Arginine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC 2.7.3.3.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.CitrullineArginase: A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.Phenylglyoxal: A reagent that is highly selective for the modification of arginyl residues. It is used to selectively inhibit various enzymes and acts as an energy transfer inhibitor in photophosphorylation.Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase: A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Argininosuccinate Synthase: An enzyme of the urea cycle that catalyzes the formation of argininosuccinic acid from citrulline and aspartic acid in the presence of ATP. Absence or deficiency of this enzyme causes the metabolic disease CITRULLINEMIA in humans. EC 6.3.4.5.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Agmatine: Decarboxylated arginine, isolated from several plant and animal sources, e.g., pollen, ergot, herring sperm, octopus muscle.CanavanineArgininosuccinate Lyase: An enzyme of the urea cycle which splits argininosuccinate to fumarate plus arginine. Its absence leads to the metabolic disease ARGININOSUCCINIC ACIDURIA in man. EC 4.3.2.1.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Phosphotransferases (Carboxyl Group Acceptor): A class of enzymes that transfers phosphate groups and has a carboxyl group as an acceptor. EC 2.7.2.Vasotocin: A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.Receptors, Vasopressin: Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Diacetyl: Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cyclohexanones: Cyclohexane ring substituted by one or more ketones in any position.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino-Acid N-Acetyltransferase: A mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of L-GLUTAMATE to N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the presence of ACETYL-COA.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Orotic AcidEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.RNA, Transfer, Arg: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying arginine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Amidinotransferases: Enzymes of a subclass of TRANSFERASES that catalyze the transfer of an amidino group from donor to acceptor. EC 2.1.4.Deamino Arginine Vasopressin: A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.Protein Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of amino acids after their incorporation into a polypeptide chain. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine acts as the methylating agent. EC 2.1.1.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Argininosuccinic Acid: This amino acid is formed during the urea cycle from citrulline, aspartate and ATP. This reaction is catalyzed by argininosuccinic acid synthetase.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC 6.3.5.5.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Argininosuccinic Aciduria: Rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle which leads to the accumulation of argininosuccinic acid in body fluids and severe HYPERAMMONEMIA. Clinical features of the neonatal onset of the disorder include poor feeding, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, tachypnea, coma, and death. Later onset results in milder set of clinical features including vomiting, failure to thrive, irritability, behavioral problems, or psychomotor retardation. Mutations in the ARGININOSUCCINATE LYASE gene cause the disorder.HomoarginineCarbamyl Phosphate: The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Renal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.ButanonesHyperargininemia: A rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle. It is caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme ARGINASE. Arginine is elevated in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and periodic HYPERAMMONEMIA may occur. Disease onset is usually in infancy or early childhood. Clinical manifestations include seizures, microcephaly, progressive mental impairment, hypotonia, ataxia, spastic diplegia, and quadriparesis. (From Hum Genet 1993 Mar;91(1):1-5; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p51)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.PolyaminesNitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Arginine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates arginine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.19.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.GlyoxalConserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Neurophysins: Carrier proteins for OXYTOCIN and VASOPRESSIN. They are polypeptides of about 10-kDa, synthesized in the HYPOTHALAMUS. Neurophysin I is associated with oxytocin and neurophysin II is associated with vasopressin in their respective precursors and during transportation down the axons to the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Putrescine: A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Biogenic Polyamines: Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Dentin Desensitizing Agents: Substances which reduce or eliminate dentinal sensitivity or the pain associated with a source of stimulus (such as touch, heat, or cold) at the orifice of exposed dentinal tubules causing the movement of tubular fluid that in turn stimulates tooth nerve receptors.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.omega-N-Methylarginine: A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.Nephropidae: Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of glutamine-derived ammonia and another molecule. The linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.5.Amino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Pyruvaldehyde: An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Ornithine Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diabetes Insipidus: A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Guanidine: A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.MaleatesPituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectHydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.AmidohydrolasesTryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Rats, Brattleboro: A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus used in research on renal function and hypertension and as a disease model for diabetes insipidus.Amino Acid Transport System y+LProtein PrecursorsNitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Hyponatremia: Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.

Arginine methylation and binding of Hrp1p to the efficiency element for mRNA 3'-end formation. (1/10469)

Hrp1p is a heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is involved in the cleavage and polyadenylation of the 3'-end of mRNAs and mRNA export. In addition, Hrplp is one of several RNA-binding proteins that are posttranslationally modified by methylation at arginine residues. By using functional recombinant Hrp1p, we have identified RNA sequences with specific high affinity binding sites. These sites correspond to the efficiency element for mRNA 3'-end formation, UAUAUA. To examine the effect of methylation on specific RNA binding, purified recombinant arginine methyltransferase (Hmt1p) was used to methylate Hrp1p. Methylated Hrp1p binds with the same affinity to UAUAUA-containing RNAs as unmethylated Hrpl p indicating that methylation does not affect specific RNA binding. However, RNA itself inhibits the methylation of Hrp1p and this inhibition is enhanced by RNAs that specifically bind Hrpl p. Taken together, these data support a model in which protein methylation occurs prior to protein-RNA binding in the nucleus.  (+info)

Gamma interferon stimulates rat alveolar macrophages to kill Pneumocystis carinii by L-arginine- and tumor necrosis factor-dependent mechanisms. (2/10469)

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia remains a serious complication for immunocompromised patients. In the present study, P. carinii organisms interacted with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-stimulated alveolar macrophages (AMs) to activate the L-arginine-dependent cytocidal pathway involving reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) that were assayed as nitrite (NO2-). Unstimulated cultures of AMs produced negligible quantities of RNI. Addition of P. carinii organisms to IFN-gamma-primed AMs resulted in greatly enhanced production of RNI. NO2- levels increased from 0.8 +/- 0.4 to 11.1 +/- 3.8 microM as early as 6 h after P. carinii organisms were incubated with IFN-gamma-stimulated AMs and to 35.1 +/- 8.9 microM after a 24-h incubation, a near-maximum level. High levels of NO2- were produced by AMs primed with as little as 10 U of IFN-gamma per ml in the presence of P. carinii, and a 20-fold increase in IFN-gamma concentration resulted in only a further 65% increase in NO2- production. RNI-dependent killing of P. carinii was demonstrated by both a 51Cr release assay and a [35S]methionine pulse immunoprecipitation assay. Addition of either monoclonal tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) neutralizing antibody or 200 microM NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NGMMA), a competitive inhibitor of the L-arginine-dependent pathway, significantly decreased NO2- production and reduced P. carinii killing. TNF-alpha alone had no effect on P. carinii viability. These results suggest that (i) the specific interaction of P. carinii organisms with IFN-gamma-primed AMs triggers the production of RNI, (ii) RNI are toxic to P. carinii, and (iii) TNF-alpha likely plays a central role in mediating P. carinii killing by IFN-gamma-stimulated AMs.  (+info)

Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta production by nitric oxide-treated chondrocytes: implications for matrix synthesis. (3/10469)

OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO) is generated copiously by articular chondrocytes activated by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). If NO production is blocked, much of the IL-1beta inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis is prevented. We tested the hypothesis that this inhibitory effect of NO on proteoglycan synthesis is secondary to changes in chondrocyte transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta). METHODS: Monolayer, primary cultures of lapine articular chondrocytes and cartilage slices were studied. NO production was determined as nitrite accumulation in the medium. TGFbeta bioactivity in chondrocyte- and cartilage-conditioned medium (CM) was measured with the mink lung epithelial cell bioassay. Proteoglycan synthesis was measured as the incorporation of 35S-sodium sulfate into macromolecules separated from unincorporated label by gel filtration on PD-10 columns. RESULTS: IL-1beta increased active TGFbeta in chondrocyte CM by 12 hours; by 24 hours, significant increases in both active and latent TGFbeta were detectable. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMA) potentiated the increase in total TGFbeta without affecting the early TGFbeta activation. IL-1beta stimulated a NO-independent, transient increase in TGFbeta3 at 24 hours; however, TGFbeta1 was not changed. When NO synthesis was inhibited with L-NMA, IL-1beta increased CM concentrations of TGFbeta1 from 24-72 hours of culture. L-arginine (10 mM) reversed the inhibitory effect of L-NMA on NO production and blocked the increases in TGFbeta1. Anti-TGFbeta1 antibody prevented the restoration of proteoglycan synthesis by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta + L-NMA, confirming that NO inhibition of TGFbeta1 in IL-1beta-treated chondrocytes effected, in part, the decreased proteoglycan synthesis. Furthermore, the increase in TGFbeta and proteoglycan synthesis seen with L-NMA was reversed by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamide. Similar results were seen with cartilage slices in organ culture. The autocrine increase in CM TGFbeta1 levels following prior exposure to TGFbeta1 was also blocked by NO. CONCLUSION: NO can modulate proteoglycan synthesis indirectly by decreasing the production of TGFbeta1 by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta. It prevents autocrine-stimulated increases in TGFbeta1, thus potentially diminishing the anabolic effects of this cytokine in chondrocytes.  (+info)

Phe161 and Arg166 variants of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase. Implications for NADPH recognition and structural stability. (4/10469)

Phe161 and Arg166 of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens belong to a newly discovered sequence motif in flavoprotein hydroxylases with a putative dual function in FAD and NADPH binding [1]. To study their role in more detail, Phe161 and Arg166 were selectively changed by site-directed mutagenesis. F161A and F161G are catalytically competent enzymes having a rather poor affinity for NADPH. The catalytic properties of R166K are similar to those of the native enzyme. R166S and R166E show impaired NADPH binding and R166E has lost the ability to bind FAD. The crystal structure of substrate complexed F161A at 2.2 A is indistinguishable from the native enzyme, except for small changes at the site of mutation. The crystal structure of substrate complexed R166S at 2.0 A revealed that Arg166 is important for providing an intimate contact between the FAD binding domain and a long excursion of the substrate binding domain. It is proposed that this interaction is essential for structural stability and for the recognition of the pyrophosphate moiety of NADPH.  (+info)

Possible role for ligand binding of histidine 81 in the second transmembrane domain of the rat prostaglandin F2alpha receptor. (5/10469)

For the five principal prostanoids PGD2, PGE2, PGF2alpha, prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 eight receptors have been identified that belong to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors. They display an overall homology of merely 30%. However, single amino acids in the transmembrane domains such as an Arg in the seventh transmembrane domain are highly conserved. This Arg has been identified as part of the ligand binding pocket. It interacts with the carboxyl group of the prostanoid. The aim of the current study was to analyze the potential role in ligand binding of His-81 in the second transmembrane domain of the rat PGF2alpha receptor, which is conserved among all PGF2alpha receptors from different species. Molecular modeling suggested that this residue is located in close proximity to the ligand binding pocket Arg 291 in the 7th transmembrane domain. The His81 (H) was exchanged by site-directed mutagenesis to Gln (Q), Asp (D), Arg (R), Ala (A) and Gly (G). The receptor molecules were N-terminally extended by a Flag epitope for immunological detection. All mutant proteins were expressed at levels between 50% and 80% of the wild type construct. The H81Q and H81D receptor bound PGF2alpha with 2-fold and 25-fold lower affinity, respectively, than the wild type receptor. Membranes of cells expressing the H81R, H81A or H81G mutants did not bind significant amounts of PGF2alpha. Wild type receptor and H81Q showed a shallow pH optimum for PGF2alpha binding around pH 5.5 with almost no reduction of binding at higher pH. In contrast the H81D mutant bound PGF2alpha with a sharp optimum at pH 4.5, a pH at which the Asp side chain is partially undissociated and may serve as a hydrogen bond donor as do His and Gln at higher pH values. The data indicate that the His-81 in the second transmembrane domain of the PGF2alpha receptor in concert with Arg-291 in the seventh transmembrane domain may be involved in ligand binding, most likely not by ionic interaction with the prostaglandin's carboxyl group but rather as a hydrogen bond donor.  (+info)

