Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Receptors, Vasopressin: Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.Deamino Arginine Vasopressin: A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.Renal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.Vasotocin: A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Rats, Brattleboro: A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus used in research on renal function and hypertension and as a disease model for diabetes insipidus.Diabetes Insipidus: A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Neurophysins: Carrier proteins for OXYTOCIN and VASOPRESSIN. They are polypeptides of about 10-kDa, synthesized in the HYPOTHALAMUS. Neurophysin I is associated with oxytocin and neurophysin II is associated with vasopressin in their respective precursors and during transportation down the axons to the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR).Lypressin: The porcine antidiuretic hormone (VASOPRESSINS). It is a cyclic nonapeptide that differs from ARG-VASOPRESSIN by one amino acid, containing a LYSINE at residue 8 instead of an ARGININE. Lys-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Hyponatremia: Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Inappropriate ADH Syndrome: A condition of HYPONATREMIA and renal salt loss attributed to overexpansion of BODY FLUIDS resulting from sustained release of ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES which stimulates renal resorption of water. It is characterized by normal KIDNEY function, high urine OSMOLALITY, low serum osmolality, and neurological dysfunction. Etiologies include ADH-producing neoplasms, injuries or diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the LUNG. This syndrome can also be drug-induced.Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Antidiuretic Agents: Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.Supraoptic Nucleus: Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.Polyuria: Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder characterized by persistent hypotonic urine and HYPOKALEMIA. This condition is due to renal tubular insensitivity to VASOPRESSIN and failure to reduce urine volume. It may be the result of mutations of genes encoding VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS or AQUAPORIN-2; KIDNEY DISEASES; adverse drug effects; or complications from PREGNANCY.Aquaporin 6: Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Arginine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC 2.7.3.3.Receptors, Oxytocin: Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Hypothalamus, Anterior: The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular GRAY MATTER of the rostral portion of the THIRD VENTRICLE and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder caused by a deficiency of VASOPRESSINS secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. Clinical signs include the excretion of large volumes of dilute URINE; HYPERNATREMIA; THIRST; and polydipsia. Etiologies include HEAD TRAUMA; surgeries and diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This disorder may also be caused by mutations of genes such as ARVP encoding vasopressin and its corresponding neurophysin (NEUROPHYSINS).Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hypernatremia: Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Median Eminence: Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.CitrullineRadioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Shock: A pathological condition manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Spiro Compounds: A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Saralasin: An octapeptide analog of angiotensin II (bovine) with amino acids 1 and 8 replaced with sarcosine and alanine, respectively. It is a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II that is used in the diagnosis of HYPERTENSION.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.PyrrolidinesHypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Nocturnal Enuresis: Involuntary discharge of URINE during sleep at night after expected age of completed development of urinary control.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.Hypertonic Solutions: Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Arginase: A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phenylglyoxal: A reagent that is highly selective for the modification of arginyl residues. It is used to selectively inhibit various enzymes and acts as an energy transfer inhibitor in photophosphorylation.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Water-Electrolyte Imbalance: Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.

Oxytocin and vasopressin receptors in human and uterine myomas during menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. (1/1807)

The purpose of this study was to determine the specificity and concentration of oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) binding sites in non-pregnant (NP) human and rhesus monkey endometrium, myometrium and fibromyomas, and to determine the cellular localization of OT receptor (OTR). Besides [3H]AVP, [125I]LVA, a specific VP1 receptor subtype antagonist, was used to determine vasopressin receptor (VPR) concentrations. Samples were obtained from 42 pre-menopausal and three pregnant women (5, 13 and 35 weeks gestation), and several NP and pregnant monkeys. Specificity of binding was assessed in competition experiments with unlabelled agonists and antagonists of known pharmacological potency. Cellular localization of OTR was determined by immunohistochemistry. In NP human uterine tissues, [3H]AVP was bound with higher affinity and greater binding capacity than [3H]OT, whereas in pregnant women and in NP and pregnant rhesus monkeys, uterine OT binding capacity was greater. OT and AVP binding sites discriminated very poorly between OT and AVP; [125I]LVA binding sites were more selective than [3H]AVP. Their ligand specificity and binding kinetics indicated the presence of two distinct populations of binding sites for OT and AVP in primate uterus. Endometrium of NP women and monkeys had low OTR and VPR concentrations. Myometrial and endometrial OTR and VPR were down-regulated in midcycle and in early human pregnancy, they were up-regulated in the secretory phase and second half of pregnancy. Immunoreactive OTR in NP uterus was localized in patches of myometrial muscle cells and small numbers of endometrial epithelial cells.  (+info)

Physiological variability of fluid-regulation hormones in young women. (2/1807)

We tested the physiological reliability of plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (P[AVP]), aldosterone (P[ALD]), and atrial natriuretic peptide (P[ANP]) in the early follicular phase and midluteal phases over the course of two menstrual cycles (n = 9 women, ages 25 +/- 1 yr). The reliability (Cronbach's alpha >/=0.80) of these hormones within a given phase of the cycle was tested 1) at rest, 2) after 2.5 h of dehydrating exercise, and 3) during a rehydration period. The mean hormone concentrations were similar within both the early follicular and midluteal phase tests; and the mean concentrations of P[ALD] and PRA for the three test conditions were significantly greater during the midluteal compared with the early follicular phase. Although Cronbach's alpha for resting and recovery P[ANP] were high (0.80 and 0.87, respectively), the resting and rehydration values for P[AVP], P[ALD], and PRA were variable between trials for the follicular (alpha from 0.49 to 0.55) and the luteal phase (alpha from 0.25 to 0. 66). Physiological reliability was better after dehydration for P[AVP] and PRA but remained low for P[ALD]. Although resting and recovery P[AVP], P[ALD], and PRA were not consistent within a given menstrual phase, the differences in the concentrations of these hormones between the different menstrual phases far exceeded the variability within the phases, indicating that the low within-phase reliability does not prevent the detection of menstrual phase-related differences in these hormonal variables.  (+info)

Effects of arginine vasopressin on cell volume regulation in brain astrocyte in culture. (3/1807)

Astrocytes initially swell when exposed to hypotonic medium but rapidly return to normal volume by the process of regulatory volume decrease (RVD). The role that arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays in hypotonically mediated RVD in astrocytes is unknown. This study was therefore designed to determine whether AVP might play a role in astrocyte RVD. With the use of 3-O-[3H]methyl-D-glucose to determine water space, AVP treatment resulted in significantly increased 3-O-methyl-D-glucose water space within 30 s of hypotonic exposure (P = 0.0001) and remained significantly elevated above baseline (1. 75 microliter/mg protein) at 5 min (P < 0.021). In contrast, in untreated cells, complete RVD was achieved by 5 min. At 30 s, cell volume with AVP treatment was 37% greater than in cells that received no treatment (2.9 vs. 2.26 microliter/mg protein, respectively; P < 0.006). The rate of cell volume increase (dV/dt) over 30 s was highly significant (0.038 vs. 0.019 microliter. mg protein-1. s-1 in the AVP-treated vs. untreated group; P = 0.0004 by regression analysis). Additionally, the rate of cell volume decrease over the next 4.5 min was also significantly greater with vasopressin treatment (-dV/dt = 0.0027 vs. 0.0013 microliter. mg protein-1. s-1; P = 0.0306). The effect of AVP was concentration dependent with EC50 = 3.5 nM. To determine whether AVP action was receptor mediated, we performed RVD studies in the presence of the V1-receptor antagonists benzamil and ethylisopropryl amiloride and the V2-receptor agonist 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP). Both V1-receptor antagonists significantly inhibited AVP-mediated volume increase by 40-47% (P < 0.005), whereas DDAVP had no stimulatory effects above control. Taken together, these data suggest that AVP treatment of brain astrocytes in culture appears to increase 3-O-methyl-D-glucose water space during RVD through V1 receptor-mediated mechanisms. The significance of these findings is presently unclear.  (+info)

AVP inhibits LPS- and IL-1beta-stimulated NO and cGMP via V1 receptor in cultured rat mesangial cells. (4/1807)

The present study examined how arginine vasopressin (AVP) affects nitric oxide (NO) metabolism in cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells (GMC). GMC were incubated with test agents and nitrite, and intracellular cGMP content, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA, and iNOS protein were analyzed by the Griess method, enzyme immunoassay, and Northern and Western blotting, respectively. AVP inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-induced nitrite production in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with concomitant changes in cGMP content, iNOS mRNA, and iNOS protein. This inhibition by AVP was reversed by V1- but not by oxytocin-receptor antagonist. Inhibition by AVP was also reproduced on LPS and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors reversed AVP inhibition, whereas PKC activator inhibited nitrite production. Although dexamethasone and pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC), inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappaB, inhibited nitrite production, further inhibition by AVP was not observed. AVP did not show further inhibition of nitrite production with actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription, or cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis. In conclusion, AVP inhibits LPS- and IL-1beta-induced NO production through a V1 receptor. The inhibitory action of AVP involves both the activation of PKC and the transcription of iNOS mRNA in cultured rat GMC.  (+info)

Local regulation of vasopressin and oxytocin secretion by extracellular ATP in the isolated posterior lobe of the rat hypophysis. (5/1807)

It is now widely accepted that ATP functions as a signalling substance in the nervous system. The presence of P2 receptors mediating the action of extracellular ATP in brain regions involved in hormonal regulation raises the possibility that a similar role for ATP might also exist in the neuroendocrine system. In this study, the release from the rat isolated neurohypophysis preparation of endogenous ATP, oxytocin and vasopressin (AVP) were measured simultaneously using luciferin-luciferase and RIA techniques. After 70 min preperfusion, electrical field stimulation caused a rapid increase in the amount of ATP in the effluent and the release of AVP and oxytocin also increased stimulation-dependently. Inhibition of voltage-dependent Na+ channels by tetrodotoxin (1 microM) reduced the stimulation-evoked release of AVP and oxytocin; however, the evoked release of ATP remained unaffected. The effect of endogenous ATP on the hormone secretion was tested by suramin (300 microM), the P2 receptor antagonist. Suramin significantly increased the release of AVP, and the release of oxytocin was also enhanced. ATP, when applied to the superfusing medium, decreased the release of AVP, but not that of oxytocin, and its effect was prevented by suramin. ATP (60 nmol), added to the tissues, was readily decomposed to ADP, AMP and adenosine measured by HPLC combined with ultraviolet light detection, and the kinetic parameters of the enzymes responsible for inactivation of ATP (ectoATPase and ecto5'-nucleotidase) were also determined (Km=264+/-2.7 and 334+/-165 microM and vmax=6.7+/-1.1 and 2.54+/-0.24 nmol/min per preparation (n=3) for ectoATPase and ecto5'-nucleotidase respectively). Taken together, our data demonstrate the stimulation-dependent release, P2 receptor-mediated action and extracellular metabolism of endogenous ATP in the posterior lobe of the hypophysis and indicate its role, as a paracrine regulator, in the local control of hormone secretion.  (+info)

Repeated administration of vasopressin but not epinephrine maintains coronary perfusion pressure after early and late administration during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pigs. (6/1807)

