Argonaute Proteins: A family of RNA-binding proteins that has specificity for MICRORNAS and SMALL INTERFERING RNA molecules. The proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-induced silencing complex.Eukaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.RNA-Induced Silencing Complex: A multicomponent, ribonucleoprotein complex comprised of one of the family of ARGONAUTE PROTEINS and the "guide strand" of the one of the 20- to 30-nucleotide small RNAs. RISC cleaves specific RNAs, which are targeted for degradation by homology to these small RNAs. Functions in regulating gene expression are determined by the specific argonaute protein and small RNA including siRNA (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING), miRNA (MICRORNA), or piRNA (PIWI-INTERACTING RNA).RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Ribonuclease III: An endoribonuclease that is specific for double-stranded RNA. It plays a role in POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL RNA PROCESSING of pre-RIBOSOMAL RNA and a variety of other RNA structures that contain double-stranded regions.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Alpha-Amanitin: A cyclic octapeptide with a thioether bridge between the cystine and tryptophan. It inhibits RNA POLYMERASE II. Poisoning may require LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.Cytoplasmic Structures: Components of the cytoplasm excluding the CYTOSOL.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.RNA, Guide: Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Peptide Initiation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA Cleavage: A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA, Helminth: Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Vicia sativa: A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The seed is used for food and contains THIOCYANATES such as prunasin, cyanoalanine, cyanogen, and vicine.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Thermococcus: A genus of extremely thermophilic heterotrophic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated sea flows. They are anaerobic chemoorganotropic sulfidogens.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Sesamum: A plant genus of the family PEDALIACEAE that is the source of the edible seed and SESAME OIL.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Brassica rapa: A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.Nomograms: Graphical representation of a statistical model containing scales for calculating the prognostic weight of a value for each individual variable. Nomograms are instruments that can be used to predict outcomes using specific clinical parameters. They use ALGORITHMS that incorporate several variables to calculate the predicted probability that a patient will achieve a particular clinical endpoint.Gift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.ChicagoTephritidae: A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.Vanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.ArchivesConnecticutSchools: Educational institutions.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Existentialism: Philosophy based on the analysis of the individual's existence in the world which holds that human existence cannot be completely described in scientific terms. Existentialism also stresses the freedom and responsibility of the individual as well as the uniqueness of religious and ethical experiences and the analysis of subjective phenomena such as anxiety, guilt, and suffering. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Great BritainComputer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.PaperTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Borago: A plant genus of the family BORAGINACEAE.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Terminal Repeat Sequences: Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.

Stem cells: A tale of two kingdoms. (1/823)

Homologous genes have recently been shown to regulate stem cell maintenance in animals and plants. This discovery should facilitate elucidation of the poorly understood factors that control stem cell maintenance and differentiation.  (+info)

piwi encodes a nucleoplasmic factor whose activity modulates the number and division rate of germline stem cells. (2/823)

piwi represents the first class of genes known to be required for stem cell self-renewal in diverse organisms. In the Drosophila ovary, piwi is required in somatic signaling cells to maintain germline stem cells. Here we show that piwi encodes a novel nucleoplasmic protein present in both somatic and germline cells, with the highly conserved C-terminal region essential for its function. Removing PIWI protein from single germline stem cells significantly decreases the rate of their division. This suggests that PIWI has a second role as a cell-autonomous promoter of germline stem cell division. Consistent with its dual function, over-expression of piwi in somatic cells causes an increase both in the number of germline stem cells and the rate of their division. Thus, PIWI is a key regulator of stem cell division - its somatic expression modulates the number of germline stem cells and the rate of their division, while its germline expression also contributes to promoting stem cell division in a cell-autonomous manner.  (+info)

AGO1, QDE-2, and RDE-1 are related proteins required for post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants, quelling in fungi, and RNA interference in animals. (3/823)

Introduction of transgene DNA may lead to specific degradation of RNAs that are homologous to the transgene transcribed sequence through phenomena named post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants, quelling in fungi, and RNA interference (RNAi) in animals. It was shown previously that PTGS, quelling, and RNAi require a set of related proteins (SGS2, QDE-1, and EGO-1, respectively). Here we report the isolation of Arabidopsis mutants impaired in PTGS which are affected at the Argonaute1 (AGO1) locus. AGO1 is similar to QDE-2 required for quelling and RDE-1 required for RNAi. Sequencing of ago1 mutants revealed one amino acid essential for PTGS that is also present in QDE-2 and RDE-1 in a highly conserved motif. Taken together, these results confirm the hypothesis that these processes derive from a common ancestral mechanism that controls expression of invading nucleic acid molecules at the post-transcriptional level. As opposed to rde-1 and qde-2 mutants, which are viable, ago1 mutants display several developmental abnormalities, including sterility. These results raise the possibility that PTGS, or at least some of its elements, could participate in the regulation of gene expression during development in plants.  (+info)

A global profile of germline gene expression in C. elegans. (4/823)

We used DNA microarrays to profile gene expression patterns in the C. elegans germline and identified 1416 germline-enriched transcripts that define three groups. The sperm-enriched group contains an unusually large number of protein kinases and phosphatases. The oocyte-enriched group includes potentially new components of embryonic signaling pathways. The germline-intrinsic group, defined as genes expressed similarly in germlines making only sperm or only oocytes, contains a family of piwi-related genes that may be important for stem cell proliferation. Finally, examination of the chromosomal location of germline transcripts revealed that sperm-enriched and germline-intrinsic genes are nearly absent from the X chromosome, but oocyte-enriched genes are not.  (+info)

Human CD34(+) stem cells express the hiwi gene, a human homologue of the Drosophila gene piwi. (5/823)

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are characterized by their dual abilities to undergo differentiation into multiple hematopoietic cell lineages or to undergo self-renewal. The molecular basis of these properties remains poorly understood. Recently the piwi gene was found in the embryonic germline stem cells (GSCs) of Drosophila melanogaster and has been shown to be important in GSC self-renewal. This study demonstrated that hiwi, a novel human homologue of piwi, is also present in human CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells but not in more differentiated cell populations. Placing CD34(+) cells into culture conditions that supported differentiation and rapid exit from the stem cell compartment resulted in a loss of hiwi expression by day 5 of a 14-day culture period. Expression of the hiwi gene was detected in many developing fetal and adult tissues. By means of 5' RACE cloning methodology, a novel putative full-length hiwi complementary DNA was cloned from human CD34(+) marrow cells. At the amino acid level, the human HIWI protein was 52% homologous to the Drosophila protein. The transient expression of hiwi in the human leukemia cell line KG1 resulted in a dramatic reduction in cellular proliferation. Overexpression of hiwi led to programmed cell death of KG1 cells as demonstrated by the Annexin V assay system. These studies suggest that hiwi maybe an important negative developmental regulator, which, in part, underlies the unique biologic properties associated with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.  (+info)

Stem cells: so what's in a niche? (6/823)

Much effort is being invested in defining the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that control stem cell maintenance and proliferation. Recent studies have identified a signaling hierarchy involved in coordinating the proliferation of germ line and somatic stem cells in the Drosophila ovary.  (+info)

Yb modulates the divisions of both germline and somatic stem cells through piwi- and hh-mediated mechanisms in the Drosophila ovary. (7/823)

The coordinated division of distinctive types of stem cells within an organ is crucial for organogenesis and homeostasis. Here we show genetic interactions among fs(1)Yb (Yb), piwi, and hedgehog (hh) that regulate the division of both germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic stem cells (SSCs), the two constituent stem cell populations of the Drosophila ovary. Yb is required for both GSC and SSC divisions; loss of Yb function eliminates GSCs and reduces SSC division, while Yb overexpression increases GSC number and causes SSC overproliferation. We also show that Yb acts via the piwi- and hh-mediated signaling pathways that emanate from the same signaling cells to control GSC and SSC division, respectively. hh signaling also has a minor effect in GSC division.  (+info)

Argonaute2, a link between genetic and biochemical analyses of RNAi. (8/823)

Double-stranded RNA induces potent and specific gene silencing through a process referred to as RNA interference (RNAi) or posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). RNAi is mediated by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a sequence-specific, multicomponent nuclease that destroys messenger RNAs homologous to the silencing trigger. RISC is known to contain short RNAs ( approximately 22 nucleotides) derived from the double-stranded RNA trigger, but the protein components of this activity are unknown. Here, we report the biochemical purification of the RNAi effector nuclease from cultured Drosophila cells. The active fraction contains a ribonucleoprotein complex of approximately 500 kilodaltons. Protein microsequencing reveals that one constituent of this complex is a member of the Argonaute family of proteins, which are essential for gene silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans, Neurospora, and Arabidopsis. This observation begins the process of forging links between genetic analysis of RNAi from diverse organisms and the biochemical model of RNAi that is emerging from Drosophila in vitro systems.  (+info)

*RNA-induced silencing complex

Argonaute proteins are a family of proteins found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Their function in prokaryotes is unknown but ... TRBP is a protein with three double-stranded RNA-binding domains. Argonaute 2 is an RNase and is the catalytic centre of RISC. ... The strand with the less stable 5' end is selected by the protein Argonaute and integrated into RISC. This strand is known as ... Once found, one of the proteins in RISC, called Argonaute, activates and cleaves the mRNA. This process is called RNA ...

*Argonaute

The recruitment of Argonaute proteins to targeted mRNA can induce mRNA degradation. The Argonaute-miRNA complex can also affect ... However, evidence for Argonaute proteins as DNA-guided DNA slicers have been questioned, with the retraction of such claim from ... The Argonaute protein family plays a central role in RNA silencing processes, as essential components of the RNA-induced ... In animals, Argonaute associated with miRNA binds to the 3'-untranslated region of mRNA and prevents the production of proteins ...

*Piwi like rna-mediated gene silencing 4

Li L, Yu C, Gao H, Li Y (2010). "Argonaute proteins: potential biomarkers for human colon cancer". BMC Cancer. 10: 38. doi: ... PIWIL4 belongs to the Argonaute family of proteins, which function in development and maintenance of germline stem cells ( ... Piwi like RNA-mediated gene silencing 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PIWIL4 gene. ...

*Piwi

The structure of several Piwi and Argonaute proteins (Ago) have been solved. Piwi proteins are RNA-binding proteins with 2 or 3 ... PIWI-like protein 1, PIWI-like protein 2, PIWI-like protein 3 and PIWI-like protein 4. Human Piwi proteins all contain two RNA ... Piwi proteins belong to the Argonaute/Piwi family and have been classified as nuclear proteins. Studies on Drosophila have also ... The piwi domain is a protein domain found in piwi proteins and a large number of related nucleic acid-binding proteins, ...

*RNA interference

This ancestral RNAi system probably contained at least one dicer-like protein, one argonaute, one PIWI protein, and an RNA- ... In fission yeast this complex contains argonaute, a chromodomain protein Chp1, and a protein called Tas3 of unknown function. ... of RNA to the argonaute protein was examined by X-ray crystallography of the binding domain of an RNA-bound argonaute protein. ... Argonaute proteins are localized to specific regions in the cytoplasm called P-bodies (also cytoplasmic bodies or GW bodies), ...

*Circular RNA

Argonaute proteins are the "effector proteins" which help miRNAs carry out their job, while microRNA sponges are RNAs that " ... AGO2 is miR-7's associated Argonaute protein (see above). Though CDR1as/CiRS-7 can be cleaved by miR-671 and its associated ... Potential roles include the following: Binding to RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and RNAs besides miRNAs to form RNA-protein ... which can subsequently be translated to produce the protein product. The spliceosome, a protein-RNA complex located in the ...

*Transfer RNA

2015). "tRNA-Derived Short Non-coding RNA as Interacting Partners of Argonaute Proteins". Gene Regul Syst Bio. 9: 27-33. doi: ... During protein synthesis, tRNAs with attached amino acids are delivered to the ribosome by proteins called elongation factors, ... For example, the A site is often written A/A, the P site, P/P, and the E site, E/E. The binding proteins like L27, L2, L14, L15 ... The P-site protein L27 has been determined by affinity labeling by E. Collatz and A.P. Czernilofsky (FEBS Lett., Vol. 63, pp ...

