Arm Bones: The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Finger Phalanges: Bones that make up the SKELETON of the FINGERS, consisting of two for the THUMB, and three for each of the other fingers.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Tennis Elbow: A condition characterized by pain in or near the lateral humeral epicondyle or in the forearm extensor muscle mass as a result of unusual strain. It occurs in tennis players as well as housewives, artisans, and violinists.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Acupuncture: The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Radius FracturesUlna Fractures: Fractures of the larger bone of the forearm.Names: Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.Genealogy and HeraldryPatient Identification Systems: Organized procedures for establishing patient identity, including use of bracelets, etc.Lawyers: Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)Tooth Preparation: Procedures carried out with regard to the teeth or tooth structures preparatory to specified dental therapeutic and surgical measures.Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic: The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)Dental High-Speed Equipment: Tools used in dentistry that operate at high rotation speeds.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Suburethral Slings: Support structures, made from natural or synthetic materials, that are implanted below the URETHRA to treat URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.Famous PersonsKidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.VietnamTexasArizonaHospitals, State: Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the state government.Intergenerational Relations: The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.Posters as Topic: Single or multi-sheet notices made to attract attention to events, activities, causes, goods, or services. They are for display, usually in a public place and are chiefly pictorial.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.

Childhood onset arthritis is associated with an increased risk of fracture: a population based study using the General Practice Research Database. (1/19)

BACKGROUND: Childhood onset arthritis is associated with low bone mass and strength. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether childhood onset arthritis is associated with greater fracture risk. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study all subjects with onset of arthritis between 1 and 19 years of age in the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database were identified. As controls, all sex and age matched subjects from a practice that included a subject with arthritis were included. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for first fracture were generated using Mantel-Haenszel methods and Poisson regression. RESULTS: 1939 subjects with arthritis (51% female) and 207 072 controls (53% female) were identified. The median age at arthritis diagnosis was 10.9 years. A total of 129 (6.7%) first fractures were noted in subjects with arthritis compared with 6910 (3.3%) in controls over a median follow up of 3.90 and 3.95 years in the subjects with arthritis and controls, respectively. The IRR (95% confidence interval) for first fracture among subjects with arthritis, compared with controls, according to the age at the start of follow up were 1.49 (0.91 to 2.31) for age <10 years, 3.13 (2.21 to 4.33) at 10-15 years, 1.75 (1.18 to 2.51) at 15-20 years, 1.40 (0.91 to 2.08) at 20-45 years, and 3.97 (2.23 to 6.59) at >45 years. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood onset arthritis is associated with a clinically significant increased risk of fracture in children, adolescents and, possibly, adults. Studies are urgently needed to characterise the determinants of structural bone abnormalities in childhood arthritis and devise prevention and treatment strategies.  (+info)

Short stature and dysmorphology associated with defects in the SHOX gene. (2/19)

Since its discovery in 1997, knowledge about the SHOX gene ( Short stature HOmeoboX-containing gene) has rapidly advanced. Although originally described as causing idiopathic short stature, SHOX mutations are also responsible for growth retardation in Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis, Langer mesomelic dysplasia and Turner syndrome. Furthermore, SHOX has a broad functional scope and leads to a variety of different morphological-skeletal stigmata associated with these syndromes. This article reviews clinical and molecular data associated SHOX gene defects. Functional ongoing studies are expected to improve our understanding of the SHOX gene as comprising part of a genetic process responsible for normal growth and bone development.  (+info)

A genomewide scan for quantitative trait loci underlying areal bone size variation in 451 Caucasian families. (3/19)

BACKGROUND: Bone size is an important determinant of bone strength and is under strong genetic control. OBJECTIVE: To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for areal bone size variation, a large-scale genomewide linkage scan was carried out in 451 Caucasian families. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Of 4124 people with phenotypes, 3899 were genotyped with 410 microsatellite markers. Multipoint linkage analyses were carried out in the entire sample, as well as in men and women separately. Potential epistatic interactions between identified genomic regions were also assessed. RESULTS: Several potentially important genomic regions were identified, such as 8q24 for hip bone size (logarithm of the ratio of the odds that two loci are linked (LOD) 3.27) and 2p24 (LOD 2.04) for spine bone size. 8q24 may also interact with 19p13 to affect hip bone size. Several sex-specific QTL were also detected, such as 14q21 (LOD 2.94) for wrist bone size in women and 16q12 (LOD 2.19) for hip bone size in men. CONCLUSIONS: Together with previous findings, this study has further delineated the genetic basis of bone size and laid a foundation for future studies to eventually elucidate the mechanisms of bone size regulation and associated fracture risks.  (+info)

Treatment results of pathological fractures of the long bones: a retrospective analysis of 88 patients. (4/19)

