A method of tissue ablation and bleeding control that uses ARGON plasma (ionized argon gas) to deliver a current of thermocoagulating energy to the area of tissue to be coagulated.
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.
Control of bleeding performed through the channel of the endoscope. Techniques include use of lasers, heater probes, bipolar electrocoagulation, and local injection. Endoscopic hemostasis is commonly used to treat bleeding esophageal and gastrointestinal varices and ulcers.
The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.
INFLAMMATION of the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the RECTUM, the distal end of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
A distinct vascular lesion in the PYLORIC ANTRUM that is characterized by tortuous dilated blood vessels (ectasia) radiating outward from the PYLORUS. The vessel pattern resembles the stripes on the surface of a watermelon. This lesion causes both acute and chronic GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.
Acquired degenerative dilation or expansion (ectasia) of normal BLOOD VESSELS, often associated with aging. They are isolated, tortuous, thin-walled vessels and sources of bleeding. They occur most often in mucosal capillaries of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT leading to GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE and ANEMIA.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.
A condition with damage to the lining of the lower ESOPHAGUS resulting from chronic acid reflux (ESOPHAGITIS, REFLUX). Through the process of metaplasia, the squamous cells are replaced by a columnar epithelium with cells resembling those of the INTESTINE or the salmon-pink mucosa of the STOMACH. Barrett's columnar epithelium is a marker for severe reflux and precursor to ADENOCARCINOMA of the esophagus.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the esophagus.
Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).
A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.
Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.
Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.
A low-osmolar, ionic contrast medium used in various radiographic procedures.
Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.
The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.
A fibrin-stabilizing plasma enzyme (TRANSGLUTAMINASES) that is activated by THROMBIN and CALCIUM to form FACTOR XIIIA. It is important for stabilizing the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) which culminates the coagulation cascade.
Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.
Stable blood coagulation factor activated by contact with the subendothelial surface of an injured vessel. Along with prekallikrein, it serves as the contact factor that initiates the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Kallikrein activates factor XII to XIIa. Deficiency of factor XII, also called the Hageman trait, leads to increased incidence of thromboembolic disease. Mutations in the gene for factor XII that appear to increase factor XII amidolytic activity are associated with HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPE III.
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.
The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.
A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.
Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).
Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.

Does capsule endoscopy recognise gastric antral vascular ectasia more frequently than conventional endoscopy? (1/23)

BACKGROUND: Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is a rare cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding which can be difficult to recognise endoscopically. Capsule endoscopy is primarily designed to image the small bowel, but may identify gastric and colonic lesions. There have been few reported cases of GAVE diagnosed by capsule endoscopy in the literature. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the frequency of GAVE in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding referred for capsule endoscopy. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: This study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital. PATIENTS. This study comprised 128 consecutive patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. INTERVENTIONS: All patients underwent capsule endoscopy. RESULTS. Six patients were diagnosed with GAVE on the basis of the capsule endoscopy findings (4.7%, five female, median age 71.5 years). All patients had previously had numerous gastrointestinal investigations prior to capsule endoscopy. Five patients to date have been treated with argon plasma coagulation of their vascular lesions. This has resulted in stabilisation of their haemoglobin and cessation of blood transfusions in 4/5 cases with an average follow up period of 15 months. CONCLUSIONS: GAVE is commonly missed at gastroscopy and accounted for 4.7% of patients referred for capsule endoscopy with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (in our series). This case series represents the largest number of GAVE recognised by capsule endoscopy. In the presence of any of the reported risk/associated factors for GAVE the gastroenterologist interpreting the capsule images should have a high index of suspicion.  (+info)

Foreign body removal using bronchoscopy and argon plasma coagulation. (2/23)

Foreign body aspiration can be a life threatening event especially for young children with smaller diameters of airway size. The foreign body can result in body response and granulation tissue formation around the object which makes the foreign body removal difficult. In such situations surgical intervention is usually needed but with interventional pulmonology modalities we can restrict the need of surgery.  (+info)

Argon-plasma treatment in benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the lung: a case report. (3/23)

Benign metastasizing leiomyomas of the lung are rare smooth muscle cells tumours. We report the case of a 48 year-old female who was evaluated due to persistent cough, progressive dyspnoea and constitutional symptoms. Chest computed tomography revealed a left endobronchial mass, multiple parenchyma nodules and a pleural effusion. Bronchial biopsy histological features were consistent with benign metastasizing leiomyoma. The patient was successfully treated with argon-plasma and mechanical debulking. There was no disease relapse in the last four years.  (+info)

Ablative therapies for Barrett's esophagus. (4/23)

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Corneal sensitivity in diabetic patients subjected to retinal laser photocoagulation. (5/23)

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Safety and efficacy of argon plasma coagulation for resection of lipomas and hamartomas in large airways. (6/23)

AIMS: To describe the use of argon plasma coagulation (APC) for radical resection of lipomas and hamartomas in large airways. METHODS: Eight patients (7 males and 1 female) were retrospectively reviewed. Data extracted included patient demographic characteristics, type and location of lesion, type of anesthesia used, number of APC sessions required, complications, length of hospital stay, and outcomes. All patients were followed-up for a minimum of 24 months. RESULTS: The patients had a mean age of 54.6 +/- 13.5 years. Lipomas were diagnosed in five and hamartomas in three. Because complete removal of the tumor could not be achieved during one session, two additional APC treatments were carried out in one of the patients, and three in another. Duration of each procedure ranged from 90 to 120 minutes. For the six patients performed under general anesthesia, only one session was required, and the mean time was 110 min. All tumors were completely removed, and no perioperative or long-term complications occurred. During a minimum follow-up of 2 years, no recurrence was noted in any patient. CONCLUSIONS: Complete resection of lipomas and hamartomas inside large airways can be safely achieved via APC. Further studies regarding the use of this technique for other tumor types are warranted.  (+info)

Endoscopic removal and trimming of distal self-expandable metallic biliary stents. (7/23)

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Epinephrine plus argon plasma or heater probe coagulation in ulcer bleeding. (8/23)

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Argon Plasma Coagulation (APC) is a medical procedure that uses ionized argon gas to deliver electrical current and heat to tissue, resulting in coagulation. It is commonly used in the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding, as well as for cutting and coagulating during surgical procedures. The argon plasma is created by passing argon gas through a high-voltage electrical field, which ionizes the gas and creates a highly precise and controllable plasma beam. This beam can be directed at the tissue to achieve hemostasis (stopping bleeding) or to cut tissue with minimal thermal damage to surrounding structures. The procedure is often performed under endoscopic guidance.

Argon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonreactive noble gas that occurs in the Earth's atmosphere. It is chemically inert and is extracted from air by fractional distillation. Argon is used in various applications such as illumination, welding, and as a shielding gas in manufacturing processes.

In medical terms, argon is not commonly used as a therapeutic agent or medication. However, it has been used in some medical procedures such as argon laser therapy for the treatment of certain eye conditions like diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. In these procedures, an argon laser is used to seal off leaking blood vessels or destroy abnormal tissue in the eye.

Overall, while argon has important uses in medical procedures, it is not a medication or therapeutic agent that is commonly administered directly to patients.

Electrocoagulation is a medical procedure that uses heat generated from an electrical current to cause coagulation (clotting) of tissue. This procedure is often used to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as:

* Gastrointestinal bleeding: Electrocoagulation can be used to control bleeding in the stomach or intestines by applying an electrical current to the affected blood vessels, causing them to shrink and clot.
* Skin lesions: Electrocoagulation can be used to remove benign or malignant skin lesions, such as warts, moles, or skin tags, by applying an electrical current to the growth, which causes it to dehydrate and eventually fall off.
* Vascular malformations: Electrocoagulation can be used to treat vascular malformations (abnormal blood vessels) by applying an electrical current to the affected area, causing the abnormal vessels to shrink and clot.

