An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC 2.7.3.3.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.
A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
A hydrated form of silicon dioxide. It is commonly used in the manufacture of TOOTHPASTES and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY.
A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The method of measuring the dispersion of an optically active molecule to determine the relative magnitude of right- or left-handed components and sometimes structural features of the molecule.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group onto a nitrogenous group acceptor. EC 2.7.3.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

O-Crystallin, arginine kinase and ferritin from the octopus lens. (1/75)

Three proteins have been identified in the eye lens of the octopus, Octopus dofleini. A 22 kDa protein comprising 3-5% of the soluble protein of the lens is 35-43% identical to a family of phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins of vertebrates. Other members of this family include the immunodominant antigen of the filarial parasite, Onchocerca volvulus, putative odorant-binding proteins of Drosophila and a protein with unknown function of Caenorhabditis elegans. We have called this protein O-crystallin on the basis of its abundance in the transparent lens. O-Crystallin mRNA was detected only in the lens. Two tryptic peptides of another octopus lens protein, less abundant than O-crystallin, showed 80% identity to arginine kinase of invertebrates, a relative of creatine kinase of vertebrates. Finally, ferritin cDNA was isolated as an abundant cDNA from the octopus lens library. Northern blots showed that ferritin mRNA is not lens-specific.  (+info)

Arginine kinase evolved twice: evidence that echinoderm arginine kinase originated from creatine kinase. (2/75)

Arginine kinase (AK) was isolated from the longitudinal muscle of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus. Unlike the monomeric 40 kDa AKs from molluscs and arthropods, but like the cytoplasmic isoenzymes of vertebrate creatine kinase (CK), the Stichopus enzyme was dimeric. To explore the evolutionary origin of the dimeric AK, we determined its cDNA-derived amino acid sequence of 370 residues. A comparison of the sequence with those of other enzymes belonging to the phosphagen kinase family indicated that the entire amino acid sequence of Stichopus AK is apparently much more similar to vertebrate CKs than to all other AKs. A phylogenetic tree also strongly suggests that the Stichopus AK has evolved from CK. These results support the conclusion that AK evolved at least twice during the evolution of phosphagen kinases: first at an early stage of phosphagen kinase evolution (its descendants are molluscan and arthropod AKs) and secondly from CK later in metazoan evolution. A comparison of the amino acid sequence around the guanidino specificity (GS) region (which is a possible candidate for the guanidine substrate recognition site in the phosphagen kinase family) of the Stichopus enzyme with those of other phosphagen kinases showed that the GS region of the Stichopus enzyme was of the AK type: five amino acid deletions in the flexible loop region that might help to accommodate larger guanidine substrates in the active site. The presence of the AK-type deletions in the Stichopus AK, even though it seems that the enzyme's most immediate ancestor was probably CK, strongly suggests that the GS region has a role in substrate specificity. Stichopus AK and presumably other echinoderm AKs seem to have evolved from the CK gene; the sequence of GS region might have been replaced by the AK type via exon shuffling. The presence of an intron near the GS region in the Stichopus AK gene supports this hypothesis.  (+info)

Thermodynamics of the arginine kinase reaction. (3/75)

The effect of temperature, pH, free [Mg(2+)], and ionic strength on the apparent equilibrium constant of arginine kinase (EC 2.7.3.3) was determined. At equilibrium, the apparent K' was defined as [see text] where each reactant represents the sum of all the ionic and metal complex species. The K' at pH 7.0, 1.0 mM free [Mg(2+)], and 0. 25 M ionic strength was 29.91 +/- 0.59, 33.44 +/- 0.46, 35.44 +/- 0. 71, 39.64 +/- 0.74, and 45.19 +/- 0.65 (n = 8) at 40, 33, 25, 15, and 5 degrees C, respectively. The standard apparent enthalpy (DeltaH degrees') is -8.19 kJ mol(-1), and the corresponding standard apparent entropy of the reaction (DeltaS degrees') is + 2. 2 J K(-1)mol(-1) in the direction of ATP formation at pH 7.0, free [Mg(2+)] =1.0 mM, ionic strength (I) =0.25 M at 25 degrees C. We further show that the magnitude of transformed Gibbs energy (DeltaG degrees ') of -8.89 kJ mol(-1) is mostly comprised of the enthalpy of the reaction, with 7.4% coming from the entropy TDeltaS degrees' term (+0.66 kJ mol(-1)). Our results are discussed in relation to the thermodynamic properties of its evolutionary successor, creatine kinase.  (+info)

