An enzyme of the urea cycle that catalyzes the formation of argininosuccinic acid from citrulline and aspartic acid in the presence of ATP. Absence or deficiency of this enzyme causes the metabolic disease CITRULLINEMIA in humans. EC 6.3.4.5.
An enzyme of the urea cycle which splits argininosuccinate to fumarate plus arginine. Its absence leads to the metabolic disease ARGININOSUCCINIC ACIDURIA in man. EC 4.3.2.1.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
This amino acid is formed during the urea cycle from citrulline, aspartate and ATP. This reaction is catalyzed by argininosuccinic acid synthetase.
Rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle which leads to the accumulation of argininosuccinic acid in body fluids and severe HYPERAMMONEMIA. Clinical features of the neonatal onset of the disorder include poor feeding, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, tachypnea, coma, and death. Later onset results in milder set of clinical features including vomiting, failure to thrive, irritability, behavioral problems, or psychomotor retardation. Mutations in the ARGININOSUCCINATE LYASE gene cause the disorder.
A group of diseases related to a deficiency of the enzyme ARGININOSUCCINATE SYNTHASE which causes an elevation of serum levels of CITRULLINE. In neonates, clinical manifestations include lethargy, hypotonia, and SEIZURES. Milder forms also occur. Childhood and adult forms may present with recurrent episodes of intermittent weakness, lethargy, ATAXIA, behavioral changes, and DYSARTHRIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p49)
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.

Hepatocyte gene therapy in a large animal: a neonatal bovine model of citrullinemia. (1/173)

The development of gene-replacement therapy for inborn errors of metabolism has been hindered by the limited number of suitable large-animal models of these diseases and by inadequate methods of assessing the efficacy of treatment. Such methods should provide sensitive detection of expression in vivo and should be unaffected by concurrent pharmacologic and dietary regimens. We present the results of studies in a neonatal bovine model of citrullinemia, an inborn error of urea-cycle metabolism characterized by deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase and consequent life-threatening hyperammonemia. Measurements of the flux of nitrogen from orally administered 15NH4 to [15N]urea were used to determine urea-cycle activity in vivo. In control animals, these isotopic measurements proved to be unaffected by pharmacologic treatments. Systemic administration of a first-generation E1-deleted adenoviral vector expressing human argininosuccinate synthetase resulted in transduction of hepatocytes and partial correction of the enzyme defect. The isotopic method showed significant restoration of urea synthesis. Moreover, the calves showed clinical improvement and normalization of plasma glutamine levels after treatment. The results show the clinical efficacy of treating a large-animal model of an inborn error of hepatocyte metabolism in conjunction with a method for sensitively measuring correction in vivo. These studies will be applicable to human trials of the treatment of this disorder and other related urea-cycle disorders.  (+info)

Metabolic capacity for L-citrulline synthesis from ammonia in rat isolated colonocytes. (2/173)

Ammonia is present at high concentration in the colon lumen and is considered a colon cancer suspect. Furthermore, ammonia usually eliminated by the liver in the ornithine cycle is considered highly toxic to cerebral function when present in excess in the blood plasma. Therefore, the metabolic pathways involved in ammonia metabolism in colonocytes were studied in the present study. Rat colonocytes were found equipped with low carbamoylphosphate synthase I activity, high ornithine carbamoyltransferase and arginase activities and low argininosuccinate synthase activity. High (10 and 50 mmol/l) NH4Cl concentrations but not low concentrations (1 and 5 mmol/l) were found able to increase respectively 3- and 10-fold the conversion of radioactive L-arginine to L-citrulline. In contrast, very low capacity for L-citrulline conversion to L-arginine is found in colonocytes. It is concluded that an incomplete ornithine cycle is operative in colonocytes which results in ammonia stimulated L-citrulline production. The contribution of this metabolic pathway in relation to ammonia detoxication by colonocytes is discussed.  (+info)

An adult-onset case of argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency presenting with atypical citrullinemia. (3/173)

A 52-year-old heavy drinker presented with repeated episodes of disturbance of consciousness and an increase in serum ammonia level, triggered by excessive alcohol intake. He was diagnosed as having adult-onset citrullinemia with deficiency of hepatic argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) activity. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed high-intensity lesions in the central pons and the bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles on T2-weighted images. Although almost all cases of adult-onset citrullinemia have been reported to be enzymologically classified as type II, the serum amino acid pattern and serum level of human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (hPSTI) were atypical for type II in the present case.  (+info)