The procedure is typically performed using a specialized device that delivers an electrical current through a needle or probe. The intensity and duration of the electrical current can be adjusted to achieve the desired effect. Electrocoagulation may be used alone or in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or medication.

It's important to note that electrocoagulation is not without risks, including burns, infection, and scarring. It should only be performed by a qualified medical professional who has experience with the procedure.

Hemostasis, in general, refers to the process of stopping bleeding or hemorrhage, either naturally or through medical intervention. In the context of endoscopy, endoscopic hemostasis is the use of endoscopic techniques and devices to control gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding.

Endoscopes are flexible tubes with a light and camera at the tip, which are inserted into the body to visualize internal organs. In the case of GI endoscopy, the endoscope is inserted through the mouth or rectum to examine the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, or rectum.

Endoscopic hemostasis techniques can be broadly categorized into two types:
- Mechanical methods: These involve the use of devices that physically occlude or constrict blood vessels to stop bleeding. Examples include hemoclips, which are metal clips that are deployed through the endoscope to grasp and compress a bleeding vessel, and band ligation, where a rubber band is used to strangulate a bleeding vessel.
- Thermal methods: These use heat to coagulate (seal) blood vessels and stop bleeding. Examples include monopolar and bipolar electrocoagulation, argon plasma coagulation, and laser coagulation.

Endoscopic hemostasis is an important tool in the management of acute GI bleeding, as well as prevention of rebleeding in patients with chronic or recurrent GI bleeding.

Laser coagulation, also known as laser photocoagulation, is a medical procedure that uses a laser to seal or destroy abnormal blood vessels or tissue. The laser produces a concentrated beam of light that can be precisely focused on the target area. When the laser energy is absorbed by the tissue, it causes the temperature to rise, which leads to coagulation (the formation of a clot) or destruction of the tissue.

In ophthalmology, laser coagulation is commonly used to treat conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal tears or holes. The procedure can help to seal leaking blood vessels, reduce fluid leakage, and prevent further vision loss. It is usually performed as an outpatient procedure and may be repeated if necessary.

In other medical specialties, laser coagulation may be used to control bleeding, destroy tumors, or remove unwanted tissue. The specific technique and parameters of the laser treatment will depend on the individual patient's needs and the condition being treated.

Proctitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of the lining of the rectum, which is the lower end of the colon. The symptoms of proctitis may include rectal pain, discomfort, or a feeling of fullness; rectal bleeding, often in the form of mucus or blood; diarrhea; and urgency to have a bowel movement.

Proctitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections (such as sexually transmitted infections, foodborne illnesses, or inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), radiation therapy, trauma, or autoimmune disorders. The diagnosis of proctitis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and sometimes endoscopic procedures to visualize the rectum and take tissue samples for further testing. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or other therapies.

Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia (GAVE) is a condition characterized by abnormal, dilated blood vessels in the antrum, which is the lower part of the stomach. These blood vessels can become fragile and prone to bleeding, leading to symptoms such as vomiting blood or having dark, tarry stools. GAVE is also sometimes referred to as "watermelon stomach" because the appearance of the affected area can resemble the stripes on a watermelon when viewed during endoscopy.

The exact cause of GAVE is not well understood, but it has been associated with conditions such as autoimmune disorders and chronic kidney disease. Treatment for GAVE typically involves addressing any underlying conditions and using various techniques to control bleeding, such as argon plasma coagulation or surgery.

Angiodysplasia is a vascular disorder characterized by the dilation and abnormal formation of blood vessels, particularly in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These abnormal blood vessels are prone to leakage or rupture, which can lead to bleeding. Angiodysplasia is most commonly found in the colon but can occur in other parts of the GI tract as well. It is more common in older adults and can cause symptoms such as anemia, fatigue, and bloody stools. The exact cause of angiodysplasia is not known, but it may be associated with chronic low-grade inflammation or increased pressure in the blood vessels. Treatment options include endoscopic therapies to stop bleeding, medications to reduce acid production in the stomach, and surgery in severe cases.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage is a term used to describe any bleeding that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. The bleeding can range from mild to severe and can produce symptoms such as vomiting blood, passing black or tarry stools, or having low blood pressure.

GI hemorrhage can be classified as either upper or lower, depending on the location of the bleed. Upper GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs above the ligament of Treitz, which is a point in the small intestine where it becomes narrower and turns a corner. Common causes of upper GI hemorrhage include gastritis, ulcers, esophageal varices, and Mallory-Weiss tears.

Lower GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs below the ligament of Treitz. Common causes of lower GI hemorrhage include diverticulosis, colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and vascular abnormalities such as angiodysplasia.

The diagnosis of GI hemorrhage is often made based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, CT scan, or radionuclide scanning. Treatment depends on the severity and cause of the bleeding and may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Blood coagulation, also known as blood clotting, is a complex process that occurs in the body to prevent excessive bleeding when a blood vessel is damaged. This process involves several different proteins and chemical reactions that ultimately lead to the formation of a clot.

The coagulation cascade is initiated when blood comes into contact with tissue factor, which is exposed after damage to the blood vessel wall. This triggers a series of enzymatic reactions that activate clotting factors, leading to the formation of a fibrin clot. Fibrin is a protein that forms a mesh-like structure that traps platelets and red blood cells to form a stable clot.

Once the bleeding has stopped, the coagulation process is regulated and inhibited to prevent excessive clotting. The fibrinolytic system degrades the clot over time, allowing for the restoration of normal blood flow.

Abnormalities in the blood coagulation process can lead to bleeding disorders or thrombotic disorders such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

Barrett esophagus is a condition in which the tissue lining of the lower esophagus changes, becoming more like the tissue that lines the intestines (intestinal metaplasia). This change can increase the risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma, a type of cancer. The exact cause of Barrett esophagus is not known, but it is often associated with long-term gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as chronic acid reflux.

In Barrett esophagus, the normal squamous cells that line the lower esophagus are replaced by columnar epithelial cells. This change is usually detected during an upper endoscopy and biopsy. The diagnosis of Barrett esophagus is confirmed when the biopsy shows intestinal metaplasia in the lower esophagus.

It's important to note that not everyone with GERD will develop Barrett esophagus, and not everyone with Barrett esophagus will develop esophageal cancer. However, if you have been diagnosed with Barrett esophagus, your healthcare provider may recommend regular endoscopies and biopsies to monitor the condition and reduce the risk of cancer. Treatment options for Barrett esophagus include medications to control acid reflux, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.

Esophagoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the visual examination of the esophagus, which is the tube that connects the throat to the stomach. This procedure is typically carried out using an esophagogastroduodenoscope (EGD), a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end.

During the procedure, the EGD is inserted through the mouth and down the throat into the esophagus, allowing the medical professional to examine its lining for any abnormalities such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. The procedure may also involve taking tissue samples (biopsies) for further examination and testing.

Esophagoscopy is commonly used to diagnose and monitor conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus, esophageal cancer, and other disorders affecting the esophagus. It may also be used to treat certain conditions, such as removing polyps or foreign objects from the esophagus.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plasma Gases" is not a recognized medical term or concept. Plasma is a state of matter, like solid, liquid, or gas, and it is often referred to as the fourth state of matter. It consists of ionized particles, or particles that have been stripped of some of their electrons.

In the context of medicine, plasma is most commonly discussed in relation to blood plasma, which is the yellowish fluid in which blood cells are suspended. Plasma carries cells, hormones, nutrients, and waste products throughout the body.

If you have any questions related to medical definitions or concepts, I'd be happy to help further if I can!