Trypanosoma cruzi arginine kinase characterization and cloning. A novel energetic pathway in protozoan parasites. (4/75)

This work contains the first description of a guanidino kinase in a flagellar unicellular parasite. The enzyme phosphorylates L-arginine and was characterized in preparations from Trypanosoma cruzi, the ethiological agent of Chagas' disease. The activity requires ATP and a divalent cation. Under standard assay conditions (1 mM L-arginine), the presence of 5-fold higher concentrations of canavanine or histidine produced a greater than 50% enzyme inhibition. The base sequence of this enzyme revealed an open reading frame of 357 amino acids and a molecular weight of 40,201. The amino acid sequence shows all of the characteristic consensus blocks of the ATP:guanidino phosphotransferase family and a putative "actinin-type" actin-binding domain. The highest amino acid identities of the T. cruzi sequence, about 70%, were with arginine kinases from Arthropoda. Southern and chromosome blots revealed that the kinase is encoded by a single-copy gene. Moreover, Northern blot analysis showed an mRNA subpopulation of about 2.0 kilobases, and Western blotting of T. cruzi-soluble polypeptides revealed a 40-kDa band. The finding in the parasite of a phosphagen and its biosynthetic pathway, which are totally different from those in mammalian host tissues, points out this arginine kinase as a possible chemotherapy target for Chagas' disease.  (+info)

Induced fit in arginine kinase. (5/75)

Creatine kinase (CK) and arginine kinase (AK) are related enzymes that reversibly transfer a phosphoryl group between a guanidino compound and ADP. In the buffering of ATP energy levels, they are central to energy metabolism and have been paradigms of classical enzymology. Comparison of the open substrate-free structure of CK and the closed substrate-bound structure of AK reveals differences that are consistent with prior biophysical evidence of substrate-induced conformational changes. Large and small domains undergo a hinged 13 degrees rotation. Several loops become ordered and adopt different positions in the presence of substrate, including one (residues 309-319) that moves 15 A to fold over the substrates. The conformational changes appear to be necessary in aligning the two substrates for catalysis, in configuring the active site only when productive phosphoryl transfer is possible, and excluding water from the active site to avoid wasteful ATP hydrolysis.  (+info)

Noninvasive measurement of gene expression in skeletal muscle. (6/75)

We have developed a noninvasive detection method for expression of viral-mediated gene transfer. A recombinant adenovirus was constructed by using the gene for arginine kinase (AK), which is the invertebrate correlate to the vertebrate ATP-buffering enzyme, creatine kinase. Gene expression was noninvasively monitored using (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS). The product of the AK enzyme, phosphoarginine (PArg), served as an MRS-visible reporter of AK expression. The recombinant adenovirus coding for arginine kinase (rAdCMVAK) was injected into the right hindlimbs of neonatal mice. Two weeks after injection of rAdCMVAK, a unique (31)P-MRS resonance was observed. It was observable in all rAdCMVAK injected hindlimbs and was not present in the contralateral control or the vehicle injected limb. PArg and phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations were calculated to be 11.6 +/- 0.90 and 13.6 +/- 1.1 mM respectively in rAdCMVAK injected limbs. AK activity was demonstrated in vivo by monitoring the decreases in PArg and ATP resonances during prolonged ischemia. After 1 h of ischemia intracellular pH was 6.73 +/- 0.06, PCr/ATP was decreased by 77 +/- 8%, whereas PArg/ATP was decreased by 50 +/- 15% of basal levels. PArg and PCr returned to basal levels within 5 min of the restoration of blood flow. AK activity persisted for at least 8 mo after injection, indicating that adenoviral-mediated gene transfer can produce stable expression for long periods of time. Therefore, the cDNA encoding AK provides a useful reporter gene that allows noninvasive and repeated monitoring of gene expression after viral mediated gene transfer to muscle.  (+info)