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether repeated dosages of vasopressin or epinephrine given early or late during basic life support cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may be able to increase coronary perfusion pressure above a threshold between 20 and 30 mm Hg that renders defibrillation successful. METHODS AND RESULTS: After 4 minutes of cardiac arrest, followed by 3 minutes of basic life support CPR, 12 animals were randomly assigned to receive, every 5 minutes, either vasopressin (early vasopressin: 0.4, 0.4, and 0.8 U/kg, respectively; n=6) or epinephrine (early epinephrine: 45, 45, and 200 microg/kg, respectively; n=6). Another 12 animals were randomly allocated after 4 minutes of cardiac arrest, followed by 8 minutes of basic life support CPR, to receive, every 5 minutes, either vasopressin (late vasopressin: 0.4 and 0.8 U/kg, respectively; n=6), or epinephrine (late epinephrine: 45 and 200 microg/kg, respectively; n=6). Defibrillation was attempted after 22 minutes of cardiac arrest. Mean+/-SEM coronary perfusion pressure was significantly higher 90 seconds after early vasopressin compared with early epinephrine (50+/-4 versus 34+/-3 mm Hg, P<0.02; 42+/-5 versus 15+/-3 mm Hg, P<0.0008; and 37+/-5 versus 11+/-3 mm Hg, P<0. 002, respectively). Mean+/-SEM coronary perfusion pressure was significantly higher 90 seconds after late vasopressin compared with late epinephrine (40+/-3 versus 22+/-4 mm Hg, P<0.004, and 32+/-4 versus 15+/-4 mm Hg, P<0.01, respectively). All vasopressin animals survived 60 minutes, whereas no epinephrine pig had return of spontaneous circulation (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated administration of vasopressin but only the first epinephrine dose given early and late during basic life support CPR maintained coronary perfusion pressure above the threshold that is needed for successful defibrillation.  (+info)

Separate receptors mediate oxytocin and vasopressin stimulation of cAMP in rat inner medullary collecting duct cells. (7/1807)

The two neurohypophysial hormones arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin have actions in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) where both peptides induce an increase in cAMP accumulation. The present study has employed a novel IMCD cell line to determine whether these two hormones induce cAMP accumulation via common or separate receptors, and to characterize the potential receptors responsible. Equal volumes of vehicle (150 mM NaCl) or hormone/antagonist solutions were added to aliquots of 10(4) IMCD cells in the presence of 10(-3) M 3-isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and incubated at 37 degrees C for 4 min. cAMP levels were determined by radioimmunoassay and protein concentration by Bradford assay. Both AVP and oxytocin elicited dose-dependent increases in cAMP generation, though oxytocin was less potent than AVP (EC50 = 1.6 x 10(-8) M vs. 7.4 x 10(-10) M). AVP at 10(-8) M and oxytocin at 10(-8) M, concentrations sufficient to elicit near-maximal cAMP accumulation, resulted in cAMP levels of 73.4 +/- 1.7 and 69.0 +/- 3.3 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1, respectively (n = 10), compared with the vehicle-treated basal value of 37.7 +/- 2.2 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1 (P < 0.001, n = 10). Combined AVP (10(-8) M) and oxytocin 10(-6) M) resulted in cAMP accumulation of 63.8 +/- 3.1 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1 (n = 10), which was not significantly different from the effect of oxytocin alone, but slightly less than that for AVP alone (P < 0.05). A submaximal concentration of AVP (10(-10) M) induced cAMP accumulation of 48.6 +/- 2.5 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1 (P < 0.01 compared with basal level of 34.9 +/- 2.4 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1, n = 10), which was blocked in the presence of a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist (10(-7) M OPC-31260) but not by the oxytocin receptor antagonist (10(-6) M [Pen1,pMePhe2, Thr4,Orn8]oxytocin) (36.3 +/- 6.1 and 45.1 +/- 1.3 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1 respectively, P < 0.05, n = 10). A submaximal concentration of oxytocin (10(-7) M) induced a cAMP accumulation of 45.8 +/- 1.8 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1 (n = 10), which was reduced by addition of 10(-6) M oxytocin antagonist (36.3 +/- 2.1 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1, P < 0.05, n = 10), whereas co-incubation with 10(-6) M of the V2 receptor antagonist had no effect (43.2 +/- 1.3 pmol (mg protein)-1 (4 min)-1, n = 10). These results indicate that AVP and oxytocin induce cAMP accumulation from a common ATP pool in IMCD cells, and that separate vasopressin V2 and oxytocin receptor systems are involved, perhaps coupled to a common adenylate cyclase system.  (+info)

Mutant vasopressin precursors that cause autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus retain dimerization and impair the secretion of wild-type proteins. (8/1807)

Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is caused by mutations in the arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene. We demonstrated recently that mutant AVP precursors accumulate within the endoplasmic reticulum of neuronal cells, leading to cellular toxicity. In this study, the possibility that mutant AVP precursors interact with wild-type (WT) proteins to alter their processing and function was explored. WT and mutant precursors were epitope-tagged to allow them to be distinguished in transfected cells. An in vivo cross-linking reaction revealed homo- and heterodimer formation between WT and mutant precursors. Mutant precursors were also shown to impair intracellular trafficking of WT precursors from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. In addition to the cytotoxicity caused by mutant AVP precursors, the interaction between the WT and mutant precursors suggests that a dominant-negative mechanism may also contribute to the pathogenesis of familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.  (+info)

*Vasopressin receptor antagonist

Decaux, G; Soupart, A; Vassart, G (2008). "Non-peptide arginine-vasopressin antagonists: the vaptans". Lancet. 371 (9624): 1624 ... A vasopressin receptor antagonist (VRA) is an agent that interferes with action at the vasopressin receptors. Most commonly ... A new[update] class of medication, the "vaptan" drugs, act by directly blocking the action of vasopressin at its receptors (V1A ... Serradeil-Le Gal, C; Wagnon, J; Valette, G; Garcia, G; Pascal, M; Maffrand, JP; Le Fur, G (2002). "Nonpeptide vasopressin ...

*AVPI1

Arginine vasopressin-induced protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AVPI1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: AVPI1 arginine vasopressin-induced 1". Human AVPI1 genome location and AVPI1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... Nicod M, Michlig S, Flahaut M, Salinas M, Fowler Jaeger N, Horisberger JD, Rossier BC, Firsov D (2002). "A novel vasopressin- ...

*Allostasis

... the release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) will increase; and veins and arteries will constrict to maintain blood pressure with ...

*Distal convoluted tubule

Arginine vasopressin receptor 2 is also expressed in the DCT. Thiazide diuretics inhibit Na+/Cl− reabsorption from the DCT by ...

*Cortisol

CRH acts synergistically with arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II, and epinephrine. (In swine, which do not produce arginine ... vasopressin, lysine vasopressin acts synergistically with CRH.) When activated macrophages start to secrete IL-1, which ... "Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol response to corticotropin-releasing factor and lysine vasopressin in pigs". Journal of ...

*C1QTNF1

... has been shown to interact with Arginine vasopressin receptor 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000173918 - Ensembl ...

*Amira (software)

"High resolution stereoscopic volume visualization of the mouse arginine vasopressin system". Journal of neuroscience methods. ...

*Vasopressin receptor 2

... (V2R), or arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (officially called AVPR2), is a protein that acts as receptor ... Arginine vasopressin receptor 2 has been shown to interact with C1QTNF1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000126895 - Ensembl ... In the kidney, AVPR2's primary property is to respond to arginine vasopressin by stimulating mechanisms that concentrate the ... Faà V, Ventruto ML, Loche S, Bozzola M, Podda R, Cao A, Rosatelli MC (Sep 1994). "Mutations in the vasopressin V2-receptor gene ...

*Shock (circulatory)

The renin-angiotensin axis is activated, and arginine vasopressin (Anti-diuretic hormone; ADH) is released to conserve fluid ...

*Coagulation

Desmopressin is used to improve platelet function by activating arginine vasopressin receptor 1A. Coagulation factor ...

*Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome

... correction of bleeding time by 1-desamino-8D-arginine vasopressin". American journal of hematology. 30 (3): 154-7. doi:10.1002/ ...

*Atrial volume receptors

The hypothalamus, in turn, increases the production of vasopressin (ADH, AVP, or arginine vasopressin). These receptors also ... combined with the increased production of vasopressin by the hypothalamus, will cause water retention in urine. This increases ...

*Neuroanatomy of intimacy

Two important neuropeptides that mediated pair bond formation were oxytocin and arginine vasopressin (AVP). Even though both ... oxytocin and vasopressin. Other research has implicated nerve growth factor (NGF), a neurotrophin that is fundamental in the ... males and females have both molecules, oxytocin was shown to be predominantly in females and vasopressin predominantly promoted ...

*Relcovaptan

PMID 16794787 Decaux G, Soupart A, Vassart G. Non-peptide arginine-vasopressin antagonists: the vaptans. Lancet. 2008 May 10; ... Relcovaptan (SR-49059) is a non-peptide vasopressin receptor antagonist, selective for the V1a subtype. It has shown positive ... Lemmens-Gruber R, Kamyar M. Vasopressin antagonists. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 2006 Aug;63(15):1766-79. ...

*Conivaptan

... (YM 087, brand name Vaprisol) is a non-peptide inhibitor of arginine vasopressin (AVP)receptor. It was approved in ... Conivaptan hydrochloride is an arginine vasopressin (AVP) receptor antagonist with affinity for human V1A and V2 receptors in ... However, in theory, vasopressin receptor antagonism would be particularly useful in this setting, and an initial study shows ... Conivaptan inhibits two of the three subtypes of the vasopressin receptor (V1a and V2). Effectively, it causes iatrogenic ...

*Downregulation and upregulation

Another example can be seen in diabetes insipidus, in which the kidneys become insensitive to arginine vasopressin. Regulation ...

*Felypressin

... is a Vasopressin 1 agonist, and will thus have effects at all Arginine vasopressin receptor 1As. It will, however, ... "Vasopressin analogues and treatments", Prof Buckingham, Imperial College School of Medicine (ICSM) - adapted by JHPatel. ... Felypressin is a non-catecholamine vasoconstrictor that is chemically related to vasopressin, the posterior pituitary hormone. ...

*Vasotocin

The vasopressin-like peptides, which differ in positions 3 and/or 8, include AVT and the mammalian hormones arginine ... "AVP arginine vasopressin (neurophysin II, antidiuretic hormone, diabetes insipidus, neurohypophyseal) [ Gallus gallus (chicken ... and lysine vasopressin (isoleucine-3 changed to phenylalanine and arginine-8 changed to lysine). The oxytocin-like peptides, ... glutamine-4 changed to serine and arginine-8 changed to isoleucine); they differ from the vasopressin-like peptides in having a ...

*Derek George Smyth

Bisset, G.W., Poisner, A.M. and Smyth, D.G. (1963) Carbamylation of oxytocin and arginine vasopressin. Nature, 199, 69-70. 11. ...

*Diabetes insipidus

Dipsogenic DI or primary polydipsia results from excessive intake of fluids as opposed to deficiency of arginine vasopressin. ... Central DI (CDI) is due to a lack of the hormone vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone). This can be due to damage to the ... Smith D, McKenna K, Moore K, Tormey W, Finucane J, Phillips J, Baylis P, Thompson CJ (2002). "Baroregulation of vasopressin ... Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) occurs when the kidneys do not respond properly to vasopressin. Dipsogenic DI is due to ...