Induction of argininosuccinate synthetase in rat brain glial cells after striatal microinjection of immunostimulants. (4/173)

The enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) initiates the metabolic pathway leading from L-citrulline to L-arginine, the only physiological substrate of all isoforms of nitric oxide synthases. The presence of ASS in glial cells in vivo was investigated by immunohistochemical methods in a model of rat brain inflammation. Phosphate-buffered saline or a mixture of bacterial lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma was injected into the left striatum, and animals were killed 24 hours later. Ipsilateral and contralateral sides of brain sections were incubated with an antiserum against ASS or antibodies against cell-specific markers. In the three areas examined, striatum, corpus callosum, and cortex, a strong induction of ASS immunoreactivity was observed in glial cells after injection of immunostimulants. A detailed quantitative analysis of double-stained sections revealed that ASS was almost exclusively expressed in reactive, ED1-positive microglial cells/brain macrophages in immunostimulant- or sham-injected ipsilateral sides of the sections. Furthermore, ASS/ED1 costaining was observed in perivascular cells. Colocalization of ASS with astroglial marker glial fibrillary acidic protein was given only occasionally after immunostimulation. ASS-positive neurons were detected in control and experimental animals; staining intensity was comparable in both cases. The results suggest that neurons express ASS constitutively, whereas the enzyme is induced in glial cells in response to proinflammatory stimuli. This finding is the first demonstration of an induction of a pathway auxiliary to generation of nitric oxide in brain in response to immunostimulants and provides new insight into neural arginine metabolism.  (+info)

Using genomic information to investigate the function of ThiI, an enzyme shared between thiamin and 4-thiouridine biosynthesis. (5/173)

The gene thiI encodes a protein (ThiI) that plays a role in the transfer of sulfur from cysteine to both thiamin and 4-thiouridine, but the reaction catalyzed by ThiI remains undetermined. Based upon sequence alignments, ThiI shares a unique "P-loop" motif with the PPi synthetase family, four enzymes that catalyze adenylation and subsequent substitution of carbonyl oxygens. To test whether or not this motif is critical for ThiI function, the Asp in the motif was converted to Ala (D189A), and a screen for in vivo 4-thiouridine production revealed the altered enzyme to be inactive. Further scrutiny of sequence data and the crystal structures of two members of the PPi synthetase family implicated Lys321 in the proposed adenylation function of ThiI, and the critical nature of Lys321 has been demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis and genetic screening. Our results, then, indicate that ThiI catalyzes the adenylation of a substrate at the expense of ATP, a narrowing of possible reactions that provides a strong new basis for deducing the early steps in the transfer of sulfur from cysteine to both thiamin and 4-thiouridine.  (+info)

Augmentation of urea-synthetic capacity by inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in butyrate-induced differentiated human hepatocytes. (6/173)

We have recently developed an in vitro differentiation model of immortalized non-transformed human hepatocytes using butyrate, and observed the induction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). In this study, we analyzed the effect of NO on the urea-synthetic capacity of these cells. The inhibition of iNOS during butyrate treatment significantly increased the urea-synthetic capacity as compared to that of butyrate treatment alone, possibly through the further induction of ornithine transcarbamylase expression. Therefore, the inhibition of NO production might be useful for obtaining more differentiated hepatocytes in the process of in vitro induction of hepatocyte-specific differentiation.  (+info)

Regulation of diaphragmatic nitric oxide synthase expression during hypobaric hypoxia. (7/173)

Nitric oxide (NO) is normally synthesized inside skeletal muscle fibers by both endothelial (eNOS) and neuronal (nNOS) nitric oxide synthases. In this study, we evaluated the influence of hypobaric hypoxia on the expression of NOS isoforms, argininosuccinate synthetase (AS), argininosuccinate lyase (AL), and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD) in the ventilatory muscles. Rats were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia ( approximately 95 mmHg) from birth for 60 days or 9-11 mo. Age-matched control groups of rats also were examined. Sixty days of hypoxia elicited approximately two- and ninefold increases in diaphragmatic eNOS and nNOS protein expression (evaluated by immunoblotting), respectively, and about a 50% rise in diaphragmatic NOS activity. In contrast, NOS activity and the expression of these proteins declined significantly in response to 9 mo of hypoxia. Hypoxia elicited no significant alterations in AS, AL and Mn SOD protein expression. Moreover, the inducible NOS (iNOS) was not detected in normoxic and hypoxic diaphragmatic samples. We conclude that diaphragmatic NOS expression and activity undergo significant adaptations to hypobaric hypoxia and that iNOS does not participate in this response.  (+info)

