Argonaute Proteins: A family of RNA-binding proteins that has specificity for MICRORNAS and SMALL INTERFERING RNA molecules. The proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-induced silencing complex.Eukaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.RNA-Induced Silencing Complex: A multicomponent, ribonucleoprotein complex comprised of one of the family of ARGONAUTE PROTEINS and the "guide strand" of the one of the 20- to 30-nucleotide small RNAs. RISC cleaves specific RNAs, which are targeted for degradation by homology to these small RNAs. Functions in regulating gene expression are determined by the specific argonaute protein and small RNA including siRNA (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING), miRNA (MICRORNA), or piRNA (PIWI-INTERACTING RNA).RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Ribonuclease III: An endoribonuclease that is specific for double-stranded RNA. It plays a role in POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL RNA PROCESSING of pre-RIBOSOMAL RNA and a variety of other RNA structures that contain double-stranded regions.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Alpha-Amanitin: A cyclic octapeptide with a thioether bridge between the cystine and tryptophan. It inhibits RNA POLYMERASE II. Poisoning may require LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.Cytoplasmic Structures: Components of the cytoplasm excluding the CYTOSOL.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.RNA, Guide: Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Peptide Initiation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA Cleavage: A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA, Helminth: Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.

Stem cells: A tale of two kingdoms. (1/823)

Homologous genes have recently been shown to regulate stem cell maintenance in animals and plants. This discovery should facilitate elucidation of the poorly understood factors that control stem cell maintenance and differentiation.  (+info)

piwi encodes a nucleoplasmic factor whose activity modulates the number and division rate of germline stem cells. (2/823)

piwi represents the first class of genes known to be required for stem cell self-renewal in diverse organisms. In the Drosophila ovary, piwi is required in somatic signaling cells to maintain germline stem cells. Here we show that piwi encodes a novel nucleoplasmic protein present in both somatic and germline cells, with the highly conserved C-terminal region essential for its function. Removing PIWI protein from single germline stem cells significantly decreases the rate of their division. This suggests that PIWI has a second role as a cell-autonomous promoter of germline stem cell division. Consistent with its dual function, over-expression of piwi in somatic cells causes an increase both in the number of germline stem cells and the rate of their division. Thus, PIWI is a key regulator of stem cell division - its somatic expression modulates the number of germline stem cells and the rate of their division, while its germline expression also contributes to promoting stem cell division in a cell-autonomous manner.  (+info)

AGO1, QDE-2, and RDE-1 are related proteins required for post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants, quelling in fungi, and RNA interference in animals. (3/823)

Introduction of transgene DNA may lead to specific degradation of RNAs that are homologous to the transgene transcribed sequence through phenomena named post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants, quelling in fungi, and RNA interference (RNAi) in animals. It was shown previously that PTGS, quelling, and RNAi require a set of related proteins (SGS2, QDE-1, and EGO-1, respectively). Here we report the isolation of Arabidopsis mutants impaired in PTGS which are affected at the Argonaute1 (AGO1) locus. AGO1 is similar to QDE-2 required for quelling and RDE-1 required for RNAi. Sequencing of ago1 mutants revealed one amino acid essential for PTGS that is also present in QDE-2 and RDE-1 in a highly conserved motif. Taken together, these results confirm the hypothesis that these processes derive from a common ancestral mechanism that controls expression of invading nucleic acid molecules at the post-transcriptional level. As opposed to rde-1 and qde-2 mutants, which are viable, ago1 mutants display several developmental abnormalities, including sterility. These results raise the possibility that PTGS, or at least some of its elements, could participate in the regulation of gene expression during development in plants.  (+info)

A global profile of germline gene expression in C. elegans. (4/823)

We used DNA microarrays to profile gene expression patterns in the C. elegans germline and identified 1416 germline-enriched transcripts that define three groups. The sperm-enriched group contains an unusually large number of protein kinases and phosphatases. The oocyte-enriched group includes potentially new components of embryonic signaling pathways. The germline-intrinsic group, defined as genes expressed similarly in germlines making only sperm or only oocytes, contains a family of piwi-related genes that may be important for stem cell proliferation. Finally, examination of the chromosomal location of germline transcripts revealed that sperm-enriched and germline-intrinsic genes are nearly absent from the X chromosome, but oocyte-enriched genes are not.  (+info)