*IPO8

"Importin 8 is a gene silencing factor that targets argonaute proteins to distinct mRNAs". Cell. 136 (3): 496-507. doi:10.1016/j ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a class of approximately 20 potential Ran targets that share a sequence motif ... This protein binds to the nuclear pore complex and, along with RanGTP and RANBP1, inhibits the GAP stimulation of the Ran ... Importin 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IPO8 gene. The importin-alpha/beta complex and the GTPase Ran mediate ...

*RasiRNA

... but does require the Argonaute proteins Argonaute 3 (Ago 3), Piwi and Aubergine which is a Piwi-like protein. The mechanism for ... Piwi proteins are a clade of the Argonaute family of proteins. In the germline, RasiRNA is involved in establishing and ... Unlike miRNA and siRNA which function through the Ago Argonaute protein subfamily, RasiRNA function through the Piwi Argonaute ... Quantitative analysis of Argonaute protein reveals microRNA-dependent localization to stress granules. PNAS 103(48): 18125- ...

*Argonaut (animal)

Argonauts gave their name to an Arabidopsis thaliana mutation and by extension to Argonaute proteins. Naef, A. (1923). "Die ...

*Mir-390 microRNA precursor family

"The Mechanism Selecting the Guide Strand from Small RNA Duplexes is Different Among Argonaute Proteins". Plant and Cell ... "Ragged seedling2 Encodes an ARGONAUTE7-Like Protein Required for Mediolateral Expansion, but Not Dorsiventrality, of Maize ...

*Trans-acting siRNA

Wu L, Mao L, Qi Y (October 2012). "Roles of dicer-like and argonaute proteins in TAS-derived small interfering RNA-triggered ... A member of the Argonaute protein family is a component of all RNA silencing effector complexes, including the RISCs that ... Initial descriptions found involvement of the plant protein suppressor of gene silencing 3 (SGS3), and the enzyme RNA-dependant ... RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6). Ta-siRNAs are generated from non-coding transcripts through Argonaute-mediated miRNA-guided cleavage ...

*RevCen

ISBN 978-1-904455-25-7. Sigova A, Rhind N, Zamore PD (October 2004). "A single Argonaute protein mediates both transcriptional ...

*RDE-1

Canonical Argonaute proteins possess three primary domains forming a crescent-shaped base: the PAZ, MID, and PIWI domains. PAZ ... Mutation of any residues in the RNase H catalytic triad abolishes Slicer activity in human Argonaute protein Ago2, suggesting ... RDE-1 (RNAi-DEfective 1) is a primary Argonaute protein required for RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) in Caenorhabditis elegans ... elegans Argonaute Family Reveals that Distinct Argonautes Act Sequentially during RNAi". Cell. 127 (4): 747-57. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*TNRC6A

The protein associates with messenger RNAs and Argonaute proteins in cytoplasmic bodies known as GW-bodies or P-bodies. ... Trinucleotide repeat-containing gene 6A protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNRC6A gene. This gene encodes a ... 2003). "The GW182 protein colocalizes with mRNA degradation associated proteins hDcp1 and hLSm4 in cytoplasmic GW bodies". RNA ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (2): 143-150. doi: ...

*Drosha

The other two human enzymes that participate in the processing and activity of miRNA are the Dicer and Argonaute proteins. Both ... Wu H, Xu H, Miraglia LJ, Crooke ST (November 2000). "Human RNase III is a 160-kDa protein involved in preribosomal RNA ... Filippov V, Solovyev V, Filippova M, Gill SS (March 2000). "A novel type of RNase III family proteins in eukaryotes". Gene. 245 ... Gunther M, Laithier M, Brison O (July 2000). "A set of proteins interacting with transcription factor Sp1 identified in a two- ...

*Small interfering RNA

Other times, the Argonaute proteins of the RISC lack endonuclease activity even when the target mRNA and siRNA are perfectly ... The cleavage of the mRNA molecules is thought to be catalyzed by the Piwi domain of Argonaute proteins of the RISC. The mRNA ... This causes degradation of the mRNA and in turn no translation of the mRNA into amino acids and then proteins. Thus silencing ... siRNAs that target and silence efflux proteins on the BBB surface have been shown to create an increase in BBB permeability. ...

*RNA activation

Similar to RNAi, it has been shown that mammalian RNAa requires members of the Ago clade of Argonaute proteins, particularly ... Chu, Yongjun; Yue, Xuan; Younger, Scott T.; Janowski, Bethany A.; Corey, David R. (2010). "Involvement of argonaute proteins in ... In C. elegans, Argonaute CSR-1 interacts with 22G small RNAs derived from RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and antisense to ... The RNA-loaded Ago then recruits other proteins such as RHA, also known as nuclear DNA helicase II, and CTR9 to form an RNA- ...

*MicroRNA

Members of the Argonaute (Ago) protein family are central to RISC function. Argonautes are needed for miRNA-induced silencing ... Some argonautes, for example human Ago2, cleave target transcripts directly; argonautes may also recruit additional proteins to ... binding protein], PACT (protein activator of the interferon-induced protein kinase), the SMN complex, fragile X mental ... During miRNA maturation in the cytoplasm, uptake by the Argonaute protein is thought to stabilize the guide strand, while the ...

*TNRC6B

"A conserved motif in Argonaute-interacting proteins mediates functional interactions through the Argonaute PIWI domain". Nat. ... It is also known to associate with argonaute proteins and has been shown to be required for miRNA-guided gene silencing in HeLa ... Trinucleotide repeat-containing gene 6B protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNRC6B gene. TNRC6B has been ... "Identification of novel argonaute-associated proteins". Curr. Biol. 15 (23): 2149-55. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.10.048. PMID ...

*MOV10

2006). "Identification of novel argonaute-associated proteins". Curr. Biol. 15 (23): 2149-55. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.10.048. ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (4): 273-81. doi: ...

*History of research on Arabidopsis thaliana

The argonaute1 mutant, named for its resemblance to an Argonauta octopuses, was the namesake for the Argonaute protein family ...

*Gene silencing

The fragments integrate into a multi-subunit protein called the RNA-induced silencing complex, which contains Argonaute ... Gene silencing can be used to treat HD by targeting the mutant huntingtin protein. The mutant huntingtin protein has been ... Through this approach, instead of targeting SNPs on the mutated protein, all of the normal and mutated huntingtin proteins are ... Cleaving the fusion protein reduced the amount of transformed hematopoietic cells that spread throughout the body by increasing ...

*EIF2C2

Protein argonaute-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF2C2 gene. This gene encodes a member of the Argonaute ... "A conserved motif in Argonaute-interacting proteins mediates functional interactions through the Argonaute PIWI domain". Nat. ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... The encoded protein is highly basic, and contains a PAZ domain and a PIWI domain. It may interact with Dicer1 and play a role ...

*EIF2C1

Protein argonaute-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF2C1 gene. This gene encodes a member of the Argonaute ... conservation of a unique amino acid sequence in human DICER protein essential for binding to Argonaute family proteins". Gene. ... This gene is located on chromosome 1 in a cluster of closely related family members including argonaute 3, and argonaute 4. ... a membrane-associated protein that belongs to a family of proteins involved in stem cell differentiation". Molecular Biology of ...