Pneumoperitoneum is a medical condition characterized by the presence of free air or gas within the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the lining of the abdominal wall and the internal organs. This accumulation of air can occur due to various reasons such as perforation of an organ (e.g., stomach, intestine, or esophagus), recent surgery, or medical procedures involving the introduction of air into the abdomen.

The presence of pneumoperitoneum is often diagnosed through imaging techniques like X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans, which can reveal the presence of free gas in the peritoneal cavity. The condition may require prompt medical attention, depending on the underlying cause and the patient's symptoms. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as repairing a perforation or managing an infection.

Electric injuries refer to damage to the body caused by exposure to electrical energy. This can occur when a person comes into contact with an electrical source, such as a power line or outlet, and the electrical current passes through the body. The severity of the injury depends on various factors, including the voltage and amperage of the electrical current, the duration of exposure, and the path the current takes through the body.

Electric injuries can cause a range of symptoms and complications, including burns, cardiac arrest, muscle damage, nerve damage, and fractures or dislocations (if the victim is thrown by the electrical shock). In some cases, electric injuries can be fatal. Treatment typically involves supportive care to stabilize the patient's vital signs, as well as specific interventions to address any complications that may have arisen as a result of the injury. Prevention measures include following safety guidelines when working with electricity and being aware of potential electrical hazards in one's environment.

Radiation injuries refer to the damages that occur to living tissues as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. These injuries can be acute, occurring soon after exposure to high levels of radiation, or chronic, developing over a longer period after exposure to lower levels of radiation. The severity and type of injury depend on the dose and duration of exposure, as well as the specific tissues affected.

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation sickness, is the most severe form of acute radiation injury. It can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, and skin burns. In more severe cases, it can lead to neurological damage, hemorrhage, infection, and death.

Chronic radiation injuries, on the other hand, may not appear until months or even years after exposure. They can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, skin changes, cataracts, reduced fertility, and an increased risk of cancer.

Radiation injuries can be treated with supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes replacement, antibiotics, wound care, and blood transfusions. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or control bleeding. Prevention is the best approach to radiation injuries, which includes limiting exposure through proper protective measures and monitoring radiation levels in the environment.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a medical procedure that allows direct visualization of the inner lining of the digestive tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), and sometimes the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum). This procedure is performed using an endoscope, a long, thin, flexible tube with a light and camera at its tip. The endoscope is inserted through the mouth for upper endoscopy or through the rectum for lower endoscopy (colonoscopy), and the images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor for the physician to view.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy can help diagnose various conditions, such as inflammation, ulcers, tumors, polyps, or bleeding in the digestive tract. It can also be used for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps, taking tissue samples (biopsies), treating bleeding, and performing other interventions to manage certain digestive diseases.

There are different types of gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures, including:

1. Upper Endoscopy (Esophagogastroduodenoscopy or EGD): This procedure examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
2. Colonoscopy: This procedure examines the colon and rectum.
3. Sigmoidoscopy: A limited examination of the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon) using a shorter endoscope.
4. Enteroscopy: An examination of the small intestine, which can be performed using various techniques, such as push enteroscopy, single-balloon enteroscopy, or double-balloon enteroscopy.
5. Capsule Endoscopy: A procedure that involves swallowing a small capsule containing a camera, which captures images of the digestive tract as it passes through.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy is generally considered safe when performed by experienced medical professionals. However, like any medical procedure, there are potential risks and complications, such as bleeding, infection, perforation, or adverse reactions to sedatives used during the procedure. Patients should discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy.

Gastroscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a gastroscope, which is a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end, through the mouth and into the digestive tract. The gastroscope allows the doctor to visually examine the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) for any abnormalities such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors.

The procedure is usually performed under sedation to minimize discomfort, and it typically takes only a few minutes to complete. Gastroscopy can help diagnose various conditions, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastritis, stomach ulcers, and Barrett's esophagus. It can also be used to take tissue samples for biopsy or to treat certain conditions, such as bleeding or the removal of polyps.

Bronchoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the examination of the inside of the airways and lungs with a flexible or rigid tube called a bronchoscope. This procedure allows healthcare professionals to directly visualize the airways, take tissue samples for biopsy, and remove foreign objects or secretions. Bronchoscopy can be used to diagnose and manage various respiratory conditions such as lung infections, inflammation, cancer, and bleeding. It is usually performed under local or general anesthesia to minimize discomfort and risks associated with the procedure.

Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a naturally occurring compound in the human body and is a key precursor in the biosynthesis of heme, which is a component of hemoglobin in red blood cells. It is also used as a photosensitizer in dermatology for the treatment of certain types of skin conditions such as actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.

In medical terms, ALA is classified as an α-keto acid and a porphyrin precursor. It is synthesized in the mitochondria from glycine and succinyl-CoA in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme aminolevulinic acid synthase. After its synthesis, ALA is transported to the cytosol where it undergoes further metabolism to form porphyrins, which are then used for heme biosynthesis in the mitochondria.

In dermatology, topical application of ALA followed by exposure to a specific wavelength of light can lead to the production of reactive oxygen species that destroy abnormal cells in the skin while leaving healthy cells unharmed. This makes it an effective treatment for precancerous and cancerous lesions on the skin.

It is important to note that ALA can cause photosensitivity, which means that patients who have undergone ALA-based treatments should avoid exposure to sunlight or other sources of bright light for a period of time after the treatment to prevent adverse reactions.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Photosensitizing agents are substances that, when exposed to light, particularly ultraviolet or visible light, can cause chemical reactions leading to the production of reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen species can interact with biological tissues, leading to damage and a variety of phototoxic or photoallergic adverse effects.

Photosensitizing agents are used in various medical fields, including dermatology and oncology. In dermatology, they are often used in the treatment of conditions such as psoriasis and eczema, where a photosensitizer is applied to the skin and then activated with light to reduce inflammation and slow the growth of skin cells.

In oncology, photosensitizing agents are used in photodynamic therapy (PDT), a type of cancer treatment that involves administering a photosensitizer, allowing it to accumulate in cancer cells, and then exposing the area to light. The light activates the photosensitizer, which produces reactive oxygen species that damage the cancer cells, leading to their death.

Examples of photosensitizing agents include porphyrins, chlorophyll derivatives, and certain antibiotics such as tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential for photosensitivity when prescribing these medications and to inform patients of the risks associated with exposure to light.

Blood coagulation tests, also known as coagulation studies or clotting tests, are a series of medical tests used to evaluate the blood's ability to clot. These tests measure the functioning of various clotting factors and regulatory proteins involved in the coagulation cascade, which is a complex process that leads to the formation of a blood clot to prevent excessive bleeding.

The most commonly performed coagulation tests include:

1. Prothrombin Time (PT): Measures the time it takes for a sample of plasma to clot after the addition of calcium and tissue factor, which activates the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. The PT is reported in seconds and can be converted to an International Normalized Ratio (INR) to monitor anticoagulant therapy.
2. Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT): Measures the time it takes for a sample of plasma to clot after the addition of calcium, phospholipid, and a contact activator, which activates the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. The aPTT is reported in seconds and is used to monitor heparin therapy.
3. Thrombin Time (TT): Measures the time it takes for a sample of plasma to clot after the addition of thrombin, which directly converts fibrinogen to fibrin. The TT is reported in seconds and can be used to detect the presence of fibrin degradation products or abnormalities in fibrinogen function.
4. Fibrinogen Level: Measures the amount of fibrinogen, a protein involved in clot formation, present in the blood. The level is reported in grams per liter (g/L) and can be used to assess bleeding risk or the effectiveness of fibrinogen replacement therapy.
5. D-dimer Level: Measures the amount of D-dimer, a protein fragment produced during the breakdown of a blood clot, present in the blood. The level is reported in micrograms per milliliter (µg/mL) and can be used to diagnose or exclude venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE).