R73A and H144Q mutants of the yeast mitochondrial cyclophilin Cpr3 exhibit a low prolyl isomerase activity in both peptide and protein-folding assays. (6/10469)

Previously we reported that the R73A and H144Q variants of the yeast cyclophilin Cpr3 were virtually inactive in a protease-coupled peptide assay, but retained activity as catalysts of a proline-limited protein folding reaction [Scholz, C. et al. (1997) FEBS Lett. 414, 69-73]. A reinvestigation revealed that in fact these two mutations strongly decrease the prolyl isomerase activity of Cpr3 in both the peptide and the protein-folding assay. The high folding activities found previously originated from a contamination of the recombinant Cpr3 proteins with the Escherichia coli protein SlyD, a prolyl isomerase that co-purifies with His-tagged proteins. SlyD is inactive in the peptide assay, but highly active in the protein-folding assay.  (+info)

The stimulatory effects of Hofmeister ions on the activities of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase. Apparent substrate inhibition by l-arginine is overcome in the presence of protein-destabilizing agents. (7/10469)

A variety of monovalent anions and cations were effective in stimulating both calcium ion/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM)-independent NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity of, and Ca2+/CaM-dependent nitric oxide (NO.) synthesis by, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The efficacy of the ions in stimulating both activities could be correlated, in general, with their efficacy in precipitating or stabilizing certain proteins, an order referred to as the Hofmeister ion series. In the hemoglobin capture assay, used for measurement of NO. production, apparent substrate inhibition by L-arginine was almost completely reversed by the addition of sodium perchlorate (NaClO4), one of the more effective protein-destabilizing agents tested. Examination of this phenomenon by the assay of L-arginine conversion to L-citrulline revealed that the stimulatory effect of NaClO4 on the reaction was observed only in the presence of oxyhemoglobin or superoxide anion (generated by xanthine and xanthine oxidase), both scavengers of NO. Spectrophotometric examination of nNOS revealed that the addition of NaClO4 and a superoxide-generating system, but neither alone, prevented the increase of heme absorption at 436 nm, which has been attributed to the nitrosyl complex. The data are consistent with the release of autoinhibitory NO. coordinated to the prosthetic group of nNOS, which, in conjunction with an NO. scavenger, causes stimulation of the reaction.  (+info)

Cystic fibrosis-associated mutations at arginine 347 alter the pore architecture of CFTR. Evidence for disruption of a salt bridge. (8/10469)

Arginine 347 in the sixth transmembrane domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a site of four cystic fibrosis-associated mutations. To better understand the function of Arg-347 and to learn how mutations at this site disrupt channel activity, we mutated Arg-347 to Asp, Cys, Glu, His, Leu, or Lys and examined single-channel function. Every Arg-347 mutation examined, except R347K, had a destabilizing effect on the pore, causing the channel to flutter between two conductance states. Chloride flow through the larger conductance state was similar to that of wild-type CFTR, suggesting that the residue at position 347 does not interact directly with permeating anions. We hypothesized that Arg-347 stabilizes the channel through an electrostatic interaction with an anionic residue in another transmembrane domain. To test this, we mutated anionic residues (Asp-924, Asp-993, and Glu-1104) to Arg in the context of either R347E or R347D mutations. Interestingly, the D924R mutation complemented R347D, yielding a channel that behaved like wild-type CFTR. These data suggest that Arg-347 plays an important structural role in CFTR, at least in part by forming a salt bridge with Asp-924; cystic fibrosis-associated mutations disrupt this interaction.  (+info)

*Histone

Arginine methylation[edit]. What was said above of the chemistry of lysine methylation also applies to arginine methylation, ... Arginine citrullination[edit]. Enzymes called peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) hydrolyze the imine group of arginines and ... and some protein domains-e.g., Tudor domains-can be specific for methyl arginine instead of methyl lysine. Arginine is known to ... Salt bridges and hydrogen bonds between side chains of basic amino acids (especially lysine and arginine) and phosphate oxygens ...

*Amino acid synthesis

The gene product of argR, ArgR an aporepressor, and arginine as a corepressor affect the operon of arginine biosynthesis. The ... Proline and arginine are derived from glutamate. Serine, formed from 3-phosphoglycerate, is the precursor of glycine and ... Arginine synthesis also utilizes negative feedback as well as repression through a repressor encoded by the gene argR. ... In addition, the amino acids arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, histidine, proline, serine, and tyrosine are considered ...

*Chicken as food

Arginine. 1.545 g. Histidine. 0.726 g. Alanine. 1.436 g. Aspartic acid. 2.200 g. ...

*Hickory

Arginine. 2.086 g. Histidine. 0.389 g. Alanine. 0.662 g. Aspartic acid. 1.368 g. ...

*Almond

Arginine. 2.446 g. Histidine. 0.557 g. Alanine. 1.027 g. Aspartic acid. 2.911 g. ...

*Canarium ovatum

Arginine. 1.516 g. Histidine. 0.255 g. Alanine. 0.509 g. Aspartic acid. 1.222 g. ...

*Almond

Arginine. 2.446 g. Histidine. 0.557 g. Alanine. 1.027 g. Aspartic acid. 2.911 g. ...

*Spirulina (dietary supplement)

Arginine. 4.147 g. Histidine. 1.085 g. Alanine. 4.515 g. Aspartic acid. 5.793 g. ...

*Castanea sativa

Arginine. 0.173 g. Histidine. 0.067 g. Alanine. 0.161 g. Aspartic acid. 0.417 g. ...

*FASTA format

The original FASTA/Pearson format is described in the documentation for the FASTA suite of programs. It can be downloaded with any free distribution of FASTA (see fasta20.doc, fastaVN.doc or fastaVN.me-where VN is the Version Number). In the original format, a sequence was represented as a series of lines, each of which was no longer than 120 characters and usually did not exceed 80 characters. This probably was to allow for preallocation of fixed line sizes in software: at the time most users relied on Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VT220 (or compatible) terminals which could display 80 or 132 characters per line.[citation needed] Most people preferred the bigger font in 80-character modes and so it became the recommended fashion to use 80 characters or less (often 70) in FASTA lines. Also, the width of a standard printed page is 70 to 80 characters (depending on the font). Hence, 80 characters became the norm.[citation needed] The first line in a FASTA file started either with a "," ...

*Chicken as food

Arginine. 1.545 g. Histidine. 0.726 g. Alanine. 1.436 g. Aspartic acid. 2.200 g. ...

*Yolk

Arginine. 1.099 g. Histidine. 0.416 g. Alanine. 0.836 g. Aspartic acid. 1.550 g. ...

*Coconut

Arginine. 0.546 g. Histidine. 0.077 g. Alanine. 0.170 g. Aspartic acid. 0.325 g. ...

*Amaranth

Arginine. 1.060 g. Histidine. 0.389 g. Alanine. 0.799 g. Aspartic acid. 1.261 g. ...

*Hickory

Arginine. 2.086 g. Histidine. 0.389 g. Alanine. 0.662 g. Aspartic acid. 1.368 g. ...

*Human mitochondrial genetics

Arginine Arg R MT-TR 10,405-10,469 L Asparagine Asn N MT-TN 5,657-5,729 H ...

*D-Amino acid

Arginine (≈12.5). *Histidine (≈6.1). Negative charge (pKa). *Aspartic acid (≈3.9) ...

*Fumaric acid

... has been used as a food acidulant since 1946. It is approved for use as a food additive in the EU,[3] USA[4] and Australia and New Zealand.[5] As a food additive, it is used as an acidity regulator and can be denoted by the E number E297. It is generally used in beverages and baking powders for which requirements are placed on purity. Fumaric acid is used in the making of wheat tortillas as a food preservative and as the acid in leavening.[6] It is generally used as a substitute for tartaric acid and occasionally in place of citric acid, at a rate of 1 g of fumaric acid to every ~1.5 g of citric acid, in order to add sourness, similarly to the way malic acid is used. As well as being a component of some artificial vinegar flavors, such as "Salt and Vinegar" flavored potato chips,[7] it is also used as a coagulant in stove-top pudding mixes. The European Commission Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition, part of DG Health, found in 2014 that fumaric acid is "practically non-toxic" ...

*Cysteine

Arginine (≈12.5). *Histidine (≈6.1). Negative charge (pKa). *Aspartic acid (≈3.9) ...

*NONOate

Nω-Methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA). *Nω-Propyl-L-arginine (L-NPA) ...

*Cysteine

Arginine (≈12.5). *Histidine (≈6.1). Negative charge (pKa). *Aspartic acid (≈3.9) ...

*Alkyl nitrites

Nω-Methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA). *Nω-Propyl-L-arginine (L-NPA) ...

*Guanylate cyclase

Nω-Methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA). *Nω-Propyl-L-arginine (L-NPA) ...

*Glycine

Arginine (≈12.5). *Histidine (≈6.1). Negative charge (pKa). *Aspartic acid (≈3.9) ...

*Nitrite

Nω-Methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA). *Nω-Propyl-L-arginine (L-NPA) ...