Arginine kinase from Nautilus pompilius, a living fossil. Site-directed mutagenesis studies on the role of amino acid residues in the Guanidino specificity region. (7/75)

Arginine kinases were isolated from the cephalopods Nautilus pompilius, Octopus vulgaris, and Sepioteuthis lessoniana, and the cDNA-derived amino acid sequences have been determined. Although the origin and evolution of cephalopods have long been obscure, this work provides the first molecular evidence for the phylogenetic position of Cephalopoda in molluscan evolution. A crystal structure for Limulus arginine kinase showed that four amino acid residues (Ser(63), Gly(64), Val(65), and Tyr(68)) are hydrogen-bonded with the substrate arginine. We introduced three independent mutations, Ser(63) --> Gly, Ser(63) --> Thr, and Tyr(68) --> Ser, in Nautilus arginine kinase. One of the mutants had a considerably reduced substrate affinity, accompanied by a decreased V(max). In other mutants, the activity was lost almost completely. It is known that substantial conformational changes take place upon substrate binding in arginine kinase. We hypothesize that the hydrogen bond between Asp(62) and Arg(193) stabilizes the closed, substrate-bound state. Site-directed mutagenesis studies strongly support this hypothesis. The mutant (Asp(62) --> Gly or Arg(193) --> Gly), which destabilizes the maintenance of the closed state and/or perhaps disrupts the unique topology of the catalytic pocket, showed only a very weak activity (0.6-1.5% to the wild-type).  (+info)

Expression of arginine kinase enzymatic activity and mRNA in gills of the euryhaline crabs Carcinus maenas and Callinectes sapidus. (8/75)

Phosphagen kinases catalyze the reversible dephosphorylation of guanidino phosphagens such as phosphocreatine and phosphoarginine, contributing to the restoration of adenosine triphosphate concentrations in cells experiencing high and variable demands on their reserves of high-energy phosphates. The major invertebrate phosphagen kinase, arginine kinase, is expressed in the gills of two species of euryhaline crabs, the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and the shore crab Carcinus maenas, in which energy-requiring functions include monovalent ion transport, acid-base balance, nitrogen excretion and gas exchange. The enzymatic activity of arginine kinase approximately doubles in the ion-transporting gills of C. sapidus, a strong osmoregulator, when the crabs are transferred from high to low salinity, but does not change in C. maenas, a more modest osmoregulator. Amplification and sequencing of arginine kinase cDNA from both species, accomplished by reverse transcription of gill mRNA and the polymerase chain reaction, revealed an open reading frame coding for a 357-amino-acid protein. The predicted amino acid sequences showed a minimum of 75 % identity with arginine kinase sequences of other arthropods. Ten of the 11 amino acid residues believed to participate in arginine binding are completely conserved among the arthropod sequences analyzed. An estimation of arginine kinase mRNA abundance indicated that acclimation salinity has no effect on arginine kinase gene transcription. Thus, the observed enhancement of enzyme activity in C. sapidus probably results from altered translation rates or direct activation of pre-existing enzyme protein.  (+info)

Arginine kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of arginine, a basic amino acid, to form phosphoarginine. This reaction plays a crucial role in energy metabolism in various organisms, including invertebrates and microorganisms. Phosphoarginine serves as an energy storage molecule, similar to how phosphocreatine is used in vertebrate muscle tissue. Arginine kinase is not typically found in mammals, but it is present in other animals such as insects, crustaceans, and mollusks. The enzyme helps facilitate rapid energy transfer during high-intensity activities, supporting the organism's physiological functions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nephropidae" is not a medical term. It is actually a taxonomic category in zoology, specifically a family of decapod crustaceans that includes lobsters and crayfish. If you have a question related to biology or veterinary medicine, I'd be happy to try to help with that.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Sea Cucumbers" is not typically used in medical definitions. It is a common name given to marine animals belonging to the class Holothuroidea in the phylum Echinodermata. These are sausage-shaped, bottom-dwelling creatures found on the sea floor worldwide. They have a leathery skin and a set of tube feet used for locomotion. While they have some cultural and commercial importance in parts of the world, they do not have direct relevance to medical definitions.