*Neurochemical

Neurohypophysial hormones: Arginine-vasopressin Oxytocin regulates social cognition (e.g., trust and pair-bonding) and ...

*Nocturia

Similar to the inability of control urination, a disruption of arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels has been proposed for nocturia ... Two major hormones that regulate the body's water level are arginine vasopressin (AVP) and atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH). ...

*Copeptin

Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is involved in multiple cardiovascular and renal ... It has been shown that the kinetics of copeptin are similar to vasopressin in that context. The prognostic value of vasopressin ... the C-terminal portion of arginine vasopressin during water deprivation and excesse in healthy subjects". Journal of Clinical ... Val in the signal peptide of the arginine vasopressin/neurophysin II/copeptin precursor". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ...

*MECP2

... appears to regulate arginine vasopressin (AVP) and androgen receptor (AR) production in male rats but not in females. ... Vasopressin is a primary hormone involved in the Hypothalmic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, the connectivity in the brain that ... Vasopressin is known to regulate many social behaviors including pair bonding and social recognition. While male rats typically ... Winslow JT, Hastings N, Carter CS, Harbaugh CR, Insel TR (October 1993). "A role for central vasopressin in pair bonding in ...

*Calcium channel blocker

Chiodera P, Coiro V (May 1990). "Inhibitory effect of ethanol on the arginine vasopressin response to insulin-induced ... Vasopressin levels are reduced after the ingestion of alcohol. The lower levels of vasopressin from the consumption of alcohol ... Early studies showed a link between calcium and the release of vasopressin by the secondary messenger system. ... and vasopressin release". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 625: 249-63. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1991.tb33844.x. PMID 1647726. Walter HJ, ...