*Histidine

... along with other amino acids such as proline and arginine, takes part in deamination, a process in which its amino group is ... "ON THE SEPARATION OF HISTIDINE AND ARGININE IV. THE PREPARATION OF HISTIDINE". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 78 (3): 627- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of acute and chronic stress on the L-arginine nitric oxide pathway in black and white South Africans. T2 - The sympathetic activity and ambulatory blood pressure in Africans study. AU - Reimann, Manja. AU - Hamer, Mark. AU - Malan, Nicolaas T.. AU - Schlaich, Markus P.. AU - Lambert, Gavin W.. AU - Ziemssen, Tjalf. AU - Boeger, Rainer H.. AU - Malan, Leoné. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Objective: This study investigated the impact of stress on effectors of the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) system including the endogenous inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Methods: Black (n = 168) and white (n = 206) South African teachers were exposed to a mental and a physical stressor for 1 minute, respectively. Serum samples for determination of L-arginine, NO metabolites, ADMA, and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were obtained at rest and during stress exposure. Perception of task stressfulness was assessed on a 7-point Likert scale, and psychological distress was estimated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, arterial hemodynamics, and subclinical vascular disease. T2 - The PREVENCION study. AU - Chirinos, Julio A.. AU - David, Robert. AU - Bralley, J. Alexander. AU - Zea-Díaz, Humberto. AU - Muñoz-Atahualpa, Edgar. AU - Corrales-Medina, Fernando. AU - Cuba-Bustinza, Carolina. AU - Chirinos-Pacheco, Julio. AU - Medina-Lezama, Josefina. PY - 2008/12. Y1 - 2008/12. N2 - Endogenous NO synthase inhibitors (end-NOSIs) have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis. In addition, end-NOSIs may directly cause hypertension through hemodynamic effects. We aimed to examine the association between end-NOSI asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) and N-guanidino-monomethyl-arginine (NMMA), subclinical atherosclerosis, and arterial hemodynamics. We studied 922 adults participating in a population-based study (PREVENCION Study) and examined the correlation between end-NOSI/L-arginine and arterial hemodynamics, carotid-femoral ...
Background Fetal Growth Restriction is often associated with a feto-placental vascular dysfunction conceivably involving endothelial cells. Our study aimed to verify this pathogenic role for feto-placental endothelial cells and, coincidentally, demonstrate any abnormality in the nitric oxide system. Methods Prenatal assessment of feto-placental vascular function was combined with measurement of nitric oxide (in the form of S-nitrosohemoglobin) and its nitrite byproduct, and of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine. Umbilical vein endothelial cells were also harvested to determine their gene profile. The study comprised term pregnancies with normal (n = 40) or small-for-gestational-age (n = 20) newborns, small-for-gestational-age preterm pregnancies (n = 15), and bi-chorial, bi-amniotic twin pregnancies with discordant fetal growth (n = 12). Results Umbilical blood nitrite (p|0.001) and S-nitrosohemoglobin (p = 0.02) rose with fetal growth restriction while
BACKGROUND Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important part in lowering pulmonary vascular resistance after birth, and in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), NO-mediated dilation is dysfunctional. The endogenous NO synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) circulates in plasma, and its concentrations are elevated in certain cardiovascular diseases, including pulmonary hypertension. ADMA is metabolized by the enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), the activity of which regulates ADMA concentrations and provides a mechanism for modulating NO synthase in vivo. We investigated the changes in expression and activity of the 2 isoforms of DDAH in lungs from newborn piglets both during normal development and in PPHN. METHODS AND RESULTS Using Western blotting, we showed that DDAHI expression did not change in the normal developing lung; however, DDAHII increased after birth and reached a peak at 1 day. This was reflected in an increase in total DDAH activity according
Arginine supplementation has been shown to alleviate endothelial dysfunction and improve exercise performance through increasing nitric oxide production in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. In addition, arginine supplementation could decrease accumulations of lactate and ammonia, metabolites involved in development of muscular fatigue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term arginine supplementation on performance in intermittent anaerobic exercise and the underlying mechanism in well-trained male athletes. Ten elite male college judo athletes participated with a randomized crossover, placebo-controlled design. The subjects consumed 6 g/day arginine (ARG trial) or placebo (CON trial) for 3 days then performed an intermittent anaerobic exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Blood samples were collected before supplementation, before and during exercise and 0, 3, 6, 10, 30 and 60 min after exercise. ARG trial had significantly higher arginine concentrations than CON ...
Arginine (ARG) and nitric oxide maintain the mucosal integrity of the intestine in various intestinal disorders. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of oral ARG supplementation on intestinal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis following methotrexate (MTX)-induced intestinal damage in a rat. Male rats were divided into four experimental groups: Control rats, CONTR-ARG rats, were treated with oral ARG given in drinking water 72 hours before and 72 hours following vehicle injection, MTX rats were treated with a single dose of methotrexate, and MTX-ARG rats were treated with oral ARG following injection of MTX. Intestinal mucosal damage, mucosal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined 72 hours following MTX injection. RT-PCR was used to determine bax and bcl-2 mRNA expression. MTX-ARG rats demonstrated greater jejunal and ileal bowel weight, greater ileal mucosal weight, greater ileal mucosal DNA and protein levels, greater
In this study, SNP rs1241321 in DDAH1 was found to be associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes independently of the plasma ADMA level. In addition, individuals with an AA genotype at rs1241321 appeared to be more insulin-sensitive when compared with AG/GG individuals. Over a median follow-up period of 28.2 months, AA genotype at rs1241321 was associated with better long-term clinical outcome in diabetic subgroup. In contrast, some SNPs of DDAH1, especially the rs1498373, might influence the plasma level of ADMA. However, with the exception of rs1241321, none of these SNPs or the plasma ADMA level was associated with type 2 diabetes, suggesting that the interaction of DDAH1 variants with type 2 diabetes may not be directly related to its enzymatic activity, i.e. not just simply mediated by the plasma ADMA level. We also identified a common haplotype H5 (GGCAGC) that was associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.. It is well recognized that type 2 diabetes and its metabolic ...
We describe in depth the structure of complexes formed between DNA and two classes of arginine-containing peptide amphiphiles, namely, the lipopeptide PRW-C16 (P = proline, R = arginine, W = tryptophan, C16 = C16 : 0 alkyl chain) and the bolaamphiphile RFL4FR (R = arginine, F = phenylalanine, L = leucine). A Biological soft matter
Background: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA), endogenous nitric oxide-synthase inhibitors (End-NOSI), have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and atherosclerosis. In addition, acute administration of NOSI cause hypertension through hemodynamic effects, but whether circulating End-NOSI are associated with these abnormalities is unknown.. Methods: We studied 922 adults in a population-based study (PREVENCION study). We examined the correlation between End-NOSI/L-arginine and CVRF, as well as the relationship between these biomarkers and arterial hemodynamics, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT). We used general linear modeling for statistical analyses. Estimates (β) are standardized.. Results: In multivariate analyses, LDL-cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) were independent predictors of ADMA, whereas LDL-cholesterol and gender independently predicted NMMA. Age, gender, ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent endogenous vasodilator and has shown to inhibit key processes of atherosclerosis like monocyte adhesion, platelet aggregation, and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Impaired endothelial NO production is a main feature of endothelial dysfunction, which by itself is an early step in the course of atherosclerotic vascular disease.. Recent studies could confirm this close association between parameters of the NO pathway and cardiovascular disease and could further enhance the knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms. There is a significant relationship between insulin resistance and the endogenous NO synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Moreover, evidence could be provided that plasma levels of ADMA are a strong and independent predictor of mortality and cardiovascular outcome in haemodialysis patients.. Patients with growth hormone deficiency are characterized by a 1.9 fold higher risk of death from cardiovascular disease. Again, there ...
The main finding in this study is that in essential hypertensives the endogenous inhibitor of e-NOS ADMA is inversely related to endothelial function as measured by the peak hemodynamic response to ACh. Such relationship occurs in a range of ADMA values within the boundaries of the normal range. A companion, unexpected, finding in this study is that circulating L-arginine is directly related to plasma ADMA and, like plasma ADMA, it is inversely related to endothelial function.. The importance of ADMA as an endogenous inhibitor of e-NOS is now well established (26-28). Elegant studies in healthy volunteers convincingly demonstrated that intravenous ADMA infusion at a dose resulting in pathophysiological concentrations augments peripheral and renovascular resistance and arterial pressure (22). High plasma ADMA concentration was observed in the presence of traditional or emerging cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hyperhomocysteinemia) (18-21,29), inducing endothelial dysfunction in some of these ...
AB - BackgroundDimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2 (DDAH2) regulates the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) through the metabolism of the endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Pilot studies have associated the rs805305 SNP of DDAH2 with ADMA concentrations in sepsis. This study explored the impact of the rs805305 polymorphism on DDAH activity and outcome in septic shock.MethodsWe undertook a secondary analysis of data and samples collected during the Vasopressin versus noradrenaline as initial therapy in septic shock (VANISH) trial. Plasma and DNA samples isolated from 286 patients recruited into the VANISH trial were analysed. Concentrations of L-Arginine and the methylarginines ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were determined from plasma samples. Whole blood and buffy-coat samples were genotyped for polymorphisms of DDAH2. Clinical data collected during the study were used to explore the relationship between circulating methylarginines, ...
The abnormal regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Recombinant arginine deiminase (rADI) is a selective NO modulator of iNOS and eNOS in endothelial cells, and it also exhibits neuroprotective activity in an iNOS-induced neuron-microglia coculture system. However, the effect of rADI on nNOS remains unknown. Addressing this issue is important for evaluating the potential application of rADI in neurodegenerative diseases. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with |i|N|/i|-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) to activate nNOS. NMDA increased NO production by 39.7 ± 3.9% via nNOS under arginine-containing conditions, but there was no significant increase in both arginine-free and rADI pretreated arginine-containing (citrulline) buffer. Subsequently, neither NMDA nor rADI alone caused cytotoxicity, whereas cotreatment with NMDA and rADI resulted in dissipation of the cell mitochondrial membrane potential and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hyperglycemia, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and patient survival. T2 - Dysregulation of complex networks and the metabolic basis of disease. AU - Castillo, Leticia. AU - Al-Khadra, Eman. PY - 2005/3/1. Y1 - 2005/3/1. KW - Amino acid pool. KW - Asymmetric dimethylarginine. KW - Nutrients. KW - Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=14944354288&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=14944354288&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1097/01.CCM.0000155775.30228.33. DO - 10.1097/01.CCM.0000155775.30228.33. M3 - Editorial. C2 - 15753766. AN - SCOPUS:14944354288. VL - 33. SP - 674. EP - 676. JO - Critical Care Medicine. JF - Critical Care Medicine. SN - 0090-3493. IS - 3. ER - ...
BACKGROUND: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been suggested as a possible marker of endothelial dysfunction, and interest in its use in clinical practice is increasing. However, the potential role of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) as an endogenous marker of renal function, has been less widely investigated. The aims of the present study were therefore to determine reference values for dimethylarginines in plasma after method validation, and to ascertain ADMA plasma concentrations in patients with disorders characterized by endothelial dysfunction; a further end-point was to investigate the relationship between SDMA plasma concentrations and estimated GFR (eGFR) as well as plasmatic creatinine in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD ...
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Abstract: Arginine decreased cholesterol and triglyceride content in blood sera of intact rats and inhibited the development of hyperlipidemia provoked by Triton WR-1339 injection. In rabbits pretreated with cholesterol arginine diminished the content of blood serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Introduction of arginine to intact and hyperlipidemic guinea pigs decreased the VLDL and increased the HDL level. Under influence of arginine electrophoretic zone of HDL apo A-1 was more pronounced and apo E zone became less distinct in hyperlipidemic guinea pigs ...
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What is Arginine?. The amino acid Arginine (l-Arginine HCl) is acquiring a reputation for keeping the bodys biggest muscle, the heart, in tip-top shape. In addition to the heart, Arginine can also needed to increase protein synthesis which can in turn increase cels. Studies have found that men with low sperm counts experienced an increase in the number of sperm when they were supplemented with Arginine. How does it work?. Arginine supplements appear to reduce mildly elevated blood pressure by enhancing the synthesis of Nitric Oxide (a gas) in the cells lining the blood vessels. This helps dilate vessel walls and improves blood flow around the heart. In fact, Nitric Oxide ranks as the bodys most potent blood vessel expander. In addition, Arginine may help in treating male fertility caused by circulation problems. Where does it come from?. Arginine is an amino acid found in many foods, including dairy products, meat, poultry, fish, nuts and chocolate. Safety / Side Effects. Arginine has so far ...
