conditions and forecasts. ... Home > Asia > Armenia Elevation: 2919 feet Latitude: 40 08N Longitude: 044 28E ...
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Armenia is facing a power crisis as it is due to replace its only nuclear power station by 2016. Metsamor nuclear plant is ... Armenia on shaky ground with nuclear plant: EU Armenia is facing a power crisis as it is due to replace its only nuclear power ... Built in 1979, the plant provides more than 40 per cent of Armenias electricity. But, situated as it is in a highly active ... Experts say that in a world of rising fuel costs nuclear energy is the only way Armenia can meet its power needs. ...
Armenia • Azerbaijan. • Belarus. • Croatia. • Georgia. • Kazakhstan. • Kyrgyzstan. • Russia. • Ukraine. • Uzbekistan. • Other ... Armenia Todays Web site was plagued by denial-of-service attacks throughout the year-including a series of attacks that ... In April, three unidentified assailants attacked Argishti Kivirian, editor of the independent news Web site Armenia Today, ... Attacks on the Press 2009: Armenia. By Mick Stern on February 16, 2010 12:50 AM EST. ...
Iran backs Azerbaijan, sends arms to Armenia Oct 5, 2020 @ 11:18. Oct 16, 2020 @ 16:41. Diane Shalem 7589 Views Azerbaijan, ... Iran and Armenia are moreover long trade partners, and Tehran looks after important Armenian churches in the Azeri northwest. ... Condemning Armenia as the aggressor would present Tehran with another problem: its clandestine supply of arms to Azerbaijans ... In the current outbreak, Iran was accused of allowing the transit of Russian arms to Armenia through its East Azerbaijan ...
  • How a little-understood war between Azerbaijan and Armenia threatens democracy. (thenation.com)
  • Armenia is generally understood to have included NE Turkey , the area covered by the modern republic of Armenia (the eastern part of ancient Armenia), and parts of Iranian Azerbaijan . (factmonster.com)
  • After the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, Russian Armenia joined Azerbaijan and Georgia to form the anti-Bolshevik Transcaucasian Federation, which, however, was dissolved in 1918. (factmonster.com)
  • From 1922 to 1936, Armenia was combined with Azerbaijan and Georgia to form the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, after which it became a separate constituent republic of the USSR. (factmonster.com)
  • The post The Mobster Who Brought Armenia and Azerbaijan Together … in Death appeared first on OZY. (dictionary.com)
  • Whenever fighting has erupted between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the disputed territories claimed by both neighbors, demands from Moscow have ultimately forced the two post-Soviet states to the negotiating table. (dictionary.com)
  • During 1988-1995, severe financial constraints and the war with Azerbaijan contributed to cessation of vector-control activities in Armenia (which had included the use of mosquito-larvivorous fish {Gambusia affinis}, insecticide spraying, and the reduction of mosquito breeding sites). (cdc.gov)
  • LONDON: Pakistan has denied its involvement in the ongoing Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict, following a claim by the Armenian prime minister that Pakistani troops were fighting alongside Azerbaijani troops. (arabnews.com)
  • It is regrettable that leadership of Armenia, to cover up its illegal actions against Azerbaijan, is resorting to irresponsible propaganda, which it must stop. (arabnews.com)
  • YEREVAN -- Iranian President Hassan Rohani visited Armenia on December 21 as part of a swing through three former Soviet republics. (rferl.org)
  • Eastern Armenia was chronically disputed between Turkey and Persia. (factmonster.com)
  • an ancient country in W Asia: now divided between Armenia, Turkey, and Iran. (dictionary.com)
  • Based on 0-50 contributions for Afghanistan, Aland Islands, Andorra and 81 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Armenia and 19 more countries and over 100 contributions for Argentina, Australia, Austria and 82 more countries. (nationmaster.com)
  • Economic hardship and a failure to realize anticipated economic benefits from joining the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) have led many in Armenia to second-guess its capacity to boost the growth of Armenia's economy. (cacianalyst.org)
  • Its shape, its light pastry layers and comparatively gentle sweetness distinguish it from the foreign competition back home, a country that shares borders with Armenia , Georgia, Iran and Russia. (dictionary.com)
  • Russia acquired Armenia from Persia in 1828 and made it into a province. (factmonster.com)
  • That same year the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk between Soviet Russia and Germany made Russian Armenia an independent republic under German auspices. (factmonster.com)
  • Its EEU membership makes Armenia even more economically dependent on Russia, and thereby less capable of independently managing the domestic economic fallout and more vulnerable to fluctuations on the Russian market. (cacianalyst.org)
  • The Project focuses on "infrastructure gaps" through renovation and rehabilitation of secondary and special schools, kindergartens, gymnasiums and playgrounds, primary health clinics, potable water pipelines and sanitation systems, community-cultural and social service centers, minor irrigation schemes throughout Armenia. (worldbank.org)
  • There was obsidian, evidently brought from a distance-de Morgan thinks from Armenia , a thousand miles away. (dictionary.com)
  • For a thousand years, Armenia was home to a thriving Christian culture. (christiancentury.org)
  • "The ASIF micro-projects have proven to be an effective tool in responding to the needs of the poor and promoting economic growth in remote and isolated villages by supporting small-scale, labor intensive, community infrastructure projects and creating employment in the poorer regions," said Jean-Michel Happi, World Bank Country Manager for Armenia . (worldbank.org)