Mutation analysis of Korean patients with citrullinemia. (8/173)

Citrullinemia is an autosomal recessive disease due to the mutations in the argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) gene. Mutation analysis was performed on three Korean patients with citrullinemia. All of the three patients had the splicing mutation previously reported as IVS6-2A>G mutation. Two had Gly324Ser mutation and the other patient had a 67-bp insertion mutation in exon 15. The IVS6-2A>G mutation was reported to be found frequently in Japanese patients with citrullinemia, but Caucasian patients showed the extreme mutational heterogeneity. Although a limited number of Korean patients were studied, the IVS6-2A>G mutation appears to be one of the most frequent mutant alleles in Korean patients with citrullinemia. The Gly324Ser mutation identified in two patients also suggests the possible high frequency of this mutation in Korean patients as well.  (+info)

Citrullinemia type I is an autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by a deficiency of the urea cycle enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1). Deficiency of ASS1 shows various clinical manifestations encompassing severely affected patients with fatal neonatal hyperammonemia as well as asymptomatic individuals with only a biochemical phenotype. This is a comprehensive report of all 87 mutations found to date in the ASS1 gene on chromosome 9q34.1. A large proportion of the mutations (n=27) are described here for the first time. Mutations are distributed throughout exons 3 to 15, most of them being identified in exons 5, 12, 13, and 14. The mutation G390R in exon 15 is the single most common mutation in patients with the classical phenotype. Certain mutations clearly link to specific clinical courses but the clinical phenotype cannot be anticipated in all patients. This update presents a survey of the correlation between mutations in the ASS1 gene and the respective clinical courses as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeting argininosuccinate synthetase negative melanomas using combination of arginine degrading enzyme and cisplatin. AU - Savaraj, Niramol. AU - Wu, Chunjing. AU - Li, Ying Ying. AU - Wangpaichitr, Medhi. AU - You, Min. AU - Bomalaski, John. AU - He, Wei. AU - Kuo, Macus Tien. AU - Feun, Lynn G. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Loss of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) expression in melanoma makes these tumor cells vulnerable to arginine deprivation. Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADIPEG20) which degrades arginine to citrulline and ammonia has been used clinically and partial responses and stable disease have been noted with minimal toxicity. In order to improve the therapeutic efficacy of ADI-PEG20, we have combined ADI-PEG20 with a DNA damaging agent, cisplatin. We have shown that the combination of the two drugs together significantly improved the therapeutic efficacy when compared to ADI-PEG20 alone or cisplatin alone in 4 melanoma cell lines, regardless of their BRAF mutation. ...
Although accumulating evidence highlights the importance of p53-mediated metabolism in tumor suppression (2, 47), the mechanisms by which p53 drives dynamic nutrient status in harmony with canonical p53 functions remain poorly understood. Here, we show that p53 activates the penultimate step of de novo arginine synthesis pathway through the direct induction of the rate-limiting enzyme ASS1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ASS1 deficiency induced anomalous Akt phosphorylation, resulting in rendering cells more susceptible to genotoxic stress.. Although we have demonstrated that p53 drives the de novo arginine synthesis pathway via ASS1 induction under genotoxic conditions, argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), which directly produces arginine from argininosuccinate, was not induced by p53 in HCT116 cells. These results suggest that ASS1 is the sole node connecting p53 to the de novo arginine synthesis pathway. Because ASS1 is a rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo arginine synthesis pathway, ASS1 ...
Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), an integral enzyme to synthesize arginine is usually down regulated in many tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). only occurs in SNU398 and SNU387, and not in HepG2 and Huh-1 (ASS(+)) cells, purchase EPZ-5676 and it is partly because of reduced anti-apoptotic protein X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (XIAP), myeloid leukemia cell differentiation proteins (Mcl-1) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Significantly, insufficient ASS also affects important enzymes in pyrimidine synthesis (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase2, aspartate transcarbamylase and dihydrooratase (CAD) and thymidylate synthase (TS)) and malate dehydrogenase-1 (MDH-1) in TCA routine. ADI-PEG20 treatment reduced these enzymes and produced them more purchase EPZ-5676 susceptible to 5-FU. Transfection of ASS restored these enzymes and abolished the awareness to mixture and ADI-PEG20 treatment. General, our data claim that ASS affects multiple enzymes involved with 5-FU sensitivity. ...
L-citrulline plays an important role in human health and nutrition and is an intermediate of the L-arginine biosynthetic pathway. L-citrulline is a by-product of L-arginine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum. In this study, C. glutamicum was engineered for overproduction of L-citrulline as major product without L-arginine being produced as by-product. To this end, L-arginine biosynthesis was derepressed by deletion of the arginine repressor gene argR and conversion of L-citrulline towards L-arginine was avoided by deletion of the argininosuccinate synthetase gene argG. Moreover, to facilitate L-citrulline production the gene encoding a feedback resistant N-acetyl L-glutamate kinase argBfbr as well as the gene encoding L-ornithine carbamoylphosphate transferase argF were overexpressed. The resulting strain accumulated 44.1 ± 0.5 mM L-citrulline from glucose minimal medium with a yield of 0.38 ± 0.01 g⋅g−1 and a volumetric productivity of 0.32 ± 0.01 g⋅l−1⋅h−1. In addition, production