The current study confirms previous observations of our group and others that oxidized lipoprotein increases the endothelial release of ADMA and that ADMA reduces the synthesis of NO while increasing the generation of superoxide anion. However, in this study it took rather high concentrations (10 μm) of exogenous ADMA to have a measurable effect upon NO synthesis, superoxide anion generation and endothelial adhesiveness. This concentration of ADMA is at the upper range of plasma ADMA levels observed in disease (2 to 10 μm).. However, chronic exposure to the lower levels of ADMA observed in disease states appears to have similar effects on endothelial biology as does short-term exposure to the higher dose used in this study. Specifically, we and others have demonstrated that the two to three-fold increase in plasma ADMA observed in hypercholesterolemic individuals is associated with reductions in endothelium dependent vasodilation and urinary nitrate excretion-effects that are reversed by ...
Agmatine can regulate nitric oxide levels, which leads to the "pump" often felt at the gym after taking pre workout supplements containing this ingredient.*. Citrulline is another supplement which raises plasma arginine concentration. Its unknown whether citrulline and agmatine taken together further enhance systemic nitric oxide production.* Some research suggests that they compete for uptake, so its likely not worthwhile to combine arginine and citrulline. Other supplements that do not go well with agmatine include creatine, DAA, and Yohimbine. Read more about these interactions at Examine.com.. ...
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Read on and youll be able t answer the question "Is too much salt bad for you?" Does Arginine Make You Gain Weight Effects Creatine Side Disruptions in Blood Sugar Levels - Low Blood Sugar/Hypoglycemia: can indicate problems with the liver or kidneys and can lead to Effect of oral l-arginine supplementation on blood pressure: A an erection longer than 4 hours free pills ed samples meta-analysis of randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials e) As it helps in vasodilation it also prevents abnormal blood clotting to a significant extent . V-12 by SAN incorporates 4 the same way that N-Acetyl-L-Glutamine is a major improvement over regular glutamine Nitroarginine is a significant advancement past regular l-arginine. Directions For Beverly Int. L arginine for fioids - Gnld Products For Fioid - Buy Fioids Product on Alibaba.. Arginine plays a role in the synthesis of hormones Does Arginine Make You Gain Weight Effects Creatine Side such as insulin and growth hormone and The strain showed a ...
Lüneburg N, Lieb W, Zeller T, Chen MH, Maas R, Carter AM, Xanthakis V, Glazer NL, Schwedhelm E, Seshadri S, Ikram MA, Longstreth WT Jr, Fornage M, König IR, Loley C, Ojeda FM, Schillert A, Wang TJ, Sticht H, Kittel A, König J, Benjamin EJ, Sullivan LM, Bernges I, Anderssohn M, Ziegler A, Gieger C, Illig T, Meisinger C, Wichmann HE, Wild PS, Schunkert H, Psaty BM, Wiggins KL, Heckbert SR, Smith N, Lackner K, Lunetta KL, Blankenberg S, Erdmann J, Münzel T, Grant PJ, Vasan RS, Böger RH. Genome-Wide Association Study of L-Arginine and Dimethylarginines Reveals Novel Metabolic Pathway for Symmetric Dimethylarginine. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2014 ...
Low prices on L-Arginine! Improve heart health, lower blood pressure and speed up wound healing*. L-arginine is an amino acid shown to have many benefits on health. Studies have shown significant improvement of symptoms as well as objective measurements of heart function. L-arginine improves the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), a naturally occurring substance in the body.
arolinska Institute in Sweden found that NO could be generated from nitrates that were abundant in green leafy vegetables like spinach, lettuce, kale and especially beetroot. This requires the activation of the NOx 3,2,1 pathway to be fully operational. In effect, nitrates consumed in foods are reduced by oral bacteria into nitrites and then in the stomach into NO.. Since then, other research groups have joined the effort to uncover nitrates amazing ability to generate NO that is quicker and much more efficient than the previously known pathway via the amino acid l-arginine. Unlike, l-arginine which is only operational in conditions with good oxygen and is dependent on the proper functioning of a family of enzymes called nitric oxide synthases (NOS), nitrates offer an alternate pathway (albeit a backup) for the body to generate the versatile NO molecule quickly at low doses and in low oxygen conditions! The latter is an important factor especially during a number of pathologies where oxygen is ...
Much like remaining calm, doctors have also noted that a proper diet is effective at improving your rate of healing. Similarly, people should try to add more nutrients and vitamins into their daily health routine. The amino acid arginine features a compound called nitric oxide, and increased levels have proven to bolster both your bloods oxygenation levels and overall circulation. Glutamine - one of the 20 or so essential amino acids that create the human genetic code - provides your body with substrate, a molecule thats essential for tissue growth. Both amino acids can be found in supplements like L-glutamine and L-arginine, but always consult with a physician before you begin take any supplement.. Article provided by Advanced Tissue. Click here to visit their website. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Haydens investigation of variation within the ABCA1 gene was prompted by the finding that Tangier disease, characterized by almost a complete absence of HDL-C, is caused by a defect in ABCA1. This led Haydens team to search for other variants of the cholesterol transporter gene that might modify the risk of heart disease.. The researchers identified 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) a specific type of variation within the coding region of the ABCA1 gene. Of these, 10 caused amino acid changes in the protein, which have the potential to alter the function of the transporter. In the R219K variant the amino acid arginine is replaced with lysine. The authors note that the SNPs tend to be concentrated away from the functional regions of the transporter protein. They suggest that this may be why most variations seem to exert such minor effects. Defective ABC transporters have been implicated in a number of diseases: ABCA1 in Tangier disease, ABCC7, which transports chloride ions, in cystic ...
The amino acid L-arginine is of particular interest to bodybuilders and people seeking alternative treatments for sexual dysfunction. Along with other aminos, it contributes to muscle growth and ...
A diet that included the amino acid L-arginine improved gut function in a mouse model of DMD, a study found, suggesting the same may be true for people.
Natural forms of amino acid L-arginine is found in animal based products like red meat, poultry, fish, and dairy as well as plant-based products such as nuts, seeds, oats, beans and wheat germ are good plant-based sources of arginine. Andthere are plenty of manufacturers who make it in their labs.. Mayo Clinic lists therapeutic dosages of L-arginine for anything from altitude sickness and asthma to coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes, exercise performance and transplants.. L-arginine converts in the body to nitric oxide that is a vasodilator.. It is used to improve the health of the heart and blood vessels. Dilatation of blood vessels can relieve the symptoms of pain related to blood restrictions. Keeping blood vessels pliable could also contribute to improved health of those who suffer from congestive heart failure and high blood pressure.. Your blood vessels are like a garden hose. When you squeeze them, the stream narrows, and the pressure goes up. When you relax them, the stream widens, ...
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In the simplest case, complex samples are spotted directly onto a MALDI plate. If the sample consists of proteins that are digested with trypsin, then the most abundant proteins can be identified by Peptide Mass Fingerprinting (PMF) starting from high resolution reflectron spectra. SimulTof Systems has developed special PMF software that takes advantage of the well-known preferential detection of arginine-containing peptides that makes PMF practical even for whole tissue preparations, so long as most proteins are largely intact. Differences between preparations can be determined using peak list information loaded into spreadsheets like Excel, and / or exported to 3rd party software like R, SpotFire or GeneSpring. The following poster describes this workflow starting from chicken meat preparations obtained from a grocery store, which is a model system for studying myosin heavy chain differences in human muscle biopsy samples.. ...
Rudich P, Snoznik C, Watkins SC, Monaghan J, Pandey UB, Lamitina ST. Nuclear localized C9orf72-associated arginine-containing dipeptides exhibit age-dependent toxicity in C. elegans ...
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NUTRI ESSENTIALS PREMIUM QUALITY L-ARGININE The amino acid L-Arginine plays a number of important roles in your body to help your immune and cardiovascular systems function at their bests. * While you can get arginine from many plant-based and animal-based foods, many people require more, especially to support active l
Agmatine, also known as (4-aminobutyl)guanidine, is a derivative of the amino acid l-arginine. Stored in neurons, this compound (also referred to as super argi
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l-Arginine is a versatile amino acid that plays a central role in the normal function of several organ systems including the immune system. Its availability is tightly controlled and varies significantly in different organs and tissues in the body. l-Arginine plays an important role in supporting T-cell proliferation. Its depletion in certain disease states results in a diminished T-cell response. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the depletion of l-arginine on the expression of the T-cell receptor (TCR) proteins. When the helper T-cell line Jurkat was cultured in arginine-free medium, there was a preferential decrease in the expression of the TCR ζ chain (CD3ζ). The reduced expression of CD3ζ was observed within 24 h of culture in l-arginine-free medium and was completely reversed with the replenishment of l-arginine. Furthermore, the absence of l-arginine blocked the normal re-expression of the TCR that had been internalized after antigen stimulation. There also ...
Nitric oxide (NO) defends against intracellular pathogens but its synthesis should be regulated because of cell and tissue toxicity. Therefore extracellular arginine fuels fast NO creation in triggered macrophages and citrulline recycling via Ass1 and Asl can be a fail-safe program that sustains ideal NO production. Intro Mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages and dendritic cells) understand control and destroy a multitude of pathogens. Effective pathogens possess made related adaptations to reside in and replicate within macrophages (Mycobacterium sp. Toxoplasma gondii Leishmania sp.) while additional pathogens make use of macrophages as a car to facilitate fast development and dissemination (have already been associated with susceptibility recommending that human being NO is necessary for microbial containment (Choi et al. 2002 Facchetti et al. 1999 Moller et al. 2009 Nicholson et al. 1996 Pautz et al. 2010 Superoxide era also plays a part in control of also to other homotropic pathogens (Ehrt ...
(2005) Thum et al. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) may be an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). BACKGROUND: Endothelial progenitor cells play a pivotal role in regeneration of inj...
Certainly an increase in L-arginine intake allows the body to produce more nitric oxide. This is done by relaxing the endothelial lining of the blood vessels. Areas of the body deprived are then reached. This is esential to allow healing to occur especially when under conditions of stress or malnutrition. Arginine also safely delivers more oxygen to the deprived tissues of the body. Dr J Prendergast explains that this fact alone is helpful for cancer patients. Certainly the benefits of providing more oxygen to deprived cancer tissues help starve the cancer cells. The opening up of veins and arteries by the use of l-arginine is a means in which to do this.. We can see therefore the benfits of l-arginine with the increased of nitric oxide allowing for oxygen to reach depleted areas. What is often misunderstood however is the the science behind how this happens. The Howard Hughes Medical Institute in 2005 showed that when l-arginine is used nitric oxide is added to the bloods hemoglobin. This is ...
Low prices on Arginine! Improve heart health, lower blood pressure and speed up wound healing*. L-arginine is an amino acid shown to have many benefits on health. Studies have shown significant improvement of symptoms as well as objective measurements of heart function. L-arginine improves the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), a naturally occurring substance in the body.
Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Levitra Plus.. STORAGE. Store Levitra Plus at room temperature, between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Levitra Plus out of the reach of children.. MORE INFO:. Active Ingredient: Vardenafil 10mg.. Other Ingredients:. Ginseng stimulates and increases endocrine activity in the body. It increases metabolic activity and relaxes heart and artery movements. Ginseng also stimulates the medulla centers and relaxes the central nervous system. Ginseng also increases more successfully erections, sexual desire and intercourse in comparison with placebo.. L-Arginine is used to make the nitric oxide, a compound in the body that relaxes blood vessels. Preliminary studies have found that L-Arginine may help with conditions that improve when blood vessels are relaxed (called vasodilation). Together with reduction of blood vessel stiffness L-Arginine ...
Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Levitra Plus.. STORAGE. Store Levitra Plus at room temperature, between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Levitra Plus out of the reach of children.. MORE INFO:. Active Ingredient: Vardenafil 10mg.. Other Ingredients:. Ginseng stimulates and increases endocrine activity in the body. It increases metabolic activity and relaxes heart and artery movements. Ginseng also stimulates the medulla centers and relaxes the central nervous system. Ginseng also increases more successfully erections, sexual desire and intercourse in comparison with placebo.. L-Arginine is used to make the nitric oxide, a compound in the body that relaxes blood vessels. Preliminary studies have found that L-Arginine may help with conditions that improve when blood vessels are relaxed (called vasodilation). Together with reduction of blood vessel stiffness L-Arginine ...
Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Levitra Plus.. STORAGE. Store Levitra Plus at room temperature, between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Levitra Plus out of the reach of children.. MORE INFO:. Active Ingredient: Vardenafil 10mg.. Other Ingredients:. Ginseng stimulates and increases endocrine activity in the body. It increases metabolic activity and relaxes heart and artery movements. Ginseng also stimulates the medulla centers and relaxes the central nervous system. Ginseng also increases more successfully erections, sexual desire and intercourse in comparison with placebo.. L-Arginine is used to make the nitric oxide, a compound in the body that relaxes blood vessels. Preliminary studies have found that L-Arginine may help with conditions that improve when blood vessels are relaxed (called vasodilation). Together with reduction of blood vessel stiffness L-Arginine ...