*Index of biochemistry articles

... vasopressin - vasopressin receptor - venom - vertebrate photoreceptor - vesicle - vestibular system - vimentin - viral envelope ... arginine - argipressin - aromatic amine - aromatic compound - arrestin - Arrhenius equation - aryl hydrocarbon receptor - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of intravenous arginine vasopressin on epicardial coronary artery cross sectional area in a swine resuscitation model. AU - Wenzel, Volker. AU - Kern, Karl B. AU - Hilwig, Ronald W.. AU - Berg, Robert A.. AU - Schwarzacher, Severin. AU - Butman, Samuel M.. AU - Lindner, Karl H.. AU - Ewy, Gordon A.. PY - 2005/2. Y1 - 2005/2. N2 - Although arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been shown to be a promising drug during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), concern has been raised about the potential for AVP-mediated vasoconstriction of the coronary arteries. In a prospective, randomized laboratory investigation employing an established porcine model, the effects of AVP on haemodynamic variables, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery cross sectional area employing intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and return of spontaneous circulation were studied. During sinus rhythm, the LAD coronary artery cross sectional area was measured by IVUS at baseline, and 90 s and 5 min after AVP ...
Background anaesthetic agents do not influence the impact of arginine vasopressin on haemodynamic states and cerebral oxygenation during shoulder surgery in the beach chair position: a prospective, single-blind study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Aim: To explore the association of plasma copeptin, the C-terminal portion of provasopressin and a stable surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, with plasma glucagon in obese men and men of normal weight. Methods: We measured fasting blood concentrations of copeptin and glucagon in 102 healthy obese men (mean ± sd age 49.4 ± 10.2 years) and a control group 27 healthy men of normal weight (mean ± sd age 51.5 ± 8.4 years). Differences between groups were evaluated using t-tests, and multiple linear regression analysis, adjusting for age and weight status (normal weight vs obese), was used to calculate unstandardized regression coefficients (β) with 95% CIs between copeptin and glucagon. Copeptin was (natural) log-transformed. Results: The obese men had higher [median (interquartile range)] plasma copeptin concentrations [6.6 (4.6-9.5) vs 4.9 (3.5-6.8) pmol/l; P = 0.040] and higher mean ± sd plasma glucagon concentrations (8.5 ± 3.8 vs 5.3 ± 1.4 pmol/l; P , 0.001) than the ...
Synonyms for arginine vasopressin hormone in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for arginine vasopressin hormone. 3 synonyms for antidiuretic hormone: ADH, Pitressin, vasopressin. What are synonyms for arginine vasopressin hormone?
Animals were randomly allocated to four groups. In addition to a control group submitted to anaphylactic shock without any added therapy, three groups were designed according to the drug used for resuscitation: epinephrine (Aguettant, Lyon, France) only, AVP (Aguettant) only, and epinephrine followed by AVP (fig. 1). The investigator was not blinded to the drug used. The first bolus of epinephrine or AVP was injected 5 min after shock induction (T0 + 5 min). The second bolus of epinephrine was injected when the MAP began to decrease again after the initial increase following the first bolus. Doses of bolus were chosen according to our previous work.12 Two bolus of AVP followed by a continuous infusion induced the death of the animals due to multiple organs infarction (data not shown). Therefore, only one bolus of AVP was injected. To avoid any excessive volume loading, both drugs were prepared at different dilutions (in saline solution), and the syringes were changed when necessary to preserve a ...
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A New Synthetic Route to YM087, an Arginine Vasopressin Antagonist.|span||/span| | Takashi Tsunoda; Akihiro Tanaka; Toshiyasu Mase; Shuichi Sakamoto | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and development. ARUP offers an extensive test menu of highly complex and unique medical tests in clinical and anatomic pathology. Owned by the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories client,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Comparison between the vasoactive actions of endothelin and arginine vasopressin in pithed rats after pretreatment with BAY K 8644, nifedipine or pertussis toxin Academic Article ...
The antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) receptors are G protein-coupled receptors which consists of at least three types: V1A (vascular/hepatic) and V1B (anterior pituitary) receptors, which act through phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis to mobilize intracellular Ca2+; and V2 (kidney) re...
We studied the involvement of periventricular and hypothalamic angiotensinergic and cholinergic pathways in osmotically induced arginine vasopressin (AVP) release into the blood. In conscious Wistar rats, i.c.v. injections of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 M hyperosmolar saline (5 μl) resulted in concentration-dependent increases in AVP release (5.2 ± 1.5, 10.6 ± 2.2 and 18.0 ± 2.2 pg/ml, respectively, vs. 2.0 ± 0.1 in controls). The two lower saline concentrations did not affect arterial blood pressure (non-pressure-associated AVP release), whereas 0.6 M saline induced increase in blood pressure (pressure-associated AVP release). In the first set of experiments, periventricular angiotensin AT1, muscarinic or nicotinic receptors were blocked by i.c.v. administration of losartan (10 nmol), atropine (100 nmol) or hexamethonium (100 nmol), respectively, before i.c.v. hyperosmolar saline injections. Losartan significantly reduced the 0.2 M and 0.3 M, but not the 0.6 M, saline-induced increase in AVP release. ...
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its derivatives, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromo-amphetamine hydrobromide (DOB) and para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) are recreational drugs whose pharmacological effects have recently been attributed to serotonin 5HT2A/C receptors. However, there is growing evidence that the oxytocin/vasopressin system can modulate some the effects of MDMA. In this study, MDMA (2.5-10 mg/kg), DOB (0.5 mg/kg) or PMA (0.005, 0.1 or 0.25 mg/kg) were administered intramuscularly (IM) to adult zebrafish, alone or in combination with the V1a vasopressin antagonist, SR49059 (0.01-1 ng/kg), before carrying out conditioned place preference (CPP), social preference, novel tank diving and light-dark tests in order to evaluate subsequent rewarding, social and emotional-like behaviour. The combination of SR49059 and each drug progressively blocked: 1) rewarding behaviour as measured by CPP in terms of time spent in drug-paired compartment; 2) pro-social effects measured on the basis of the
Vasopressin is a potent peripheral vasoconstrictor. Vasopressin has a direct action on the kidney. It also constricts peripheral vessels and causes contraction of the smooth muscle of the intestine, gall bladder and urinary bladder.. Due to rapid inactivation by a number of enzymes that cleave the peptide at several sites, the effects of vasopressin are relatively short lived unless given by continuous infusions. ...
Participant has successfully completed Studies 15-AVP-786-301, 15-AVP-786-302, 12-AVR-131, or 17-AVP-786-305.. Participants will be enrolled in the study for approximately 56 weeks (participants who have a follow-up visit 3 months after the last dose of treatment will be enrolled for approximately 64 weeks).. Approximately 1000 participants will be enrolled at approximately 250 centers globally.. All participants enrolled will receive AVP-786; the treatment dose assigned will be masked to the participant, investigator, study staff, and the sponsor.. ...
Arginine HCL 400g, ALLMAX Nutrition Precursor for synthesis of Nitric Oxide (NO)* Promotes muscle mass* Arginine is considered a semi-essential amino acid. What that means is the body produces Arginine normally, but sometimes the body needs more than is available and Arginine needs to be supplemented. Food sources suc
Heres my AvP Requiem Blu-Ray Review. The film isnt a total loss, there are some genuinely good moments but the script is just awful.
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BACKGROUND: Alterations in arginine vasopressin regulation and secretion have been proposed as one possible biochemical abnormality in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. In golden hamsters, arginine vasopressin microinjections into the anterior hypothalamus trigger robust grooming and flank marking, a stereotyped scent marking behaviors. The intensity and repetition of the behaviors induced by arginine vasopressin is somewhat reminiscent of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in humans. The present experiments were carried out to test whether pharmacological agents used to alleviate obsessive compulsive disorder could inhibit arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. RESULTS: Male golden hamsters were treated daily for two weeks with either vehicle, fluoxetine, clomipramine, or desipramine (an ineffective drug), before being tested for arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Flank marking was significantly inhibited in animals treated with fluoxetine or clomipramine
U.S., Jan. 12 -- ClinicalTrials.gov registry received information related to the study (NCT03014063) titled Vasopressin Plasma Concentrations in Patients Receiving Exogenous Vasopressin Infusion for Septic Shock on Jan. 4. Brief Summary: This is a prospective observational cohort trial evaluating a single plasma vasopressin concentration in patients receiving exogenous, adjunctive vasopressin for septic shock. The trial is designed to determine whether plasma vasopressin concentration influences the likelihood of hemodynamic response to exogenous vasopressin therapy. Study Start Date: November 2016 Study Type: Observational Condition: Septic Shock Intervention: Not Provided Recruitment Status: Recruiting Sponsor: The Cleveland Clinic Information provided by (Responsible Party): The Cleveland Clinic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The selective vasopressin type 1a receptor agonist selepressin (FE 202158) blocks vascular leak in ovine severe sepsis. AU - Maybauer, Marc O.. AU - Maybauer, Dirk M.. AU - Enkhbaatar, Perenlei. AU - Laporte, Régent. AU - Winiewska, Halina. AU - Traber, Lillian D.. AU - Lin, Chiidean. AU - Fan, Juanjuan. AU - Hawkins, Hal K.. AU - Cox, Robert A.. AU - Winiewski, Kazimierz. AU - Schteingart, Claudio D.. AU - Landry, Donald W.. AU - Rivière, Pierre J M. AU - Traber, Daniel L.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - OBJECTIVE:: To determine if the selective vasopressin type 1a receptor agonist selepressin (FE 202158) is as effective as the mixed vasopressin type 1a receptor/vasopressin V2 receptor agonist vasopressor hormone arginine vasopressin when used as a titrated first-line vasopressor therapy in an ovine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia-induced severe sepsis. DESIGN:: Prospective, randomized, controlled laboratory experiment. SETTING:: University animal research facility. ...
Axon terminals in the posterior pituitary store large quantities of the hormone vasopressin (AVP), buffering the synthesizing neurons in the hypothalamus against acute changes in physiological demand for hormone release. The dynamics of pituitary AVP content reflect the competing processes of release and synthesis. This report demonstrates substantial increases in pituitary AVP content in the maturing rat. Between 7-10 weeks of age, the total pituitary AVP content in the rat increases from 957 +/- 72 to 1667 +/- 160 ng. Cross-sectional data indicate a parallel relationship between body weight and pituitary AVP content. Nevertheless, weight maintenance does not affect age-related increases in AVP content. Decreasing demand for hormone release and synthesis by inducing hyponatremia blocks subsequent pituitary accumulation. After withdrawing the hyponatremic experimental conditions, animals resume accumulation of pituitary AVP, but do not catch up to age-matched controls. This indicates that increases in
Twenty-one non-peptide substituted desloratadine class compounds were synthesized as novel arginine vasopressin receptor antagonists from desloratadine via successive acylation, reduction and acylation reactions. Their structures were characterized by 1H-NMR and HRMS, their biological activity was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro binding assay and cAMP accumulation assay indicated that these compounds are potent selective V2 receptor antagonists. Among them compounds 1n, 1t and 1v exhibited both high affinity and promising selectivity for V2 receptors. The in vivo diuretic assay demonstrated that 1t presented remarkable diuretic activity. In conclusion, 1t is a potent novel AVP V2 receptor antagonist candidate.
Rivalland, Elizabeth T.A., Iqbal, J., Clarke, I.J., Turner, Anne I. and Tilbrook, A.J. 2003, Distribution and co-localisation of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) and enkephalin (Enk) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the ewe, in Proceedings of the Endocrine Society of Australia, Endocrine Society of Australia, Melbourne, Vic., pp. 305-305. ...
Vasopressin-sensitive aquaporin-2 (Aqp2) in the apical membrane of the renal collecting duct (Fenton et al., 2008). Controls cell volume and thereby influences cell proliferation (Di Giusto et al. 2012). It plays a key role in concentrating urine. Water reabsorption is regulated by AQP2 trafficking between intracellular storage vesicles and the apical membrane. This process is tightly controlled by the pituitary hormone arginine vasopressin, and defective trafficking results in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). The crystal structure of Aqp2 has been solved to 2.75Å (Frick et al. 2014). In terrestrial vertebrates, AQP2 function is generally regulated by arginine-vasopressin to accomplish key functions in osmoregulation such as the maintenance of body water homeostasis by a cyclic AMP-independent mechanism (Olesen and Fenton 2017; Martos-Sitcha et al. 2015 ...
Increasing amounts of data suggest that affective disorders might be related to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the stress-response systems. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) influences several symptoms, relevant to affective disorders, notable memory processes, pain sensitivity, synchronization of biological rhythms and the timing and quality of REM sleep. We examined whether genetic variations in the AVP receptor 1b gene (AVPR1b) could be associated with increased susceptibility to affective disorders using a gene-based association analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Five SNPs were identified in AVPR1b and genotyped in two well-diagnosed samples of patients with recurrent major depression and matched controls. In the Swedish sample, we observed significant allele (P=0.02) and genotype (P=0.01) association with SNP AVPR1b-s3, and in the Belgian sample, a borderline significant association with SNP AVPR1b-s5 (P=0.04). In both patient-control ...
In this study we found that, in 31 normal subjects, close to 90% of circulating arginine vasopressin (AVP), measured by radioimmunoassay, was associated with platelets. By using routine methods of centrifugation, which do not completely separate platelets, the normal range of plasma vasopressin was higher by twofold than the normal range in platelet-free plasma prepared by differential centrifugation, which was 1.4 +/- 1.0 sd pg/ml. Platelet vasopressin was 12.9 +/- 5.7 pg/ml. Patients with congestive heart failure had, on average, an elevated platelet-free plasma AVP, as did two patients with thrombocytopenia and one with thrombocytosis. Patients with essential hypertension had slightly high levels of platelet-free plasma AVP and demonstrated an abnormal inverse relationship between platelet-free plasma AVP and serum osmolality. Immunoreactive platelet vasopressin was slightly low in patients with essential hypertension and was subnormal in patients with congestive heart failure. These studies ...
Ever wonder what attracts you to your significant other and gives you a special bond with them? A study done on monogamous voles may have surprising ties with humans. The study (http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v7/n10/pdf/nn1327.pdf) has found that two chemicals found in voles (and in humans) Oxytocin (OT) and Arginine Vasopressin (AV), have found to be very important in pair bonding. The chemical Oxytocin has been shown to be very important in both males and females however more so to females then males. Males on the other hand, seem to be more effected by Arginine Vasopressin which leads them to be more aggressive, mark their territory and courtship. This is interesting because both sexes show the same number of receptors for both Oxytocin and Arginine Vasopressin. The study has been able to conclude that when Oxytocin is present in both sexes, pair bonding is increased even without mating. If Oxytocin is blocked for any reason pair bonding is prevented and the animals do not show signs of ...
Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) play a major role in social behaviours. Mice have become the species of choice for neurobiology of social behaviour due to identification of mouse pheromones and the advantage of genetically modified mice. However, neuroanatomical data on nonapeptidergic systems in mice are fragmentary, especially concerning the central distribution of OT. Therefore, we analyse the immunoreactivity for OT and its neurophysin in the brain of male and female mice (strain CD1). Further, we combine immunofluorescent detection of OT and AVP to locate cells co-expressing both peptides and their putative axonal processes. The results indicate that OT is present in cells of the neurosecretory paraventricular (Pa) and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei (SON). From the anterior SON, OTergic cells extend into the medial amygdala, where a sparse cell population occupies its ventral anterior and posterior divisions. Co-expression of OT and AVP in these nuclei is rare. Moreover, a remarkable ...
The major findings of this study were that in the perfused rat CCD, the selective alpha-2 agonist dexmedetomidine reduced (1) AVP-stimulated Pf by 95% to 100%, (2) AVP-stimulated Pf in the presence of the PKC inhibitor staurosporine by 70% to 75% and (3) 8CPT-cAMP-stimulated Pf by 25% to 35%. Dexmedetomidine significantly reversed the AVP-induced effects on Vt and Rt. Overall, these findings indicate analpha-2-mediated mechanism that modulates AVP-dependent Na+ and water transport in the rat CCD, and the mechanism appears to include post-cAMP events in addition to the pre-cAMP event of alpha-2-induced inhibition of adenylyl cyclase.. Although the precise physiological function of renal alpha-2 adrenoceptors is not yet defined, it is well known thatalpha-2 agonists enhance urine output. Blandford and Smyth (1988, 1989) and Smyth et al. (1992) demonstrated that this effect is mediated in at least two separate sites in the kidney: one is non-AVP dependent, in which urine output is secondary to ...
Chelko SP, Schmiedt CW, Lewis TH, et al. Vasopressin-induced constriction of the isolated rat occipital artery is segment dependent. J Vasc Res. 2013;50(6):478-85. PMID: 24192548.. Mastropaolo M, Zizzo MG, Auteri M, et al. Arginine vasopressin, via activation of post-junctional V1 receptors, induces contractile effects in mouse distal colon. Regul Pept. 2013 Nov 10;187:29-34. PMID: 24185041.. Salazar M, Hu BB, Vazquez J, et al. Exogenous Vasopressin-Induced Hyponatremia in Patients With Vasodilatory Shock: Two Case Reports and Literature Review. J Intensive Care Med. 2013 Oct 7. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 24106070. ...
Argipressin binds to the V1, V2, V3-vascular arginine vasopressin receptor, with a Kd value of 1.31 nM in A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells for V1. Argipressin is a selective V2 agonist. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
... is a man-made form of a hormone called anti-diuretic hormone that is normally secreted by the pituitary gland. Vasopressin acts on the kidneys and blood vessels. Vasopressin helps prevent loss of water from the body by reducing urine output and helping the kidneys reabsorb water into the body. Vasopressin...