*Dicer

Plant genomes encode for dicer like proteins with similar functions and protein domains as animal and insect dicer. For example ... RISC has a catalytic component argonaute, which is an endonuclease capable of degrading messenger RNA (mRNA). Dicer was given ... The protein size is 82 kDa, while it is larger in other organisms; for example, it is 219 kDa in humans. The difference in size ... As an example, Drosophila C virus encodes for protein 1A which binds to dsRNA thus protecting it from dicer cleavage as well as ...
Small RNA‐mediated silencing pathways regulate a variety of cellular processes in eukaryotes (Dueck & Meister, 2014). Their effector complex, the RNA‐induced silencing complex (RISC), consists of an Argonaute protein bound by an approximately 20‐ to 30‐nt small RNA. Three major classes of Argonaute‐bound small RNAs exist. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are processed from double‐stranded RNA precursors by the RNase III enzyme Dicer. They are loaded into the AGO subfamily of Argonaute proteins as an RNA duplex, and one of the two strands (the passenger strand) is then removed to form a mature RISC. In contrast, the third class of small RNAs, Piwi‐interacting RNAs (piRNAs), are suggested to be produced from single‐stranded precursor RNAs independently of Dicer and are loaded into the Piwi subfamily of Argonaute proteins.. In vitro RISC assembly assays using cell extracts have demonstrated that Hsp90 and Hsp90 co‐chaperones enhance the loading of miRNAs and ...
The team set out to characterize Argonautes first using computers to compare their shapes and structures with other proteins. They found striking similarities between Argonaute structures and proteins that happened to exhibit a particular kind of "cooperative binding" known as allostery.. Allostery is a condition in which the binding of one molecule stimulates the binding of a second.. By chopping up Argonaute proteins from fruit flies and testing each piece individually, the team showed that allostery stimulated tenfold the binding of the Argonaute and miRNA complex to messenger RNA. The scientists speculate that as a result of being bound, the messenger RNA was prevented from doing its job of delivering a genes instructions to the ribosome that translates them and manufactures proteins. These studies provide new insights into Argonaute protein function, motivating the next series of questions in the field.. "MicroRNAs are all the rage," Green says. "Suddenly, in the last 10 years, theres ...
Gene segments from other organisms, such as viruses, are detected as foreign and targeted for silencing by RNAi pathways. al. 2001; Ketting et al. 2001), the Argonaute protein RDE-1 (Tabara et al. 1999), and a dsRNA-binding protein, RDE-4 (Tabara et al. 2002), as well as several effector Argonaute proteins. In addition, uses proteins shared with plants and fungi but few other animal species for the amplification of the RNAi responsemost importantly, RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) that amplify secondary siRNAs (Sijen et al. 2001). Exogenous RNAi triggers not only destruction of the targeted mRNA in the cytoplasm but cotranscriptional silencing of the same target genes, mediated by the NRDE proteins (including an Argonaute protein, NRDE-3, which shuttles siRNAs from the cytoplasm into the nucleus), to inhibit RNA polymerase II elongation and induce deposition of H3K9me3 chromatin marks around the genetic locus targeted by complementary siRNAs (Guang et al. 2008, 2010; Burkhart et al. 2011; ...
Researchers at the Whitehead Institute and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center have defined and analyzed the crystal structure of a yeast Argonaute protein bound to RNA. This complex plays a key role in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway that silences gene expression. Describing the molecular structure of a eukaryotic Argonaute protein has been a goal of the RNAi field for close to a decade. "You can learn a lot from biochemical experiments, but to more fully understand a protein like Argonaute, its useful to know where all of the atoms are and which amino acids are playing important roles," says Whitehead Institute Member Dr. David Bartel, who is also an MIT professor of biology and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) investigator. "Learning the Argonaute crystal structure is an important step in understanding the RNAi biochemical pathway and will be the basis for many future experiments." The yeast Argonaute structure is described in the June 21, 2012 issue of Nature. In humans and ...
Malone, C. D., J. Brennecke, M. Dus, A. Stark, W. R. McCombie, R. Sachidanandam, and G. J. Hannon. 2009. Specialized piRNA pathways act in germline and somatic tissues of the drosophila ovary. Cell. 137:522-535.. Czech, B., C. D. Malone, R. Zhou, A. Stark, C. Schlingeheyde, M. Dus, N. Perrimon, et al. 2008. An endogenous small interfering RNA pathway in Drosophila. Nature. 453(7196):798-802.. Tam, O. H., A. A. Aravin, P. Stein, A. Girard, E. P. Murchison, S. Cheloufi, E. Hodges, et al. 2008. Pseudogene-derived small interfering RNAs regulate gene expression in mouse oocytes. Nature. 453(7194):534-538.. Zhou, R., I. Hotta, A. M. Denli, P. Hong, N. Perrimon, and G. J. Hannon. 2008. Comparative analysis of argonaute-dependent small RNA pathways in Drosophila. Molecular Cell. 32(4):592-599.. Aravin, A. A., G. J. Hannon, and J. Brennecke. 2007. The piwi-piRNA pathway provides an adaptive defense in the transposon arms race. Science. 318(5851): 761-764.. Brennecke, J., C. D. Malone, A. A. Aravin, R. ...
RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene-silencing process that occurs in many eukaryotic organisms upon intracellular exposure to double-stranded RNA. Argonaute 2 (Ago2) protein is the catalytic engine of mammalian RNAi. It contains a PIWI domain that is structurally related to RNases H and possibly shares with them a two-metal-ion catalysis mechanism. Here we describe the expression in E. coli of mouse Ago2 and testing of its enzymatic activity in a RISC assay, i.e., for the ability to cleave a target RNA in a single position specified by a complementary small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results show that the enzyme can load the siRNA and cleave the complementary RNA in absence of other cellular factors, as described for human Ago2. It was also found that mutation of Arg669, a residue previously proposed to be involved in substrate and/or B metal ion binding, doesnt affect the enzymatic activity, suggesting that this residue doesnt belong to the active site.
Plays a role in RNA-mediated gene silencing by both micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Required for miRNA-dependent repression of translation and for siRNA-dependent endonucleolytic cleavage of complementary mRNAs by argonaute family proteins As scaffoldng protein associates with argonaute proteins bound to partially complementary mRNAs and simultaneously can recruit CCR4-NOT and PAN deadenylase complexes (By similarity).
AGO1 mRNA contains a miR168 complementarity site that is cleaved through the slicer activity of the AGO1 protein (Vaucheret et al, 2004; Baumberger & Baulcombe, 2005; Qi et al, 2005). As transgene‐derived uncapped and unpolyadenylated RNAs have been shown to activate cosuppression (Gazzani et al, 2004; Luo & Chen, 2007), it is possible that miR168‐guided cleavage of AGO1 mRNA, which produces uncapped and unpolyadenylated cleavage fragments, contributes to the hyper‐susceptibility of AGO1 to cosuppression. To test this possibility, we engineered two constructs: pAGO1:4m‐AGO1‐GUS and pAGO1:Δ168‐AGO1‐GUS. The pAGO1:4m‐AGO1‐GUS construct contains the same sequence as pAGO1:168‐AGO1‐GUS but has silent mutations that create four additional mismatches between AGO1 mRNA and miR168, and render AGO1 resistant to miR168 regulation (Vaucheret et al, 2004). The pAGO1:Δ168‐AGO1‐GUS construct is expressed from the 1.5 kb AGO1 promoter and consists of the 5′ 387 nt of AGO1 mRNA ...
piRNAs also serve while manuals for post-transcriptional repression (PTGS) of TEs. PTGS requires two additional PIWI proteins, Aub, and Ago3. The Aub/piRNA RNP complicated focuses on cytoplasmic mRNAs encoded from TEs and cleaves the mRNA by virtue of its slicer activity. Thus giving rise to fresh piRNAs called supplementary piRNAs, that are sense with regards to the canonical transposon mRNAs. These supplementary piRNAs are packed onto Ago3. The Ago3/piRNA RNP complicated focuses on precursor transcripts due to piRNA clusters. Following cleavage prompts the biogenesis of fresh piRNAs destined to Aub whose series is identical compared to that from the initiator piRNA. This loop of amplification, known as the ping-pong routine, amplifies silencing-competent piRNAs (Brennecke et al., 2007). Acting together, both of these mechanisms, PTGS and TGS, firmly repress TE transposition in the germ line and become guardians of genome integrity therefore. Interestingly, because the pool of piRNAs stated in ...
A comprehensive review article in Nucleic Acid Therapeutics, a peer-reviewed journal published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., details these advances.. Short strands of nucleic acids, called small RNAs, can be used for targeted gene silencing, making them attractive drug candidates. These small RNAs block gene expression through multiple RNA interference (RNAi) pathways, including two newly discovered pathways in which small RNAs bind to Argonaute proteins or other forms of RNA present in the cell nucleus, such as long non-coding RNAs and pre-mRNA.. Keith T. Gagnon, PhD, and David R. Corey, PhD, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, in Dallas, review common features shared by RNAi pathways for controlling gene expression and focus in detail on the potential for Argonaute-RNA complexes in gene regulation and other exciting new options for targeting emerging forms of non-coding RNAs and pre-mRNAs in the article "Argonaute and the Nuclear RNAs: New Pathways for RNA-Mediated Control of Gene ...
RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism of gene regulation directed by Argonaute (AGO) proteins in conjunction with their sequence-specific small RNA cofactors. A multitude of distinct AGO-mediated regulatory modules have been identified in plants, fungi, and animals (1). In all of these pathways, base pair interactions between the small RNA and a target molecule provide specificity, whereas the AGO protein, which contains a conserved nuclease domain, can direct silencing through target cleavage or through recruitment of transcriptional or posttranscriptional regulators.. AGO pathways can be triggered by natural or exogenous sources of double-stranded (ds)RNA. The Dicer family of RNase III-related enzymes processes dsRNA into small RNAs of 20-25 nucleotides (nt) in length (2). For example, micro (mi)RNAs are processed from genomically encoded hairpins and mediate AGO-dependent silencing at the posttranscriptional level (3-5). Short interfering (si)RNAs are processed from both endogenous and ...
Eggs differ from other growing cells, where nutrients are used to build up cell mass before division occurs," said Arshad Desai, PhD, professor at UC San Diego School of Medicine and member of Ludwig Cancer Researchs San Diego branch. "A frog egg, for example, makes about 3,000 cells by simply dividing into smaller and smaller cells, without growth. We were interested in understanding how eggs are able to do this.". Adding to the growing body of knowledge on small RNAs and how they influence cellular function, this study shows that small RNAs work together with an enzyme known as an Argonaute to help create the perfect C. elegans egg. The researchers based their study on earlier work showing that a specific Argonaute protein called CSR-1 affects chromosome distribution in the first division of the embryo that occurs after the egg is fertilized.. A prior study had suggested that CSR-1 influences cell division by helping to define centromeres -specialized regions on chromosome that help ...
Increasingly complex networks of small RNAs act through RNA-interference (RNAi) pathways to regulate gene expression, to mediate antiviral responses, to organize chromosomal domains, and to restrain the spread of selfish genetic elements. Historically, RNAi has been defined as a response to double-stranded RNA. However, some small RNA species may not arise from double-stranded RNA precursors. Yet, like microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, such species guide Argonaute proteins to silencing targets through complementary base-pairing. Silencing can be achieved by corecruitment of accessory factors or through the activity of Argonaute itself, which often has endonucleolytic activity. As a specific and adaptive regulatory system, RNAi is used throughout eukarya, which indicates a long evolutionary history. A likely function of RNAi throughout that history is to protect the genome from both pathogenic and parasitic invaders.. ...
Novel localization of Argonaute 2 (AGO2) to human mitochondria.A. Purity assessment of mitochondrial fraction. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) was assessed in
Things I learned from this paper and the associated preview include: You can predict whether an Argonaute protein will have RNA cleavage activity based on the conservation of three amino acid residues (two aspartic acids and a hisitidine); in an uncommon twist, humans actually have less of a protein class than other organisms, 8 AGOs as opposed to 27 in worms and 10 in mustard plants (flies have 5, so we are still superior to flies), ~50 in the Argonautika; multiple RNAi (endo- and exo-) pathways feed into the second (SAGO) step in the worm such that the availability of SAGOs can be a limiting factor, and increasing or decreasing the activity of one of the competing pathways can affect the efficiency of the other; worms have an endo-RNAi pathway that is somehow distinguishable from their miRNA pathway, though Im not sure what the distinction is just yet. My understanding was that I could call endogenously produced small interfering RNAs microRNAs. From their model, it looks like the endo-RNAi ...
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Complete information for PIRC102 gene (RNA Gene), Piwi-Interacting RNA Cluster 102, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
z angličtiny preložil Ing. Marián Fillo.. Znie to ako scenár hollywoodskeho thrilleru: vedci v laboratóriu vytvoria vírus tak nákazlivý ako bežná chrípka, ktorý však zabije polovicu nakazených. Sme v bezpečí, kým je vírus pod zámkom. Keď však unikne, alebo sa dostane do rúk bioteroristov, má potenciál spôsobiť pandémiu a zabiť milióny ľudí po celom svete.. Nejde však o najnovší letný kasový trhák. Podľa časopisu New Scientist (Nový vedec) výskumníci v Holandsku, študujúci chrípkový vírus H5N1 (známy ako vtáčia chrípka), vytvorili kmeň chrípkového vírusu, ktorý sa ľahko prenáša medzi cicavcami a je práve tak smrteľný, ako pôvodný vírus.. Podľa Ministerstva zdravotníctva a sociálnych vecí USA chrípkový vírus H5N1 nakazil vyše 500 ľudí v najmenej 12 krajinách a je známe, že okolo 60% nakazených kvôli nemu prišlo o život.. Ron Fouchier, výskumník v Erasmovom zdravotníckom stredisku (Erasmus Medical Centre) v ...
Join Dennis Taylor for an in-depth discussion in this video Using slicers to clarify and manipulate fields, part of Office 365: Excel Essential Training
