A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.
A rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle. It is caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme ARGINASE. Arginine is elevated in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and periodic HYPERAMMONEMIA may occur. Disease onset is usually in infancy or early childhood. Clinical manifestations include seizures, microcephaly, progressive mental impairment, hypotonia, ataxia, spastic diplegia, and quadriparesis. (From Hum Genet 1993 Mar;91(1):1-5; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p51)
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
Amino derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the amino caproic acid structure.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The two isoforms of the protein, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, exist due to alternative mRNA splicing. The transporter has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)
Rare congenital metabolism disorders of the urea cycle. The disorders are due to mutations that result in complete (neonatal onset) or partial (childhood or adult onset) inactivity of an enzyme, involved in the urea cycle. Neonatal onset results in clinical features that include irritability, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, NEONATAL HYPOTONIA; RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS; HYPERAMMONEMIA; coma, and death. Survivors of the neonatal onset and childhood/adult onset disorders share common risks for ENCEPHALOPATHIES, METABOLIC, INBORN; and RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS due to HYPERAMMONEMIA.
Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A chronic malabsorption syndrome, occurring mainly in residents of or visitors to the tropics or subtropics. The failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients from the SMALL INTESTINE results in MALNUTRITION and ANEMIA that is due to FOLIC ACID deficiency.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A species of intestinal nematode parasites which occur most commonly in mice. Infection is by ingesting larvae. This particular species is used extensively in immunological research.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.
Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.
A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Fasciolidae. Two species of this genus are F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The parasites are found in the liver and gallbladder and associated ducts in mammals and occasionally man. F. gigantica occurs rarely in man.
A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. It consists of the following species: O. felineus, O. noverca (Amphimerus noverca), and O. viverrini. The intermediate hosts are snails, fish, and AMPHIBIANS.
Infection with flukes of the genus Opisthorchis.
A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Dicrocoeliidae which includes the species dendriticum and hospes. It occurs in the biliary passages or liver of many vertebrates including man. The intermediate hosts are mainly mollusks but occasionally ants.

Expression of arginase II and related enzymes in the rat small intestine and kidney. (1/943)

Arginase, which catalyzes the conversion of arginine to urea and ornithine, and consists of a liver-type (arginase I) and a non-hepatic type (arginase II). Arginine is also used for the synthesis of nitric oxide and creatine phosphate, while ornithine is used for the synthesis of polyamines and proline, and thus collagen. Arginase II mRNA and protein are abundant in the intestine (most abundant in the jejunum and less abundant in the ileum, duodenum, and colon) and kidney of the rat. In the kidney, the levels of arginase II mRNA do not change appreciably from 0 to 8 weeks of age. In contrast, arginase II mRNA and protein in the small intestine are not detectable at birth, appear at 3 weeks of age, the weaning period, and their levels increase up to 8 weeks. On the other hand, mRNAs for ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), ornithine decarboxylase, and ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT) are present at birth and their levels do not change much during development. Arginase II is elevated in response to a combination of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, dibutyryl cAMP, and dexamethasone in the kidney, but is not affected by these treatments in the small intestine. Immunohistochemical analysis of arginase II, OAT, and OCT in the jejunum revealed their co-localization in absorptive epithelial cells. These results show that the arginase II gene is regulated differentially in the small intestine and kidney, and suggest different roles of the enzyme in these two tissues. The co-localization of arginase II and the three ornithine-utilizing enzymes in the small intestine suggests that the enzyme is involved in the synthesis of proline, polyamines, and/or citrulline in this tissue.  (+info)

Arginase from human full-term placenta. (2/943)

Arginase was purified about 1800-fold from extracts of human full-term placenta; the enzyme appeared to be homogenous by disc electrophoresis and molecular-sieve chromatography. The mol. wt. determination by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis yielded a value of 70000 for the most pure and the partially purified enzyme. The human placenta arginase is a metalloenzyme with an optimum pH of 9.1. The Km for L-arginine is 27 mM. L-Ornithine and L-lysine show competitive inhibition with Ki values of 6.3 and 14 mM respectively.  (+info)

Glucocorticoids mediate the enhanced expression of intestinal type II arginase and argininosuccinate lyase in postweaning pigs. (3/943)