In eukaryotic cells, the Sm-proteins B/B, D1, D2, D3, E, F, and G form a heteroheptameric protein core shared between all uracil-rich small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U-snRNP) complexes. Like native SmD1, DIARECT™s recombinant SmD1 contains symmetrically dimethylated arginine residues. DIARECT™ antigens are for further manufacturing or research use only. ...
L-arginine supplements are popular among athletes.. Many believe that L-arginine can increase oxygen delivery to muscles and decrease lactic acid build-up.. There are also claims that it can help with a number of health conditions such as blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.. This article looks into what L-arginine is, what it does and whether there is evidence to back up these claims. [Discover More…] ...
Hecker M, Macarthur H, Sessa WC, Southan GJ, Swierkosz TA, Walsh DT, Zembowicz A, Vane JR (1992): NG-Hydroxy-l-arginine: A nitric oxide synthase-independent vasodilator and potential intercellular nitric oxide carrier. In: Biology of Nitric Oxide Part 2. Biochemistry, Enzymology and Immunology (S. Moncada, M.A. Marletta, J.B. Hibbs, E.A. Higgs, eds.), pp. 128-130, Portland Press, Colchester. ...
With 22 years of basic and applied clinical research experience, I have made it my mission to use the discovery of these biological mechanisms to develop novel ways of enhancing cardiovascular health. As a clinical physician, I have treated patients who suffered from severe lack of blood flow to the legs, and it is this experience that has inspired me to research the benefits of L-arginine and its affect on tissue blood flow.. When using L-arginine as a dietary supplement, there are a few caveats that need to be considered. Restoring nitric oxide formation with L-arginine needs to be maintained around the clock. L-arginine, however, has a short residence time in blood; in less than 1 hour, half is already spent. Only when L-arginine is combined with L-citrulline is it possible to provide prolonged elevations of L-arginine in the blood stream.. Furthermore, cardiovascular health is a refined balance in which the endothelial cells interact with oxidative factors, blood platelets and the ...
To know about L Arginine - L-arginine is an amino acid necessary for the body to make proteins. L-arginine can be found in the red meat, fish, chicken.
Muscle challenges while in the esophagus. Early investigate suggests that getting an L-arginine infusion and getting L-arginine by mouth for six months reduces the amount and depth of upper body ache attacks in people with muscle difficulties from the esophagus and upper body agony thats not relevant to the heart.You need the exact same recipe to … Read More. ...
... - L-Arginine: It is essential in muscle metabolism because it provides a vehicle for transport, storage and excretion of nitrogen. L-Arginine is an important component in tissue generation and regeneration. It is highly concentrated
Buy L-ARGININE 1000mg - 50 tabs Online.L-Arginine is an amino acid that forms part of the proteins. It is of vital importance in its isolated form as it fulfils numerous functions. Due to the role that L-Arginine plays as a vasodila
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A composition for relieving stress and/or disorder caused by stress is provided, which composition comprises lysine and arginine as active ingredients. The lysine and arginine may be in the form of a
L-arginine is a functional amino acid that helps you to maintain youthful vigor. It supports cardiovascular health, muscle mass, growth and healthy skin. Get a clearer profile of the numerous health benefits of l-arginine.
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Are L-Arginine benefits legit? Well, the thing is, L-Arginine is full of scientifically proven benefits, the key is, will help what ails you?
ink that L-arginine might be the most disputed conception aid. Some sources state it improves quantity of eggs but decreases quality. - L-arginine and conception - Conception at BellaOnline
L-Arginine 500 mg Caps Each capsule provides 500 mg of L-Arginine (from L-arginine hydrochloride, L-arginine). As an Amino Acid, L-Arginine acts as one of the building blocks for protein.
Pure Label Nutrition L-Arginine is one of the most to-the-point l-arginine supplements on the market. It doesnt add any vitamins, trace minerals, or other substances that many other brands add to their product. Pure Label Nutrition L-Arginine Review Whats in Pure Label Nutrition L-Arginine? If theres nothing added to Pure Label Nutrition L-Arginine, then whats […]. Continue reading ...
L-Arginine is an amino acid, a chemical building block that makes proteins. It is converted in the body into a chemical called nitric oxide that maintains healthy blood flow and cardiovascular health.*
L-arginineL-arginine is amino acid produced in the kidneys and liver.Usually, the body produces sufficient amounts of this amino acid, but somehealth problems may cause L-arginine deficiency.
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I want to start L-arginine 7g per day for my son. I started Juven and for some reason, my son started complaining about calf muscle pain, he did not have that…
Reduced glomerular filtration rate and increased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are prevalent in elderly people. However, most of the studies that have examined the association between the two conditions were performed in patients with renal dysfunction, but not in the general elderly population. Thus, we investigated an association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and ADMA concentration among community-dwelling older Koreans. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 269 men and 382 women (mean age, 71.6 years) enrolled in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP), a population-based cohort study of health determinants in elderly Koreans. We calculated eGFR using chronic kidney disease- Epidemiology Collaboration Group (CKD-EPI) equation. ADMA concentration was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The association between eGFR and ADMA concentrations was analyzed by multiple linear regression models. The mean ADMA was significantly higher in people with
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Background: Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) detected chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats an average of 17.0 months before serum creatinine (Cr) concentrations increased above the reference interval. Objectives: To report on the utility of measuring serum SDMA concentrations in dogs for detection of CKD before diagnosis by measurement of serum Cr. Animals: CKD dogs (n = 19) included those persistently azotemic for ?3 months (n = 5), dogs that were azotemic at the time of death (n = 4), and nonazotemic dogs (n = 10). CKD dogs were compared with healthy control dogs (n = 20). Methods: Retrospective study, whereby serum Cr concentrations were determined by enzymatic colorimetry and serum SDMA concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in dogs with necropsy confirmed CKD. Results: Serum SDMA increased before serum Cr in 17 of 19 dogs (mean, 9.8 months; range, 2.2-27.0 months). Duration of elevations in serum SDMA concentrations before the dog ...
Department of Surgery, University of Aberdeen Medical School, Scotland. BACKGROUND. The amino acid L-arginine is known to have immunostimulatory effects in animals and healthy human volunteers. We have studied the effect of dietary supplementation with L-arginine (30 g/day for 3 days) on host defenses in patients with breast cancer. METHODS. Mitogenic responses of peripheral blood lymphocytes to concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, and pokeweed mitogen and phenotype analysis of lymphocyte subsets and activation markers were assessed before and after 3 days of L-arginine supplementation. The effect of L-arginine supplementation on natural killer and lymphokine-activated killer cell cytotoxicity and serum levels of the cytokines interleukin-1 beta and 2, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were also measured. RESULTS. L-arginine significantly increased lymphocyte mitogenic reactivity to concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, and pokeweed mitogen (mean percentage increases: 64% [p , ...
This gene belongs to the dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) gene family. The encoded enzyme plays a role in nitric oxide generation by regulating cellular concentrations of methylarginines, which in turn inhibit nitric oxide synthase activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Asymmetric dimethylarginine predicts survival in the elderly. AU - Pizzarelli, Francesco. AU - Maas, Renke. AU - Dattolo, Pietro. AU - Tripepi, Giovanni. AU - Michelassi, Stefano. AU - DArrigo, Graziella. AU - Mieth, Maren. AU - Bandinelli, Stefania. AU - Ferrucci, Luigi. AU - Zoccali, Carmine. PY - 2013/12. Y1 - 2013/12. N2 - Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase implicated in several age-related biological mechanisms such as telomere shortening and cell senescence. We tested the hypothesis that ADMA blood level is an independent predictor of mortality in elderly. This is a longitudinal population-based cohort study. Participants are a representative cohort of 1,025 men and women (age range 65-102 years) living in Chianti area, Tuscany, Italy. The plasma ADMA was measured by liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry. During the follow-up (95±32 months), 384 individuals died, of whom 141 (37 %) died of cardiovascular (CV) ...
The relationship between high ADMA and CRP is context dependent. Indeed, in acute sepsis, ADMA is downregulated (34), whereas high ADMA levels are consistently associated with biomarkers of inflammation in a variety of chronic conditions including untreated essential hypertension (35), glucose intolerance (36), familial Mediterranean fever (33), and inflammatory bowel diseases (37). In vitro, ADMA induces TNF-α production via reactive oxygen species/NF-κB-dependent pathway (38). On the other hand, the generation of reactive oxygen species, an important initial event in inflammation, inhibits the enzyme that degrades ADMA (dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase), facilitating local and/or systemic ADMA accumulation. ADMA in turn increases the generation of the downstream pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α and IL-8 and activates the NF-κB pathway and the binding of monocytes to endothelial cells (39). Even although an independent prognostic value of ADMA and inflammation was described in the ...
L-Arginine, L-Arginine in Pregnancy drug information - Drugs Update India ,L-Arginine and Lactation drug information - Drugs Update India,L-Arginine and Children drug information - Drugs Update India,Pharmacokinetics of L-Arginine,Pharmacodynamics of L-Arginine,Clinical Efficacy of L-Arginine,Adverse Reactions of L-Arginine,Precautions of L-Arginine,Special Precautions of L-Arginine,Other drug interactions of L-Arginine,Other interactions of L-Arginine,Dosage of L-Arginine,Food of L-Arginine,List of Contraindications of L-Arginine,Geriatic of L-Arginine,Other Contrandications of L-Arginine,Storage of L-Arginine,Lab of L-Arginine, drugsupdate.com - Indias leading online platform for Doctors and health care professionals. Updates on Drugs, news, journals, 1000s of videos, national and international events, product-launches and much more...Latest drugs in India, drugs, drugs update, drugs update
Hydrolyzes N(G),N(G)-dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA) and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (MMA) which act as inhibitors of NOS. Has therefore a role in the regulation of nitric oxide generation.
Arginine is derived from dietary protein intake, body protein breakdown, or endogenous de novo arginine production. The latter may be linked to the availability of citrulline, which is the immediate precursor of arginine and limiting factor for de novo arginine production. Arginine metabolism is highly compartmentalized due to the expression of the enzymes involved in arginine metabolism in various organs. A small fraction of arginine enters the NO synthase (NOS) pathway. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential and rate-limiting cofactor for the production of NO ...
Endothelial dysfunction is considered an early step of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), the main endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), plays a critical role in the process of atherosclerosis in a uremic environment. Increased plasma ADMA not only works as a cardiovascular morbidity biomarker but it is also involved in the genesis of atherosclerosis in renal disease. Considering the relationships of apolipoprotein E(ApoE) polymorphism with LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and coronary risk, it is possible that it brings on susceptibility to endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis seen on uremia. Six hundred twenty patients were stratified according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKDEPI) formula: group I | 60 mL/min, group II ≤ 60 mL/min and | 15 mL/min, and group III ≤ 15 mL/min or in hemodialysis. Polymorphic ApoE analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification
BACKGROUND: L-Arginine has been shown to induce fluid secretion in human jejunum. Nitric oxide, a derivative of L-arginine is thought to have an important role as an intestinal secretagogue. AIM: To determine the effect of L-arginine and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), on fluid and electrolyte movement in rat jejunum. METHODS: A 25 cm segment of rat jejunum was perfused in situ with iso-osmotic solutions containing either (1) saline, (2) D-arginine 20, (3) L-arginine 20, (4) L-NAME 0.1, 1, or 20 mmol/l, or (5) a combination of L-arginine 20 and L-NAME 0.1, 1, or 20 mmol/l. In further groups the effect of a subcutaneous injection of L-NAME 100 mg/kg was examined in rats pretreated with either D-or L-arginine 500 mg/kg. RESULTS: L-Arginine, unlike D-arginine, induced fluid secretion despite being better absorbed (mean -7.3 v 17.0 microliters/min/g; p , 0.01). L-NAME at 0.1 mmol/l had no effect on basal fluid movement but reversed L-arginine induced ...
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5507 AS1411 (formerly AGRO100) is a guanosine-rich phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotide that is currently being tested in a Phase I clinical trial for the treatment of advanced cancer. This agent has a novel mechanism of action that involves binding to nucleolin, a multifunctional protein that is expressed abnormally by cancer cells. Binding of AS1411 to nucleolin is thought to alter the molecular interactions of nucleolin, which modulates nucleolin function and leads to antiproliferative effects. The purpose of this study was to identify nucleolin-binding proteins whose interactions with nucleolin are perturbed in AS1411-treated cancer cells. The nucleolin complex was isolated by immunoprecipitation (IP) from human prostate cancer DU145 cells. Several nucleolin-interacting proteins, including protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), were identified by MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry. PRMT5 is a Type II arginine methyltransferase (makes symmetrical dimethylarginine modifications) that has been ...
This meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials brought evidence that oral L-arginine supplementation, compared with placebo, significantly lowered systolic BP by 5.39 mm Hg (95% CI −8.54 to −2.25) and diastolic BP by 2.66 mm Hg (95% CI −3.77 to −1.54).. The magnitudes of the BP reductions in response to L-arginine supplementation in this meta-analysis are moderate but detectable. It should be noted that most participants included in these studies were normotensive, a category in which there may be less room for improving. In fact, one trial 20 that performed separate analysis according to hypertension status showed greater BP reductions in hypertensive participants than in normotensive ones (systolic BP: −5.6 vs −1.8 mm Hg, diastolic BP: −3.8 vs −1.8 mm Hg). It would be useful to perform stratified analysis by hypertension status, but the small number of trials conducted in hypertensive subjects[18,20,22] precluded such analysis. Yet our meta-regression ...