These tests are important for the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of various bleeding and clotting disorders. They can help identify the underlying cause of abnormal bleeding or clotting, guide appropriate treatment decisions, and monitor the effectiveness of therapy. It is essential to interpret these test results in conjunction with a patient's clinical presentation and medical history.

Photochemotherapy is a medical treatment that combines the use of drugs and light to treat various skin conditions. The most common type of photochemotherapy is PUVA (Psoralen + UVA), where the patient takes a photosensitizing medication called psoralen, followed by exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) light.

The psoralen makes the skin more sensitive to the UVA light, which helps to reduce inflammation and suppress the overactive immune response that contributes to many skin conditions. This therapy is often used to treat severe cases of psoriasis, eczema, and mycosis fungoides (a type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma). It's important to note that photochemotherapy can increase the risk of skin cancer and cataracts, so it should only be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) is a complex medical condition characterized by the abnormal activation of the coagulation cascade, leading to the formation of blood clots in small blood vessels throughout the body. This process can result in the consumption of clotting factors and platelets, which can then lead to bleeding complications. DIC can be caused by a variety of underlying conditions, including sepsis, trauma, cancer, and obstetric emergencies.

The term "disseminated" refers to the widespread nature of the clotting activation, while "intravascular" indicates that the clotting is occurring within the blood vessels. The condition can manifest as both bleeding and clotting complications, which can make it challenging to diagnose and manage.

The diagnosis of DIC typically involves laboratory tests that evaluate coagulation factors, platelet count, fibrin degradation products, and other markers of coagulation activation. Treatment is focused on addressing the underlying cause of the condition while also managing any bleeding or clotting complications that may arise.

Blood coagulation factors, also known as clotting factors, are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the blood coagulation process. They are essential for maintaining hemostasis, which is the body's ability to stop bleeding after injury.

There are 13 known blood coagulation factors, and they are designated by Roman numerals I through XIII. These factors are produced in the liver and are normally present in an inactive form in the blood. When there is an injury to a blood vessel, the coagulation process is initiated, leading to the activation of these factors in a specific order.

The coagulation cascade involves two pathways: the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The intrinsic pathway is activated when there is damage to the blood vessel itself, while the extrinsic pathway is activated by tissue factor released from damaged tissues. Both pathways converge at the common pathway, leading to the formation of a fibrin clot.

Blood coagulation factors work together in a complex series of reactions that involve activation, binding, and proteolysis. When one factor is activated, it activates the next factor in the cascade, and so on. This process continues until a stable fibrin clot is formed.

Deficiencies or abnormalities in blood coagulation factors can lead to bleeding disorders such as hemophilia or thrombosis. Hemophilia is a genetic disorder that affects one or more of the coagulation factors, leading to excessive bleeding and difficulty forming clots. Thrombosis, on the other hand, occurs when there is an abnormal formation of blood clots in the blood vessels, which can lead to serious complications such as stroke or pulmonary embolism.

Esophageal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissue of the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant esophageal neoplasms are typically classified as either squamous cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas, depending on the type of cell from which they originate.

Esophageal cancer is a serious and often life-threatening condition that can cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, weight loss, and coughing. Risk factors for esophageal neoplasms include smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and Barrett's esophagus. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Prothrombin time (PT) is a medical laboratory test that measures the time it takes for blood to clot. It's often used to evaluate the functioning of the extrinsic and common pathways of the coagulation system, which is responsible for blood clotting. Specifically, PT measures how long it takes for prothrombin (a protein produced by the liver) to be converted into thrombin, an enzyme that converts fibrinogen into fibrin and helps form a clot.

Prolonged PT may indicate a bleeding disorder or a deficiency in coagulation factors, such as vitamin K deficiency or the use of anticoagulant medications like warfarin. It's important to note that PT is often reported with an international normalized ratio (INR), which allows for standardization and comparison of results across different laboratories and reagent types.

Blood coagulation disorders, also known as bleeding disorders or clotting disorders, refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the body's ability to form blood clots properly. Normally, when a blood vessel is injured, the body's coagulation system works to form a clot to stop the bleeding and promote healing.

In blood coagulation disorders, there can be either an increased tendency to bleed due to problems with the formation of clots (hemorrhagic disorder), or an increased tendency for clots to form inappropriately even without injury, leading to blockages in the blood vessels (thrombotic disorder).

Examples of hemorrhagic disorders include:

1. Hemophilia - a genetic disorder that affects the ability to form clots due to deficiencies in clotting factors VIII or IX.
2. Von Willebrand disease - another genetic disorder caused by a deficiency or abnormality of the von Willebrand factor, which helps platelets stick together to form a clot.
3. Liver diseases - can lead to decreased production of coagulation factors, increasing the risk of bleeding.
4. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) - a serious condition where clotting and bleeding occur simultaneously due to widespread activation of the coagulation system.

Examples of thrombotic disorders include:

1. Factor V Leiden mutation - a genetic disorder that increases the risk of inappropriate blood clot formation.
2. Antithrombin III deficiency - a genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to break down clots, increasing the risk of thrombosis.
3. Protein C or S deficiencies - genetic disorders that lead to an increased risk of thrombosis due to impaired regulation of the coagulation system.
4. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) - an autoimmune disorder where the body produces antibodies against its own clotting factors, increasing the risk of thrombosis.

Treatment for blood coagulation disorders depends on the specific diagnosis and may include medications to manage bleeding or prevent clots, as well as lifestyle changes and monitoring to reduce the risk of complications.

Thromboplastin is a substance that activates the coagulation cascade, leading to the formation of a clot (thrombus). It's primarily found in damaged or injured tissues and blood vessels, as well as in platelets (thrombocytes). There are two types of thromboplastin:

1. Extrinsic thromboplastin (also known as tissue factor): This is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is primarily found in subendothelial cells and released upon injury to the blood vessels. It initiates the extrinsic pathway of coagulation by binding to and activating Factor VII, ultimately leading to the formation of thrombin and fibrin clots.
2. Intrinsic thromboplastin (also known as plasma thromboplastin or factor III): This term is used less frequently and refers to a labile phospholipid component present in platelet membranes, which plays a role in the intrinsic pathway of coagulation.

In clinical settings, the term "thromboplastin" often refers to reagents used in laboratory tests like the prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). These reagents contain a source of tissue factor and calcium ions to initiate and monitor the coagulation process.

Ioxaglic acid is not a medical term or a substance used in medicine. It seems that there might be some confusion with the term "iohexol," which is a type of radiocontrast agent containing ioxaglate meglumine, used in medical imaging procedures such as CT scans to improve visualization of internal structures and tissues.

Iohexol is a non-ionic, low-osmolar contrast medium that is less likely to cause adverse reactions compared to high-osmolar contrast media. It works by increasing the X-ray absorption of the area being imaged, making it easier for radiologists to interpret the images and make accurate diagnoses.

Therefore, if you meant "iohexol" instead of "ioxaglic acid," then here is the definition:

Iohexol (trade name Omnipaque) is a radiocontrast agent used in medical imaging procedures such as CT scans to improve visualization of internal structures and tissues. It is a non-ionic, low-osmolar contrast medium that reduces the risk of adverse reactions compared to high-osmolar contrast media. Iohexol works by increasing X-ray absorption in the area being imaged, making it easier for radiologists to interpret the images and make accurate diagnoses.

Factor VII, also known as proconvertin, is a protein involved in the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that leads to the formation of a blood clot. Factor VII is synthesized in the liver and is activated when it comes into contact with tissue factor, which is exposed when blood vessels are damaged. Activated Factor VII then activates Factor X, leading to the formation of thrombin and ultimately a fibrin clot.