Arginine metabolism is enhanced in the small intestine of weanling pigs, but the molecular mechanism(s) involved is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine the following: 1) whether glucocorticoids play a role in induction of intestinal arginine metabolic enzymes during weaning; 2) whether the induction of enzyme activities was due to increases in corresponding mRNA levels; and 3) the identity of the arginase isoform(s) expressed in the small intestine. Jejunum was obtained from 29-d-old weaned pigs that were or were not treated with 17-beta-hydroxy-11beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)17alpha-(prop- 1-ynyl)es tra-4,9-dien-3-one (RU486, an antagonist of glucocorticoid receptors), or from age-matched suckling pigs. Activities and mRNA levels for type I and type II arginases, argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) were determined. Activities of arginase, ASL and ASS increased by 635, 56 and 106%, respectively, in weanling pigs, compared with suckling pigs. RU486 treatment attenuated the increase in arginase activity by 74% and completely prevented the ASL induction in weanling pigs, but had no effect on ASS activity. Pig intestine expresses both type I and type II arginases. On the basis of immunoblot analyses, there was no significant difference in levels of intestinal type I arginase among these three groups of pigs, indicating that changes in arginase activity were due only to type II arginase. The mRNA levels for type II arginase and ASL increased by 135 and 198%, respectively, in weanling pigs compared with suckling pigs, and this induction was completely prevented by RU486. In contrast, ASS mRNA levels did not differ between suckling and weanling pigs. These results suggest that intestinal type II arginase, ASS and ASL are regulated differentially at transcriptional and post-translational levels and that glucocorticoids play a major role in the induction of type II arginase and ASL mRNAs in the small intestine of weanling pigs.  (+info)

Metabolic capacity for L-citrulline synthesis from ammonia in rat isolated colonocytes. (4/943)

Ammonia is present at high concentration in the colon lumen and is considered a colon cancer suspect. Furthermore, ammonia usually eliminated by the liver in the ornithine cycle is considered highly toxic to cerebral function when present in excess in the blood plasma. Therefore, the metabolic pathways involved in ammonia metabolism in colonocytes were studied in the present study. Rat colonocytes were found equipped with low carbamoylphosphate synthase I activity, high ornithine carbamoyltransferase and arginase activities and low argininosuccinate synthase activity. High (10 and 50 mmol/l) NH4Cl concentrations but not low concentrations (1 and 5 mmol/l) were found able to increase respectively 3- and 10-fold the conversion of radioactive L-arginine to L-citrulline. In contrast, very low capacity for L-citrulline conversion to L-arginine is found in colonocytes. It is concluded that an incomplete ornithine cycle is operative in colonocytes which results in ammonia stimulated L-citrulline production. The contribution of this metabolic pathway in relation to ammonia detoxication by colonocytes is discussed.  (+info)

Regulation of the genes for arginase isoforms and related enzymes in mouse macrophages by lipopolysaccharide. (5/943)

Arginase exists in two isoforms, the hepatic (arginase I) and extrahepatic types (arginase II). Arginase I is markedly induced in rat peritoneal macrophages and rat tissues in vivo by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In contrast, both arginase I and arginase II are induced in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages. In the present study, expression of arginase isoforms and related enzymes was studied in mouse tissues in vivo and in peritoneal macrophages with RNA blot and immunoblot analyses and enzyme assay. When mice were injected intraperitoneally with LPS, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase II were induced early in the lung and spleen. mRNAs for argininosuccinate synthase (AS) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) were also induced early. In comparison, arginase I was induced later in the lung. Early induction of iNOS, arginase II, AS, ODC, and cationic amino acid transporter 2 and late induction of arginase I were observed in LPS-activated peritoneal macrophages. These results indicate that the genes for the two arginase isoforms are regulated differentially. Possible roles of the arginase isoforms in the regulation of nitric oxide production and in polyamine synthesis are discussed.  (+info)

Biochemical and functional profile of a newly developed potent and isozyme-selective arginase inhibitor. (6/943)

An increase in arginase activity has been associated with the pathophysiology of a number of conditions, including an impairment in nonadrenergic and noncholinergic (NANC) nerve-mediated relaxation of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle. An arginase inhibitor may rectify this condition. We compared the effects of a newly designed arginase inhibitor, 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH), with the currently available N(omega)-hydroxy-L-arginine (L-HO-Arg), on the NANC nerve-mediated internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth-muscle relaxation and the arginase activity in the IAS and other tissues. Arginase caused an attenuation of the IAS smooth-muscle relaxations by NANC nerve stimulation that was restored by the arginase inhibitors. L-HO-Arg but not ABH caused dose-dependent and complete reversal of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine-suppressed IAS relaxation that was similar to that seen with L-arginine. Both ABH and L-HO-Arg caused an augmentation of NANC nerve-mediated relaxation of the IAS. In the IAS, ABH was found to be approximately 250 times more potent than L-HO-Arg in inhibiting the arginase activity. L-HO-Arg was found to be 10 to 18 times more potent in inhibiting the arginase activity in the liver than in nonhepatic tissues. We conclude that arginase plays a significant role in the regulation of nitric oxide synthase-mediated NANC relaxation in the IAS. The advent of new and selective arginase inhibitors may play a significant role in the discrimination of arginase isozymes and have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications in gastrointestinal motility disorders.  (+info)