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The small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway is a major antiviral response in mosquitoes; however, another RNA interference pathway, the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway, has been suggested to be antiviral in mosquitoes. Piwi4 has been reported to be a key mediator of this response in mosquitoes, but it is not involved in the production of virus-specific piRNAs. Here, we show that Piwi4 associates with members of the antiviral exogenous siRNA pathway (Ago2 and Dcr2), as well as with proteins of the piRNA pathway (Ago3, Piwi5, and Piwi6) in an Aedes aegypti-derived cell line, Aag2. Analysis of small RNAs captured by Piwi4 revealed that it is predominantly associated with virus-specific siRNAs in Semliki Forest virus-infected cells and, to a lesser extent, with viral piRNAs. By using a Dcr2 knockout cell line, we showed directly that Ago2 lost its antiviral activity, as it was no longer bound to siRNAs, but Piwi4 retained its antiviral activity in the absence of the siRNA pathway. These results ...
It has been demonstrated that passenger strand cleavage is important for the activation of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which is a crucial step for siRNA-mediated gene silencing. Herein, we report that isonucleotide (isoNA) modification around the cleavage site of the passenger strand would affect the in vitro potency of modified siRNAs by altering the motion pattern of the Ago2-PAZ domain. According to western blotting, q-PCR and antiviral test results, we proved that D-isonucleotide (isoNA) modification at the position 8 of the passenger strand (siMek1-S08D), which is adjacent to the cleavage site, markedly improved the in vitro potency of the modified siRNA, whereas siRNAs with D-isoNA incorporation at position 9 (siMek1-S09D) or L-isoNA incorporation at positions 8 and 9 (siMek1-S08L, siMek1-S09L) displayed lower activity compared to native siRNA. Kinetics evaluation of passenger strand cleavage induced by T. thermophilus Ago (Tt-Ago) showed that D-isoNA modification at position 8 ...
In gonadal tissues, the Piwi-interacting (piRNA) pathway preserves genomic integrity by employing 23 29 nucleotide (nt) small RNAs complexed with argonaute proteins to suppress parasitic mobile sequences of DNA called transposable elements (TEs). Although recent evidence suggests that the piRNA pathway may be present in select somatic cells outside the gonads, the role of a non-gonadal somatic piRNA pathway is not well characterized. Here we report a functional somatic piRNA pathway in the adult Drosophila fat body including the presence of the piRNA effector protein Piwi and canonical 23 29 nt long TE-mapping piRNAs. The piwi mutants exhibit depletion of fat body piRNAs, increased TE mobilization, increased levels of DNA damage and reduced lipid stores. These mutants are starvation sensitive, immunologically compromised and short-lived, all phenotypes associated with compromised fat body function. These findings demonstrate the presence of a functional non-gonadal somatic piRNA pathway in the ...
A Family of RNA-Binding Proteins that has specificity for MicroRNAs and Small Interfering RNA molecules. The Proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-Induced Silencing Complex ...
Probably involved in the RNA silencing pathway. May bind to short RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) or short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and represses the translation of mRNAs which are complementary to them (By similarity). Plays a role in the maintenance of the indeterminate state of the stem cells in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Regulates leaf formation through vascular development and may be involved in determining the central domain of the leaf founder region.
noinclude>{{documentation/versioncheck}},/noinclude> =Introduction: Slicer {{documentation/version}} Tutorials= *This page contains "How to" tutorials with matched sample data sets. They demonstrate how to use the 3D Slicer environment (version {{documentation/version}} release) to accomplish certain tasks. *For tutorials for other versions of Slicer, please visit the [[Training, Slicer training portal]]. *For "reference manual" style documentation, please visit the [[Documentation/{{documentation/version}},Slicer {{documentation/version}} documentation page]] *For questions related to the Slicer4 Training Compendium, please send an e-mail to [http://www.na-mic.org/Wiki/index.php/User:SPujol Sonia Pujol, Ph.D., Director of Training of 3D Slicer.] * Some of these tutorials are based on older releases of 3D Slicer and are being upgraded to Slicer4.10. The concepts are still useful but some interface elements and features may be different in updated versions. __TOC__ =Quick Start Guide = ...
OPUS (Open Publications of UTS Scholars) is the UTS institutional repository. It showcases the research of UTS staff and postgraduate students to a global audience. For you, as a researcher, OPUS increases the visibility and accessibility of your research by making it openly available regardless of where you choose to publish.. Items in OPUS are enhanced with high quality metadata and seeded to search engines such as Google Scholar as well as being linked to your UTS research profile, increasing discoverability and opportunities for citation of your work and collaboration. In addition, works in OPUS are preserved for long-term access and discovery.. The UTS Open Access Policy requires UTS research outputs to be openly available via OPUS. Depositing your work in OPUS also assists you in complying with ARC, NHMRC and other funder Open Access policies. Providing Open Access to your research outputs through OPUS not only ensures you comply with these important policies, but increases opportunities ...
The ability of neurons to adapt to environmental signals and to memorize novel experiences determines the individual patterns of human and animal behavior. In turn, the individual differences in environmental adaptation and behavior depend on changes in gene expression. The fine-tuning of gene expression could be achieved at different levels, including regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that have the ability to negatively control messenger RNA (mRNA) levels or mRNA translation of their target genes (He and Hannon, 2004). These miRNA functions are executed by the multiprotein RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). At the core of RISC are the miRNA-generating enzyme Dicer (Hutvágner et al., 2001) and the Argonaute (Ago) proteins that bind miRNAs (Lingel et al., 2003; Song et al., 2003; Yan et al., 2003) and mediate miRNA-dependent mRNA decay or translational suppression (Hammond et al., 2001). The human and mouse genome carry four independent Ago genes that encode ...
Author Summary Toxoplasma gondii is an important human parasite that causes life-threatening diseases in developing fetuses and in immunocompromised individuals, especially AIDS and transplant patients. Curiously, the Toxoplasma genome is deprived of most of the basic transcription factors that regulate gene expression in other eukaryotic cells. Therefore, alternative strategies must exist to modulate the many phases of the Toxoplasma complex life cycle that includes invasion of several hosts. Here, we investigate one of these strategies, by studying the repertoire of Toxoplasma silencing small RNAs (sRNAs). In eukaryotes, most of these regulatory molecules, 20-30nt-long, are produced by members of the Dicer RNase-III family, and exert their various functions through ubiquitous proteins called Argonaute (Ago). The surprising diversity of the Toxoplasma sRNAome uncovered in our study is consistent with those molecules exerting key functions during the parasites life cycle, including, possibly, during
It has been more than a decade since scientists realized that microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNAs) are not mere oddities invented by worms and flies to regulate gene expression at epigenetic and post-transcriptional levels. Rather, many of these 21-31-nucleotide-short RNAs function in invertebrates and vertebrates alike and some of them are highly conserved. In mammals, miRNAs are thought to inhibit gene expression by targeting mRNA stability and translation, while piRNAs suppress retrotransposons primarily in germ line cells. More recently, they have been joined in the limelight by long non-coding (lnc) RNAs, including long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs). lincRNAs affect gene expression by a variety of means including RNA, DNA, and protein binding. Nevertheless, the mechanisms whereby non-coding RNAs regulate ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs (18-22 nt) that post transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding to complementary sequences on target mRNAs, resulting in translational repression or target degradation and gene silencing. As aberrant expression of miRNAs is implicated in important diseases including cancer miRNA-based therapies are under intensive investigation. We optimized strategies to stably or conditionally generate miRNA inhibitors for a continuous block of miRNA activity that allows for probing miRNA function in long-term cell culture experiments, cancer xenografts, 3D tissue models and for in vivo studies with transgenic organisms.
doi:10.1038/nmeth.2489. Authors: William H Majoros, Parawee Lekprasert, Neelanjan Mukherjee, Rebecca L Skalsky, David L Corcoran, Bryan R Cullen & Uwe Ohler. High-throughput sequencing has opened numerous possibilities for the identification of regulatory RNA-binding events. Cross-linking and immunoprecipitation of Argonaute proteins can pinpoint a microRNA (miRNA) target site within tens of bases but leaves the identity of the miRNA unresolved. A flexible computational framework, microMUMMIE, integrates sequence with cross-linking features and reliably identifies the miRNA family involved in each binding event. It considerably outperforms sequence-only approaches and quantifies the prevalence of noncanonical binding modes. ...
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Naive T cells that encounter their cognate antigen dramatically remodel their gene expression program as they proliferate and acquire effector functions. The data presented here demonstrate that these cells also actively reset their miRNA repertoire. Activation-induced global posttranscriptional down-regulation of mature miRNAs allows concurrent changes in pri-miRNA gene transcription to rapidly establish a new pattern of miRNA expression in effector cells. Ago1 and Ago2, which bind miRNAs in the miRISC and mediate target mRNA repression, are also down-regulated during T cell activation in a process of ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. This degradation depends on intact PI3K/mTOR signaling and continuous transcription and translation. Ago2 is a limiting factor for miRNA expression in T cells, with the abundance of a large panel of miRNAs reduced by 30% for each disrupted allele of Ago2. Collectively, our data support a model in which TCR engagement leads to down-regulation of Ago ...
The genomes of plants and animals encode hundreds of non-coding ~22nt RNAs termed "microRNAs" (miRNAs). These RNAs guide the sequence-specific inhibition of translation and destabilization of mRNA targets through short (6-7 nucleotide) stretches of complementarity between the 5 end of the miRNA (seed region) and the 3 untranslated region (UTR) of the targeted mRNA. Computational estimates based on prediction of conserved seed matches in 3UTRs suggest that over half of genes in mammalian genomes are miRNA-regulated. Many miRNAs are also ubiquitously expressed in a variety of embryonic and adult tissues. Given these observations, we have sought to address the challenge of determining which cellular and biological processes that miRNAs might regulate in different cell types and tissues. First, we have developed methods to isolate candidate miRNA-targeted mRNAs by immunoprecipitation of Ago2 in the miRNA effector complex (miRNP). In one purification method, the Ago2-bound mRNAs are identified by ...
RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism conserved in most eukaryotes that enables sequence‐specific gene silencing via the use of small RNAs 22-30 nt in length. As an anti‐viral defense system, RNAi operates by sensing and fragmenting viral dsRNA through the action a Dicer RNase. The resulting small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) then guide Argonaute (Ago) effector proteins in an RNA‐induced silencing complex (RISC) to cleave target RNA sequences bearing siRNA complementarity. This core system to sense and process dsRNA via Dicer into siRNAs that guide Agos is the hallmark of dsRNAi and is distinct but related to the role of these proteins in gene regulation via microRNAs (miRNAs) (tenOever, 2016). In plants and invertebrates, dsRNAi plays a critical role in suppressing viral accumulation and provides a systemic immune response (tenOever, 2016). Attesting to the power of this nucleic acid‐based immune system, numerous plants and invertebrate viruses have evolved viral suppressors of RNAi ...
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View mouse Tarbp2 Chr15:102518192-102523676 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Piwil4 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN313350G1|/strong|, Piwil4 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
DÖNER SLICER KSA-650 EUROPEAN PATENT NO E UR OPE AN PATE NT NO E U R O P EAN PAT E N T N O About us Our company is founded in 1996, and we carry out operations at our
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I just want to say THANKS so much- I took Juvenon (your first and only product at the time) 10 years ago- when I was diagnosed with breast cancer and going through radiation. I was never tired and worked full time throughout the whole treatment. My radiologist looked at the ingredients and said it was fine to take and wouldnt interfere with treatment- that it is a natural body ingredients. I am cancer free and couldnt have continued to work without it.. -Angela Geiger. ...
I had a baby 5 months ago- she is great! Ever since she turned about 2 months old I have not been feeling myself. It started with pain on urination- I went to several doctors and they cannot really t...
Solution Brief: Discusses transition from RISC to Intel-based servers with the Intel® Xeon® processor 7500 series, improving performance and ROI.
Compute intensity distribution (mean and variance) for each label by automatically sampling from the MR scan. The sampling for a specific label is constrained to the region that consists of voxels with high probability (top 95%) of being assigned to the label according to the aligned atlas. ...
Russian President Vladimir Putin has signed into law a bill increasing penalties for the recruitment of extremists, the latest measure to address what officials have described as a threat from mili...
Its a long time since I read it, but I clearly remember being very confused, not only by the too similar names of the men, but also by the tecnical mili...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MiR-26a enhances miRNA biogenesis by targeting Lin28B and Zcchc11 to suppress tumor growth and metastasis. AU - Fu, X.. AU - Meng, Z.. AU - Liang, W.. AU - Tian, Y.. AU - Wang, X.. AU - Han, W.. AU - Lou, G.. AU - Wang, X.. AU - Lou, F.. AU - Yen, Y.. AU - Yu, H.. AU - Jove, R.. AU - Huang, W.. PY - 2014/8/21. Y1 - 2014/8/21. N2 - Human cancers often exhibit attenuated microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and global underexpression of miRNAs; thus, targeting the miRNA biogenesis pathway represents a novel strategy for cancer therapy. Here, we report that miR-26a enhances miRNA biogenesis, which acts as a common mechanism partially accounting for miR-26a function in diverse cancers including melanoma, prostate and liver cancer. miR-26a was broadly reduced in multiple cancers, and overexpression of miR-26a significantly suppressed tumor growth and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo, including melanoma, prostate and liver cancers. Notably, miR-26a overexpression was accompanied by global ...