Dr Ignarro, Nobel Laureate, says, Youre at your healthiest at birth. From that point Nitric Oxide levels in your body gradually begin to decrease, but they really start decreasing when you are in your 30s and 40s. So you need to take whatever steps are necessary to keep that Nitric Oxide at a normal level by boost
In what became a celebrated experiment, Beadle and Tatum first irradiated a large number of Neurospora, and thereby produced some organisms with mutant genes. They then crossed these potential mutants with non-irradiated Neurospora. Normal products of this sexual recombination could multiply in a simple growth medium. However, Beadle and Tatum showed that some of the mutant spores would not replicate without addition of a specific amino acid arginine. They developed four strains of arginine-dependent Neurospora each of which, they showed, had lost use of a specific gene that ordinarily facilitates one particular enzyme necessary to the production of arginine.. Beadle and Tatums fairly simple experiment was a keystone in the development of molecular biology. In its basic form, the concept that genes produce enzymes had been first put forth as early as 1901 by Archibald Garrod as Beadle acknowledged when he and Tatum were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1958. While Garrods ...
RefSeq Summary (NM_013974): This gene belongs to the dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) gene family. The encoded enzyme plays a role in nitric oxide generation by regulating cellular concentrations of methylarginines, which in turn inhibit nitric oxide synthase activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ##Evidence-Data-START## Transcript exon combination :: AF070667.1, AF087894.1 [ECO:0000332] RNAseq introns :: single sample supports all introns ERS025083 [ECO:0000348] ##Evidence-Data-END# ...
Given the prevalence of inadequate nutrition in patients with pressure injuries, the use of high-protein oral nutrition supplements is common practice in the these patients. Additional arginine is needed during periods of stress and in the presence of injury. Therefore, arginine is a recommended component of oral nutritional supplements for patients with pressure injuries.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a simple molecule - just one atom of nitrogen and one of oxygen - but it plays some very important roles in the body. The discovery of NOs role in cell communication won a 1998 Nobel Prize. I touched on the functions of NO in my June 11 article (#169) on the amino acid arginine. Here is more information on nitric oxide ...
Rat peritoneal macrophages were incubated in the presence of 0.05-1.0 mM-[14C]citrulline. The synthesis of [14C]arginine from 0.1 mM-[14C]citrulline was about 300 pmol/h per 10(6) cells in macrophages from saline-injected (control) rats. Both arginine synthesis from citrulline and nitrate production (an indicator of NO generation) were increased about 3-fold in the cells from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated animals. The arginine synthesis was very sensitive to extracellular citrulline concentration in the range found in plasma (0.05-0.1 mM). The rate of arginine synthesis from citrulline was inhibited by about 20% by 0.5 mM-L-glutamine in both control and LPS-treated rat cells, but was inhibited by 0.5 mM-L-arginine only in control cells. Our results demonstrate that citrulline, produced by NO synthetase, can be recycled to arginine in macrophages. The citrulline-arginine cycle may contribute to the regulation of intracellular availability of arginine and thus the prolonged production of NO by ...
POWERFUL NITRIC OXIDE PRECURSOR. The skin stretches. The muscle aches. The veins pop. The muscle start to swell. You know the feeling. When the veins are bulging out, the muscle looks full and the skin over your muscles gets very thin. Its the greatest feeling the natural high you get from hitting the weights hard. Its called the pump, and for years, bodybuilders and other athletes have relied on L-arginine to enhance these muscle-swelling pumps to feed their muscles the nutrients they need to perform, recover and grow bigger for sleeve-stretching pumps that are absolutely unreal!. New Platinum 100% L-Arginine delivers a full 1,000mg dose of L-arginine for rapid uptake and dispersal in your body. Flooding your body with this powerful nitric oxide precursor primes you for extreme pumps, enhanced blood flow and nutrient delivery!. ...
conducted by researchers at UCLAs Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center.. The TiO2 nanoparticles induced single- and double-strand DNA breaks and also caused chromosomal damage as well as inflammation, all of which increase the risk for cancer.. All types of nanoparticles have been found in human cells to manifest in the specific transformation of the amino acid arginine into the molecule called citrulline which can lead to the development of autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis.. In the transformation to citrulline, human proteins which incorporate this modified amino acid as building blocks, can no longer function properly and are subject to destruction and elimination by the bodily defence system. Once programmed to get rid of citrullinated proteins, the immune system can start attacking its own tissues and organs, thereby causing the autoimmune processes which may result in rheumatoid arthritis.. Other diseases associated with inhaled nanoparticles include asthma, bronchitis, ...
Urotensin-II (U-II), a cyclic peptide widely expressed in blood vessels, has diverse vascular actions that range from potent vasoconstriction to vasodilation. Although, U-II-induced vasodilation has been shown to be partially dependent on nitric oxide (NO), the involvement of vascular adventitia-derived NO, remains unknown. The present study aimed to elucidate the activation of U-II on l-arginine/NO pathway in isolated rat aortic adventitia. In adventitia of thoracic and abdominal aortas, the l-arginine/NO pathway was similarly characterized: the uptake of l-[3H]arginine was Na+-independent, with the peak occurring over around 40 min incubation; the total NO synthase (NOS) activity was mostly calcium-independent (,90%), and significantly inhibited by a specific iNOS inhibitor AMT; the production of NO metabolites nitrate and nitrite (NO x ) was stimulated by l-arginine but not by d-arginine. In aortic adventitia exposed to rat U-II (10−9 and 10−8 M) for 6 h, the V max of l-[3H]arginine ...
Results Fasting blood glucose, haemoglobin A1c, insulin, triglyceride, and ADMA levels, and mean IMT, plaque score were higher in diabetic patients compared with the controls. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated an independent association between ADMA and mean IMT in diabetic patients. On a multiple logistic regression analysis, ADMA was the sole predictor of carotid plaque formation (plaque score ≥1.1) (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.19 to 4.94, p,0.05).. ...
In fact, the amino acid is just as effective as several well-established drugs for type 2 diabetics," says postdoc Christoffer Clemmensen. He has conducted the new experiments based at Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen. He is currently conducting research at the Institute for Diabetes and Obesity at Helmholtz Zentrum München, the German Research Centre for Environmental Health in Munich.. To test the effect of the amino acid arginine, researchers subjected lean and obese animal models to a so-called glucose tolerance test, which measures the bodys ability to remove glucose from the blood over time.. "We have demonstrated that both lean and fat laboratory mice benefit considerably from arginine supplements. In fact, we improved glucose metabolism by as much as 40% in both groups. We can also see that arginine increases the bodys production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an intestinal hormone which plays an important role in regulating appetite and glucose ...
Hu X, Xu X, Zhu G, Atzler D, Kimoto M, Chen J, Schwedhelm E, Lüneburg N, Böger RH, Zhang P, et al. Vascular endothelial-specific dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1- deficient mice reveal that vascular endothelium plays an important role in removing asymmetric dimethylarginine. Circulation [Internet]. 2009;(22):2222-2229.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma arginine and ornithine are the main citrulline precursors in mice infused with arginine-free diets. AU - Marini, Juan C.. AU - Didelija, Inka Cajo. AU - Castillo, Leticia. AU - Lee, Brendan. PY - 2010/8/1. Y1 - 2010/8/1. N2 - Dietary arginine is the main dietary precursor for citrulline synthesis, but it is not known if other precursors can compensate when arginine is absent in the diet. To address this question, the contributions of plasma and dietary precursors were determined by using multitracer protocols in conscious mice infused i.g. either an arginine-sufficient diet [Arg(+)] or an arginine-free diet [Arg(2)]. The plasma entry rate of citrulline and arginine did not differ between the 2 diet groups (156 ± 6 and 564 ± 30 μmol·kg-1·h-1, respectively); however, the entry rate of ornithine was greater in the mice fed the Arg(+) than the Arg(-) diet (332 ± 33 vs. 180 ± 16 μmol·kg -1·h-1). There was a greater utilization of plasma ornithine for the synthesis of ...
Histone Arginine Methylation explained metaphorically by metaphor and with analogy examples. Histone Arginine Methylation is like a ...
Previous results on nitric oxide (NO) metabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI) show variations in NO availability and controversial effects of exogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-inhibitors. Furthermore, elevated levels of the endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were reported in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therefore, we examined whether ADMA and the enzymes involved in NO- and ADMA-metabolism are expressed in brain tissue after TBI and if time-dependent changes occur. TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact injury (CCII) and neurological performance was monitored. Expression of NOS, ADMA, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAH) and protein-arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) was determined by immunostaining in different brain regions and at various time-points after CCII. ADMA and PRMT1 expression decreased in all animals after TBI compared to the control group, while DDAH1 and DDAH2 expression increased in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of arginine supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activity and macrophage response in burned mice. AU - Tsai, Hui J.. AU - Shang, Huey Fang. AU - Yeh, Chiu L.. AU - Yeh, Sung Ling. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - This study investigated the effect of arginine (Arg) supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities and macrophage response in burned mice. Experiment 1: 60 male BALB/c mice were assigned to two groups. One group was fed a control diet with casein as the protein source, the other group was supplemented with 2% Arg in addition to casein. The two groups were isonitrogenous. After 4 weeks, all mice received a 30% body surface area burn injury. The antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxides in the tissues were analyzed. Experiment 2: 20 mice were divided into two groups and burn injury was induced after feeding for 4 weeks as described in experiment 1. Twenty-four hours after the burn, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secreted by cultured peritoneal macrophages ...
BACKGROUND: The nitric oxide (NO) precursor L-arginine has been shown to produce variable effects on intestinal absorptive function, including ion transport. AIMS: To determine whether there is an optimal concentration of L-arginine, promoting proabsorptive effects from oral rehydration solutions (ORS) with 90 or 60 mM sodium. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In vivo perfusion of rat jejunum with determination of net water absorption, unidirectional fluid exchanges, sodium and calcium transport, and glucose absorption. RESULTS: L-Arginine (1 mM) added to the 90 mM sodium ORS increased intestinal absorption of both sodium and water. Higher concentrations of L-arginine (2 to 10 mM) lacked this stimulatory effect. At 20 mM, L-arginine decreased sodium absorption below baseline. With a 60 mM sodium ORS, 2 mM L-arginine had a maximal fluid and electrolyte proabsorptive effect. At 20 mM L-arginine, net water absorption was indistinguishable from that obtained in the absence of L-arginine, and lower than with 2 ...
1.Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator which plays a major role in the control of blood pressure. The hyperdynamic circulation of cirrhosis has been linked to nitric oxide.. 2.We measured neutrophil nitric oxide synthase activity in relation to the level of hepatic dysfunction in patients with liver disease of varying aetiology and severity.. 3.Neutrophils were isolated from 21 patients (7 Child-Pugh score A, 6 grade B and 8 grade C) aged 28-76 (median 49) years. Nitric oxide synthase activity was measured using the conversion of oxyhaemoglobin to methaemoglobin by nitric oxide and expressed in terms of cell protein. Blood pressure and biochemical indices were recorded. Data were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test or Pearson correlation as appropriate.. 4.Systolic, mean arterial and diastolic blood pressures decreased with increasing hepatic damage (P = 0.031, P = 0.01 and P = 0.038 respectively). Nitric oxide synthase activity increased with the ...
In acute attacks of acute intermittent porphyria, the mainstay of treatment is glucose and heme arginate administration. We present the case of a 58-year-old patient with acute liver failure requiring urgent liver transplantation after erroneous 6-fold overdose of heme arginate during an acute attack. As recommended in the product information, albumin and charcoal were administered and hemodiafiltration was started, which could not prevent acute liver failure, requiring super-urgent liver transplantation after 6 days. The explanted liver showed no preexisting liver cirrhosis, but signs of subacute liver injury and starting regeneration. The patient recovered within a short time. A literature review revealed four poorly documented cases of potential hepatic and/or renal toxicity of hematin or heme arginate. This is the first published case report of acute liver failure requiring super-urgent liver transplantation after accidental heme arginate overdose. The literature and recommendations in case ...
NIH Rare Diseases : 50 lysinuric protein intolerance is a metabolic disorder caused by the bodys inability to digest and use the amino acids lysine, arginine, and ornithine. because the body cannot effectively break down these amino acids, which are found in many protein-rich foods, individuals experience nausea and vomiting after ingesting protein. other features associated with protein intolerance may also occur, including short stature, muscle weakness, impaired immune function, and osteoporosis. a lung disorder called pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may develop in some individuals, as can end-stage renal disease, coma and intellectual disability. symptoms usually develop after infants are weaned and begin to eat solid foods. lysinuric protein intolerance is caused by mutations in the slc7a7 gene. it is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. last updated: 11/15/2010 ...