Th1/Th2-regulated expression of arginase isoforms in murine macrophages and dendritic cells. (7/943)

Activated murine macrophages metabolize arginine by two alternative pathways involving the enzymes inducible NO synthase (iNOS) or arginase. The balance between the two enzymes is competitively regulated by Th1 and Th2 T helper cells via their secreted cytokines: Th1 cells induce iNOS, whereas Th2 cells induce arginase. Whereas the role of macrophages expressing iNOS as inflammatory cells is well established, the functional competence of macrophages expressing arginase remains a matter of speculation. Two isoforms of mammalian arginases exist, hepatic arginase I and extrahepatic arginase II. We investigated the regulation of arginase isoforms in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMPhi) in the context of Th1 and Th2 stimulation. Surprisingly, in the presence of either Th2 cytokines or Th2 cells, we observe a specific induction of the hepatic isoform arginase I in BMMPhi. Induction of arginase I was shown on the mRNA and protein levels and obeyed the recently demonstrated synergism among the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. Arginase II was detectable in unstimulated BMMPhi and was not significantly modulated by Th1 or Th2 stimulation. Similar to murine BMMPhi, murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, as well as a dendritic cell line, up-regulated arginase I expression and arginase activity upon Th2 stimulation, whereas arginase II was never detected. In addition to revealing the unexpected expression of arginase I in the macrophage/monocyte lineage, these results uncover a further intriguing parallelism between iNOS and arginase: both have a constitutive and an inducible isoform, the latter regulated by the Th1/Th2 balance.  (+info)

Carbon and nitrogen repression of arginine catabolic enzymes in Bacillus subtilis. (8/943)