Mutations that disrupt the coding sequence of Nav1.5, the cardiac Na+ channel encoded by SCN5A, cause inherited arrhythmias and cardiomyopathy. Changes in Nav1.5 splice isoforms, localization and function have also been associated with prognosis in acquired heart disease. However, the role of genetic variants in SCN5A gene regulatory sequences (e.g. those modulating expression) remains poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged as vital gene regulators in heart, having roles in cardiogenesis, contractile function, and disease. These small non-coding RNAs are loaded into Argonaute proteins to direct post-transcriptional gene suppression by base-pairing with target transcripts, and genetic variants altering miR binding sequences may influence disease. Here, we used high-throughput biochemical means (HITS-CLIP) to generate the first transcriptome-wide map of miR binding events in human heart (4000 sites across ,2200 genes). Our query of the data uncovered ,500 common SNPs residing in or ...
...PHILADELPHIA - Biologists at the University of Pennsylvania studying o...MicroRNAs imperfectly pair with untranslated regions of RNA and mediat...The scientists found that the mRNA population in oocytes lacking Dicer...The data according to researchers presents a puzzling paradox. Alth...,Penn,biologists,determine,microRNA,activity,is,suppressed,in,mouse,ovum,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Many species, across a wide phylogenetic range, respond to aberrant/foreign RNA by degrading endogenous mRNA in a sequence-specific manner (1). This phenomenon, broadly referred to as posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), can be triggered by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) [RNA interference (RNAi)], transformation with sense transgenes (cosuppression/quelling), or viral infection (2). RNAi acts as a cellular defense against parasitic nucleic acids and provides a fortuitous technique for biologists to reduce or eliminate a gene activity (3). RNAi-like mechanisms are also involved in the production of small noncoding RNAs that control developmental timing (4, 5). A better understanding of RNAi may then shed light on genome defense and endogenous developmental pathways.. The molecular mechanisms underlying RNAi are beginning to be elucidated. dsRNA is processed into small double-stranded fragments of 21-25 nucleotides, called small interfering RNA (siRNA; refs. 6-8), by the ...
RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional/transcriptional gene silencing mechanism conserved from fungi to humans. In RNAi pathways, small non-coding RN...
Over the list break I acquired two wonderful vegetable slicers. Ive tried various $10-$30 plastic slicing gadgets in the past and found them all of poor quality and little use. French mandolines are supposed to be quite nice, but they cost hundreds of dollars and Ive heard that even so, they are somewhat inconvenient to use and clean. Food processors sometimes have slicing options, but I find the slices to be irregular and the whole thing messy and hard to clean. I have two exceptions: A Japanese slicing mandoline sold in asian stores under the brand name Benriner or sometimes New Benriner. On the box it looks cheesey, but this is actually a high quality and absolutely wonderful slicer. The plastic is very substantial, the knife edge is removable and *extremely* sharp, and the slices it makes are continuously adjustable in size. It sells for about $20. No other plastic slicer even comes close in quality to this one. It has two downsides: the *thickest* slice it can make is about 2mm (very ...
Genome-wide profiling and functional analyses reveal a network of heterochromatin and small RNA factors that silences repetitive elements and prevents genotoxic stress to ensure fertility.
Emerging only around the turn of the millennium, microRNAs (miRNAs) mediating post-transcriptional gene silencing have been rapidly recognized as central regulators of eukaryotic gene expression, affecting all aspects of multi-cellular life and disease. Intracellular pathways such as RNA silencing are often spatially organized, in that biomolecules localize within and/or are transported to distinct sub-cellular granules to mediate specific functions. As one example, miRNA bound messenger RNAs (mRNAs) localize to processing bodies (PBs), sub-cellular foci enriched in RNA processing and degrading enzymes, as either a cause or consequence of gene silencing processes critical for cancer suppression. To gain a deeper understanding of the hitherto poorly understood nature of miRNA:PB interactions, to more accurately quantify the distribution of miRNAs within PBs, and to unravel the relative contribution of PBs in miRNA-mediated gene silencing, we integrated our recently developed iSHiRLoC1,2,3 ...
...CAMBRIDGE Mass. (June 20 2012) Researchers at the Whitehead Institu... You can learn a lot from biochemical experiments but to more fully u...The yeast Argonaute structure is described in the June 21st print issu...In humans and most other eukaryotes the RNAi pathway can reduce cellu...,Structure,of,RNAi,complex,now,crystal,clear,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
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December 21, 2017. Researchers at Whitehead Institute have uncovered how small changes in the fish Argonaute (Ago) protein, an RNA slicing protein, that happened in its lineage an estimated 300 million years ago greatly diminished the efficiency of RNAi in these animals, while another ancestral feature, in a critical pre-microRNA, was retained that enabled the microRNA to still be produced despite the fishs impaired Ago protein.. ...
Brandeis biology professor Nelson Lau and his lab recently published two studies on the PIWI pathway, exploring how PIWI proteins distinguish transposons from normal DNA and how transposable elements slip past and fool the PIWI pathway.
Hey all, I am currently going through my first proper heart break- at age 30. I have had a serious relationship before, but this man who has broken my heart, I feel I will never get over. Stupidly, I started dating this man five years ago- aware that he was married. He was, however, in a situation where he was in it for the kids, and he and his wife slept in separate bedrooms. He and I split almost three years ago. I was so devastated I moved states, but still kept in touch with him every day since the split. I felt he was my best friend and wasnt concerned that he would hook up with anyone else, as we split because he was married & didnt want to leave his kids , and thought he wouldnt do it again. Our relationship was incredibly beautiful, I remember knowing within the first couple of weeks that he was my soulmate. He also indicated these feelings on a regular basis. Since we split up years ago, he has told me that if he ever was to divorce he would see where Im at, and that if he was ever ...
I posted this a couple of nights ago- and thought I would repost to let you know what my text states. 1. Hispanic,French,and Italian families commonly engage in hugging,patting,and behaviors of affectionate familiarity. These physical ...
I recently moved house a few months ago- and since moving, I have started getting a lot of mosquito/insect looking bites on my legs- and as a result
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of RNase HII substrate recognition using RNase HII-argonaute chimaeric enzymes from Pyrococcus furiosus. AU - Kitamura, Sayaka. AU - Fujishima, Kosuke. AU - Sato, Asako. AU - Tsuchiya, Daisuke. AU - Tomita, Masaru. AU - Kanai, Akio. PY - 2010/3/15. Y1 - 2010/3/15. N2 - RNase H (ribonuclease H) is an endonuclease that cleaves the RNA strand of RNA-DNA duplexes. It has been reported that the three-dimensional structure of RNase H is similar to that of the PIWI domain of the Pyrococcus furiosus Ago (argonaute) protein, although the two enzymes share almost no similarity in their amino acid sequences. Eukaryotic Ago proteins are key components of the RNA-induced silencing complex and are involved in microRNA or siRNA (small interfering RNA) recognition. In contrast, prokaryotic Ago proteins show greater affinity for RNA-DNA hybrids than for RNA-RNA hybrids. Interestingly, we found that wild-type Pf-RNase HII (P. furiosus, RNase HII) digests RNA-RNA duplexes in the ...
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and piRNAs (piRNA) are conserved classes of small single-stranded ~21-30 nucleotide (nt) RNA guides that repress eukaryotic gene expression using distinct RNA Induced Silencing Complexes (RISCs). At its core, RISC is composed of a single-stranded small RNA guide bound to a member of the Argonaute protein family, which together bind and repress complementary target RNA. miRNAs target protein coding mRNAs-a function essential for normal development and broadly involved in pathways of human disease; small interfering RNAs (siRNA) defend against viruses, but can also be engineered to direct experimental or therapeutic gene silencing; piwi associated RNAs (piRNAs) protect germline genomes from expansion of parasitic nucleic acids such as transposons. Using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, as a model organism we seek to understand how small silencing RNAs are made and how they function. In Drosophila, miRNAs and siRNAs are proposed to have parallel,
Trinucleotide repeat-containing gene 6A protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNRC6A gene. This gene encodes a member of the trinucleotide repeat containing 6 protein family. The protein functions in post-transcriptional gene silencing through the RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA pathways. The protein associates with messenger RNAs and Argonaute proteins in cytoplasmic bodies known as GW-bodies or P-bodies. Inhibiting expression of this gene delocalizes other GW-body proteins and impairs RNAi and microRNA-induced gene silencing. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000090905 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000052707 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Margolis RL, Abraham MR, Gatchell SB, Li SH, Kidwai AS, Breschel TS, Stine OC, Callahan C, McInnis MG, Ross CA (Jul 1997). "cDNAs with long CAG trinucleotide repeats from human brain". Hum Genet. 100 (1): 114-22. doi:10.1007/s004390050476. PMID 9225980. "Entrez Gene: ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact ag586.. Most eukaryotes produce small RNA (sRNA) mediators of gene silencing that bind to Argonaute proteins and guide them, by base pairing, to an RNA target. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) that normally target messenger RNAs for degradation or translational arrest are the best-understood class of sRNAs. However, in Arabidopsis thaliana flowers, miRNAs account for only 5% of the sRNA mass and less than 0.1% of the sequence complexity. The remaining sRNAs form a complex population of more than 100,000 different small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) transcribed from thousands of loci. The biogenesis of most of the siRNAs in Arabidopsis are dependent on RNA polymerase IV (PolIV), a homologue of DNA -dependent RNA polymerase II. A subset of these PolIV-dependent (p4)-siRNAs are involved in stress responses, and others are associated with epigenetic modifications to DNA or chromatin; however, the biological role is not known for most of them. Here we show that ...
Transposable elements (TEs) are major structural components of eukaryotic genomes; however, mobilization of TEs generally has negative effects on the host genome. To counteract this threat, host cells have evolved genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that keep TEs silenced. One such mechanism involves the Piwi-piRNA complex, which represses TEs in animal gonads either by cleaving TE transcripts in the cytoplasm or by directing specific chromatin modifications at TE loci in the nucleus. Most Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are derived from genomic piRNA clusters. There has been remarkable progress in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying piRNA biogenesis. However, little is known about how a specific locus in the genome is converted into a piRNA-producing site. In this review, we will discuss a possible link between chromatin boundaries and piRNA cluster formation.
PIWIL proteins are stem cell self-renewal and maintenance associated proteins that bind Piwi interacting RNA (piRNA) to mediate epigenetic modifications in lower vertebrates. In solid cancers, PIWIL proteins have been described as putative proto-oncogenes. We could show that a human PIWI like protein-PIWIL4 is overexpressed in majority of AML patients, particularly in patients harboring the MLL-AF9 translocation. The knockdown of PIWIL4 in MLL-AF9 harboring cell lines and primary patient samples leads to a marked depreciation in growth in vitro and in vivo, and a global loss of H3K9me3 marks in cell lines. The loss of growth potential and decrease in global levels of H3K9me3 in cell lines could be rescued via overexpression of wild type PIWIL4, but not by a PIWIL4 mutant lacking the piRNA binding-PAZ domain. No growth inhibition or effect on colony formation was observed upon PIWIL4 depletion in normal human hematopoietic stem progenitor, in vitro. PIWIL4 depleted AML cell lines showed a deregulation of
Unmodified and sense strand-inactivated siRNAs were used to target five genes. In four cases, off-targets were increased due to enhanced RISC loading of the antisense strand when the sense strand was modified. The unmodified siRNAs have natural guide-strand loading characteristics. All siRNAs had comparable silencing potency. Data shown represents genes down-regulated by twofold or more. HEK293 cells were transfected with 100 nM siRNA using 0.2 μL of DharmaFECT 1. Data was analyzed at 24 hours by genomewide microarray analysis (Agilent).. Why not modify ALL siGENOME siRNAs to ensure proper strand loading? It has been demonstrated by Dharmacon scientists1 and others2 that forcing antisense (guide) strand entry into RISC may actually INCREASE off-targets due to increased loading of the guide strand and resulting off-target activity by its seed region. siGENOME siRNAs are designed with thermodynamic properties to naturally facilitate guide strand entry to RISC, which has been demonstrated to ...
microRNAs comprise a few percent of animal genes and have been recognized as important regulators of a diverse range of biological processes. Understanding the biological functions of miRNAs requires effective means to identify their targets. Combined efforts from computational prediction, miRNA over-expression or depletion, and biochemical purification have identified thousands of potential miRNA-target pairs in cells and organisms. Complementarity to the miRNA seed sequence appears to be a common principle in target recognition. Other features, including miRNA-target duplex stability, binding site accessibility, and local UTR structure might affect target recognition. Yet computational approaches using such contextual features have yielded largely nonoverlapping results and experimental assessment of their impact has been limited. Here, we compare two large sets of miRNA targets: targets identified using an improved Ago1 immunopurification method and targets identified among transcripts up-regulated