Social rank-dependent expression of arginine vasotocin in distinct preoptic regions in male Oryzias latipes - Kagawa - 2012 -...Social rank-dependent expression of arginine vasotocin in distinct preoptic regions in male Oryzias latipes - Kagawa - 2012 -...

This study examined arginine vasotocin (AVT) expression in the brains of dominant and subordinate male medaka Oryzias latipes ... Nao Kagawa, Akira Honda, Akiko Zenno, Ryosuke Omoto, Saya Imanaka, Yusuke Takehana, Kiyoshi Naruse, Arginine vasotocin neuronal ... S. C. Lema, K. E. Sanders, K. A. Walti, Arginine Vasotocin, Isotocin and Nonapeptide Receptor Gene Expression Link to Social ... Social rank-dependent expression of arginine vasotocin in distinct preoptic regions in male Oryzias latipes. Authors. *. N. ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03490.x/full?globalMessage=0

Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacteriumInfluence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium

Growth and final pH values increased in presence of arginine. Arginine consumption decreased in presence of protocatechuic and ... ALBERTO, María R.; MANCA DE NADRA, María C. and ARENA, Mario E.. Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine ... The influence of seven phenolic compounds, normally present in wine, on the growth and arginine deiminase system (ADI) of ... Rutin, quercetin and caffeic and vanillic acids stimulated the enzyme arginine deiminase about 37-40%. Amounts of 200 mg/L ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1517-83822012000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Targeting argininosuccinate synthetase negative melanomas using combination of arginine degrading enzyme and cisplatin<...Targeting argininosuccinate synthetase negative melanomas using combination of arginine degrading enzyme and cisplatin<...

Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADIPEG20) which degrades arginine to citrulline and ammonia has been used clinically and partial ... Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADIPEG20) which degrades arginine to citrulline and ammonia has been used clinically and partial ... Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADIPEG20) which degrades arginine to citrulline and ammonia has been used clinically and partial ... Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADIPEG20) which degrades arginine to citrulline and ammonia has been used clinically and partial ...
more infohttps://miami.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/targeting-argininosuccinate-synthetase-negative-melanomas-using-c

Studies on the role of arginine vasotocin in relation to oviposition in laying hens - GeoScience.netStudies on the role of arginine vasotocin in relation to oviposition in laying hens - GeoScience.net

Studies on the role of arginine vasotocin in relation to oviposition in laying hens ... The role of arginine vasotocin (AVT) was investigated in relation to oviposition in laying hens. The Posterior Pituitary of ... Nakada, T.; Soh, T.; Shiota, T.; Tanaka, K., 1994: Studies on the role of arginine vasotocin in relation to oviposition in ... Studies on the role of arginine vasotocin in relation to oviposition in laying hens. ...
more infohttps://geoscience.net/research/002/703/002703327.php

Arginine vasotocin increases calling-site acquisition by nonresident male grey treefrogs. Microhabitat selection by the Pacific...Arginine vasotocin increases calling-site acquisition by nonresident male grey treefrogs. Microhabitat selection by the Pacific...

Arginine vasotocin increases calling-site acquisition by nonresident male grey treefrogs. Microhabitat selection by the Pacific ... Arginine vasotocin increases calling-site acquisition by nonresident male grey treefrogs. Article Abstract:. Responses of male ... The neuropeptide arginine vasotocin alters male call characteristics involved in social interactions in the grey treefrog, Hyla ... Research is presented describing the effects of varying doses of neuropeptide arginine vasotocin (AVT) on the grey treefrogs ...
more infohttp://www.readabstracts.com/Zoology-and-wildlife-conservation/Arginine-vasotocin-increases-calling-site-acquisition-by-nonresident-male-grey-treefrogs.html

Posterior Pituitary Hormones: How Does the Pituitary Gland Affect You?Posterior Pituitary Hormones: How Does the Pituitary Gland Affect You?

It is known by several names including arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasopressin and argipressin. ...
more infohttps://www.brighthub.com/science/medical/articles/111965.aspx

glycine amidinotransferaseglycine amidinotransferase

An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an amidine group from arginine to glycine during creatine synthesis. ...
more infohttp://www.dictionary.com/browse/glycine-amidinotransferase

Fat Burning Via Arginine - YouTubeFat Burning Via Arginine - YouTube

DESCRIPTION: The arginine content of nuts may explain their metabolism boosting effects, though in a list of the top food ... Arginine Does Not Work Unless....... - Duration: 6:20. Tim Muriello 13,076 views ... L-Arginine Benefits For Bodybuilding? - Duration: 4:25. Sean Nalewanyj 104,294 views ... Nobel Prize winner talks about ARGI+ L-arginine supplement - Duration: 4:53. Katalin Hidvegi 70,978 views ...
more infohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=baxBJ_EdB6M&list=UUddn8dUxYdgJz3Qr5mjADtA&index=26&feature=plpp_video

L-Arginine: MedlinePlus SupplementsL-Arginine: MedlinePlus Supplements

L-Arginine: learn about effectiveness, usual dosage, and drug interactions on MedlinePlus ... Arginine Hydrochloride, Di-Arginine Malate, Di-Arginine Orotate, Di-L-Arginine-L-Malate, Dl-Arginine, L-Arginina, L-Arginine ... L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate, L-Arginine Pyroglutamate, L-Arginine Taurinate, Malate de Di-Arginine, Orotate de Di-Arginine, R- ... Arginine, Arginine Ethyl Ester, Arginine Ethyl Ester Dihydrochloride, Arginine Ethyl Ester HCl, Arginine HCl, ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/875.html

L arginine ed treatment 2014L arginine ed treatment 2014

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Arginine definition, an essential amino acid, C 6 H 14 N 4 O 2 : the free amino acid increases insulin secretion and is ... arginine in Medicine Expand. arginine ar·gi·nine (ärjə-nēn). n. Abbr. Arg An amino acid obtained from the hydrolysis or ... First recorded in 1885-90, arginine is from the German word Arginin, a name unexplained by its originators ... In vertebrates, the basis for the phosphoric acid is creatine, whereas invertebrates have arginine instead. ...
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The L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway.  - PubMed - NCBIThe L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. - PubMed - NCBI