Creatine kinase (CK) is a muscle enzyme that is normally present in small amounts in the blood. It is primarily found in tissues that require a lot of energy, such as the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles. When these tissues are damaged or injured, CK is released into the bloodstream, causing the levels to rise.

Creatine kinase exists in several forms, known as isoenzymes, which can be measured in the blood to help identify the location of tissue damage. The three main isoenzymes are:

1. CK-MM: Found primarily in skeletal muscle
2. CK-MB: Found primarily in heart muscle
3. CK-BB: Found primarily in the brain

Elevated levels of creatine kinase, particularly CK-MB, can indicate damage to the heart muscle, such as occurs with a heart attack. Similarly, elevated levels of CK-BB may suggest brain injury or disease. Overall, measuring creatine kinase levels is a useful diagnostic tool for assessing tissue damage and determining the severity of injuries or illnesses.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Horseshoe Crabs" are not a medical term or a medical condition. They are actually marine arthropods that have survived for over 450 million years, and are found primarily in the Atlantic Ocean, especially around the Gulf of Mexico and the eastern seaboard of the United States.

However, Horseshoe Crabs do have a significant role in the medical field, particularly in the production of Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), which is used to test for bacterial endotoxins in medical equipment and injectable drugs. The blood of Horseshoe Crabs contains amebocytes, which can clot in response to endotoxins found in gram-negative bacteria. This reaction forms a gel-like clot that can be detected and measured, providing a crucial tool for ensuring the sterility of medical products.

So while "Horseshoe Crabs" are not a medical term per se, they do have an important place in medical research and production.

Echinodermata is a phylum in the animal kingdom that includes various marine organisms such as sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, brittle stars, and sea cucumbers. The name Echinodermata comes from the Greek words "echinos," meaning spiny, and "derma," meaning skin, which refers to the characteristic spiny skin of many echinoderms.

Echinoderms are bilaterally symmetrical as larvae but become radially symmetrical as adults, with their bodies organized around a central axis. They have a unique water vascular system that helps them move and respire, and most species have specialized structures called pedicellariae that help them clean and defend themselves.

Echinoderms are also known for their ability to regenerate lost body parts, and some species can even undergo asexual reproduction through fragmentation. They play important ecological roles in marine ecosystems, including grazing on algae and other organisms, breaking down organic matter, and serving as prey for larger animals.

Phosphotransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. This reaction is essential for various cellular processes, including energy metabolism, signal transduction, and biosynthesis.

The systematic name for this group of enzymes is phosphotransferase, which is derived from the general reaction they catalyze: D-donor + A-acceptor = D-donor minus phosphate + A-phosphate. The donor molecule can be a variety of compounds, such as ATP or a phosphorylated protein, while the acceptor molecule is typically a compound that becomes phosphorylated during the reaction.

Phosphotransferases are classified into several subgroups based on the type of donor and acceptor molecules they act upon. For example, kinases are a subgroup of phosphotransferases that transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein or other organic compound. Phosphatases, another subgroup, remove phosphate groups from molecules by transferring them to water.

Overall, phosphotransferases play a critical role in regulating many cellular functions and are important targets for drug development in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silicic Acid" is not a recognized medical term. Silicic acid, also known as orthosilicic acid, is a compound that contains silicon and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2 (Si(OH)4). It's commonly found in water, soil, and various plants.

In the context of health and medicine, silica or silicic acid supplements are sometimes used for their potential benefits to bone health, collagen production, and hair and nail growth. However, more research is needed to fully understand these effects and their optimal usage.

If you have any questions related to a specific medical condition or treatment, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional.

Octopodiformes is a taxonomic order that includes two main groups: octopuses (Octopoda) and vampire squids (Vampyroteuthis infernalis). This grouping is based on similarities in their fossil record and molecular data. Although they are commonly referred to as squids, vampire squids are not true squids, which belong to a different order called Teuthida.