PIWIL3 Fragment MS Protein Standard, is a protein fragment containing a 50-150 amino acid sequence identical to part of a human PIWIL3 protein target. The fragment MS Protein Standard represents a new category of using heavy isotope labeled (15N, 13C) Lysine and Arginine residues resulting in more than 99% isotope incorporation, as internal MS standards offering distinct advantages to existing products for relative and absolute quantification.
RNA Helicase associated with AU-rich element (RHAU) (DHX36) is a DEAH (Aspartic acid, Glumatic Acid, Alanine, Histidine)-package RNA helicase that can bind and unwind G4-quadruplexes in DNA and RNA. the microRNA machinery is definitely supported by related and nonadditive raises in PITX1 protein manifestation on Dicer and combined RHAU/Dicer knockdown. We also demonstrate a requirement of argonaute-2, a key RNA-induced silencing complex component, to mediate RHAU-dependent changes in PITX1 protein levels. These results demonstrate a novel part for RHAU in microRNA-mediated translational rules at a quadruplex-containing 3-untranslated region. Intro Guanine-rich nucleic acids are prone to fold into unique structures. ...
Pampered Chef garlic slicers Company: The Pampered Chef.Quantity: 286,000.Why? A blade on the garlic slicer can unexpectedly dislodge during use, posing a laceration hazard. What models? The Pampered
Méndez C; Ahlenstiel CL; Kelleher AD, 2015, Post-transcriptional gene silencing, transcriptional gene silencing and human immunodeficiency virus., World J Virol, vol. 4, pp. 219 - 244, http://dx.doi.org/10.5501/wjv.v4.i3.219. Suzuki K; Ahlenstiel C; Marks K; Kelleher AD, 2015, Promoter targeting RNAs: Unexpected contributors to the control of HIV-1 transcription, Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids, vol. 4, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mtna.2014.67. Suzuki K; Marks K; Symonds G; Cooper DA; Kelleher AD; Hattori S; Okada S; Ahlenstiel C; Maeda Y; Ishida T, 2013, Promoter targeting shRNA suppresses HIV-1 infection in vivo through transcriptional gene silencing, Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids, vol. 2, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mtna.2013.64. Ahlenstiel CL; Lim HGW; Cooper DA; Ishida T; Kelleher AD; Suzuki K, 2012, Direct evidence of nuclear Argonaute distribution during transcriptional silencing links the actin cytoskeleton to nuclear RNAi machinery in human cells, Nucleic Acids Research, vol. ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are versatile regulators of gene expression in plants and animals. They are 21 to 24 nucleotides long and processed by a Dicer nuclease from long RNA precursors with base paired foldback structures (Baulcombe, 2004). The single-stranded form of the miRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex with Argonaute (AGO) that can bind by base pairing to a target RNA (Bartel, 2009; Voinnet, 2009). In plants, the successful targeting reaction requires complementarity of the miRNA at most of the residues (Mallory and Bouché, 2008).. The consequence of the targeting reaction depends on the nature of the targeted RNA and the extent of complementarity with the miRNA. The target RNA is cleaved and the level of the protein product is reduced if there is near complete complementarity, including positions 9 and 10 of the miRNA. Translational suppression without turnover of the target RNA is mediated by miRNAs with incomplete complementarity to their target (Brodersen et al., 2008; Lanet et al., ...
The RAS gene family is among the most commonly mutated genes within cancer, and while much research has elucidated the major downstream pathways, including MAPK and PI3K, little progress has been made in successfully targeting mutant RAS in cancer. We recently identified an interaction between the N terminal domain of Argonaute 2 (AGO2), a core component of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), and the Switch II domain of KRAS. Furthermore, this interaction was found in all cell lines tested, expressing either wild-type (WT) or mutant KRAS. We found that stable knockdown of AGO2 in KRAS dependent cell lines lead to a decrease in KRAS protein expression with a subsequent decrease in cellular proliferation. Conversely, the overexpression of AGO2 in these cells lead to both an increase in KRAS expression and oncogenesis. In addition, this interaction inhibits the RNAi function of AGO2 by preventing microRNA unwinding in the presence of oncogenic KRAS compared to WT-KRAS. Despite a clear association ...
What happened? Was 21mer length optimal?. Their findings were quite unexpected: they observed that synthetic RNA duplexes 25-30 nucleotides in length could be up to 100-fold more potent than corresponding 21mer siRNAs. Why? The 27mers were later shown to be a substrate for Dicer, and were processed down to 21mer size. Drs. Rossi and Behlke theorize that increased potency may result from forcing the system to interact with Dicer, which then invokes a natural RISC loading pathway that is denied to 21mer RNAs. The 27mers "primed the Dicer pump", resulting in better access of the 21mer product for RISC.. This meant that less siRNA would be needed for gene silencing - i.e., that the RNAs were more potent and could be used at lower dose. Important for many reasons among them less toxicity and lower research expense.. Please see: Dong Ho Kim, Mark Behlke, Scott Rose, Mi-Sook Chang, Sangdun Choi & John Rossi. Synthetic dsRNA Substrates Enhance SiRNA Potency and Efficacy Nature Biotechnology. Published ...
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated PIWIL2 primer pair, for the Dog genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
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Activity of different HuR mutants in alleviating miRISC cleavage. (A) Schemes of wt HuR and its deletion mutants. (B) Coomassie blue-stained SDS-polyacrylamid
IDT guarantees that at least two of the three Dicer-Substrate duplexes in the splice-common TriFECTa® kit will give a least 70% knockdown of the target mRNA when used at 10 nM concentration and assayed by quantitative RT-PCR when the fluorescent transfection control duplex indicates that ,90% of the cells have been transfected and the HPRT positive control works with the expected efficiency. Our Bioinformatics department did a full screening of the recommended sequences before adding them to the database. This included BLASTing the sequences to ensure they only line up with the gene in question, performing secondary structure checks, and making sure the end stabilities were favorable for incorporation into the RISC complex ...
Ak ste počas protestnej akcie lekárov podali výpoveď a po vypršaní výpovednej lehoty ste sa neprihlásili na úrade práce (ÚP), vašou povinnosťou bolo nahlásiť sa do ôsmich dní v zdravotnej poisťovni (ZP) ako samoplatca
Mae sain yn cael ei gynhyrchu yn y laryncs, a dyna lle mae traw a lefel y sain yn cael eu trin. Mae nerth yr anadliad allan or ysgyfaint hefyd yn cyfrannu at gryfder y sain. Defnyddir y defnydd o laryncs i greu ffynhonnell sain gydag amlder sylfaenol, neu draw. Caiff y ffynhonnell sain hon ei newid wrth iddi deithio drwyr llwybr lleisiol, wedii ffurfweddun wahanol yn seiliedig ar leoliad y dafod, gwefusau, ceg a pharyncs. Maer broses o newid ffynhonnell sain wrth iddi basio trwy hidliad y llwybr lleisiol yn creu nifer o wahanol seiniau llafariad a chytseiniau ieithoedd y byd yn ogystal â thôn, gwireddiadau penodol o straen a mathau eraill o ymyrraeth ieithyddol. Mae gan y laryncs hefyd swyddogaeth debyg ir ysgyfaint wrth greu gwahaniaethau pwysau syn ofynnol ar gyfer cynhyrchu sain; gellir codi neu ostwng laryncs tyn syn effeithio ar gyfaint y ceudod llafar yn ôl yr angen mewn cytseiniau glotalig. Gellir cadwr plygellau lleisiol yn agos at ei gilydd (trwy gludor cartilagau ...
본 연구는 산업통상자원부의 국책과제인 "차세대 생명정보 통합분석을 이용한 다중 바이오마커 개발" 에서 제작된 담도암 miRNA 진단 칩의 분석적 성능시험을 위하여 평가 지표로 재현성, 반복성, 특이도를 분석하였다.. 분석 결과 담도암 miRNA 진단 칩은 재현성과 반복성 실험에서 판정 기준이 되는 CV 값 모두 10% 이하의 결과를 보였다. 그리고 특이도 분석에서는 환자군의 miRNA를 6회 반복 시험한 측정치 값과 정상인의 miRNA를 2회 반복하여 시험한 측정치 값으로 계층적 군집분석을 실시한 결과 담도암 환자군과 정상인군의 miRNA는 서로 다른 군집으로 확연히 구분되었다. 이러한 분석적 성능시험의 결과 제작된 담도암 miRNA 진단 칩은 적합하다는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 또한 이 결과는 mir-1268a는 담관 폐쇄증 환자가 정상인에 비해 유의하게 낮은 발현량을 보였고 ...
katka17044 ja som bola v Heliose v brne ale baby tu si pochvaluju aj Reprofit velmi. Odbery a kontroly mozes absolvovat aj u svoho gyndosa, tam sa im to posiela mailom a povedia kedy je OPU. ja som tam bola na konzultacii co som si davala prevazat embyjka a ich stav po rozmrazeni vobec nezodpovedal stuvu co mi napisali v GF na sprievodne papiere. Ale jedno som si dala vlozit, dali sme mu sancu, jedno bolo uplne nepouzitelne, bola to morula a v GF tvrdili ze blastocysta. inac su velmi mili vsetci a neoblbuju ...
z Opisthorchosis sú červy - to je plochá červy takzvané motolice.Spadajú do ľudského tela cez invazívne rýb.Tento druh červov sú nájdené v pečeni, slinivke brušnej a žlčníka.Môžu byť aktívne množiť v ľudskom tele po dobu asi 20 rokov.Podľa štatistík na svete je infikovaných asi 21 miliónov korú... Pokračovať V čítaní ...
We are happy to announce that Anastasiia Klimash from the University of Glasgow will be presenting at the workshop this summer. Anastasiia will be presenting on her recent work regarding the observation of TADF in quinoline-based helicene molecules. Together with Gregory Pieters we should have a very interesting panel on chirality in TADF.
Silence remainsIn the whisperIn the breatheIn every unsaid wordsIn every fightIn every giggleIn every moment Silence persistsIn relationships tooFor betterment of otherFor understanding of tied knot Silence prevailsIn truthIn justiceThat we try to do with each other Silence existedNot for justifyingNot for a tearNot for understanding each other Silence lovedFor the lovelinessFor the lonelinessWhich we gave to each other Silence…
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Author Summary RNA interference is a gene regulatory system in which small RNA molecules turn off genes that have similar sequences to the small RNAs. This has become a powerful tool because a researcher can use RNA interference to turn off any gene of interest in order to test its function. There is great interest in identifying the genes required for the RNA interference pathway, and one approach to identifying such genes has been to use RNA interference to turn off potential RNA interference genes and to ask whether RNA interference still functions when these genes are turned off. The goal of our report is to ask how it is possible for RNA interference to turn itself off, using a mathematical model of the system. The results show that RNA interference cannot turn itself off if the RNA interference pathway is too effective to start with, so that experiments in which RNA interference acts on itself will only work in systems having a low efficiency. The results of our model suggest possible ways to
RNA silencing is an important mechanism to regulate gene expression and antiviral defense in plants. Nevertheless, RNA silencing machinery in the important oil crop Brassica napus and function in resistance to the devastating fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are not well understood. In this study, gene families of RNA silencing machinery in B. napus were identified and their role in resistance to S. sclerotiorum was revealed. Genome of the allopolyploid species B. napus possessed 8 Dicer-like (DCL), 27 Argonaute (AGO) and 16 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) genes, which included almost all copies from its progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea and three extra copies of RDR5 genes, indicating that the RDR5 group in B. napus appears to have undergone further expansion through duplication during evolution. Moreover, compared with Arabidopsis, some AGO and RDR genes such as AGO1, AGO4, AGO9 and RDR5 had significantly expanded in these Brassica species. Twenty-one out of 51 DCL, AGO and RDR
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) function in translational machinery and further serves as a source of short non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). tRNA-derived ncRNAs show differential expression profiles and play roles in many biological processes beyond translation. Molecular mechanisms that shape and regulate their expression profiles are largely unknown. Here, we report the mechanism of biogenesis for tRNA-derived Piwi-interacting RNAs (td-piRNAs) expressed in Bombyx BmN4 cells. In the cells, two cytoplasmic tRNA species, tRNAAspGUC and tRNAHisGUG, served as major sources for td-piRNAs, which were derived from the 5-part of the respective tRNAs. cP-RNA-seq identified the two tRNAs as major substrates for the 5-tRNA halves as well, suggesting a previously uncharacterized link between 5-tRNA halves and td-piRNAs. An increase in levels of the 5-tRNA halves, induced by BmNSun2 knockdown, enhanced the td-piRNA expression levels without quantitative change in mature tRNAs, indicating that 5-tRNA halves, not mature tRNAs,
The Hiwi call themselves the "people of the savannah" for the vast flatlands they inhabit between the Meta and Vichada rivers in Colombia. In Venezuela, the Hiwi live in the states of Apure, Guarico, Bolivar, and Amazonas. Seventeenth- and eighteenth-century historians described the Hiwi as nomadic hunter-gatherers. Their long history of violent conflict, extending well into the twentieth century, has meant dramatic changes in their way of life.. Today, when the Hiwi visit criollo towns, they wear European-style clothing: shirts and pants for the men, and cotton dresses for the women. In their own villages, many continue to wear traditional loincloths made of cloth or of a vegetable bark called marima.. Traditional clothing also includes body ornaments. The Hiwi make necklaces of glass beads as well as shamanic amulet necklaces for ceremonial use, made with animal teeth, hooves, and beaks.. Textile crafts are an important part of their material culture. Using looms, the Hiwi weave high-quality ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role for piRNAs and noncoding RNA in de novo DNA methylation of the imprinted mouse Rasgrf1 locus. AU - Watanabe, Toshiaki. AU - Tomizawa, Shin Ichi. AU - Mitsuya, Kohzoh. AU - Totoki, Yasushi. AU - Yamamoto, Yasuhiro. AU - Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Satomi. AU - Iida, Naoko. AU - Hoki, Yuko. AU - Murphy, Patrick J.. AU - Toyoda, Atsushi. AU - Gotoh, Kengo. AU - Hiura, Hitoshi. AU - Arima, Takahiro. AU - Fujiyama, Asao. AU - Sado, Takashi. AU - Shibata, Tatsuhiro. AU - Nakano, Toru. AU - Lin, Haifan. AU - Ichiyanagi, Kenji. AU - Soloway, Paul D.. AU - Sasaki, Hiroyuki. PY - 2011/5/13. Y1 - 2011/5/13. N2 - Genomic imprinting causes parental origin - specific monoallelic gene expression through differential DNA methylation established in the parental germ line. However, the mechanisms underlying how specific sequences are selectively methylated are not fully understood. We have found that the components of the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway are required for de novo methylation of ...