Human CD34(+) stem cells express the hiwi gene, a human homologue of the Drosophila gene piwi. (5/823)

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are characterized by their dual abilities to undergo differentiation into multiple hematopoietic cell lineages or to undergo self-renewal. The molecular basis of these properties remains poorly understood. Recently the piwi gene was found in the embryonic germline stem cells (GSCs) of Drosophila melanogaster and has been shown to be important in GSC self-renewal. This study demonstrated that hiwi, a novel human homologue of piwi, is also present in human CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells but not in more differentiated cell populations. Placing CD34(+) cells into culture conditions that supported differentiation and rapid exit from the stem cell compartment resulted in a loss of hiwi expression by day 5 of a 14-day culture period. Expression of the hiwi gene was detected in many developing fetal and adult tissues. By means of 5' RACE cloning methodology, a novel putative full-length hiwi complementary DNA was cloned from human CD34(+) marrow cells. At the amino acid level, the human HIWI protein was 52% homologous to the Drosophila protein. The transient expression of hiwi in the human leukemia cell line KG1 resulted in a dramatic reduction in cellular proliferation. Overexpression of hiwi led to programmed cell death of KG1 cells as demonstrated by the Annexin V assay system. These studies suggest that hiwi maybe an important negative developmental regulator, which, in part, underlies the unique biologic properties associated with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.  (+info)

Stem cells: so what's in a niche? (6/823)

Much effort is being invested in defining the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that control stem cell maintenance and proliferation. Recent studies have identified a signaling hierarchy involved in coordinating the proliferation of germ line and somatic stem cells in the Drosophila ovary.  (+info)

Yb modulates the divisions of both germline and somatic stem cells through piwi- and hh-mediated mechanisms in the Drosophila ovary. (7/823)

The coordinated division of distinctive types of stem cells within an organ is crucial for organogenesis and homeostasis. Here we show genetic interactions among fs(1)Yb (Yb), piwi, and hedgehog (hh) that regulate the division of both germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic stem cells (SSCs), the two constituent stem cell populations of the Drosophila ovary. Yb is required for both GSC and SSC divisions; loss of Yb function eliminates GSCs and reduces SSC division, while Yb overexpression increases GSC number and causes SSC overproliferation. We also show that Yb acts via the piwi- and hh-mediated signaling pathways that emanate from the same signaling cells to control GSC and SSC division, respectively. hh signaling also has a minor effect in GSC division.  (+info)

Argonaute2, a link between genetic and biochemical analyses of RNAi. (8/823)

Double-stranded RNA induces potent and specific gene silencing through a process referred to as RNA interference (RNAi) or posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). RNAi is mediated by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a sequence-specific, multicomponent nuclease that destroys messenger RNAs homologous to the silencing trigger. RISC is known to contain short RNAs ( approximately 22 nucleotides) derived from the double-stranded RNA trigger, but the protein components of this activity are unknown. Here, we report the biochemical purification of the RNAi effector nuclease from cultured Drosophila cells. The active fraction contains a ribonucleoprotein complex of approximately 500 kilodaltons. Protein microsequencing reveals that one constituent of this complex is a member of the Argonaute family of proteins, which are essential for gene silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans, Neurospora, and Arabidopsis. This observation begins the process of forging links between genetic analysis of RNAi from diverse organisms and the biochemical model of RNAi that is emerging from Drosophila in vitro systems.  (+info)