Many melanomas do not express argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) which is a key enzyme in the process of arginine biosynthesis. As a result, these melanoma cells need exogenous arginine supply for survival and proliferation while normal cell do not. A new drug targeting this metabolic defect of melanoma has been developed by Polaris, Inc. (recombinant arginine deiminase conjugated with polyethylene glycol-20 or ADI-PEG20). This complex can effectively degrade blood arginine to citrulline. Phase I/II clinical trials with ADI-PEG20 have shown promising activity in patients with advanced melanoma. However, our laboratory studies have demonstrated that after treatment with ADI-PEG20, some melanoma cells are able to induce the production of ASS, while others have the ability to undergo prolonged autophagy as well as low requirement for arginine to survive. Thus, arginine deprivation results in growth inhibition without cell death. On the other hand, TRAIL has been used to induce apoptosis in certain ...
Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world with a 5-year survival rate of less than 6%. Currently, there is no successful therapeutic strategy for advanced pancreatic cancer, and new effective strategies are urgently needed. Recently, an arginine deprivation agent, arginine deiminase, was found to inhibit the growth of some tumor cells (i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma, and lung cancer) deficient in argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), an enzyme used to synthesize arginine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of arginine deiminase in combination with gemcitabine, the first line chemotherapeutic drug for patients with pancreatic cancer, and to identify the mechanisms associated with its anticancer effects. In this study, we first analyzed the expression levels of ASS in pancreatic cancer cell lines and tumor tissues using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. We further tested the effects of the combination regimen of arginine deiminase
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Arginine starvation kills tumor cells through aspartate exhaustion and mitochondrial dysfunction. AU - Cheng, Chun Ting. AU - Qi, Yue. AU - Wang, Yi Chang. AU - Chi, Kevin K.. AU - Chung, Yiyin. AU - Ouyang, Ching. AU - Chen, Yun Ru. AU - Oh, Myung Eun. AU - Sheng, Xiangpeng. AU - Tang, Yulong. AU - Liu, Yun Ru. AU - Lin, H. Helen. AU - Kuo, Ching Ying. AU - Schones, Dustin. AU - Vidal, Christina M.. AU - Chu, Jenny C.Y.. AU - Wang, Hung Jung. AU - Chen, Yu Han. AU - Miller, Kyle M.. AU - Chu, Peiguo. AU - Yen, Yun. AU - Jiang, Lei. AU - Kung, Hsing-Jien. AU - Ann, David K.. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - Defective arginine synthesis, due to the silencing of argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1), is a common metabolic vulnerability in cancer, known as arginine auxotrophy. Understanding how arginine depletion kills arginine-auxotrophic cancer cells will facilitate the development of anti-cancer therapeutic strategies. Here we show that depletion of extracellular arginine in ...
1KH2: Crystal structure of argininosuccinate synthetase from Thermus thermophilus HB8. Structural basis for the catalytic action.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Dec 17;110(51):E5006-15. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1321305110. Epub 2013 Dec 2. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arginine deprivation and tumour cell death: arginase and its inhibition. AU - Wheatley, Denis. AU - Philip, R.. AU - Campbell, E.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Arginase treatment of cell cultures reduced arginine in the medium to similar to micromolar levels within 5-30 min, and proved as effective as arginine-free medium (AFM) prepared by formulation. The enzyme was heat stable and as active at pH 7.2 as at pH 9.9. It persisted in culture for at least 3 days with only a small diminution in its speed of action, and still actively destroyed arginine after 6 days, since arginine supplementation failed to rescue viable cells.Addition of L-norvaline, an inhibitor of arginase, rescued cells from arginase-induced deprivation. Its efficacy at low concentrations was short-lived (probably , 1 day), while at higher concentrations it did not appear to inhibit completely the enzyme. However, L-norvaline at these same levels also slowed the growth of positive non-enzyme treated controls ...
Complete information for ASS1P14 gene (Pseudogene), Argininosuccinate Synthetase 1 Pseudogene 14, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for ASS1P12 gene (Pseudogene), Argininosuccinate Synthetase 1 Pseudogene 12, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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For example, the fact that methylation-dependent silencing of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1) [40], a rate-limiting enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of arginine, has been implicated in therapeutic resistance in several cancer types including renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, malignant melanoma, glioblastoma multiforme, and platinum-resistant epithelial. ovarian cancer suggests a role for demethylating agents in these ASS1 drug-resistant find more cancers [41]. Nevertheless, despite their current nonspecific promiscuity, epigenetic agents may act on most or all tumor types, since aberrant methylation and deacetylation patterns are a hallmark of cancer cells. In particular, several of the anticancer agents described in this review activate and upregulate p53, which itself affects multiple targets [19]. Following genotoxic stress. in response to traditional therapeutic strategies such as cisplatin, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, fludarabine, mitoxantrone, etoposide, or X-ray ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1kh3.1. Crystal Structure of Thermus thermophilus HB8 Argininosuccinate Synthetase in complex with inhibitor
Immune cells in the brain may be abnormally consuming the nutrient arginine, and this may be a cause of Alzheimers disease: new study.
Principal Investigator:MORI Masataka, Project Period (FY):1998 - 2000, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)., Section:展開研究, Research Field:Pathological medical chemistry
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Homework: The Punnet squares show the enzymatic [colour] and growth [+ or -] phenotypes of two crosses between two dihybrid auxotrophic mutants Assume dominance of the wild-type allele at each locus (x+). What general principles can be drawn from the patterns, as related to tri-hybrid crosses, and other forms of gene interactions in metabolic pathways ...
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No data available that match "argininosuccinate synthase"