Inherited deficiencies or dysfunctions of Factor VII can lead to an increased risk of bleeding, while elevated levels of Factor VII have been associated with an increased risk of thrombosis (blood clots).

In the context of medicine, plasma refers to the clear, yellowish fluid that is the liquid component of blood. It's composed of water, enzymes, hormones, antibodies, clotting factors, and other proteins. Plasma serves as a transport medium for cells, nutrients, waste products, gases, and other substances throughout the body. Additionally, it plays a crucial role in the immune response and helps regulate various bodily functions.

Plasma can be collected from blood donors and processed into various therapeutic products, such as clotting factors for people with hemophilia or immunoglobulins for patients with immune deficiencies. This process is called plasma fractionation.

Factor XIII, also known as fibrin stabilizing factor, is a protein involved in the clotting process of blood. It is a transglutaminase enzyme that cross-links fibrin molecules to form a stable clot. Factor XIII becomes activated during the coagulation cascade, and its activity helps strengthen the clot and protect it from premature degradation by proteolytic enzymes. A deficiency in Factor XIII can lead to a bleeding disorder characterized by prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery.

Pelvic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors located in the pelvic region. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They can originate from various tissues within the pelvis, including the reproductive organs (such as ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina, and vulva in women; and prostate, testicles, and penis in men), the urinary system (kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra), the gastrointestinal tract (colon, rectum, and anus), as well as the muscles, nerves, blood vessels, and other connective tissues.

Malignant pelvic neoplasms can invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant parts of the body (metastasize). The symptoms of pelvic neoplasms may vary depending on their location, size, and type but often include abdominal or pelvic pain, bloating, changes in bowel or bladder habits, unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge, and unintentional weight loss. Early detection and prompt treatment are crucial for improving the prognosis of malignant pelvic neoplasms.

Factor XII, also known as Hageman factor, is a protein that plays a role in the coagulation cascade, which is the series of events that leads to the formation of a blood clot. It is one of the zymogens, or inactive precursor proteins, that becomes activated and helps to trigger the coagulation process.

When Factor XII comes into contact with negatively charged surfaces, such as damaged endothelial cells or artificial surfaces like those found on medical devices, it undergoes a conformational change and becomes activated. Activated Factor XII then activates other proteins in the coagulation cascade, including Factor XI, which ultimately leads to the formation of a fibrin clot.

Deficiencies in Factor XII are generally not associated with bleeding disorders, as the coagulation cascade can still proceed through other pathways. However, excessive activation of Factor XII has been implicated in certain thrombotic disorders, such as deep vein thrombosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

Laser therapy, also known as phototherapy or laser photobiomodulation, is a medical treatment that uses low-intensity lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to stimulate healing, reduce pain, and decrease inflammation. It works by promoting the increase of cellular metabolism, blood flow, and tissue regeneration through the process of photobiomodulation.

The therapy can be used on patients suffering from a variety of acute and chronic conditions, including musculoskeletal injuries, arthritis, neuropathic pain, and wound healing complications. The wavelength and intensity of the laser light are precisely controlled to ensure a safe and effective treatment.

During the procedure, the laser or LED device is placed directly on the skin over the area of injury or discomfort. The non-ionizing light penetrates the tissue without causing heat or damage, interacting with chromophores in the cells to initiate a series of photochemical reactions. This results in increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species, and activation of transcription factors that lead to improved cellular function and reduced pain.

In summary, laser therapy is a non-invasive, drug-free treatment option for various medical conditions, providing patients with an alternative or complementary approach to traditional therapies.

Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) is a medical laboratory test that measures the time it takes for blood to clot. It's more specifically a measure of the intrinsic and common pathways of the coagulation cascade, which are the series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a clot.

The test involves adding a partial thromboplastin reagent (an activator of the intrinsic pathway) and calcium to plasma, and then measuring the time it takes for a fibrin clot to form. This is compared to a control sample, and the ratio of the two times is calculated.

The PTT test is often used to help diagnose bleeding disorders or abnormal blood clotting, such as hemophilia or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of anticoagulant therapy, such as heparin. Prolonged PTT results may indicate a bleeding disorder or an increased risk of bleeding, while shortened PTT results may indicate a hypercoagulable state and an increased risk of thrombosis.

Prothrombin is a protein present in blood plasma, and it's also known as coagulation factor II. It plays a crucial role in the coagulation cascade, which is a complex series of reactions that leads to the formation of a blood clot.

When an injury occurs, the coagulation cascade is initiated to prevent excessive blood loss. Prothrombin is converted into its active form, thrombin, by another factor called factor Xa in the presence of calcium ions, phospholipids, and factor Va. Thrombin then catalyzes the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin, forming a stable clot.

Prothrombin levels can be measured through a blood test, which is often used to diagnose or monitor conditions related to bleeding or coagulation disorders, such as liver disease or vitamin K deficiency.

Factor IX is also known as Christmas factor, which is a protein that plays a crucial role in the coagulation cascade, a series of chemical reactions that leads to the formation of a blood clot. It is one of the essential components required for the proper functioning of the body's natural blood-clotting mechanism.

Factor IX is synthesized in the liver and activated when it comes into contact with an injured blood vessel. Once activated, it collaborates with other factors to convert factor X to its active form, which then converts prothrombin to thrombin. Thrombin is responsible for converting fibrinogen to fibrin, forming a stable fibrin clot that helps stop bleeding and promote healing.

Deficiencies in Factor IX can lead to hemophilia B, a genetic disorder characterized by prolonged bleeding and an increased risk of spontaneous bleeding. Hemophilia B is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern, meaning it primarily affects males, while females serve as carriers of the disease. Treatment for hemophilia B typically involves replacing the missing or deficient Factor IX through infusions to prevent or manage bleeding episodes.

Factor VIII is a protein in the blood that is essential for normal blood clotting. It is also known as antihemophilic factor (AHF). Deficiency or dysfunction of this protein results in hemophilia A, a genetic disorder characterized by prolonged bleeding and easy bruising. Factor VIII works together with other proteins to help form a clot and stop bleeding at the site of an injury. It acts as a cofactor for another clotting factor, IX, in the so-called intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Intravenous infusions of Factor VIII concentrate are used to treat and prevent bleeding episodes in people with hemophilia A.