  • Until our study, how the Argonaute protein got controlled during a pathogen attack was unclear, and just how plants' immune responses got regulated by the RNAi machinery was largely a mystery," said Jin. (
  • Argonaute proteins participate in various steps of microRNA-mediated gene silencing, such as repression of translation and mRNA turnover. (
  • All molecular weights (MW) are confirmed by comparison to Bio-Rad Rainbow Markers and to western blot mobilities of known proteins with similar MW. (
  • The University of California Riverside (UCR) research team came across this regulatory genetic protein while experimenting with thale cress ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). (
  • The functional relevance of miRNAs in mitochondria was supported by the finding of Argonaute 2 localization to mitochondria revealed by immunoblotting and confocal microscopy, and further validated by the co-immunoprecipitation of the mitochondrial transcript COX3. (
  • Natural News ) Researchers have identified a core protein in plants that may play a significant role in fighting off infectious bacteria. (
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) was assessed in the mitochondrial fraction by immunoblot analyses to check for nuclear and cytoplasmic contaminants relatively to mitochondrial protein ATP synthase subunit α (ATP5A1). (
  • Argonaute proteins are segregated into three paralogous groups: the AGO-like subfamily, the PIWI-like subfamily, and the WAGO subfamily (for Worm specific AGO). (
  • We reported here a unique ORF encoding for an AGO/PIWI protein in T. cruzi which was expressed in all stages of its life cycle at the transcript as well as the protein level. (
  • Our results strongly suggested that this unique AGO/PIWI protein from T. cruzi is a canonical Argonaute in terms of its domain architecture. (
  • We propose to reclassify all Argonaute members from trypanosomatids as a distinctive phylogenetic group representing a new subfamily of Argonaute proteins and propose the generic designation of AGO/PIWI-tryp to identify them. (
  • Combining the experimental phases of the mercury with molecular replacement of the PIWI domain (the domain most conserved in Ago proteins) did unfortunately not improve the electron density maps. (
  • The C-terminus of the protein harbors the MID-PIWI lobes. (
  • In Eukaryotes, AGOs are broadly classified into two paralogous families: the AGO family, which have similarities to the founder member, AGO1 of the Arabidopsis, and the PIWI-like proteins, related to D. melanogaster 'P-element induced wimpy testis' (PIWI) proteins [ 4 ]. (
  • Our studies on transgene silencing in C. elegans have uncovered an RNA surveillance system in which the PIWI protein, PRG-1, uses a vast repertoire of piRNAs to recognize foreign transcripts and to initiate epigenetic silencing. (
  • The expression of Ago proteins in HeLa lysate was tested with an antibody that specifically binds to the C-terminal PIWI domain. (
  • Ago proteins adopt a bilobal scaffold composed of an amino terminal PAZ-containing lobe (N and PAZ domains), a carboxyl-terminal PIWI-containing lobe (Mid and PIWI domains), and connecting linkers L1 and L2. (
  • The Piwi Argonaute Zwille (PAZ) domain is held above the base by a "stalk"-like region. (
  • The PIWI domain (named for the protein piwi) is similar to ribonuclease H, with a conserved active site aspartate-aspartate-glutamate motif, strongly implicating Argonaute as "Slicer. (
  • PIWIL proteins are stem cell self-renewal and maintenance associated proteins that bind Piwi interacting RNA (piRNA) to mediate epigenetic modifications in lower vertebrates. (
  • We could show that a human PIWI like protein-PIWIL4 is overexpressed in majority of AML patients, particularly in patients harboring the MLL-AF9 translocation. (
  • AGO homologs share a common set of domains, including the N-terminal, Linker 1, PAZ (Piwi Argonaute and Zwille), Linker 2, Mid, and PIWI (originally P-element Induced WImpy testis in Drosophila ) domains. (
  • Argonaute proteins are ~100-kD highly basic proteins that contain two common domains, namely PAZ and PIWI domains (Cerutti et al. (
  • These proteins are evolutionarily conserved and can be divided in three subfamilies: Ago, Piwi and Wago. (
  • Piwi proteins are generally restricted to the germ line and associate piRNAs to mediate silencing of mobile genetic elements . (
  • There are two main structural features common to all Argonaute proteins: the Paz domain and the PIWI domain. (
  • PIWI is structurally an RNase H domain, and in Argonaute it servers as the 'Slicer', or the component responsible for cleaving the mRNA in the RISC complex . (
  • PIWIL2 (Piwi Like RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • Acts via the piRNA metabolic process, which mediates the repression of transposable elements during meiosis by forming complexes composed of piRNAs and Piwi proteins and govern the methylation and subsequent repression of transposons (By similarity). (
  • In neurons, a specific piRNA is induced by serotonin and inhibition of the Piwi protein abolished the serotonin-dependent methylation increase of a CpG island within the promoter of the CREB2 gene whose protein product is important for the persistence of memory. (
  • Whereas some Ago variants are able to cleave target nucleic acids by their endonucleolytic activity, others only bind to their target nucleic acids while target cleavage is mediated by other effector proteins. (