The L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway.. Moncada S1, Higgs A.. Author information. 1. Wellcome Research Laboratories, Beckenham, ...
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  • The underlying mechanism is complex, but increased DNA damage upon arginine deprivation due to decreased DNA repair proteins, FANCD2, ATM, and CHK1/2 most likely leads to increased apoptosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Loss of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) expression in melanoma makes these tumor cells vulnerable to arginine deprivation. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, the combination of arginine deprivation and cisplatin function in concert to kill tumor cells which do not express ASS without added toxicity to normal cells. (elsevier.com)
  • L-arginine is used for heart and blood vessel conditions including congestive heart failure (CHF), chest pain , high blood pressure , and coronary artery disease . (webmd.com)
  • You may also have been prescribed perindopril arginine if you have coronary artery disease. (news-medical.net)
  • In patients with coronary artery disease, perindopril arginine has been shown to reduce some of the risks, including heart attacks. (news-medical.net)
  • Discoveries reported in 2000 indicated that in the treatment of arterial heart disease, the ingestion of arginine tablets or capsules of 6 - 9 g a day are helpful in dilating blood vessels to ease circulation and prevent the buildup of cholesterol. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The name of your medicine is APO-Perindopril Arginine tablets. (news-medical.net)
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  • L-Arginine is an essential amino acid necessary in the synthesis of nitric oxide, hormone production, optimal function of the immune system, and even in the healing process of bodily wounds. (amazonaws.com)
  • L-Arginine also supports the synthesis of some hormones that support growth, an important attribute of youth. (infobarrel.com)
  • On a whole-body basis, synthesis of arginine occurs principally via the intestinal-renal axis: the epithelial cells of the small intestine produce citrulline, primarily from glutamine and glutamate, which is carried in the bloodstream to the proximal tubule cells of the kidney, which extract citrulline from the circulation and convert it to arginine, which is returned to the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that impaired small bowel or renal function can reduce arginine synthesis, increasing the dietary requirement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis of arginine from citrulline also occurs at a low level in many other cells, and cellular capacity for arginine synthesis can be markedly increased under circumstances that increase the production of inducible NOS (iNOS). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is demonstrated by the fact that, in many cell types, NO synthesis can be supported to some extent by citrulline, and not just by arginine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exogenous L-arginine, the substrate for NO synthesis, decreased blood pressure to normotensive levels in salt-sensitive rats made hypertensive for 2 wk from 8.0% NaCl chow. (jci.org)
  • Consequently, impairment of small bowel or renal function can reduce endogenous arginine synthesis, thereby increasing the dietary requirement. (wikidoc.org)
  • This is demonstrated by the fact that in many cell types, citrulline can substitute for arginine to some degree in supporting NO synthesis. (wikidoc.org)
  • Arginine capsules allow for a quick and convenient way for bodybuilders and athletes to provide extra essential arginine pre-workout. (amazonaws.com)
  • In a previous study in Gondar, Ethiopia, we observed an effect of adjuvant treatment with arginine capsules on sputum smear conversion and reduction of cough. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Most people can get enough arginine from a well-balanced diet. (healthline.com)
  • If you have a well-balanced diet, you probably get enough arginine from the foods you eat. (healthline.com)
  • Nuts are convenient snack food options, making it easy to consume enough arginine. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Some evidence shows that arginine may help improve blood flow in the arteries of the heart. (webmd.com)
  • L-Arginine can open up these cholesterol-clogged arteries and improve blood flow. (infobarrel.com)
  • In a double-blind trial, AIDS patients who had lost 5% of their body weight in the previous three months received either placebo or a nutrient mixture containing 1.5 grams of HMB, 7 grams of L-glutamine, and 7 grams of L-arginine twice daily for eight weeks. (peacehealth.org)
  • Arginine is a naturally occurring amino acid. (ewg.org)
  • A person's body naturally produces L-arginine under normal circumstances. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Occasionally, a person's need for L-arginine may exceed the body's ability to produce or consume it naturally. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • I was looking into ways of naturally lowering my blood pressure when I stumbled upon L-Arginine. (drugs.com)
  • Because of the known fact that arginine is naturally converted into nitric oxide by the human body, the result of that chemical relaxing blood vessels was also known when the experiment began. (encyclopedia.com)
  • People with major depressive disorder (MDD) have lower levels of naturally occurring arginine in their body than their non-depressed controls, a study has found. (indianexpress.com)
  • L-Arginine is extremely important for many body functions and is usually only naturally present in low quantities. (carlsonlabs.com)
  • This is not a problem in practice, because meat contains sufficient arginine to avoid this situation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ganetzky pointed out that intravenous arginine is much more potent than oral arginine, adding "This study was an opportunity to more systematically analyze a therapy that is clinically used on an empiric basis in the course of acute clinical care. (eurekalert.org)
  • 139 ). Based on experience with intravenous arginine, it is possible that the use of high-dose oral arginine might alter potassium levels in the body, especially in people with severe liver disease ( 132 ). (livingnaturally.com)
  • In clinical trials , arginine has been used safely with minor side effects for up to three months. (webmd.com)
  • An oral dose of 5 to 9 grams of arginine increases resting growth hormone levels at least 100 percent, reported the January 2008 issue of "Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. (livestrong.com)
  • Two mitochondrial medicine experts from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) reported on eight years of clinical experience in providing intravenous (IV) arginine when new-onset neurologic problems concerning for acute stroke-like episode developed in nine pediatric mitochondrial disease patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • Recent clinical practice guidelines from the Mitochondrial Medicine Society recommended using IV arginine in patients having stroke-like episodes from MELAS, and considering its use at the time of stroke-like episodes in other mitochondrial diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • Bellinghieri G, Santoro D, Mallamace A, Savica V (2006) l -arginine: a new opportunity in the management of clinical derangement in dialysis patients. (springer.com)
  • Antacids, H2 blockers, proton pump inhibitors Antacids, H2 blockers, proton pump inhibitors: Due to the theoretical potential for L-arginine to increase gastrin, and thus stomach acid, L-arginine may reduce the effectiveness of these agents, although clinical evidence is lacking. (livingnaturally.com)
  • Abumrad NN, Barbul A (2004) The use of arginine in clinical practice. (springer.com)
  • New information released in 2002 showed that treatment with arginine improved immune function in HIV patients and proved safe for these patients when used on a short-term patients. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The same pathway occurs in diploid organisms: genetic analysis of mutant alleles affecting metabolic intermediates of Arginine production provides a general model for the behavior of multiple gene loci in a single pathway. (mun.ca)
  • Arginine is not used to treat classic, non-metabolic vascular strokes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Arginine (ARG) is an amino acid (AA) with unique properties and with a key-role in the metabolic, immune and reparative response to trauma and sepsis. (springer.com)
  • However, there is some early evidence that taking L-arginine with maritime pine bark extract and other ingredients, might improve the effectiveness of low-dose L-arginine for ED. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result, researchers have investigated the effectiveness of L-arginine in the treatment of severe wounds and tissue waste in serious illnesses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, there is some early evidence that adding 40 mg of Pycnogenol three times daily might improve the effectiveness of low-dose L-arginine for ED. (webmd.com)
  • Studies are being conducted on the effectiveness of arginine to help with other conditions like diabetes, and immune system regulation. (reference.com)
  • Cheeses like mozzarella, provolone and Parmesan contain 1 gram of arginine per serving. (ehow.co.uk)
  • This dose of peanuts is equivalent to 1 gram of arginine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • High dietary levels of arginine may cause reactivation of latent herpes virus in a few susceptible individuals. (advocare.com)
  • Major depressive disorder (MDD) appears to be linked with lower levels of arginine bioavailability, a new report suggests. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Contrary to the researchers' hypothesis, at follow-up, individuals who had achieved remission had only marginally higher levels of arginine bioavailability than those who remained depressed. (nutraingredients.com)
  • L-arginine is a nonessential amino acid, because under normal circumstances it can be synthesized from other precursors. (livestrong.com)
  • Arginine is a nonessential amino acid , meaning it can be manufactured by the human body, and does not need to be obtained directly through the diet. (wikidoc.org)
  • Overexpression of PADI4 in MCF-7 cells indicated that H3 tail arginines were also deiminated in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) as a probe for NO production in vivo, we found that increasing dietary sodium chloride increased NO activity in salt-resistant rats, but not in salt-sensitive rats. (jci.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS We conclude that the endothelium-dependent relaxation is normalized in hypercholesterolemic rabbit thoracic aorta by in vivo exposure to L-arginine, the precursor for EDRF. (ahajournals.org)
  • Most early research suggests that taking L-arginine by mouth or intravenously (by IV) does not improve kidney function in most people with kidney failure or kidney disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, taking L-arginine by mouth might improve kidney function and reverse anemia in elderly people with kidney disease-associated anemia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people use L-arginine for preventing the common cold , improving kidney function after a kidney transplant , high blood pressure during pregnancy (pre- eclampsia ), improving athletic performance, boosting the immune system, and preventing inflammation of the digestive tract in premature infants. (webmd.com)
  • In March 2000 in Newsweek magazine, Stephen Williams noted the newly discovered role arginine might play in treating people with chronic heart failure (CHF). (encyclopedia.com)
  • According to an article by Liz Brown written in Better Nutrition in June 2000, also discussing the Leipzig study, "Numerous other studies have shown that arginine has a vadodilatory effect on people with high cholesterol levels, those with high blood pressure and others with compromised circulation associated with heart disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Take arginine , for example. (webmd.com)
  • Optimal times to take arginine include upon waking, before or after a workout and before bed. (livestrong.com)
  • L-Arginine HCl, Shell (Bovine Gelatin, Natural Colouring (Titanium Dioxide)), Anticaking Agent (Magnesium Stearate). (ebay.fr)
  • Preterm infants are unable to synthesize or create arginine internally, making the amino acid nutritionally essential for them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infants are unable to effectively synthesize arginine, making it nutritionally essential for infants. (wikidoc.org)
  • Research shows that taking L-arginine by mouth or intravenously (by IV) for up to 8 weeks increases blood flow in people with peripheral arterial disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Since we can't see what's happening at that molecular level, we don't know for sure, but doppler studies have shown decreased resistance to blood flow with L-arginine. (bellaonline.com)
  • Some people apply L-arginine to the skin to speed wound healing and for increasing blood flow to cold hands and feet, especially in people with diabetes . (webmd.com)
  • Arginine is one of the compounds responsible for helping blood vessels contract and expand, helping to control blood flow. (reference.com)
  • L-arginine can also prevent or slow down the deposition of cholesterol in the vascular walls so that impairment of blood flow would not occur in the first place. (infobarrel.com)
  • L-arginine is an amino acid, it helps maintain good blood flow during pregnancy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • American researchers have discovered that applying an l-arginine-based moisturizing cream to the feet can markedly increase the blood flow and temperature in both the feet and toes. (yourhealthbase.com)
  • The body needs arginine to make nitric oxide, which increases blood flow. (peacehealth.org)
  • Not only leading to increased blood flow to muscles, arginine AKG effect creates an increase in muscle volume, known as a "pump" creating a desirable feeling of strength and fullness during resistance training. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)
  • HOW TO USE: Arginine cream can be used "in the moment" and applied directly sensitive areas for increased blood flow and sensitivity. (babyhopes.com)
  • L-Arginine can improve blood flow and result in an improved and more powerful experience. (babyhopes.com)
  • L-Arginine is a precursor of nitric oxide, which is necessary for the healthy dilation of blood vessels, circulation, and blood flow. (carlsonlabs.com)
  • Adults, however, are able to synthesize arginine in the urea cycle . (wikidoc.org)
  • The authors found that the women who did not receive L-arginine supplmentation had the same L-arginine follicular levels as the women who were supplemented in the first study. (bellaonline.com)
  • Arginine is found in most whole grains foods, including brown rice, quinoa and teff. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The scientists found that baseline levels of both serum arginine and GABR were lower in MDD patients than in non-depressed controls. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The women in the L-arginine plus vitamin group were also found to have a significantly lower risk of having a premature birth compared to those in the placebo group. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This means no potential animal contamination and no animal by-product sources can be found in AllMax Arginine HCl. (netrition.com)
  • However, in people who had recovered from depression the arginine bioavailability was found to be slightly higher than in people who remained depressed, the researchers said. (indianexpress.com)
  • Because of this, L-Arginine also supports a healthy immune system and athletic performance. (carlsonlabs.com)
  • If you enjoy dairy, adding small amounts of cheese or other dairy products to a meal will help meet your arginine requirements. (ehow.co.uk)
  • L-arginine is an amino acid present not only in humans, but in all life forms. (microscopy-uk.org.uk)
  • l -Arginine (Arg) is synthesised from glutamine, glutamate, and proline via the intestinal-renal axis in humans and most other mammals (including pigs, sheep and rats). (springer.com)
  • Anticonvulsants Anticonvulsants: In humans, L-arginine lowered antiepileptic agent-increased homocysteine levels ( 16 ). (livingnaturally.com)
  • Arginine is also sometimes prescribed, with ibuprofen, as a treatment for migraines. (reference.com)