... (APC) is a medical endoscopic procedure used to control bleeding from certain lesions in the ... Ben-Soussan E, Antonietti M, Savoye G, Herve S, Ducrotté P, Lerebours E (November 2004). "Argon plasma coagulation in the ... "Efficacy and Safety of Argon Plasma Coagulation for Hemorrhagic Chronic Radiation Proctopathy: A Systematic Review". ... APC involves the use of a jet of ionized argon gas (plasma) directed through a probe passed through the endoscope. The probe is ...
Argon plasma coagulation involves the application of gas discharges in argon. Ultrasound surgery uses high frequency and high ... Zenker, Matthias (2008-11-03). "Argon plasma coagulation". GMS Krankenhaushygiene Interdisziplinar. 3 (1): Doc15. ISSN 1863- ... Then in 1907, Physician Karl Franz Nagelschmidt used diathermy to treat lesions as well as the coagulation of vascular tumors ... for cutting and coagulation. Bovie collaborated with Dr. Harvey Cushing, which led to the birth of "Bovie", a diathermy ...
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There have been successful cases using argon-plasma coagulation. The object in question was a green apple wrapped in cellophane ... APC = Argon beam-coagulation N.A. = Not available (Source:) There is no reliable data about the incidence of clinically ... The argon-beam coagulation shrunk the apple by more than 50%, enabling its removal. Previous extraction attempts using ... Glaser J, Hack T, Rübsam M (March 1997). "Unusual rectal foreign body: treatment using argon-beam coagulation". Endoscopy. 29 ( ...
Argon plasma coagulation (APC) has been used to provide tissue coagulation and haemostasis since the early part of the 1990s. A ... More recently, adrenaline injection tends to be combined with either heater probe coagulation or argon plasma coagulation to ... Grund, K. E.; Storek, D.; Farin, G. (February 1994). "Endoscopic argon plasma coagulation (APC) first clinical experiences in ... Previous techniques, such as Argon plasma coagulation, have been unsuccessful because of incomplete removal of the Barrett's ...
... including argon plasma coagulation and electrocautery. Since endoscopy with argon photocoagulation is "usually effective", ... even after treatment by argon plasma coagulation and progesterone. Antrectomy or other surgery is used as a last resort for ... relapse after endoscopic treatment by argon plasma coagulation". Internal Medicine (Tokyo, Japan). 46 (6): 279-83. doi:10.2169/ ... Rosenfeld, G; Enns, R (2009). "Argon photocoagulation in the treatment of gastric antral vascular ectasia and radiation ...
Endoscopy also allows immediate therapeutic measures like argon plasma, coagulation, laser photocoagulation, sclerotherapy, or ...
... argon plasma coagulation, radiofrequency ablation and formalin irrigation. The average number of treatment sessions with argon ... plasma coagulation to achieve control of bleeding ranges from 1 to 2.7 sessions. In rare cases that do not respond to medical ...
Argon plasma coagulation and electrocautery have both been used to stop bleeding from ectatic vessels, and to attempt to ... 2005). "Efficacy of argon plasma coagulation for gastric antral vascular ectasia associated with chronic liver disease". ...
The other two modalities were largely replaced by argon plasma coagulation by 2011, which is safer and less expensive. In the ... one center used an argon laser and the other used a xenon arc laser. Based on weak evidence, it appears that laser coagulation ... Laser coagulation or laser photocoagulation surgery is used to treat a number of eye diseases and has become widely used in ... Argon, krypton, dye and diode lasers have been used with varying levels of energy to try to prevent age-related macular ...
Endoscopic treatment is an initial possibility, where cautery or argon plasma coagulation (APC) treatment is applied through ... Although angiodysplasia is probably quite common, the risk of bleeding is increased in disorders of coagulation. A classic ...
Ben-Soussan, E.; Antonietti, M.; Savoye, G.; Herve, S.; Ducrott??, P.; Lerebours, E. (2004). "Argon plasma coagulation in the ... Kimata, Hajime (November 2003). "Kissing reduces allergic skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels". Physiology & ...
Endoscopic therapies including argon plasma coagulation have been used for bleeding telangiectasia in radiation proctitis and ...
... through electrocautery or argon plasma coagulation of the tumour tissue in the stent, or through the use of photodynamic ...
... or argon plasma coagulation. Laser therapy is the use of high-intensity light to destroy tumor cells while affecting only the ...
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It is used in a procedure called "argon-enhanced coagulation", a form of argon plasma beam electrosurgery. The procedure ... Argon is also used for blue and green argon-ion lasers. Argon is used for thermal insulation in energy-efficient windows. Argon ... Also, potassium-argon dating and related argon-argon dating are used to date sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Argon ... Argon makes a distinctive blue-green gas laser. Argon is also used in fluorescent glow starters. Argon has approximately the ...
... argon plasma coagulation, laser fulguration, electrocautery, and photodynamic therapy), and cold therapies (e.g. cryotherapy) ...
Nezhat, Ceana; Kimberly A. Kho; Vadim Morozov (2009). "Use of Neutral Argon Plasma in the Laparoscopic Treatment of ... The system also carries a CE mark and is approved and available for use in the European Union as a cutting and coagulation ... Renaud, MC; Sebastianelli, A (Jan 2013). "Optimal cytoreduction with neutral argon plasma energy in selected patients with ... who developed a technology to apply plasma energy to surgically treat live tissue with minimal thermal damage. Cold plasmas are ...
443-447, 1109 P. Severtsev A.N., Lipatov N.I., Nistratov V.I., Samorodov V.G. «New argon laser for surgery and photo dynamic ... plasma flows (1997); first liver autotransplantation ("Pihlmayer's operation") in Russia (1999); first stump extirpation of the ... Semi - invasive techniques for bleeding esophageal varices: YAG - laser coagulation versus sclerosing therapy». In: «36th World ... Techniques for bleeding esophageal varices: YAG - laser coagulation versus sclerosing therapy». In: «European IHPBA Congress „ ...
The argon-ion laser was invented in 1964 by William Bridges at the Hughes Aircraft Company and it is one of the family of ion ... Typical continuous-wave plasma conditions are current densities of 100 to 2000 A/cm2, tube diameters of 1.0 to 10 mm, filling ... Krypton lasers are also used in medicine (e.g. for coagulation of retina), for the manufacture of security holograms, and ... Common argon and krypton lasers are capable of emitting continuous-wave (CW) output of several milliwatts to tens of watts. ...
Liver resection in live donors, water-jet for liver resection, CUSA) and argon coagulation in the cirrhotic liver resection, ... There is a negative correlation between plasma levels of extracellular histones after donor hepatectomies and liver function, ... and argon beam coagulator is more useful than alone (1996). Parameters (diameter and pressure) of water-jet for liver resection ... Laser radiation of blood has a corrective effect on the coagulation system and has a positive effect on liver regeneration ( ...
"Bactericidal effects of non-thermal argon plasma in vitro, in biofilms and in the animal model of infected wounds". Journal of ... Ivlev, A. V.; Morfill, G. E.; Konopka, U. (2002). "Coagulation of Charged Microparticles in Neutral Gas and Charge-Induced Gel ... with application to space plasmas and the explanation of the structure of Saturn rings), to the discovery of plasma crystals as ... the field of dusty plasmas, including work leading to the discovery of plasma crystals, to an explanation for the complicated ...
As the plasma cools, the atoms react, forming fine droplets and then solid particles of oxides. The particles coalesce to ... Coagulation is more extensive in the troposphere, and, at ground level, most activity is present in particles between 300 nm ... mainly as long-lived carbon-14 and short-lived argon-41. The elements most important for induced radioactivity for sea water ... The coagulation offsets the fractionation processes at particle formation, evening out isotopic distribution. For ground and ...
In flow-through lasers, a continuous stream of CO2 and nitrogen is excited by the plasma discharge and the hot gas mixture is ... laser ablation or coagulation). Benninger, Michael S. (2000). "Microdissection or Microspot CO2 Laser for Limited Vocal Fold ... such as neon or argon, does not lead to an enhancement of laser output. Because the excitation energy of molecular vibrational ...
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Kim, K; Shim, Kwang Bo (2003). "The effect of lanthanum on the fabrication of ZrB2-ZrC composites by spark plasma sintering". ... 3 H2O This is followed by reduction with alkali or alkaline earth metals in vacuum or argon atmosphere: LaCl3 + 3 Li → La + 3 ... and risk of blood coagulation. When injected into the brain, it acts as a painkiller, similarly to morphine and other opiates, ...
Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is a medical endoscopic procedure used to control bleeding from certain lesions in the ... Ben-Soussan E, Antonietti M, Savoye G, Herve S, Ducrotté P, Lerebours E (November 2004). "Argon plasma coagulation in the ... "Efficacy and Safety of Argon Plasma Coagulation for Hemorrhagic Chronic Radiation Proctopathy: A Systematic Review". ... APC involves the use of a jet of ionized argon gas (plasma) directed through a probe passed through the endoscope. The probe is ...
The ERS-education website provides centralised access to all educational material produced by the European Respiratory Society. It is the worlds largest CME collection for lung diseases and treatment offering high quality e-learning and teaching resources for respiratory specialists. This distance learning portal contains up-to-date study material for the state-of-the-art in Pulmonology.
EFFICACY OF ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION IN PREVENTION OF BLEEDING RECURRENCE FROM GASTROINTESTINAL ANGIODYSPLASIA. ...
Argon plasma coagulation. Reports on the use of the argon plasma coagulator (APC) in the treatment of bleeding Mallory-Weiss ... In the thin-walled esophagus, the power output should be set at 40-45 W and with a relatively low argon gas flow rate (1 L/min ... Coagulation studies are needed in patients on anticoagulants or with minimal or no oral intake while on antibiotics. The ...
Argon plasma coagulation (APC) ablation. APC is a method of contact-free high-frequency current coagulation in which the ... Pech O. Hybrid argon plasma coagulation in patients with Barrett esophagus. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2017 Oct. 13(10):610-2 ... High power setting argon plasma coagulation for the eradication of Barretts esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 Jul. 95(7): ... Human studies have been performed with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), photodynamic therapy (PDT), argon plasma coagulation (APC ...
Hybrid argon plasma coagulation (hybrid-APC) utilizes submucosal fluid injection to create a protective cushion prior to ... Hybrid argon plasma coagulation in Barretts esophagus: a systematic review and meta-analy ... Hybrid argon plasma coagulation in Barretts esophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ...
T1 - Direct cholangioscopy with narrow-band imaging, chromoendoscopy, and argon plasma coagulation of intraductal papillary ... Direct cholangioscopy with narrow-band imaging, chromoendoscopy, and argon plasma coagulation of intraductal papillary mucinous ... Direct cholangioscopy with narrow-band imaging, chromoendoscopy, and argon plasma coagulation of intraductal papillary mucinous ... Direct cholangioscopy with narrow-band imaging, chromoendoscopy, and argon plasma coagulation of intraductal papillary mucinous ...
Gastric Pneumatosis after Endoscopic Argon Plasma Coagulation. YFA Chung, WH Koo Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is a major ... Case Report on Recombinant Coagulation Factor VIIa in the Treatment of Three Haemophilia A Patients with Inhibitors in ... haemostatic modality for large surface bleeding areas.1 It effects thermal coagulation with limited and controlled tissue depth ...
Thermal therapy (argon laser probe, plasma coagulation, heater probe).. *You may need to consider surgery to either remove or ...
Argon Plasma Coagulation. Endoscopic Foreign Body and Polyp Removal. Endoscopic Ultrasound. GERD Treatment ...
This was treated with Argon Plasma Coagulation.. Physician believes we should bill 45382 (Control of Bleeding) I think we ... Yes 45382 would be used because in the report it mentioned treated for coagulation.. To use the other code the report would ...
in the cecum. Coagulation for bleeding prevention using argon plasma was successful.. The terminal ileum appeared normal. ...
... cautery and argon plasma coagulation (heat application); hemostatic clips; and banding. ... Cautery and argon plasma coagulation (heat application). *Hemostatic clips. *Banding. Your childs doctor will determine which ...
Chronic radiation proctitis treatment by argon plasma coagulation.. Dokazatelnaya gastroenterologiya 2021; 10(2): 5 doi: ... Risk factors associated to argon plasma coagulation treatment failure in patients with chronic radiation proctopathy. Revista ... Endoscopic Therapy with Argon Plasma for Radiation Proctitis: Factors Associated to the Number of Therapeutic Sessions. ... Short and long term response to argon plasma therapy for hemorrhagic radiation proctitis. Revista Española de Enfermedades ...
Argon Plasma Coagulation (APC). *Airway Balloon Dilation. *Various pleural procedures including indwelling pleural catheters ...
Endotherapy with argon plasma coagulation resolves bleeding in 85% of patients with colonic AD. In patients who fail (or are ...
Argon plasma coagulation (APC). *Magnification endoscopy, chromoendoscopy. *Mini-endosonography, conventional endosonography. * ... Since many years we treat patients with coagulation problems.. A speciality of our clinic is allogeneic and autologous stem ...
Argon plasma coagulation for successful fragmentation and removal of an over-the-scope clip. Dig Endosc 2017; 29: 820-821 ... Argon plasma coagulation for successful fragmentation and removal of an over-the-scope clip. Dig Endosc 2017; 29: 820-821 ... Currently, some OTSC removal methods, using clip cutting devices, have been reported, including: argon plasma coagulation [25 ... However, from a safety perspective, coagulation should be kept to the minimum required and direct coagulation with the OTSC and ...
Argon plasma coagulation. - Electrocautery (snare, knife, probe). - Nd:YAG laser. Airway recanalization:. - Stenting. - ...
Daily bronchoscopy service for diagnostic studies, including fluoroscopy, argon-plasma photo coagulation, brachytherapy and ...
Subsequently, the Argon Plasma Coagulation application was performed, which led to the stoppage of bleeding. ... Flexible bronchoscopic argon plasma coagulation for management of massive hemoptysis in bronchial Dieulafoys disease. ...
... cryotherapy and hybrid-argon plasma coagulation.. The optimal therapy may vary with the esophageal cancer, and the cancer may ...
Argon plasma coagulation for blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome in a female infant. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2003 Apr. 13(2):137-9. [ ... Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: treatment of multiple gastrointestinal hemangiomas with argon plasma coagulator. Dig Endosc. ...
... a multimodal instrument with Argon Plasma Coagulation and additional electrosurgical functions. In February 2019, CONMED ...
... argon plasma coagulation and electrocautery), cold therapies (cryospray and contact cryoprobe), and bronchoscopic brachytherapy ...
Certain Argon Plasma Coagulation System Probes, Their Components, and Other Argon Plasma Coagulation System Components for use ...
Argon Plasma Coagulation. We participate in most insurances and will obtain the necessary prior authorizations for your ...
Polypectomy was performed using a stiff snare, followed by argon plasma coagulation (APC) if necessary. Results. 26 patients ... OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether single-cell and plasma proteomic elements of the hosts immune ... Integrated single-cell and plasma proteomic modeling to predict surgical site complications, a prospective cohort study Tsai, A ... Integrated Single-Cell and Plasma Proteomic Modeling to Predict Surgical Site Complications: A Prospective Cohort Study. Annals ...
... which was cauterized with Argon-Plasma Coagulation with adequate hemostasis. We present for the first time a novel association ... which was cauterized with Argon-Plasma Coagulation with adequate hemostasis. We present for the first time a novel association ... which was cauterized with Argon-Plasma Coagulation with adequate hemostasis. We present for the first time a novel association ...
  • Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is a medical endoscopic procedure used to control bleeding from certain lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endoscopic coagulation (with heater probe, laser, argon plasma, or bipolar electrocoagulation) is effective for many vascular lesions. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Vascular ectasias are treated with endoscopic coagulation if they are thought to be the cause of bleeding. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The division has a wide range of attendings with special interests in swallowing disorders, severe liver disease, gastrointestinal bleeding, atypical chest pain, and Hepatitis C. Special expertise in endoscopic procedures include all aspects of therapeutic endoscopy including cholangioscopy, argon plasma coagulation for control of gastrointestinal bleeding and stenting for benign and malignant biliary and alimentary tract disease. (etsu.edu)
  • He is well experienced in all sorts of therapeutic procedures involving variceal banding and scleropathy , balloon and bougie dilation , glue injection for fundal varicies, endoscopic management of ulcers / bleeding, polypectomy ,argon plasma coagulation , percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies ( PEG) , enteral ( naso-jejunal ) tube placement , manometry and all kind of therapeutic biliary and pancreatic ERCP and EUS. (cmcshealth.com)