  • In addition, these ternary complex structures have provided insights into protein and DNA conformational changes that facilitate transition between cleavage-incompatible and cleavage-compatible states, including the role of a Glu finger in generating a cleavage-competent catalytic Asp-Glu-Asp-Asp tetrad. (
  • 300 aminoacids) is found in a large number of related nucleic-acid binding proteins, in particular those involved in RNA binding and cleavage. (
  • Willkomm, Sarah;Makarova, Kira S;Grohmann, Dina 2018-03-20 00:00:00 Abstract Argonaute (Ago) proteins are encoded in all three domains of life and are responsible for the regulation of intracellular nucleic acid levels. (
  • These results suggest that the components of gene silencing, namely Dicer-like, Argonaute and histone deacetylase, are functional in P. infestans. (
  • The AGO-mediated modulation of alternative splicing is based on several properties of these proteins: their binding to transcripts on chromatin and their interactions with many proteins, especially histone tail-modifying enzymes, HP1γ and splicing factors. (
  • Component of the argonaute siRNA chaperone (ARC) complex which is required for histone H3K9 methylation, heterochromatin assembly and siRNA generation. (
  • In this review, we describe the role of the Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinogenesis, summarizing the functions of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded viral proteins and related epigenetic alterations as well as the roles of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded and virally modulated cellular miRNAs. (
  • Other proteins such as Rbfox3, GSk3b, BRCA1 and HP1BP3 indirectly regulate the expression levels of pri‐miRNAs. (
  • By exploiting this pathway, scientists are able to knock down the expression of specific proteins and thereby determine their roles within the cell or organism. (
  • In this video, learn more about argonautes, including how these nucleic acid-guided endonucleases differ from Cas enzymes and potential applications. (
  • 2017) we provide biochemical data and X-ray crystal structures of the Ago protein from M. jannaschii . (
  • You can learn a lot from biochemical experiments, but to more fully understand a protein like Argonaute, it's useful to know where all of the atoms are and which amino acids are playing important roles," says Whitehead Institute Member David Bartel, who is also an MIT professor of biology and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) investigator. (
  • However, structure determination proved to be difficult since molecular replacement using available structures of homologous Ago-protein did not work due to their low sequence identity. (
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (
  • By studying the biological function of bacterial Argonautes, we will gain insight into a novel mechanism of prokaryotic gene regulation that is not yet understood. (
  • This finding has implications for the evolutionary conservation of Ago proteins in the mammalian lineage and the biological role that potentially redundant Ago proteins may have. (
  • Even though any predicted interactome is imperfect, the protein network presented here can provide a valuable basis to explore biological processes and to guide wet-lab experiments in fission yeast and beyond. (
  • Acquiring a global knowledge of protein interconnections is important for understanding biological processes and their disruption in disease. (
  • As such, tRNAs are a necessary component of translation , the biological synthesis of new proteins in accordance with the genetic code . (
  • We also discovered the existence of three distinct types of Argonautes, each with a specific biological role," Wynant explains. (
  • Argonaute, DNA-guided DNA silencing, antiviral defense, archaea, bacteria, prokaryotic Argonaute INTRODUCTION Cellular live depends on the integrity of the genetic information stored in a cell. (
  • RNA-binding proteins act as effectors of RNA stability and translation efficiency, guide transcripts to defined locations within the cell, control the fidelity of gene decoding, and function as cofactors to promote the activity of functional and structural RNA molecules. (
  • Synthetic peptide conjugated to KLH derived from within residues 50 - 150 of Mouse Argonaute 5. (
  • Natural News ) Researchers have identified a core protein in plants that may play a significant role in fighting off infectious bacteria. (
  • To our knowledge, this is the first instance of the transformation of a viral protein of unknown function to a functional silencing suppressor. (
  • The function of AtDCL2 and other DCLs has been much studied but little has been done to characterize the DCLs transcripts before they are translated into proteins. (
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (
  • And what kind of substrates do Argonautes target? (
  • So depending on the species that the Argonaute is from, they can target DNA or RNA substrates and they can use DNA or RNA guides. (
  • a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More. (
  • We show here that in a subset of these systems, the mature crRNA that is base-paired to trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) forms a two-RNA structure that directs the CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 to introduce double-stranded (ds) breaks in target DNA. (