  • Economic forecasts for Armenia remain grim and since June the country has seen a wave of protests over the price hike on electricity. (cacianalyst.org)
  • Though the EU has offered Armenia 200 million euros to look for alternative sources of energy, the country has no natural resources of its own. (rt.com)
  • This paper provides (i) an overview of an ongoing matched-pairs community-randomized controlled trial in 28 communities in Armenia and Georgia (N = 14/country) testing local coalitions to promote smoke-free policies/enforcement and (ii) characteristics of the communities involved. (nih.gov)
  • Armenia today is a small nation of some 3.3 million people in a territory barely a quarter the size of Pennsylvania. (christiancentury.org)
  • Vaccine introduction status in Armenia over time. (who.int)
  • Rabid dogs are commonly found in Armenia. (cdc.gov)
  • The World Bank and International Monetary Fund forecast that in 2015, economic growth in Armenia will be weak or even negative. (cacianalyst.org)
  • WASHINGTON, February 14, 2012 - The World Bank's Board of Executive Directors today approved a US$11 million credit, the Third Additional Financing for the Social Investment Fund III (ASIF III) Project for Armenia . (worldbank.org)
  • In December 1992, the MOH and CDC, with the support of the U.S. Agency for International Development, began restructuring the health information systems (HIS) in Armenia. (cdc.gov)
  • Be aware of current health issues in Armenia. (cdc.gov)
  • Examining smoke-free coalitions in Armenia and Georgia: baseline community capacity. (nih.gov)
  • An additional three were arrested in Armenia and four in Medellín for their involvement, according to ICE. (dictionary.com)
  • defeated Armenia became tributary to the republic after the campaigns of Lucullus (69 BC) and Pompey (67 BC). (factmonster.com)
  • In the same year, however, the Communists gained control of Russian Armenia and proclaimed it a Soviet republic. (factmonster.com)
  • His family had experienced real Nazis-not metaphorical ones-in Armenia during the Second World War. (dictionary.com)
  • Experts say that in a world of rising fuel costs nuclear energy is the only way Armenia can meet its power needs. (rt.com)
  • In Armenia, with support from the European Union and Sweden, the EBRD helps small and medium-sized businesses grow, succeed, then grow again, becoming genuine catalysts for their local economies, then their region. (ebrd.com)
  • It supports community investments in the poorest communities of Armenia through basic small-scale social and economic infrastructure rehabilitation. (worldbank.org)
  • In June and July, key international companies such as Etihad Airways, Samsung and France Telecom-Orange announced that they will soon stop business operations in Armenia. (cacianalyst.org)
  • The Additional Financing will further assist the Government of Armenia in its efforts to improve the living standards of the poor and vulnerable groups by expanding labor-intensive infrastructure projects in response to critical needs of the local communities. (worldbank.org)
  • There are many brave men among his subjects better fitted than Sarchedon for the highest post Armenia has to offer. (dictionary.com)
  • Recommended for unvaccinated travelers younger than 60 years old traveling to Armenia. (cdc.gov)
  • Unvaccinated travelers 60 years and older may get vaccinated before traveling to Armenia. (cdc.gov)
  • Art gallery (Armenia) member since 2017, Narinart Armgallery presents an exclusive selection of artworks for sale by the best contemporary artists. (artmajeur.com)
  • Recommended for unvaccinated travelers one year old or older going to Armenia. (cdc.gov)
  • So devastating have been some of these events that outsiders have repeatedly been tempted to write the obituary of Armenia, yet people, nation and church continue. (christiancentury.org)
  • After the weapons arrived at their destination in Armenia , the guards were set free. (dictionary.com)
  • AD, Ardashir I , founder of the Sassanid , came to power in Persia and overran Armenia. (factmonster.com)
  • Armenia is facing a power crisis as it is due to replace its only nuclear power station by 2016. (rt.com)
  • From 1945 to 1986, FSU-wide malaria eradication efforts (including mosquito vector control, case detection and treatment, and chemoprophylaxis) curtailed transmission in Armenia, one of the 15 Newly Independent States of the FSU. (cdc.gov)
  • The next steps for malaria control and prevention in Armenia should focus on surveillance, clinical practice, public education, and environmental control. (cdc.gov)
  • Shortly afterward (1386-94) the Mongol conqueror Timur seized Greater Armenia and massacred a large part of the population. (factmonster.com)
  • Armenia currently has few options to boost its faltering economy due to a falling number of foreign direct investments, high national debt and a shortfall of budget revenue. (cacianalyst.org)
  • Moreover, Armenia is experiencing a decrease in foreign direct investments, which could otherwise help boost the tumbling economy. (cacianalyst.org)
  • The EEU technical requirements leave Armenia with few possibilities to diversify its trade or attract foreign direct investment from outside the EEU, due to increased customs duties and tariff rates for non-EEU trade partners. (cacianalyst.org)
  • In 2015, Armenia is experiencing a severe downturn in foreign trade, the worst since the 2008 crisis. (cacianalyst.org)
  • The failure of anticipated benefits from joining the EEU to materialize and the economic turmoil on the domestic market has forced Armenia to rebalance its foreign policy and seek to diversify its trade and investment options. (cacianalyst.org)

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