Octopodiformes are characterized by several features, including:

1. A highly developed brain and complex nervous system.
2. Eight arms with suckers, but no tentacles.
3. The ability to change their skin color and texture for camouflage.
4. Three hearts that pump blood through their bodies.
5. Blue blood due to the copper-based protein hemocyanin.
6. A siphon used for jet propulsion and other functions, such as waste expulsion and mating.
7. Ink sacs for defense against predators.

Octopuses are known for their intelligence, problem-solving abilities, and short lifespans (usually less than two years). Vampire squids, on the other hand, live in deep ocean environments and have a unique feeding strategy that involves filtering organic matter from the water. They can also produce bioluminescent displays to confuse predators.

It is important to note that while Octopodiformes is a well-supported taxonomic group, there is still ongoing research and debate about the relationships among cephalopods (the class that includes octopuses, squids, cuttlefish, and nautiluses) and their classification.

Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction. They phosphorylate the 3-hydroxyl group of the inositol ring in phosphatidylinositol and its derivatives, which results in the production of second messengers that regulate various cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival.

PI3Ks are divided into three classes based on their structure and substrate specificity. Class I PI3Ks are further subdivided into two categories: class IA and class IB. Class IA PI3Ks are heterodimers consisting of a catalytic subunit (p110α, p110β, or p110δ) and a regulatory subunit (p85α, p85β, p55γ, or p50γ). They are primarily activated by receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors. Class IB PI3Ks consist of a catalytic subunit (p110γ) and a regulatory subunit (p101 or p84/87). They are mainly activated by G protein-coupled receptors.

Dysregulation of PI3K signaling has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, PI3Ks have emerged as important targets for drug development in these areas.

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling system is a crucial pathway for the transmission and regulation of various cellular responses in eukaryotic cells. It plays a significant role in several biological processes, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, and stress response. The MAPK cascade consists of three main components: MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K or MEKK), MAP kinase kinase (MAP2K or MEK), and MAP kinase (MAPK).

The signaling system is activated by various extracellular stimuli, such as growth factors, cytokines, hormones, and stress signals. These stimuli initiate a phosphorylation cascade that ultimately leads to the activation of MAPKs. The activated MAPKs then translocate into the nucleus and regulate gene expression by phosphorylating various transcription factors and other regulatory proteins.

There are four major MAPK families: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 MAPKs (p38α/β/γ/δ), and ERK5. Each family has distinct functions, substrates, and upstream activators. Dysregulation of the MAPK signaling system can lead to various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathway is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies.

Protein kinases are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in many cellular processes by adding phosphate groups to other proteins, a process known as phosphorylation. This modification can activate or deactivate the target protein's function, thereby regulating various signaling pathways within the cell. Protein kinases are essential for numerous biological functions, including metabolism, signal transduction, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Abnormal regulation of protein kinases has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases (PSTKs) are a type of protein kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the hydroxyl side chains of serine or threonine residues on target proteins. This phosphorylation process plays a crucial role in various cellular signaling pathways, including regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. PSTKs are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, and their dysregulation has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Arginine is an α-amino acid that is classified as a semi-essential or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental stage and health status of the individual. The adult human body can normally synthesize sufficient amounts of arginine to meet its needs, but there are certain circumstances, such as periods of rapid growth or injury, where the dietary intake of arginine may become necessary.

The chemical formula for arginine is C6H14N4O2. It has a molecular weight of 174.20 g/mol and a pKa value of 12.48. Arginine is a basic amino acid, which means that it contains a side chain with a positive charge at physiological pH levels. The side chain of arginine is composed of a guanidino group, which is a functional group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to three methyl groups.

In the body, arginine plays several important roles. It is a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide, a molecule that helps regulate blood flow and immune function. Arginine is also involved in the detoxification of ammonia, a waste product produced by the breakdown of proteins. Additionally, arginine can be converted into other amino acids, such as ornithine and citrulline, which are involved in various metabolic processes.