Definition of vasopressins in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of vasopressins. What does vasopressins mean? Information and translations of vasopressins in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
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Vasopressin in cardiac surgery. There is limited evidence surrounding the use of vasopressin in cardiac surgery. Anecdotally, we use vasopressin, both during cardiopulmonary bypass and after, when patients have refractory shock. We have no idea what impact this intervention has on outcome. One small (unconvincing) study suggests that the addition of vasopressin is not associated with increased predicted mortality associated with cardiac surgery.27 Specifically, and with scant evidence, vasopressin has been advocated for refractory shock in this setting, especially when there is coexisting pulmonary hypertension.28 In early animal studies, vasopressin was shown to cause pulmonary vasodilation. However, in a well-conducted dog study, vasopressin was shown to cause pulmonary vascular constriction and to exert an important negative inotropic effect on the right ventricle.29 This was not the case when phenylephrine was used to augment systemic BP.29 It may be that at high doses vasopressin causes ...
Severn Biotech, Limited SBP0296 - [Arg8]-Vasopressin - SBP0296 - [Arg8]-Vasopressin AVP MW: 1084.4 H-Cys-Tyr-Phe-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Arg-Gly-NH2 (Cys1-6, cyclic) Bell, J. et al. (1992) Int. J. Immunopharm. 14, 92. 5mg 25mg
AVPR1B antibody (arginine vasopressin receptor 1B) for IHC-P. Anti-AVPR1B pAb (GTX70663) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
AVPR1B antibody (arginine vasopressin receptor 1B) for IHC-P. Anti-AVPR1B pAb (GTX78015) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
PMID 25016245] Association between the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A) gene and preschoolers executive functioning ...
Physiological admeasurement for diagnosing psychiatric disorders. Based on several beastly studies, NMDA receptor - amenable for mediating fast synaptic manual in the axial afraid arrangement (CNS) - can aswell adapt the absolution of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the bloodstream. By aesthetic AVP absolution in bodies with a alkali solution, it was noticed that the allegation were constant with the above-mentioned beastly studies, i.e., participants challenged by abasement apparent an access in AVP and others grappling with schizophrenia displayed a abatement in AVP.. As of now, the in vivo appraisal of the NMDA receptors in bodies is not a possibility; therefore, the allegation of the abstraction are of abundant value, such that it uses the different blood-based biomarker to appraise the two brainy disorders. The analysis of this access has the abeyant to appraise any basal vulnerabilities of the patients harboring depressive affection or schizophrenia during psychiatric screening. In practice, ...
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The thing about science is that its always evolving. As we learn more about how the human body works, the things we always held as true may change. Recently, in the media, there have been some claims that cholesterol might not be as bad for you as originally thought. Many are taking this to mean […]. ...
Title: Specificity of Three Vasopressin Receptor Antagonists. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 6. Author(s):Jeremy T. Saks, Barbara Truitt and Menachem Shoham. Affiliation:Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106-4935, USA.. Keywords:Antagonist, GPCR, Receptor, Mozavaptan, Tolvaptan, Vaptan, Vasopressin, arginine vasopressin (AVP), hV1R, vasodilation, hyponatremia, hypervolemia, V2R, adenylyl cyclase. Abstract: Vasopressin receptor antagonists (vaptans) are a new class of drugs to treat congestive heart failure. Since there are three subtypes of the receptor located in different tissues, it is important to devise tailor-made vaptans to target the appropriate receptor subtype. The binding of three vaptans, OPC21268, mozavaptan and tolvapatan was measured to the human V1-vascular vasopressin receptor (hV1R). Whereas arginine vasopressin (AVP) binds to hV1R and hV2R with equal affinity, vaptans interact differently with the receptor ...
1. Plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin, plasma osmolality and packed cell volume were measured in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats at different ages.. 2. In young and in adolescent SHRSP, at 6, 9 and 12 weeks of age, plasma concentration of vasopressin was diminished as compared with age-matched WKY rats (P , 0.01), whereas, in 18-week-old rats, the difference was not significant (P , 0.05). In contrast, in 24-week-old rats, plasma vasopressin was elevated as compared with WKY rats of the same age (P , 0.01).. 3. In none of the age groups did plasma osmolality differ between the two strains of rats, but in all groups packed cell volume in SHRSP was higher than in WKY rats.. 4. During a 48 h period of dehydration, plasma vasopressin concentrations increased similarly in SHRSP and in WKY rats of 6 and 12 weeks of age respectively.. 5. It is concluded that vasopressin does not contribute to the development of high blood ...
1. Plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin, plasma osmolality and packed cell volume were measured in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats at different ages.. 2. In young and in adolescent SHRSP, at 6, 9 and 12 weeks of age, plasma concentration of vasopressin was diminished as compared with age-matched WKY rats (P , 0.01), whereas, in 18-week-old rats, the difference was not significant (P , 0.05). In contrast, in 24-week-old rats, plasma vasopressin was elevated as compared with WKY rats of the same age (P , 0.01).. 3. In none of the age groups did plasma osmolality differ between the two strains of rats, but in all groups packed cell volume in SHRSP was higher than in WKY rats.. 4. During a 48 h period of dehydration, plasma vasopressin concentrations increased similarly in SHRSP and in WKY rats of 6 and 12 weeks of age respectively.. 5. It is concluded that vasopressin does not contribute to the development of high blood ...
The attainment of nocturnal continence appears in part to depend on the development of a circadian rise in AVP resulting in reduced urine production at night. Neuronal networks involving the hypothalamic pituitary axis and AVP begin to become established early after birth,6 with circadian rhythms being determined from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), one of the three hypothalamic nuclei associated with AVP production. A number of studies have provided evidence for this circadian rise, although a previous study has shown wide variation in AVP concentrations, suggesting that frequent sampling is required to obtain an accurate picture of plasma AVP release at night.7 In children with low concentrations of AVP there is a direct relation between the mean plasma AVP concentration and response (fig 1). The lower the AVP the less likely the child is to respond to DDAVP. The confounding factor is the influence of previous breast feeding on response to DDAVP. Breast feeding is known to enhance early ...
Abstract: We examined the extent to which the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) were related to sensitive maternal behavior directly or indirectly via maternal social cognition. Participants were 207 (105 European-American and 102 African-American) mothers and their children (52% females). Sensitive maternal behavior was rated and aggregated across a series of tasks when infants were 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old. At 6 months, mothers were interviewed about their empathy, attributions about infant behavior and beliefs about crying to assess their parenting-related social cognition. Mothers with long alleles for AVPR1a and DRD4 engaged in more mother-oriented social cognition (i.e. negative attributions and beliefs about their infants crying, ß = 0.13, P < 0.05 and ß = 0.16, P < 0.05, respectively), which in turn predicted less sensitive maternal behavior (ß = -0.23, P < 0.01). Both indirect effects were statistically significant independent of one ...
Abstract: We examined the extent to which the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) were related to sensitive maternal behavior directly or indirectly via maternal social cognition. Participants were 207 (105 European-American and 102 African-American) mothers and their children (52% females). Sensitive maternal behavior was rated and aggregated across a series of tasks when infants were 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old. At 6 months, mothers were interviewed about their empathy, attributions about infant behavior and beliefs about crying to assess their parenting-related social cognition. Mothers with long alleles for AVPR1a and DRD4 engaged in more mother-oriented social cognition (i.e. negative attributions and beliefs about their infants crying, ß = 0.13, P < 0.05 and ß = 0.16, P < 0.05, respectively), which in turn predicted less sensitive maternal behavior (ß = -0.23, P < 0.01). Both indirect effects were statistically significant independent of one ...
Although many signalling molecules appear relevant to the production of complex behaviours, those that are important to the physiological regulation of behaviour, and so those that characterise individual styles of behaviour, are unknown. Vasopressin is the strongest candidate regulator of social behaviour. Experiments were carried out in consideration that vasopressin may directly regulate aggressive behaviour in lactating rats. Patterns of immediate early gene expression during/subsequent to aggressive behaviour suggested specific neural circuits may have significant direct regulatory influence over particular behaviours, and that activation of the V1b vasopressin receptor, in these circuits, may contribute to this putative regulatory signalling. In situ hybridisation studies indicated that patterns of vasopressin release, rather than receptor expression, might be important for any peripartum changes in behaviour driven by vasopressin. Although their relative importance is unknown, central ...
Terlipressin is a synthetic derivative of vasopressin. It is a prodrug that is converted to lysine vasopressin in the circulation after the N-triglycyl residue is cleaved by endothelial peptidases.21 This results in a rapid and sustained release of the structural analog lysine vasopressin. The reason for which terlipressin was investigated in the current study is that despite differences with AVP for its hemodynamic effects, terlipressin has been used as an alternative to exogenous AVP, especially in France, where AVP is not commercially available.12,22-25 Unexpectedly, terlipressin, which has been reported to be effective in catecholamine-resistant septic shock in adults12,24,26,27 and in children,28 did not increase MAP values during anaphylactic shock, regardless of the dose injected. The lack of increase of MAP in terlipressin-treated animals explains the shorter duration of the experiments as compared with the two other groups. The explanations for this lack of MAP effect are not clear. In ...
Deficiency of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) underlies diabetes insipidus, which is characterized by the excretion of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine and persistent thirst. In this issue of the JCI, Shi et al. report that Sel1L-Hrd1 ER-associated degradation (ERAD) is responsible for the clearance of misfolded pro-arginine vasopressin (proAVP) in the ER. Additionally, mice with Sel1L deficiency, either globally or specifically within AVP-expressing neurons, developed central diabetes insipidus. The results of this study demonstrate a role for ERAD in neuroendocrine cells and serve as a clinical example of the effect of misfolded ER proteins retrotranslocated through the membrane into the cytosol, where they are polyubiquitinated, extracted from the ER membrane, and degraded by the proteasome. Moreover, proAVP misfolding in hereditary central diabetes insipidus likely shares common physiopathological mechanisms with proinsulin misfolding in hereditary diabetes ...
The aim of this thesis was to determine any association between plasma oxytocin and vasopressin concentrations and renal water and sodium excretion during normal pregnancy. In addition to investigate changes in concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, oxytocin, cortisol, and glucose in the blood before and in the nearest hours after delivery and if treatment with oxytocin affected these concentrations and the fluid balance during the different stages of labour.. Oxytocin, vasopressin, estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were analysed in blood plasma or serum by radioimmunoassay or ELISA: serum glucose, and osmolality, and sodium in plasma and urine were analysed by standard laboratory techniques.. Fifty-seven women were studied during pregnancy and fifty-one during parturition and post partum. The low plasma vasopressin and increasing plasma oxytocin concentrations with unchanged water and sodium excretion indicate that oxytocin assists vasopressin in concentrating urine during ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Diabetes and congestive heart failure are diseases that have been associated with defects in the handling of salt and water by the kidney. Common in individuals with these disorders are elevated circulating levels of vasopressin, the peptide hormone that regulates renal water excretion. Circulating vasopressin plays a critical role in extra-cellular fluid expansion and development of hypertension, thus contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease. Vasopressin has clear long-term actions in the kidney, associated with vasopressin receptor activated processes and transcriptional regulation. Circulating vasopressin also increases the concentrating capacity of the renal medulla by activating the counter current mechanism. The result is an increase in medullary osmotic stress that can directly activate renal cell signaling pathways and gene transcription. Thus specific effects of vasopressin on gene expression are not delineated from secondary alterations ...
Many studies have shown that witnessing anothers distress can lead to an aversive affective arousal, and a physiological stress response. Studies with humans document that the perception of another in pain or emotional distress activates neural structures that are also involved in processing of the first-hand experience of pain [53]. Markers of stress, such as elevated cortisol, are observed in people who are exposed to others pain [102]. Placebo analgesia reduces empathic responses [103], demonstrating that the same circuit is used for processing self and others pain. Some pharmacological studies of anxiolytics support the role of affective resonance in prosocial decision-making. The benzodiazepine Lorazepam increases utilitarian choices [104] and the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol reduces racial bias [105]. The modulation of social behaviour with these drugs may be due to their effect on OT and arginine vasopressin release in the brain rather than a systemic inhibition of ...
Vasopressin, also called antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in
Somatostatin, a hormone that signals via Gi/Go, usually inhibits increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and insulin release from β-cells. We have found that in the presence of arginine vasopressin (AVP), which signals via Gq, somatostatin increased [Ca2+]i, leading to insulin release in HIT-T15 cells. The increase in [Ca2+]i by somatostatin was observed even after 60min of AVP treatment. Somatostatin alone failed to increase [Ca2+]i and insulin release. Somatostatin induced changes in [Ca2+]i in a biphasic pattern, characterized by a sharp and transient increase followed by a rapid decline to sub-basal levels. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin, which inactivates Gi/Go, abolished the effects of somatostatin. U-73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C, antagonized the somatostatin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i. In Ca2+-free medium, somatostatin still increased [Ca2+]i. Depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores with thapsigargin, a microsomal Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, abolished ...
In this study, we demonstrate that selective pharmacological inhibition of AVP V1a receptors after SAH reduces the posthemorrhagic increase in systemic blood pressure (Cushing response), thereby attenuating the primary bleeding and preventing the detrimental effect of rebleedings. As a result, brain edema formation is blunted, mortality is reduced from 50% to 20%, and animals have a better functional outcome.. Our data indicate that the underlying mechanism of this finding is the involvement of AVP and AVP V1a receptors in the ICP-induced increase in systemic blood pressure (Cushing reflex) immediately after SAH. A sharp increase in ICP triggers the release of AVP into the bloodstream; consecutive activation of vascular V1a receptors results in systemic arterial constriction and a subsequent hypertensive response, which exacerbates SAH and potential rebleedings. Inhibition of AVP V1a receptors blunts the Cushing response, thereby resulting in less severe initial bleeding, prevention of ...
The history of humankind is an epic of cooperation, which is ubiquitous across societies and increasing in scale. Much human cooperation occurs where it is risky to cooperate for mutual benefit because successful cooperation depends on a sufficient level of cooperation by others. Here we show that arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide that mediates complex mammalian social behaviors such as pair bonding, social recognition and aggression causally increases humans willingness to engage in risky, mutually beneficial cooperation. In two double-blind experiments, male participants received either AVP or placebo intranasally and made decisions with financial consequences in the "Stag hunt" cooperation game. AVP increases humans willingness to cooperate. That increase is not due to an increase in the general willingness to bear risks or to altruistically help others. Using functional brain imaging, we show that, when subjects make the risky Stag choice, AVP down-regulates the BOLD signal in the ...
Brain ischemia-induced neuronal cell death is due to a shortage of oxygen and glucose [9, 37]. On the other hand, in the brain, lactate production increases with ischemia [38] and provides neuroprotection [9]. Lactate is produced by astrocytes via glycolysis and glycogenolysis and supports neuronal cells [39]. Regulation of lactate production and transport to neuronal cells by MCTs might reduce neuronal cell death after cerebral ischemia [40]. On the other hand, AVP affects astrocytic functions and regulates the onset of ischemic stroke [28]. For example, AVP induces ischemia-evoked brain edema in the setting of ischemic stroke [26]. Moreover, AVP induces production of inflammatory molecules after cerebral edema [24], and it subsequently enhances disruption of the BBB [25]. To better understand these findings, we compared AVP and/or H/R contributions to lactate production, expression of Slc16a1, Slc16a4, and Bdnf in cultured astrocytes isolated from SHRSP/Izm, SHRpch1_18, and WKY/Izm ...
We acknowledge the Gadigal people of the Eora Nation, the traditional owners and custodians of the land on which the Garvan Institute of Medical Research is located. We pay respects to Elders, past, present and future, and recognise the continuing connection and contribution to this land. ...
(trans)-Isomer 3,4-Dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide: A non-peptide, kappa-opioid receptor agonist which has also been found to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin (ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE) via the release of hypothalamic arginine vasopressin (ARGININE VASOPRESSIN) and CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997;280(1):416-21)
Tolvaptan is an orally administered, nonpeptide, selective arginine vasopressin V(2) receptor antagonist that increases free water clearance, thereby correcting low serum sodium levels. SALT-1 and -2, two identical, randomized, double-blind, placebo-
Fast, simple luminescent calcium flux assays using an AequoScreen cell line stably-transfected with human vasopressin V2 receptor.