argonaute proteins Protocols and Video...'argonaute proteins' Protocols and Video...

... argonaute proteins include MicroRNA-based Regulation of Picornavirus Tropism, RNAi-mediated Double Gene Knockdown and ... Argonaute Proteins: A family of RNA-binding proteins that has specificity for Micrornas and Small interfering rna molecules. ... The proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-induced silencing complex. MicroRNA-based Regulation ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/argonaute+proteins

Argonaute Proteins - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgArgonaute Proteins - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

Argonaute Proteins. A Family of RNA-Binding Proteins that has specificity for MicroRNAs and Small Interfering RNA molecules. ... The Proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-Induced Silencing Complex. ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/argonaute-proteins.html

Argonaute protein elisa and antibodyArgonaute protein elisa and antibody

Recombinant Protein and Argonaute protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Argonaute protein wago-1. Argonaute protein wago-1 ELISA Kit. Argonaute protein wago-1 Recombinant. Argonaute protein wago-1 ... Also known as Argonaute protein wago-1 (Worm-specific argonaute protein 1).. Argonaute protein which is involved in the ... Argonaute protein Argonaute protein which is involved in the endogenous small interfering RNA (endo-siRNA) pathway. Interacts ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/proteins-family/argonaute-protein

Addgene: Genome-wide analysis of mRNAs regulated by Drosha and Argonaute proteins in Drosophila melanogaster.Addgene: Genome-wide analysis of mRNAs regulated by Drosha and Argonaute proteins in Drosophila melanogaster.

Genome-wide analysis of mRNAs regulated by Drosha and Argonaute proteins in Drosophila melanogaster. Rehwinkel J, Natalin P, ...
more infohttp://www.addgene.org/browse/article/2997/

Inria - Markov State Models Reveal a Two-Step Mechanism of miRNA Loading into the Human Argonaute Protein: Selective Binding...Inria - Markov State Models Reveal a Two-Step Mechanism of miRNA Loading into the Human Argonaute Protein: Selective Binding...

Our model is based on the results of a combination of Markov State Models (MSMs), large-scale protein-RNA docking, and ... proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) are central components in RNA interference, which is a key cellular mechanism for sequence- ... are distinguished by their largely exposed binding grooves that can geometrically accommodate miRNA as indicated in our protein ... Abstract : Argonaute (Ago) proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) are central components in RNA interference, which is a key cellular ...
more infohttps://hal.inria.fr/hal-01257437

Cloning, characterization, and subcellular localization of a Trypanosoma cruzi argonaute protein defining a new subfamily...Cloning, characterization, and subcellular localization of a Trypanosoma cruzi argonaute protein defining a new subfamily...

To achieve their effectors functions, sRNAs associate with members of the Argonaute protein family. Argonaute proteins are ... To achieve their effectors functions, sRNAs associate with members of the Argonaute protein family. Argonaute proteins are ... To achieve their effectors functions, sRNAs associate with members of the Argonaute protein family. Argonaute proteins are ... Argonaute phylogeny, Small RNAs, Protozoan parasites, Piwi-like protein. in Gene. volume. 466. issue. 1-2. pages. 26 - 35. ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1727227

PHN1 - Protein argonaute PNH1 - Oryza sativa subsp. japonica (Rice) - PHN1 gene & proteinPHN1 - Protein argonaute PNH1 - Oryza sativa subsp. japonica (Rice) - PHN1 gene & protein

Protein argonaute PNH1Add BLAST. 979. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three ... View protein in InterPro. IPR014811 ArgoL1. IPR032472 ArgoL2. IPR032473 Argonaute_Mid_dom. IPR032474 Argonaute_N. IPR003100 PAZ ... View protein in InterPro. IPR014811 ArgoL1. IPR032472 ArgoL2. IPR032473 Argonaute_Mid_dom. IPR032474 Argonaute_N. IPR003100 PAZ ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q69VD5

Hobman, Tom C. (Herausgeber); Duchaine, Thomas F. (Herausgeber) Argonaute Proteins Methods and Protocols (Gebundene Ausgabe)...Hobman, Tom C. (Herausgeber); Duchaine, Thomas F. (Herausgeber) Argonaute Proteins Methods and Protocols (Gebundene Ausgabe)...

Argonaute Proteins Methods and Protocols Reihe: Methods in Molecular Biology 725 9781617790454 1617790451 A12548782 A12548782 ... Argonaute Proteins Methods and Protocols (Gebundene Ausgabe). Reihe: Methods in Molecular Biology 725 Springer-Verlag GmbH, ... These RNA-binding proteins use small guide RNAs to silence expression of genes at the mRNA and DNA levels. In Argonaute ... Argonaute proteins are the central effectors of RNAi and are highly conserved among eukaryotes and some archaebacteria. ...
more infohttps://www.buchfreund.de/Argonaute-Proteins-Methods-and-Protocols,A12548782,1-neubuch

DNA silencing by prokaryotic Argonaute proteins adds a new layer of defense against invading nucleic acids, FEMS Microbiology...DNA silencing by prokaryotic Argonaute proteins adds a new layer of defense against invading nucleic acids, FEMS Microbiology...

"DNA silencing by prokaryotic Argonaute proteins adds a new layer of defense against invading nucleic acids, FEMS Microbiology ... Organisms that encode short Agos seemingly have split up the protein into a separate Mid-PIWI protein and a protein that ... Organisms that encode short Agos seemingly have split up the protein into a separate Mid-PIWI protein and a protein that ... for 84 representative archaeal Argonaute proteins. To avoid redundancy, all archaeal proteins found using the PSI_BLAST program ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/ou_press/dna-silencing-by-prokaryotic-argonaute-proteins-adds-a-new-layer-of-2UImPz6Tkb

Identification of human microRNA targets from isolated argonaute protein complexes :: MPG.PuRe
				Identification of human microRNA targets from isolated argonaute protein complexes :: MPG.PuRe

Identification of human microRNA targets from isolated argonaute protein complexes ... argonaute; gene silencing; non-coding RNAs; translation; gene regulation; Titel: ... of human microRNA targets from isolated argonaute protein complexes. RNA Biology, 4(2), 76-84. ...
more infohttp://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/pubman/faces/viewItemOverviewPage.jsp?itemId=escidoc:1580162

Argonaute proteinsArgonaute proteins

Tag Archives: Argonaute proteins. Major Breakthrough Understanding miRNA Function With Argonaute Proteins. Posted on January 12 ... Posted in Events, Friday Lectures, Recommended Readings , Tagged Argonaute proteins, Argonaute-mediated catalysis, germline, ... Posted in Science, Stem cell research , Tagged Argonaute proteins, miRNA , Leave a reply Recommended Readings; Gregory J. ... Posted in Methods, Monday Lectures, Recommended Readings, Uncategorized , Tagged Argonaute proteins, CLIP, miRNA, mRNA, ...
more infohttp://librarynews.rockefeller.edu/?tag=argonaute-proteins

Argonaute proteins - conformational flexibility drives function | Nature Research Microbiology CommunityArgonaute proteins - conformational flexibility drives function | Nature Research Microbiology Community

Another family of such nucleic acid-guided endonucleases are Argonaute (Ago) proteins, which are found in all three domains of ... The majority of the to date characterized prokaryotic Ago proteins appear to rely on 5′-phosphorylated DNA guides, which are ... Argonaute proteins - conformational flexibility drives function. ​Bacteria and archaea have developed a variety of defence ... Another family of such nucleic acid-guided endonucleases are Argonaute (Ago) proteins, which are found in all three domains of ...
more infohttps://naturemicrobiologycommunity.nature.com/posts/15642-argonaute-proteins-conformational-flexibility-drives-function

AMR53 05540 - Argonaute family protein - Thermococcus thioreducens - AMR53 05540 gene & proteinAMR53 05540 - Argonaute family protein - Thermococcus thioreducens - AMR53 05540 gene & protein

Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A0Q2M2Z1. I6U616. Q8U3D2. UPI00004F8DB7. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Argonaute family proteinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A0Q2M2Z1

Biochemical isolation of Argonaute protein complexes by Ago-APP. - Cancer Research UK Cambridge InstituteBiochemical isolation of Argonaute protein complexes by Ago-APP. - Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute

During microRNA (miRNA)-guided gene silencing, Argonaute (Ago) proteins interact with a member of the TNRC6/GW protein family. ... Here we used a short GW protein-derived peptide fused to GST and demonstrate that it binds to Ago proteins with high affinity. ... We refer to our method as Ago protein Affinity Purification by Peptides (Ago-APP). Furthermore, expression of this peptide ... This allows for the simultaneous isolation of all Ago protein complexes expressed in diverse species to identify associated ...
more infohttps://www.cruk.cam.ac.uk/publication/biochemical-isolation-of-argonaute-protein-complexes-by-agoapp

Online Plant Argonaute Proteins: Methods And ProtocolsOnline Plant Argonaute Proteins: Methods And Protocols

New Jersey online Plant Argonaute Proteins: Methods and Protocols publication owned Lorre Wyatt. days do he told after ...
more infohttp://www.allstarasphalt.com/images/pdf.php?q=online-Plant-Argonaute-Proteins%3A-Methods-and-Protocols.html

Authors response to reviews Title: Argonaute proteins: potential biomarkers for human colon cancer Authors: - Semantic ScholarAuthor's response to reviews Title: Argonaute proteins: potential biomarkers for human colon cancer Authors: - Semantic Scholar

Argonaute proteins: potential biomarkers for human colon cancer Authors: by Lan Li et al. ... Authors response to reviews Title: Argonaute proteins: potential biomarkers for human colon cancer Authors:. *. Lan Li, ... inproceedings{Li2009AuthorsRT, title={Authors response to reviews Title: Argonaute proteins: potential biomarkers for human ... Stem-cell protein Piwil2 is widely expressed in tumors and inhibits apoptosis through activation of Stat3/Bcl-XL pathway.. *Jae ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Author

The Biological Function of Bacterial Argonaute Proteins - Kristin KotulakThe Biological Function of Bacterial Argonaute Proteins - Kristin Kotulak

Argonaute proteins have been shown to play a critical role in post-transcriptional gene silencing in eukaryotes;however, their ... to examine the regulatory effects of Argonaute on bacterial mRNAs, and to identify additional proteins involved in Argonaute- ... The Biological Function of Bacterial Argonaute Proteins Kotulak, Kristin M. New York University, New York, NY, United States ... Argonaute proteins have been shown to play a critical role in post-transcriptional gene silencing in eukaryotes;however, their ...
more infohttp://grantome.com/grant/NIH/F32-GM093509-02