Foods that are good sources of arginine include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, nuts, seeds, and legumes. Arginine supplements are available and may be used for a variety of purposes, such as improving exercise performance, enhancing wound healing, and boosting immune function. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking arginine supplements, as they can interact with certain medications and have potential side effects.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) is a phenomenon in which plane-polarized light is rotated as it passes through an optically active substance. It is a measure of the difference in refractive index between left and right circularly polarized light, and is dependent on the wavelength of the light. ORD is used to determine the optical purity and absolute configuration of chiral molecules, particularly in the field of stereochemistry. The magnitude and sign of the rotation can provide information about the concentration and type of optically active compound present in a sample.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Brachyura is a term used in the classification of crustaceans, specifically referring to a group of decapods known as "true crabs." This infraorder includes a wide variety of crab species that are characterized by having a short and broad abdomen, which is typically tucked under the thorax and protected by the shell.

The term Brachyura comes from the Greek words "brachys," meaning short, and "oura," meaning tail. This refers to the reduced abdomen that distinguishes this group of crabs from other decapods such as shrimps, lobsters, and crayfish.

Brachyura species are found in a wide range of habitats, including freshwater, marine, and terrestrial environments. They can be found all over the world, with some species adapted to live in extreme conditions such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents or intertidal zones. Some well-known examples of Brachyura include the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), the European shore crab (Carcinus maenas), and the coconut crab (Birgus latro).

Mollusca is not a medical term per se, but a major group of invertebrate animals that includes snails, clams, octopuses, and squids. However, medically, some mollusks can be relevant as they can act as vectors for various diseases, such as schistosomiasis (transmitted by freshwater snails) and fascioliasis (transmitted by aquatic snails). Therefore, a medical definition might describe Mollusca as a phylum of mostly marine invertebrates that can sometimes play a role in the transmission of certain infectious diseases.

Protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) are a class of drugs that work by interfering with the function of protein kinases. Protein kinases are enzymes that play a crucial role in many cellular processes by adding a phosphate group to specific proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules. This process of adding a phosphate group is known as phosphorylation and is a key mechanism for regulating various cellular functions, including signal transduction, metabolism, and cell division.

In some diseases, such as cancer, protein kinases can become overactive or mutated, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Protein kinase inhibitors are designed to block the activity of these dysregulated kinases, thereby preventing or slowing down the progression of the disease. These drugs can be highly specific, targeting individual protein kinases or families of kinases, making them valuable tools for targeted therapy in cancer and other diseases.

Protein kinase inhibitors can work in various ways to block the activity of protein kinases. Some bind directly to the active site of the enzyme, preventing it from interacting with its substrates. Others bind to allosteric sites, changing the conformation of the enzyme and making it inactive. Still, others target upstream regulators of protein kinases or interfere with their ability to form functional complexes.

Examples of protein kinase inhibitors include imatinib (Gleevec), which targets the BCR-ABL kinase in chronic myeloid leukemia, and gefitinib (Iressa), which inhibits the EGFR kinase in non-small cell lung cancer. These drugs have shown significant clinical benefits in treating these diseases and have become important components of modern cancer therapy.

Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMKs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. They are activated by the binding of calcium ions and calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein, to their regulatory domain.

Once activated, CAMKs phosphorylate specific serine or threonine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their activity, localization, or stability. This post-translational modification is essential for various cellular processes, including synaptic plasticity, gene expression, metabolism, and cell cycle regulation.

There are several subfamilies of CAMKs, including CaMKI, CaMKII, CaMKIII (also known as CaMKIV), and CaMK kinase (CaMKK). Each subfamily has distinct structural features, substrate specificity, and regulatory mechanisms. Dysregulation of CAMK signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating water balance and blood pressure in the body.

AVP acts on the kidneys to promote water reabsorption, which helps maintain adequate fluid volume and osmotic balance in the body. It also constricts blood vessels, increasing peripheral vascular resistance and thereby helping to maintain blood pressure. Additionally, AVP has been shown to have effects on cognitive function, mood regulation, and pain perception.