  • Although upper endoscopy with argon plasma coagulation (APC) is an accepted therapy for GAVE, many patients continue to bleed and remain transfusion dependent after therapy. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Esophageal neoplasia therapy includes tissue-acquiring (lesion removal and histopathologic samples) and non-tissue-acquiring therapies (which include radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy and hybrid-argon plasma coagulation. (medscape.com)
  • Thermal therapy (argon laser probe, plasma coagulation, heater probe). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Daily bronchoscopy service for diagnostic studies, including fluoroscopy, argon-plasma photo coagulation, brachytherapy and endobronchial ultrasound for accurate lung cancer staging. (tcd.ie)
  • July 3, 2023) - Olympus Corporation has announced a voluntary field corrective action to address complaints of endobronchial combustion occurring when laser-compatible bronchoscopes are used during therapeutic procedures in combination with laser therapy equipment or argon plasma coagulation (APC). (olympusamerica.com)
  • APC involves the use of a jet of ionized argon gas (plasma) directed through a probe passed through the endoscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • The probe is placed at some distance from the bleeding lesion, and argon gas is emitted, then ionized by a high-voltage discharge (approx 6kV). (wikipedia.org)
  • High-frequency electric current is then conducted through the jet of gas, resulting in coagulation of the bleeding lesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hybrid argon plasma coagulation ( hybrid -APC) utilizes submucosal fluid injection to create a protective cushion prior to ablation that shields the submucosa from injury . (bvsalud.org)
  • Hybrid argon plasma coagulation in Barrett's esophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (bvsalud.org)
  • The smaller droplets in the aerosol are selectively passed through the spray chamber by a flowing argon stream into the 6000-8000K plasma of the ICP. (cdc.gov)
  • A method of tissue ablation and bleeding control that uses ARGON plasma (ionized argon gas) to deliver a current of thermocoagulating energy to the area of tissue to be coagulated. (lookformedical.com)
  • Since many years we treat patients with coagulation problems. (uniklinikum-dresden.de)
  • Endotherapy with argon plasma coagulation resolves bleeding in 85% of patients with colonic AD. (nih.gov)
  • Subsequently, the Argon Plasma Coagulation application was performed, which led to the stoppage of bleeding. (archbronconeumol.org)
  • Coagulation is the process in which blood forms solid clots from its cellular components. (cdc.gov)
  • The liquid diluted blood sample is forced through a nebulizer with argon gas, which converts the bulk liquid into an aerosol of small droplets. (cdc.gov)
  • ESU can be upgraded for Argon Beam Coagulation module. (xcellance.in)
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate if Hybrid Argon Plasma Coagulation (HAPC) is non-inferior to Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) in the stricture-free eradication of the dysplastic Barrett's Esophagus (BE) epithelium. (mayo.edu)
  • Studies of endoscopic ablation, using argon plasma coagulation or radiofrequency ablation have shown improved laryngopharyngeal reflux symptom scores posttreatment. (lww.com)
  • A method of tissue ablation and bleeding control that uses ARGON plasma (ionized argon gas) to deliver a current of thermocoagulating energy to the area of tissue to be coagulated. (bvsalud.org)
  • This technique, which allows en bloc resection of larger or ulcerated lesions, reduces the recurrence rate as compared with endoscopic mucosal resection [ 2 , 5 - 7 ]. (helicojournal.org)
  • resection (EMR) and argon plasma coagulation (APC). (ras-signal.com)
  • 3. Rectal ulcer: Due to ketoprofen, argon plasma coagulation and prostatic brachytherapy. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Argon plasma coagulation for rectal bleeding after prostate brachytherapy. (nih.gov)
  • Bipolar Saline Plasma Cut & Coag Mode with reusable working element & loops. (xcellance.in)
  • Several methods including hot therapies (electrocauterization, argon plasma coagulation, laser) or cold therapy (Cryoablation) are available to help remove granulation tissue, airway cancers, or to treat airway bleeding. (arizona.edu)
  • DI-fusion Table of Contents: Argon plasma coagulation in Barrett's. (ac.be)
  • Argon plasma coagulation in Barrett's esophagus. (ac.be)
  • 12. Sucralfate or placebo following argon plasma coagulation for chronic radiation proctitis: a randomized double blind trial. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Long-term results on the efficacy of argon plasma coagulation for patients with chronic radiation proctitis after conventionally fractionated, dose-escalated radiation therapy for prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
  • 19. Efficacy and complications of argon plasma coagulation for hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis. (nih.gov)
  • 20. Efficacy and safety of argon plasma coagulation for the treatment of hemorrhagic radiation proctitis. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Argon plasma coagulation therapy versus topical formalin for intractable rectal bleeding and anorectal dysfunction after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Canady") on April 10, 2006 alleging violation of Section 337 by Canady's importation and sale of certain endoscopic probes for use in argon plasma coagulation ("APC") systems that coagulate bleeding tissue during electrosurgery. (itcblog.com)
  • Argon plasma coagulation: A form of electrosurgery used to stop bleeding from lesions within the esophagus. (clevelandclinicabudhabi.ae)
  • Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is a medical endoscopic procedure used to control bleeding from certain lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • A rare case involving massive pneumoretroperitoneum and pneumoperitoneum following argon plasma coagulation treatment for DDB is presented. (medscape.com)
  • Here, we report a rare case involving massive pneumoretroperitoneum and pneumoperitoneum following argon plasma coagulation treatment for DDB. (medscape.com)
  • 2. The protective role of antiplatelet treatment against ulcer formation due to argon plasma coagulation in patients treated for chronic radiation proctitis. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Is argon plasma coagulation an effective and safe treatment option for patients with chronic radiation proctitis after high doses of radiotherapy? (nih.gov)
  • 9. Argon plasma coagulation is an effective treatment for chronic radiation proctitis in gynaecological malignancy: an observational study. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Complication and remission rates after endoscopic argon plasma coagulation in the treatment of haemorrhagic radiation proctitis. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Argon plasma coagulation for the treatment of hemorrhagic radiation proctitis. (nih.gov)
  • 15. Treatment of radiation proctitis with argon plasma coagulation. (nih.gov)
  • The Argon Plasma System redefines interventional treatment options in flexible endoscopic intervention, both gastrointestinal and tracheobronchial. (somatechnology.com)
  • To prevent unintended coagulation, do not apply APC to metal clips or surgical suture. (somatechnology.com)
  • Surgical Energy Generators are used for many procedures including open and laparoscopic surgery where cutting, coagulation and sealing is required with minimal blood loss. (medicaldevice-network.com)
  • We report two patients treated with Argon Plasma Coagulation, a 68 years old male with an ethanol related cirrhosis and a 72 years old female with an idiopathic Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia. (uandes.cl)
  • Vascular ectasias are treated with endoscopic coagulation if they are thought to be the cause of bleeding. (merckmanuals.com)
  • 2017 Market Research Report on Argon Plasma Coagulation Electrosurgical Unit Industry was a professional and depth research report on Argon Plasma Coagulation Electrosurgical Unit industry that you would know the world's major regional market conditions of Argon Plasma Coagulation Electrosurgical Unit industry, the main region including North American, Europe and Asia etc., and the main country including United States ,Germany ,Japan and China etc. (asklinkerreports.com)
  • Argon Plasma Coagulation Electrosurgical Unit industry policy and plan, Argon Plasma Coagulation Electrosurgical Unit product specification, manufacturing process, cost structure etc. (asklinkerreports.com)
  • Olivia Jones, Xiaoqian Cheng, Saravana R. K. Murthy, Lawan Ly, Taisen Zhuang, Giacomo Basadonna Michael Keidar & Jerome Canady Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has been extensively studied in various biomedical fields. (canadyhelioscoldplasma.com)
  • The depth of coagulation is usually only a few millimetres. (wikipedia.org)