argininosuccinate synthase. 10875. HRB10875. 2046. endonuclease MutS2. 10880. larE. 978. ATP-dependent sacrificial sulfur ...
argininosuccinate synthase 66.67 224 aa 43.5 0.005 Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 Bacteria normal 1 normal 1 -. ...
argininosuccinate synthase. *ec-number: *ec-6.3.4.5. Reaction formula. *1 ATP[c] + 1 L-ASPARTATE[c] + 1 L-CITRULLINE[c] =, 1 ... AMP[c] + 1 L-ARGININO-SUCCINATE[c] + 1 PPI[c] + 1 PROTON[c] ...
argininosuccinate lyase. *argininosuccinate synthase. *argininosuccinic acid. *argininosuccinic aciduria. * ...
Argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1) catalyzes the era of argininosuccinate, a precursor in arginine biosynthesis. While ASS1 is ... In addition to promoting mTOR activity, arginine regulates nitric oxide generation via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and ...
Human ASS1(Argininosuccinate Synthetase 1) ELISA Kit. *Human ATP2A2(ATPase, Ca++ Transporting, Cardiac Muscle, Slow Twitch 2) ... Human HAS2(Hyaluronan Synthase 2) ELISA Kit. *Human HEXa(Hexosaminidase A Alpha) ELISA Kit ...

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