The AVP gene provides instructions for making a hormone called vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH starts out as a larger molecule called a preprohormone, which is cut (cleaved) and modified to produce the active hormone and several related proteins. The preprohormone is made in a region of the brain called the hypothalamus. It is then transported to the nearby pituitary gland, where active ADH is stored until it is needed.. The major function of ADH is to help control the bodys water balance by determining how much water is excreted in urine. Normally, when a persons fluid intake is low or when a lot of fluid is lost (for example, through sweating), the pituitary gland releases more ADH into the bloodstream. High levels of this hormone direct the kidneys to reabsorb more water and to make less urine. When fluid intake is adequate, the pituitary gland releases less ADH. Lower levels of this hormone cause the kidneys to reabsorb less water and to make more urine. ...
Data from 36 healthy volunteers in the first stage of a double-blind, crossover Phase I trial showed that AVP-786 plus low-dose quinidine had a comparable pharmacokinetic, safety and tolerability profile to that of AVP-923, a combination product containing dextromethorphan and a higher dose of quinidine (10 mg) than that given with AVP-786. Avanir said AVP-786 and AVP-923 contained the same amount of dextromethorphan in the trial, but declined to disclose the actual dose.
BioAssay record AID 426806 submitted by ChEMBL: Antagonist activity at human cloned vasopressin V1A receptor at 2 uM by cell based beta-lactamase assay.
The present invention relates to novel oxindole derivatives of the general formula (I) to medicaments comprising them and to their use for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of diseases vasopressin dep
85114-98-3 - DQHKJGSQVWIRAZ-KLMJERDXSA-N - Vasopressin, 1-deamino-(2-(O-methyl)tyr)-4-val-8-arg- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Cells, Report, Acceleration, Acids, Adenovirus, AMP, Amp-activated Protein Kinase, Arginine, Arginine Vasopressin, Cardiac Hypertrophy, Cell, Cell Line, Dantrolene, Egta, Fatty Acids, Glucose, Glycolysis, Heart, Heart Muscle, Heart Muscle Cells
NEX310 [125I]-Phenylacetyl-D-Tyr(Me)-Phe-Gln-Asn-Arg-Pro-Arg-Tyr-NH2 is useful in receptor studies and autoradiography for the localization and characterization of Vasopressin V1A receptors. ...
V-0414 (Lys8)-Vasopressin, Terlipressin (4-12), Lypressin, LVP, Lysipressin C46H65N13O12S2 1056.23 50-57-7 H-Cys-Tyr-Phe-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Lys-Gly-NH2 (Disulfide bond) R&D only
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At the hospital I now work at we have just started using vasopressin on hypotensive pts from sepsis, the dose the doc wrote was o.o4U per min and not to be titrated. I also work at a large Level 1
Question 5: ________ (alcohol) acts as an antagonist for AVP in the collecting ducts of the kidneys, which prevents aquaporins from binding to the collecting ducts, and prevents water reabsorption. ...
Peptides are biologically appearing short chains of amino acid monomers bridged by peptide (amide) bonds. whatsapp:+8617707569722 web: www.roidraw.com email: [email protected]
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Arginine is one of the compounds responsible for helping blood vessels contract and expand, helping to control blood flow. Most people get all the arginine they need by eating a healthy...
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The body uses L Arginine supplements to dilate blood vessels. Read the following guide to know what to look for when finding the best L Arginine supplement.
Suurepärane arginiini allikas. See aitab Sind kasvatada lihasmassi ja vabaneda rasvast. Suurendab lämmastikoksiidide taset organiismis, mis omakorda märgatavalt suurendab verevoolu ja hapniku vedamist iga rakule. Mega Arginine stimuleerib immuunsüsteem...
The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides a central location for voluntary submission of genetic test information by providers. The scope includes the tests purpose, methodology, validity, evidence of the tests usefulness, and laboratory contacts and credentials. The overarching goal of the GTR is to advance the public health and research into the genetic basis of health and disease
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arginine vasopressin is a much more potent stimulus to acth release from ovine anterior pituitary cells than ovine corticotropin-releasing factor. T2 - 1. In vitro studies. AU - Familari, Mlary. AU - Smith, A. Ian. AU - Smith, Robin. AU - Funder, John W.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - Cultured rat and ovine anterior pituitary cells were treated with a range of doses (0.01-1,000 nM) of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and ovine corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), alone or in combination, and medium and cell content of immuno-reactive (ir-)ACTH determined. In rat cells, a dose-response curve to CRF was obtained, with a threshold dose of 0.1 nM\ A VP was much less effective alone, but augmented CRF responses when administered with CRF. In ovine pituitary cells AVP markedly stimulated ACTH release in a dose-dependent fashion, and with a threshold of 0.1 nM\ in contrast, CRF increased ACTH release over basal only at doses , 100 nM. In combination, subthreshold doses of AVP ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endogenous vasopressin and renin-angiotensin systems support blood pressure after epidural block in humans. AU - Carp, H.. AU - Vadhera, Rakesh. AU - Jayaram, A.. AU - Garvey, D.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Background: Studies in experimental animals show that endogenous Arg- vasopressin (AVP) and the renin-angiotensin system support blood pressure when the sympathetic system is impaired pharmacologically or after epidural anesthesia. However, extrapolation to humans is uncertain. Therefore, we administered an AVP type V1 receptor antagonist and an angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor to volunteers and measured the effect on blood pressure after epidural anesthesia. Methods: Healthy volunteers in whom epidural catheters were placed were randomly assigned to receive 1.25 mg intravenous enalapril or saline placebo followed by 0.5 mg AVP type V1 antagonist β-mercapto-β,β-cyclopentamethylene-proprionyl-o-Met-Tyr-Arg- vasopressin (AVPA) or saline placebo. Finally, 2% lidocaine ...
The effect of vasopressin released during Finnish sauna on blood pressure, heart rate and skin blood flow was investigated in 12 healthy volunteers. Exposure to the hot air decrease body weight by 0.6 to 1.25 kg (mean = 0.8 kg, P less than 0.001). One hour after the end of the sauna sessions, plasma vasopressin was higher (1.7 +/- 0.2 pg/ml, P less than 0.01 mean +/- SEM) than before the sauna (1.0 +/- 0.1 pg/ml). No simultaneous change in plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, plasma norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, aldosterone, beta-endorphin and metenkephalin levels was observed. Despite the slight sauna-induced elevation in circulating vasopressin, intravenous injection of the specific vascular vasopressin antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP (5 micrograms/kg) 1 h after the sauna had no effect on blood pressure, heart rate or skin blood flow. These data suggest that vasopressin released into the circulation during a sauna session reaches concentrations which are not high enough to interfere ...
A pituitary glycopeptide whose amino acid sequence was previously identified has now been recognized as the final portion of the precursor to arginine vasopressin and its associated neurophysin. Immunocytochemical techniques with antiserums against this 39 amino acid peptide and vasopressin were used to study their distribution in the rat central nervous system. The peptide is located in vasopressin-synthesizing cells in the neurosecretory magnocellular nuclei. Positively stained fibers project from the magnocellular nuclei through the median eminence to the posterior pituitary. Studies of the homozygous Brattleboro rat, which is known to be deficient in the production of vasopressin and its related neurophysin, also show the absence of immunoreactivity to this peptide. These immunocytochemical data strongly indicate that the peptide is synthesized with vasopressin. ...
Background: We had previously shown that vasopressin levels rise by 100-fold with fetal bypass, suggesting a possible role in rising placental vascular resistance seen with fetal cardiac surgery. To test our hypothesis that vasopressin may play a central role in placental dysfunction following fetal bypass, we carried out isolated vessel bath studies with placental vasculature, using vasopressin and selective vasopressin receptor antagonism (V1-a).. Methods: Adult rat aortas (controls) and fourth order ovine placental vessels were harvested and 5 mm rings mounted in temperature controlled aerated Radnoti vessel baths with continuous isometric tension measurement and recording. All vessels were tested with phenylephrine and acetylcholine to demonstrate viability of endothelium and baseline vascular smooth muscle responses. Placental vessels (n=6) and rat aortas (n=8) were exposed to log doses of vasopressin (10−11 to 10−7 g/mL). Placental vessels (n=5) and rat aortas (n=4) were treated with ...
Water excretion by the kidney is regulated by the peptide hormone vasopressin. Vasopressin increases the water permeability of the renal collecting duct cells, allowing more water to be reabsorbed from collecting duct urine to blood. Despite long-standing interest in this process, the mechanism of the water permeability increase has remained undetermined. Recently, a molecular water channel (AQP-CD) has been cloned whose expression appears to be limited to the collecting duct. Previously, we immunolocalized this water channel to the apical plasma membrane (APM) and to intracellular vesicles (IVs) of collecting duct cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that vasopressin increases cellular water permeability by inducing exocytosis of AQP-CD-laden vesicles, transferring water channels from IVs to APM. Rat collecting ducts were perfused in vitro to determine water permeability and subcellular distribution of AQP-CD in the same tubules. The collecting ducts were fixed for immunoelectron microscopy ...
Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is a recently identified chromosome X-linked disease associated with gain-of-function mutations of the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R), a...
In isolated rat hepatocytes, vasopressin evoked a large increase in the incorporation of [32P]Pi into phosphatidylinositol, accompanied by smaller increases in the incorporation of [1-14C]oleate and [U-14C]glycerol. Incorporation of these precursors into the other major phospholipids was unchanged during vasopressin treatment. Vasopressin also promoted phosphatidylinositol breakdown in hepatocytes. Half-maximum effects on phosphatidylinositol breakdown and on phosphatidylinositol labelling occurred at about 5 nM-vasopressin, a concentration at which approximately half of the hepatic vasopressin receptors are occupied but which is much greater than is needed to produce half-maximal activation of glycogen phosphorylase. Insulin did not change the incorporation of [32P]Pi into the phospholipids of hepatocytes and it had no effect on the response to vasopressin. Although the incorporation of [32P]Pi into hepatocyte lipids was decreased when cells were incubated in a Ca2+-free medium, vasopressin ...
To investigate the ability of arginine vasopressin (AVP) to compete with metabolic vasodilatory factors in the coronary circulation, we examined the coronary vascular and myocardial effects of AVP in isolated working rat hearts during normoxic and hypoxic perfusion. In normoxic hearts, AVP treatment (777 +/- 67 pg/ml) reduced coronary flow by 38.4 +/- 2.6%. Myocardial function was also significantly decreased by AVP whereas efficiency significantly increased. In contrast, the same dose of AVP administered to hypoxic hearts resulted in substantially smaller effects on coronary flow (-11.5 +/- 2.8%), myocardial function, and efficiency. In hearts treated first with AVP and then with hypoxia, the greater degree of coronary vasodilation compared with that observed in hearts treated with hypoxia alone also indicated an antagonizing effect of hypoxia on AVP-mediated coronary constriction. It was also noted that the hypoxia treatment alone resulted in reductions of O2 supply and consumption identical ...
Copeptin (also known as CT-proAVP) is a 39-amino acid-long peptide derived from a pre-pro-hormone consisting of vasopressin, neurophysin II and copeptin. Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is involved in multiple cardiovascular and renal pathways and functions. However, vasopressin measurements are not commonly used in clinical practice because of the biochemical features of the molecule: its small size and very short half-life make vasopressin testing quite complicated and labor-intensive. On the other hand, copeptin can be immunologically tested with ease and therefore be used as a vasopressin surrogate. Copeptin is a 39-amino acid-long, glycosylated peptide. It is synthesized mainly in the paraventricular neurons of the hypothalamus and in the supraoptical nucleus. During axonal transport, pre-pro-AVP is proteolytically cleaved into vasopressin, neurophysin II and copeptin. These molecules are then stored in secretory granules in the posterior pituitary ...
Context The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, or corticotropin-releasing hormone) and arginine vasopressin systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depressive disorders and response to antidepressant treatment.. Objective To study the association of genetic variants in 10 genes that regulate the CRF and arginine vasopressin systems with treatment response to citalopram in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) sample (N = 1768).. Design Pharmacogenetic association study derived from the STAR*D study, a multicenter, prospective, open, 12-week effectiveness trial.. Setting Outpatient primary care and psychiatric clinics.. Patients Individuals with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder for whom DNA was available who were subsequently treated with citalopram hydrobromide for 4 to 12 weeks.. Intervention Flexible doses of citalopram.. Main Outcome Measure Association of genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding the CRF system with response and ...
Human Arginine Vasopressin Receptor V1B (AVPR1B) is one of the three major receptor types for vasopressin (AVPR1A and AVPR2 being the others).
The neuropeptide Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone found in humans. It is mainly released when the body is low on water; it stimulates water reabsorption in the kidneys. It performs diverse actions when released in the brain, and has been implicated in memory formation, aggression, blood pressure regulation, and temperature regulation. Similar vassopressins are found in other mammalian species.. In recent years, there has been particular interest in the role of vasopressin in social behavior. It is thought that vasopressin, released into the brain during sexual activity, initiates and sustains patterns of activity that support the pair-bond between the sexual partners; in particular, vasopressin seems to induce the male to become aggressive towards other males. Evidence for this connection comes from experimental studies on several species which indicate that the precise distribution of vasopressin and vasopressin receptors in the ...
Looking for online definition of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin in the Medical Dictionary? 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin explanation free. What is 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin? Meaning of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin medical term. What does 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin mean?
Lysine vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), like cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), rapidly (in less than 1 hour) stimulates the initiation of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis and thereby increases the flow of cells into mitosis in rat thymic lymphocyte populations in vitro. This mitogenic action of vasopressin, again like that of cyclic AMP, is potentiated by caffeine, an inhibitor of the intracellular phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the degradation of cyclic AMP. On the other hand, vasopressins mitogenic action (also like that of cyclic AMP) is blocked by imidazole, an activator of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity. The hormone, thyrocalcitonin (calcitonin) which is known to block the cyclic AMP-mediated mitogenic effect of parathyroid hormone by interfering with cyclic AMP action, also blocks the mitogenic action of vasopressin. The inhibitory effects of imidazole and thyrocalcitonin on vasopressins mitogenic action are both overcome by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor
Desmopressin is a synthetic analog of human endogenous antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin; its major action is to reduce urine production.16 Nørgaard et al17 postulated that some children with nocturnal enuresis produce high volumes of urine with low osmolarity at night, with no associated increase in secretion of antidiuretic hormone, hence the applicability of desmopressin given at bedtime to supplement antidiuretic hormone and increase overnight urine osmolality and decrease urine volume, leading to dry nights.18-20 According to several literature reviews, desmopressin treatments render immediate response; however, they are associated with high relapse rates after abrupt withdrawal.5,6 Critical care studies have postulated that suppressed endogenous vasopressin caused by vasopressin infusion and sudden withdrawal may lead to sustained vasopressin deficiencies.21 Endocrine withdrawal syndrome is an established physiologic phenomenon after discontinuation of hormone therapy, which ...
Vasodilatory or distributive shock is the most common cause of shock in intensive care units (ICUs) and is characterised by low blood pressure due to peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolaemia despite normal or increased cardiac output.1 Immediate treatment with fluids and vasopressors is required to ensure adequate organ perfusion. In several cases the desired level of mean arterial pressure (MAP) cannot be maintained despite high doses of conventional vasopressors, namely catecholamines.2 This condition is called refractory shock and is associated with a poor outcome.2 3 Several studies have investigated the effects of alternative vasopressors for treatment of vasodilatory shock.4 5 … ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity in the paraventricular nucleus buffers central endothelin-1-induced pressor response and vasopressin secretion. AU - Rossi, Noreen F.. AU - Black, Stephen M.. AU - Telemaque-Potts, Sabine. AU - Chen, Haiping. PY - 2004/11/1. Y1 - 2004/11/1. N2 - Endothelin 1 (ET-1) injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle increases sympathetic output, arterial pressure and plasma vasopressin (AVP). These responses are mediated by glutamatergic inputs and inhibited by γ-amino-butyric acidergic inputs in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It has been suggested that nitric oxide enhances these γ-amino-butyric acidergic inhibitory inputs. The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that decreasing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity within the PVN will potentiate ET-1-induced increases in arterial pressure and alter plasma AVP secretion. Male Long Evans rats underwent adenoviral gene transfer of β-galactosidase, Ad.CMV.β-gal ...
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (also known as renal diabetes insipidus) is a form of diabetes insipidus primarily due to pathology of the kidney. This is in contrast to central/neurogenic diabetes insipidus, which is caused by insufficient levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, that is, arginine vasopressin or AVP). Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by an improper response of the kidney to ADH, leading to a decrease in the ability of the kidney to concentrate the urine by removing free water. The clinical manifestation is similar to neurogenic diabetes insipidus, presenting with excessive thirst and excretion of a large amount of dilute urine. Dehydration is common, and incontinence can occur secondary to chronic bladder distension. On investigation, there will be an increased plasma osmolarity and decreased urine osmolarity. As pituitary function is normal, ADH levels are likely to be abnormal or raised. Polyuria will continue as long as the patient is able to drink. If the patient is ...