Functions of Argonaute Proteins in Self Versus Non-Self Recognition in by Meetu Seth"Functions of Argonaute Proteins in Self Versus Non-Self Recognition in" by Meetu Seth

Dissertations, UMMS; RNA Interference; RNA, Small Interfering; Argonaute Proteins; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins ... Functions of Argonaute Proteins in Self Versus Non-Self Recognition in the C. elegans Germline: A Dissertation ... Seth, M. Functions of Argonaute Proteins in Self Versus Non-Self Recognition in the C. elegans Germline: A Dissertation. (2016 ... that are loaded onto worm-specific Argonaute (WAGO) proteins. WAGOs collaborate with chromatin factors to maintain epigenetic ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/gsbs_diss/874/

CellNetworks - Expression determinants of mammalian argonaute proteins in mediating gene silencingCellNetworks - Expression determinants of mammalian argonaute proteins in mediating gene silencing

Site-specific cleavage is carried out by argonaute-2 (Ago2), while all four mammalian argonaute proteins (Ago1-Ago4) can carry ... Homepage »Research Network »Publications »2012 »Expression determinants of mammalian argonaute proteins in mediating gene ... This finding has implications for the evolutionary conservation of Ago proteins in the mammalian lineage and the biological ...
more infohttp://www.cellnetworks.uni-hd.de/484740/Expression_determinants_of_mammalian_argonaute_proteins_in_mediating_gene_silencing

Argonautes: A big turn-off for proteinsArgonautes: A big turn-off for proteins

Argonaute »Green IT »Medical Wellness »MicroRNAs »RNA »blueprints for proteins »fruit-fly protein »messenger RNA »protein ... Further reports about: , Argonaute , Green IT , Medical Wellness , MicroRNAs , RNA , blueprints for proteins , fruit-fly ... Argonautes: A big turn-off for proteins. 02.02.2010. Johns Hopkins scientists believe they may have figured out how genetic ... By chopping up Argonaute proteins from fruit flies and testing each piece individually, the team showed that allostery ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/argonautes-a-big-turn-proteins-147798.html

Two GW Repeat Proteins Interact with Tetrahymena thermophila Argonaute and Promote Genome Rearrangement | Molecular and...Two GW Repeat Proteins Interact with Tetrahymena thermophila Argonaute and Promote Genome Rearrangement | Molecular and...

Both proteins contain GW (glycine and tryptophan) repeats, which are characteristic of several Argonaute-interacting proteins ... For example, four mammalian Argonaute proteins (Ago1 through Ago4) and GW repeat protein GW182 are localized to the cytoplasmic ... A conserved motif in Argonaute-interacting proteins mediates functional interactions through the Argonaute PIWI domain. Nat. ... thermophila Argonaute family proteins, it will be interesting to test whether any other Argonautes are able to interact with ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/29/18/5020?ijkey=dcf9c149d5d536401c58be23dd814599bf199a59&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Destabilisation of Argonaute 2 generates a truncated protein: halfAgo2 - MattersDestabilisation of Argonaute 2 generates a truncated protein: halfAgo2 - Matters

... protein is an essential effector protein in miRNA-mediated mechanisms that regulate gene expression. Ago2 directly binds to the ... Understanding Ago2 protein stability and turnover will further our understanding in how RISC function is regulated. In human ... that is formed from proteolytic cleavage of the full length Ago2 protein.Further experiments are needed to determine (i) the ... cells, we discovered a previously unidentified ~55 kDa protein that is a truncated form of Ago2, ...
more infohttps://sciencematters.io/articles/201811000001

Identification and characterization of Dicer-like, Argonaute and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene families in maize - Semantic...Identification and characterization of Dicer-like, Argonaute and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene families in maize - Semantic...

In plants, the generation of these sRNAs mainly depends on some proteins encoded by respective Dicer-like (DCL), Argonaute (AGO ... This will further provide a solid foundation for future functional genomics studies of Dicer-like, Argonaute and RDR gene ... Here, we analyzed the DCL, AGO and RDR gene families in maize, including gene structure, phylogenetic relationships, protein ... Evolution, functions, and mysteries of plant ARGONAUTE proteins.. *Han Zhang, Rui Xia, Blake C. Meyers, Virginia Walbot ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Identification-and-characterization-of-Dicer-like%2C-Qian-Cheng/e6d7029dbb1e5aec472e324955f0ae177fe05d41

Structures of Active Guide Rna Molecules and Method of Selection - Patzel, VolkerStructures of Active Guide Rna Molecules and Method of Selection - Patzel, Volker

The decision which Argonaute protein is chosen for RISC and which subsequent pathway is initiated must be made before the mRNA ... a human RISC and the Argonaute proteins are mammalian, e.g. human proteins. ... Preferably, the polypeptide is an Argonaute or Dicer protein such as Ago-1, Ago2, Dcr1 or Dcr2. In this context, reference is ... Susceptibility of human tissue culture cells to S. thyphimurium decreases with over-expression of Argonaute-2 protein (pAgo). A ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2008/0280848.html
  • Argonaute proteins are segregated into three paralogous groups: the AGO-like subfamily, the PIWI-like subfamily, and the WAGO subfamily (for Worm specific AGO). (lu.se)
  • We reported here a unique ORF encoding for an AGO/PIWI protein in T. cruzi which was expressed in all stages of its life cycle at the transcript as well as the protein level. (lu.se)
  • Our results strongly suggested that this unique AGO/PIWI protein from T. cruzi is a canonical Argonaute in terms of its domain architecture. (lu.se)
  • We propose to reclassify all Argonaute members from trypanosomatids as a distinctive phylogenetic group representing a new subfamily of Argonaute proteins and propose the generic designation of AGO/PIWI-tryp to identify them. (lu.se)
  • Combining the experimental phases of the mercury with molecular replacement of the PIWI domain (the domain most conserved in Ago proteins) did unfortunately not improve the electron density maps. (nature.com)
  • Our studies on transgene silencing in C. elegans have uncovered an RNA surveillance system in which the PIWI protein, PRG-1, uses a vast repertoire of piRNAs to recognize foreign transcripts and to initiate epigenetic silencing. (umassmed.edu)
  • The expression of Ago proteins in HeLa lysate was tested with an antibody that specifically binds to the C-terminal PIWI domain. (sciencematters.io)
  • In neurons, a specific piRNA is induced by serotonin and inhibition of the Piwi protein abolished the serotonin-dependent methylation increase of a CpG island within the promoter of the CREB2 gene whose protein product is important for the persistence of memory. (g3journal.org)
  • Once the Argonaute is associated with the small RNA, the enzymatic activity conferred by the PIWI domain cleaves only the passenger strand of the small interfering RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants, once de novo double-stranded (ds) RNA duplexes are generated with the target mRNA, an unknown RNase-III-like enzyme produces new siRNAs, which are then loaded onto the Argonaute proteins containing PIWI domains, lacking the catalytic amino acid residues, which might induce another level of specific gene silencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The argonaute (AGO) gene family encodes for four characteristic domains: N- terminal, PAZ, Mid and a C-terminal PIWI domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PAZ domain is named after proteins PIWI, AGO, and Zwille, whereby it is found to be conserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Willkomm, Sarah;Makarova, Kira S;Grohmann, Dina 2018-03-20 00:00:00 Abstract Argonaute (Ago) proteins are encoded in all three domains of life and are responsible for the regulation of intracellular nucleic acid levels. (deepdyve.com)
  • In Argonaute Proteins: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in this burgeoning field provide detailed, up-to-date methods to study Argonaute protein functions and interactions in a wide variety of cell types ranging from yeast to mammalian systems, as well as in vitro. (buchfreund.de)
  • Site-specific cleavage is carried out by argonaute-2 (Ago2), while all four mammalian argonaute proteins (Ago1-Ago4) can carry out non-cleavage-mediated inhibition, suggesting that Ago1, Ago3 and Ago4 may have similar but potentially redundant functions. (uni-hd.de)
  • In human cells, we discovered a previously unidentified ~55 kDa protein that is a truncated form of Ago2, that is formed from proteolytic cleavage of the full length Ago2 protein. (sciencematters.io)
  • Here we used a short GW protein-derived peptide fused to GST and demonstrate that it binds to Ago proteins with high affinity. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Using an alternate Ago2-specific siRNA that binds to the 3`UTR of the FL gene (Ago2 3`UTR) both FL Ago2 and halfAgo2 protein expression is similarly decreased when compared to control. (sciencematters.io)
  • There are two main requirements for mRNA degradation to take place: a near-perfect complementary match between the guide strand and target mRNA sequence, and, a catalytically active Argonaute protein, called a 'slicer', to cleave the target mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recruitment of Argonaute proteins to targeted mRNA can induce mRNA degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, structure determination proved to be difficult since molecular replacement using available structures of homologous Ago-protein did not work due to their low sequence identity. (nature.com)
  • 2017) we provide biochemical data and X-ray crystal structures of the Ago protein from M. jannaschii . (nature.com)
  • You can learn a lot from biochemical experiments, but to more fully understand a protein like Argonaute, it's useful to know where all of the atoms are and which amino acids are playing important roles," says Whitehead Institute Member Dr. David Bartel, who is also an MIT professor of biology and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) investigator. (bioquicknews.com)
  • Although all Ago proteins show a high degree of overall structural homology, the nature of the nucleic acid binding partners differs significantly. (deepdyve.com)
  • Another family of such nucleic acid-guided endonucleases are Argonaute (Ago) proteins, which are found in all three domains of life. (nature.com)
  • Note: a general mechanism of Ago-protein action is that binding of the guide nucleic acid results in solvent-exposure of the Watson-Crick faces of the nucleobases of the so-called seed region. (nature.com)
  • FL Ago2 and halfAgo2 protein levels accumulate when the proteasome is inhibited by MG132 treatment in HeLa cells. (sciencematters.io)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate this 55 kDa protein, and to test our hypothesis that this protein is a truncated form of FL human Ago2. (sciencematters.io)
  • We initially observed the unidentified 55 kDa protein, predicted to be a truncated Ago2 protein which includes the N-terminus of the FL Ago2 protein, in HeLa cells. (sciencematters.io)
  • This finding has implications for the evolutionary conservation of Ago proteins in the mammalian lineage and the biological role that potentially redundant Ago proteins may have. (uni-hd.de)
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (mybiosource.com)
  • Abcam: antibodies, proteins, kits. (abcam.com)
  • The activity of key components of the insulin signaling cascade was assessed by immunoblotting using phospho-specific antibodies to insulin receptor substrate IRS1 (Tyr612), Akt (Thr308 and Ser473), and AS160 (Ser318) protein that regulates translocation of the GLUT4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane. (chemweb.com)
  • It was demonstrated recently that antibodies from SCZD patients efficiently hydrolyze DNA and myelin basic protein. (chemweb.com)
  • The broad objectives of this work are to understand the regulatory influence of Argonaute proteins on bacterial gene expression. (grantome.com)
  • By exploiting this pathway, scientists are able to knock down the expression of specific proteins and thereby determine their roles within the cell or organism. (bioquicknews.com)
  • IR significantly reduced phosphorylation levels of all the above-mentioned proteins. (chemweb.com)
  • Stem-cell protein Piwil2 is widely expressed in tumors and inhibits apoptosis through activation of Stat3/Bcl-XL pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The evolutionary journey of Argonaute proteins. (mskcc.org)
  • The method of inhibition is via the destruction of specific mRNA molecules or by simply suppressing the protein translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More. (uniprot.org)
  • We refer to our method as 'Ago protein Affinity Purification by Peptides' (Ago-APP). (cam.ac.uk)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This subsection of the 'Names and taxonomy' section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • At least half of the human genome is characterized as repetitive sequence that does not code for proteins. (g3journal.org)
  • It is thought currently that a fully formed glycogen molecule (β-particle) with the self-glycosylating protein glycogenin in the center has a spherical shape with diameter of ~42 nm and contains ~ 55,000 glucose residues. (chemweb.com)
  • The glycogen molecule also includes numerous proteins involved in its synthesis and degradation, as well as proteins performing a carcass function. (chemweb.com)
  • However, the type and force of bonds connecting these proteins to the polysaccharide moiety of glycogen are significantly different. (chemweb.com)