Deficiencies or excesses of AVP can lead to a range of medical conditions, including diabetes insipidus (characterized by excessive thirst and urination), hyponatremia (low sodium levels in the blood), and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).

SRC-family kinases (SFKs) are a group of non-receptor tyrosine kinases that play important roles in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration. They are named after the founding member, SRC, which was first identified as an oncogene in Rous sarcoma virus.

SFKs share a common structure, consisting of an N-terminal unique domain, a SH3 domain, a SH2 domain, a catalytic kinase domain, and a C-terminal regulatory tail with a negative regulatory tyrosine residue (Y527 in human SRC). In their inactive state, SFKs are maintained in a closed conformation through intramolecular interactions between the SH3 domain, SH2 domain, and the phosphorylated C-terminal tyrosine.

Upon activation by various signals, such as growth factors, cytokines, or integrin engagement, SFKs are activated through a series of events that involve dephosphorylation of the regulatory tyrosine residue, recruitment to membrane receptors via their SH2 and SH3 domains, and trans-autophosphorylation of the activation loop in the kinase domain.

Once activated, SFKs can phosphorylate a wide range of downstream substrates, including other protein kinases, adaptor proteins, and cytoskeletal components, thereby regulating various signaling pathways that control cell behavior. Dysregulation of SFK activity has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Bivalvia is a class of mollusks, also known as "pelecypods," that have a laterally compressed body and two shells or valves. These valves are hinged together on one side and can be opened and closed to allow the animal to feed or withdraw into its shell for protection.

Bivalves include clams, oysters, mussels, scallops, and numerous other species. They are characterized by their simple body structure, which consists of a muscular foot used for burrowing or anchoring, a soft mantle that secretes the shell, and gills that serve both as respiratory organs and feeding structures.

Bivalves play an important role in aquatic ecosystems as filter feeders, helping to maintain water quality by removing particles and organic matter from the water column. They are also commercially important as a source of food for humans and other animals, and their shells have been used historically for various purposes such as tools, jewelry, and building materials.

Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine-threonine kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are activated by second messengers such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+), which result from the activation of cell surface receptors like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs).

Once activated, PKC proteins phosphorylate downstream target proteins, thereby modulating their activities. This regulation is involved in numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and membrane trafficking. There are at least 10 isoforms of PKC, classified into three subfamilies based on their second messenger requirements and structural features: conventional (cPKC; α, βI, βII, and γ), novel (nPKC; δ, ε, η, and θ), and atypical (aPKC; ζ and ι/λ). Dysregulation of PKC signaling has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Organophosphorus compounds are a class of chemical substances that contain phosphorus bonded to organic compounds. They are used in various applications, including as plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases), and solvents. In medicine, they are also used in the treatment of certain conditions such as glaucoma. However, organophosphorus compounds can be toxic to humans and animals, particularly those that affect the nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Exposure to these compounds can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (p38 MAPKs) are a family of conserved serine-threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including inflammation, immune response, differentiation, apoptosis, and stress responses. They are activated by diverse stimuli such as cytokines, ultraviolet radiation, heat shock, osmotic stress, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

Once activated, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate and regulate several downstream targets, including transcription factors and other protein kinases. This regulation leads to the expression of genes involved in inflammation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of p38 MAPK signaling has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, p38 MAPKs are considered promising targets for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinases, also known as protein kinase A (PKA), are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are responsible for the regulation of various cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell growth and differentiation.

PKA is composed of two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits. When cAMP binds to the regulatory subunits, it causes a conformational change that leads to the dissociation of the catalytic subunits. The freed catalytic subunits then phosphorylate specific serine and threonine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their activity.

The cAMP-dependent protein kinases are activated in response to a variety of extracellular signals, such as hormones and neurotransmitters, that bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). These signals lead to the activation of adenylyl cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP. The resulting increase in intracellular cAMP levels triggers the activation of PKA and the downstream phosphorylation of target proteins.

Overall, cAMP-dependent protein kinases are essential regulators of many fundamental cellular processes and play a critical role in maintaining normal physiology and homeostasis. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

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