Posterior Pituitary Hormones: How Does the Pituitary Gland Affect You?Posterior Pituitary Hormones: How Does the Pituitary Gland Affect You?

It is known by several names including arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasopressin and argipressin. ... The name vasopressin is derived from the hormones effect on the cardiovascular system. The other major effect of ADH is mild, ... Colorado State University: Antidiuretic Hormone (Vasopressin). Stanford Universitys Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base (PharmGKB ...
more infohttps://www.brighthub.com/science/medical/articles/111965.aspx

Tolvasca 15mg | Tolvaptan |Million Health pharmaceuticalsTolvasca 15mg | Tolvaptan |Million Health pharmaceuticals

Tolvaptan is a kind of selective and competitive arginine vasopressin receptor 2 antagonist. Vasopressin performs action on the ... Tolvaptan is essentially required for heart failure patients as they have higher serum levels of vasopressin. ...
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Specificity of Three Vasopressin Receptor Antagonists | Bentham ScienceSpecificity of Three Vasopressin Receptor Antagonists | Bentham Science

Keywords:Antagonist, GPCR, Receptor, Mozavaptan, Tolvaptan, Vaptan, Vasopressin, arginine vasopressin (AVP), hV1R, vasodilation ... Keywords: Antagonist, GPCR, Receptor, Mozavaptan, Tolvaptan, Vaptan, Vasopressin, arginine vasopressin (AVP), hV1R, ... Whereas arginine vasopressin (AVP) binds to hV1R and hV2R with equal affinity, vaptans interact differently with the receptor ... Whereas arginine vasopressin (AVP) binds to hV1R and hV2R with equal affinity, vaptans interact differently with the receptor ...
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Pathophysiology and etiology of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)Pathophysiology and etiology of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)

Elevated arginine vasopressin levels in squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. Laryngoscope 1996; 106:317. ... Regulation of arginine vasopressin in the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis. Am J Med 2006; 119:S36. ... Osmotic and non-osmotic regulation of arginine vasopressin (AVP) release, mRNA, and promoter activity in small cell lung ... Carbamazepine diminishes the sensitivity of the plasma arginine vasopressin response to osmotic stimulation. J Clin Endocrinol ...
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Arginine Vasopressin (AVP, Antidiuretic Hormone, ADH)Arginine Vasopressin (AVP, Antidiuretic Hormone, ADH)

... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide ... Arginine Vasopressin Hormone. 2. Vasopressin (AVP) RIA Test. 3. Vasopressin. 4. Antidiuretic Hormone, Plasma. 5. Antidiuretic ... Arginine Vasopressin (AVP, Antidiuretic Hormone, ADH). Company. ARUP Laboratories. Item. Arginine Vasopressin (AVP, ...
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The Circadian Rhythm of Copeptin, the C-Terminal Portion of Arginine VasopressinThe Circadian Rhythm of Copeptin, the C-Terminal Portion of Arginine Vasopressin