Due to the advances in oncological therapy, the life expectancy of patients with malignant tumours and the incidence of pathological fractures have increased over the last decades. Pathological fractures of the long bones are common complications of metastatic disease; however, the outcome of different surgical techniques for the treatment of these fractures has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in patient's survival and postoperative complications after the treatment of pathological fractures of the long bones. Eighty-eight patients with 96 pathological fractures of the long bones were analysed retrospectively. Seventy-five patients with 83 fractures received surgical treatment. The operative treatments used were intramedullary fixation, gliding screws, plate osteosynthesis or arthroplasty. Five patients were still alive at the end of data collection at a median time of 42.5 months, and 16.2% survived 1 year, 7% 2 years and 4% more than 3 years postoperatively. All surgically treated patients had a reduction of local pain and were able to walk after the operation. The overall rate of complications was 8%. Early palliative treatment of pathological fractures of the long bones is indicated in most patients in the advanced stage of metastatic disease. The low complication rate, reduction of local pain and early mobilisation justify the surgical stabilisation of fractures in this cohort of patients.  (+info)

Effects of calcium supplementation on bone density in healthy children: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. (5/19)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of calcium supplementation for improving bone mineral density in healthy children and to determine if any effect is modified by other factors and persists after supplementation stops. DESIGN: Meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Electronic bibliographic databases, hand searching of conference proceedings, and contacting authors for unpublished data. REVIEW METHODS: We included randomised placebo controlled trials of calcium supplementation in healthy children that lasted at least three months and had bone outcomes measured after at least six months of follow-up. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed quality. Meta-analyses predominantly used fixed effects models with outcomes given as standardised mean differences. RESULTS: We included 19 studies involving 2859 children. Calcium supplementation had no effect on bone mineral density at the femoral neck or lumbar spine. There was a small effect on total body bone mineral content (standardised mean difference 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.27) and upper limb bone mineral density (0.14, 0.04 to 0.24). This effect persisted after the end of supplementation only at the upper limb (0.14, 0.01 to 0.28). There was no evidence that sex, baseline calcium intake, pubertal stage, ethnicity, or level of physical activity modified the effect. CONCLUSIONS: The small effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density in the upper limb is unlikely to reduce the risk of fracture, either in childhood or later life, to a degree of major public health importance.  (+info)

Intraarterial chemotherapy for extremity osteosarcoma and MFH in adults. (6/19)


Coronoid fractures of the elbow. (7/19)


Age, gender, and race/ethnic differences in total body and subregional bone density. (8/19)


  • In severe cases, this may cause the bones in the spine to grow together, which can lead to a rigid spine that is difficult to bend. (
  • Other conditions, like osteoporosis or arthritis, may also cause bone or joint pain. (
  • Objectives To develop and validate a simple clinical screening tool (EPIPOST) able to identify men with higher probability of having low bone mineral density (BMD) who may benefit from DXA testing and to compare its discriminatory ability with two other osteoporosis screening tools in men (OST and MORES), after calibration for our population. (
  • And about half of all women over 50 years old will end up with a break that's linked to the bone-weakening disease osteoporosis . (
  • The Task Force already recommends women older than 65 years old be screened for the bone-weakening disease osteoporosis, and younger women who have a higher risk of broken bones. (
  • The bottom line, the researchers say, is that the tactic cannot be recommended as a way for older women to stave off the bone-thinning disease osteoporosis. (
  • They are also advertised as tools for boosting bone mass, though doctors do not generally recommend them for preventing osteoporosis, according to Cheung. (
  • So for this latest study, Cheung's team recruited 202 healthy postmenopausal women, most in their 50s and 60s, who had low bone mass, but had not yet developed osteoporosis. (
  • The arm is placed into a brace called a "Sarmiento Brace" which wraps tightly around the arm, holding everything into place, while allowing someone to gradually start moving the arm. (
  • If the brace fails to hold the broken arm in good alignment (the arm bone bends more than 10 degrees), or if the bone fails to heal within the brace (doctors typically give the bone about 3 months to show signs of healing before they recommend surgery). (
  • If the arm is in a cast, splint, or brace, follow the instructions you got about how to loosen it. (
  • A break may occur when a bone is twisted, struck directly, or used to brace against a fall. (
  • The break may occur in an area of the bone that had previously been sore or painful for a period of time. (
  • Swelling of the hands and arms can be caused by hormone changes, such as those that occur during pregnancy or with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) . (
  • Swelling may also occur after surgery to remove the lymph nodes under the arm following a diagnosis of breast cancer or melanoma . (
  • Arm problems can occur as symptoms of other more serious problems, such as heart attack, transient ischemic attack (TIA) , or stroke . (
  • Over 1,500 documents related to the secretive Yale fraternity Skull and Bones are set to be made public within the next few months under a Freedom of Information Act request. (
  • The skull was reportedly stolen from the warrior's grave at Fort Sill by members of Skull and Bones who were stationed at the base, with some accounts alleging Prescott Bush played a role in the theft. (
  • Of course, there is more to Skull and Bones than the mystical mumbo-jumbo of its rituals," Rosenbaum wrote for the New York Observer at the time. (
  • The rituals are less important than the relationships-the bonds of power and influence that develop between Skull and Bones initiates after they graduate. (