... Svetlana Beglinger,1 Jürgen Drewe,2 and ... G. Szinnai, N. G. Morgenthaler, K. Berneis et al., "Changes in plasma copeptin, the C-terminal portion of arginine vasopressin ... S. Jochberger, N. G. Morgenthaler, V. D. Mayr et al., "Copeptin and arginine vasopressin concentrations in critically Ill ... the C-terminal vasopressin precursor fragment," Clinical Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 1190-1191, 2010. View at Publisher · ...
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Avpr1b MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:1347010 - arginine vasopressin receptor 1BAvpr1b MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:1347010 - arginine vasopressin receptor 1B

View mouse Avpr1b Chr1:131599239-131612000 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
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Concomitant arginine-vasopressin and hydrocortisone therapy in severe septic shock: association with mortality | SpringerLinkConcomitant arginine-vasopressin and hydrocortisone therapy in severe septic shock: association with mortality | SpringerLink

Purpose To evaluate the association between concomitant arginine-vasopressin (AVP)/hydrocortisone therapy and mortality in ... Arginine-vasopressin Hydrocortisone Septic shock Mortality None of the authors has a conflict of interest in regard to the ... Dünser MW, Mayr AJ, Ulmer H, Knotzer H, Sumann G, Pajk W, Friesenecker B, Hasibeder WR (2003) Arginine vasopressin in advanced ... Bauer SR, Lam SW, Ch SS, Oyen LJ (2008) Effect of corticosteroids on arginine vasopressin-containing vasopressor therapy for ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00134-011-2312-3

Arginine Vasopressin HormoneArginine Vasopressin Hormone

... Resultable. N. pg/mL. XX.X. 3126-0. For questions regarding the Interface Map, please contact ... Arginine Vasopressin Hormone. 3126-0. * Component test codes cannot be used to order tests. The information provided here is ...
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The antidiuretic effect of pneumadin requires a functional arginine vasopressin system. | Sigma-AldrichThe antidiuretic effect of pneumadin requires a functional arginine vasopressin system. | Sigma-Aldrich

The antidiuretic effect of pneumadin requires a functional arginine vasopressin system.. [J D Watson, D B Jennings, I R Sarda, ... intravenous injection of 20 nmol of pneumadin into non-water-loaded rats caused a significant increase in arginine vasopressin ...
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Arginine Vasopressin Receptor 1B ELISA & Assay KitsArginine Vasopressin Receptor 1B ELISA & Assay Kits

Compare and order Arginine Vasopressin Receptor 1B ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices ... arginine vasopressin receptor 3 , pituitary vasopressin receptor 3 , vasopressin V3 receptor , V3/V1b pituitary vasopressin ... More product categories related to Arginine Vasopressin Receptor 1B ELISA Kit * 153 anti-Arginine Vasopressin Receptor 1B ... pituitary vasotocin receptor , vasopressin V1b receptor , arginine vasopressin receptor 1B , V1A(1) , vasopressin V1b receptor- ...
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Effect of Arginine Vasopressin on Haemostasis in Chronic Liver Disease | Clinical ScienceEffect of Arginine Vasopressin on Haemostasis in Chronic Liver Disease | Clinical Science

Effect of Arginine Vasopressin on Haemostasis in Chronic Liver Disease. S.H. Saverymuttu, C. Pollard, A. Chitolie, S.S. Nussey ... Effect of Arginine Vasopressin on Haemostasis in Chronic Liver Disease. S.H. Saverymuttu, C. Pollard, A. Chitolie, S.S. Nussey ... Effect of Arginine Vasopressin on Haemostasis in Chronic Liver Disease Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
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AVPI1 (arginine vasopressin-induced 1) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)AVPI1 (arginine vasopressin-induced 1) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)

arginine vasopressin-induced 1. Synonyms: 2310008N12Rik, mVIT32. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, and PMID ...
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The Reflex Control of Arginine-Vasopressin Release in Essential Hypertension | Clinical Science | Portland PressThe Reflex Control of Arginine-Vasopressin Release in Essential Hypertension | Clinical Science | Portland Press

... do not play a direct role in arginine-vasopressin release and, therefore, the opposite response of arginine-vasopressin ... The Reflex Control of Arginine-Vasopressin Release in Essential Hypertension B. Ricciardelli B. Ricciardelli ... 2. After 45 min 85° head-up tilt, normal subjects showed an increase in plasma arginine-vasopressin and in plasma renin ... B. Ricciardelli, M. Volpe, B. Trimarco, M. Chiariello, F. Rengo, Mario Condorelli; The Reflex Control of Arginine-Vasopressin ...
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Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits osmolality-induced arginine vasopressin release in man | Clinical ScienceAtrial natriuretic peptide inhibits osmolality-induced arginine vasopressin release in man | Clinical Science

Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits osmolality-induced arginine vasopressin release in man. M. J. Allen, V. T. Y. Ang, E. D. ... Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits osmolality-induced arginine vasopressin release in man. M. J. Allen, V. T. Y. Ang, E. D. ... Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits osmolality-induced arginine vasopressin release in man Message Subject (Your Name) has ... α-hANP produced significant suppression of mean plasma arginine vasopressin over the 60 min after the infusions. ...
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1-deamino 8-d-arginine Vasopressin (DDAVP) in Percutaneous Ultrasound-guided Renal Biopsy - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov1-deamino 8-d-arginine Vasopressin (DDAVP) in Percutaneous Ultrasound-guided Renal Biopsy - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

1-deamino 8-d-arginine Vasopressin (DDAVP) in Percutaneous Ultrasound-guided Renal Biopsy. The safety and scientific validity ... 1-deamino 8-d-arginine Vasopressin in Percutaneous Ultrasound-guided Renal Biopsy: a Randomized Controlled Trial. ... 1-deamino 8-d-arginine Vasopressin (DDAVP) in Percutaneous Ultrasound-guided Renal Biopsy. ... The investigators evaluated the effect of pre-biopsy treatment with 1-deamino-8-D-arginine (DDAVP) on the incidence of post- ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00748072?term=%22Diabetes+Insipidus%22+%5BDISEASE%5D

1-Desamino 8D Arginine Vasopressin - Nordic Biosite1-Desamino 8D Arginine Vasopressin - Nordic Biosite

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1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin - definition of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin by The Free Dictionary1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin - definition of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin by The Free Dictionary

1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin synonyms, 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin pronunciation, 1-desamino-8-D-arginine ... vasopressin translation, English dictionary definition of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin. desmopressin. Translations. ... 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin - definition of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin by The Free Dictionary https://www. ... redirected from 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin). Also found in: Medical. Translations ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/1-desamino-8-D-arginine+vasopressin

1-deamino 8-d-arginine Vasopressin (DDAVP) in Percutaneous Ultrasound-guided Renal Biopsy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov1-deamino 8-d-arginine Vasopressin (DDAVP) in Percutaneous Ultrasound-guided Renal Biopsy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Vasopressins. Arginine Vasopressin. Deamino Arginine Vasopressin. Hemostatics. Coagulants. Vasoconstrictor Agents. Antidiuretic ... 1-deamino 8-d-arginine Vasopressin (DDAVP) in Percutaneous Ultrasound-guided Renal Biopsy. The safety and scientific validity ... 1-deamino 8-d-arginine Vasopressin in Percutaneous Ultrasound-guided Renal Biopsy: a Randomized Controlled Trial. ... The investigators evaluated the effect of pre-biopsy treatment with 1-deamino-8-D-arginine (DDAVP) on the incidence of post- ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00748072?term=%22Diabetes+Insipidus%22+%5BDISEASE%5D&rank=11

Molecules | Free Full-Text | Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Substituted Desloratadines as Potent Arginine Vasopressin...Molecules | Free Full-Text | Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Substituted Desloratadines as Potent Arginine Vasopressin...

Twenty-one non-peptide substituted desloratadine class compounds were synthesized as novel arginine vasopressin receptor ... arginine vasopressin receptor antagonists; biological activity substituted desloratadine; synthesis; arginine vasopressin ... Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Substituted Desloratadines as Potent Arginine Vasopressin V2 Receptor Antagonists. Shuai ... Twenty-one non-peptide substituted desloratadine class compounds were synthesized as novel arginine vasopressin receptor ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/19/2/2694

Serotonin and arginine-vasopressin mediate sex differences in the regulation of dominance and aggression by the social brain |...Serotonin and arginine-vasopressin mediate sex differences in the regulation of dominance and aggression by the social brain |...

2010) Arginine-vasopressin and the regulation of aggression in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Eur J Neurosci 31 ... Serotonin and arginine-vasopressin mediate sex differences in the regulation of dominance and aggression by the social brain. ... Serotonin and arginine-vasopressin mediate sex differences in the regulation of dominance and aggression by the social brain ... Here, we report that serotonin (5-HT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) act in opposite ways within the hypothalamus to regulate ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/113/46/13233

Investigation of the Functions of Insect Arginine Vasopressin-like PeptidesInvestigation of the Functions of Insect Arginine Vasopressin-like Peptides

... K-REx Repository. Search K-REx. This Collection. ... Investigation of the Functions of Insect Arginine Vasopressin-like Peptides. Edwardson, Fenwicht; Rogan Tokach; Kim, Donghun; ... The neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a multifunctional signaling peptide that is highly conserved across eukaryotic ... These traits among others merit the study of the arginine vasopressin-like (AVPL) hormone found in insects (Aikins et al., 2008 ...
more infohttp://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/handle/2097/35258

Arginine vasopressin V1-antagonist and atrial natriuretic peptide reduce hemorrhagic brain edema in rats. | StrokeArginine vasopressin V1-antagonist and atrial natriuretic peptide reduce hemorrhagic brain edema in rats. | Stroke

Arginine vasopressin V1-antagonist and atrial natriuretic peptide reduce hemorrhagic brain edema in rats.. G A Rosenberg, O ... Injection of arginine vasopressin into the cerebral ventricles in animals with brain injury increased brain water, whereas ... The arginine vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist and atrial natriuretic peptide significantly (p , 0.05) reduced water and ... Antagonists to arginine vasopressin V1 receptors and atrial natriuretic peptide both significantly reduce hemorrhagic brain ...
more infohttp://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/23/12/1767

A major SNP haplotype of the arginine vasopressin 1B receptor protects against recurrent major depressionA major SNP haplotype of the arginine vasopressin 1B receptor protects against recurrent major depression

... van West, D ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP) influences several symptoms, relevant to affective disorders, notable memory processes, pain ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:939785
  • Unselective (mixed V1A/V2) Conivaptan V1A selective (V1RA) Relcovaptan V1B selective (V3RA) Nelivaptan V2 selective (V2RA) Lixivaptan Mozavaptan Satavaptan Tolvaptan Demeclocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, is sometimes used to block the action of vasopressin in the kidney in hyponatremia due to inappropriately high secretion of vasopressin (SIADH), when fluid restriction has failed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bolus intravenous injection of 20 nmol of pneumadin into non-water-loaded rats caused a significant increase in arginine vasopressin (AVP) within 10 min. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Polycystin defects increase intracellular cAMP, secondary messenger for vasopressin acting at V2R, leading to cyst development. (wikipedia.org)
  • These traits among others merit the study of the arginine vasopressin-like (AVPL) hormone found in insects (Aikins et al. (k-state.edu)
  • Aquaporin-2, a member of the aquaporin family, is an arginine vasopressin-regulated water channel expressed in the renal collecting duct, and a promising marker of the concentrating and diluting ability of the kidney. (mdpi.com)