Specific activities of arginase and ornithine aminotransferase, inducible enzymes of arginine catabolism in Bacillus subtilis 168, were examined in cells grown with various carbon and nitrogen sources. Levels of these enzymes were similar in arginine-induced cultures whether glucose or citrate was the carbon source (in contrast to histidase), suggesting that carbon source catabolite repression has only limited effect. In media with combinations of nitrogen sources, glutamine strongly repressed induction of these enzymes by proline or arginine. Ammonium, however, only repressed induction by proline and had no effect on induction by arginine. These effects correlate with generation times in media containing these substances as sole nitrogen sources: growth rates decreased in the order glutamine-arginine-ammonium-proline. Similar phenomena were observed when glutamine or ammonium were added to arginine- or proline-grown cultures, or when arginine or proline were added to glutamine- or ammonium-grown cultures. In the latter cases, an additional feature was apparent, namely a surprisingly long transition between steady-state enzyme levels. The results are compared with those for other bacteria and for eucaryotic microorganisms.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidative species increase arginase activity in endothelial cells through the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway. AU - Chandra, S.. AU - Romero, M. J.. AU - Shatanawi, A.. AU - Alkilany, A. M.. AU - Caldwell, R. B.. AU - Caldwell, R. William. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Background and Purpose NO produced by endothelial NOS is needed for normal vascular function. During diabetes, aging and hypertension, elevated levels of arginase can compete with NOS for available l-arginine, reducing NO and increasing superoxide (O 2 .-) production via NOS uncoupling. Elevated O 2 .- combines with NO to form peroxynitrite (ONOO -), further reducing NO. Oxidative species increase arginase activity, but the mechanism(s) involved are not known. Our study determined the mechanism involved in peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide-induced enhancement in endothelial arginase activity. We hypothesized that oxidative species increase arginase activity through PKC-activated RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway. ...
The present study demonstrates that arginase plays a fundamental role in vascular growth after injury. Arterial injury stimulates arginase activity and arginase I protein expression in the vessel wall, and local arginase inhibition leads to a significant decline in VSMC DNA synthesis and reduced intimal thickening. In addition, this study shows that arginase promotes the entry of VSMCs into the cell cycle. Arginase inhibition or arginase I knockdown arrests VSMCs in G0/G1, and this is associated with the induction of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, p21. These findings illustrate a critical role for arginase in cell cycle progression and identify arginase I as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of occlusive vascular disorders.. In the present study, we are the first to demonstrate that arginase plays an integral role in the remodeling response after arterial injury. Balloon injury of rat carotid arteries resulted in a sustained increase in arginase activity in the vessel ...
Arginase, an enzyme within the urea cycle in the liver, is also found in many other cells and tissues, including the lung. Arginase is present in 2 isoforms: arginase I, the hepatic isoform; and arginase II, the extrahepatic isoform; each of which is encoded by a distinct gene.. The expression and function of arginase I in macrophages, hepatocytes, and vascular smooth muscle cells, is stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IL-13, altered oxygen tension, and balloon dilatation of coronary arteries. The activation and expression of endothelial arginase II can also be induced by a variety of vascular insults.. Arginase competitively inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) via use of the common substrate L-arginine. Inhibition of arginase activity enhances a variety of parameters relevant to allergic airways disease, possibly by altering NO homeostasis. Arginase inhibition actively augments NO production and has beneficial effects on normal cardiac function and on vascular dysfunction typical of ...
1HQ5: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE BINUCLEAR MANGANESE METALLOENZYME ARGINASE COMPLEXED WITH S-(2-BORONOETHYL)-L-CYSTEINE, AN L-ARGININE ANALOGUE
Effect of nor-NOHA on arginase activity and amino acid levels. (A) Significant arginase inhibition was observed in cell lysates of CL-19 cultures treated with n
In the present study we demonstrated that IL-13, a Th2 cell-derived cytokine, is a potent arginase activator, and its induction of arginase contributes significantly to the suppression of NO production in LPS-activated macrophages. The increase in arginase activity is a result of de novo synthesis of arginase I mRNA and protein. Studies on the signaling molecules involved in arginase activation show that a surge in intracellular cAMP and the subsequent activation of PKA are obligatory for arginase induction. In addition, tyrosine kinases and p38 MAPK play a role in IL-13-induced arginase activation. To provide a perspective on our observations and conclusions, the results from the present study are discussed below in reference to previous findings regarding the signaling pathways involved in arginase activation and NO regulation by arginase.. In the present study despite the basal level of arginase I gene expression being detected in resting macrophages, arginase protein expression and enzyme ...
BioAssay Systems Arginase Inhibitor Kit (IARG-100) screens for arginase inhibitors using a chromogen that forms a colored complex specifically with urea. The color (430nm) is proportional to the arginase activity. Percent inhibition is determined by comparing treated samples to an untreated control.
Arginetix closed a $10.75 million Series A financing. The company is developing small molecule inhibitors of arginase for endothelial dysfunction including pulmonary arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, and asthma.. Arginetix will use the money to further discovery activities as well as pursue development of its arginase inhibitors for cardiovascular and pulmonary indications. The companys scientific foundation is based on licensed intellectual property from its scientific co-founders David Christianson, Ph.D., at the University of Pennsylvania, and Dan Berkowitz, M.D., at Johns Hopkins University.. Arginase is an enzyme that competes with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) for the use of the common substrate L-arginine. Elevated arginase limits L-arginine available for eNOS, resulting in both a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) production (reducing signaling critical for normal function) as well as eNOS uncoupling, leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further, ...
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Human Liver Arginase protein (ab95487). Please download our general protocols booklet
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Liver Arginase小鼠多克隆抗体(ab89184)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can proliferate extensively in culture and give rise to progeny of the three germ layers. Several reports suggested that mouse and hESCs may attenuate immune responses. In this study, we focused on the mechanism by which hESCs inhibit T cell responses. Using coculture experiments, we demonstrate that hESCs inhibit cytokine secretion and T cell proliferation in response to potent T cell activators. Furthermore, we show that hESCs downmodulate the TCR-associated CD3-ζ chain. These effects are maintained when hESCs are replaced by their conditioned media and can be restored by the addition of l-arginine to hESC-conditioned media or by treatment of hESCs with a specific arginase inhibitor. Moreover, we show arginase-I expression and activity in hESCs. We further demonstrate that mouse ESCs (mESCs) similarly inhibit T cell activation via arginase I, suggesting an evolutionary conserved mechanism of T cell suppression by ESCs. In addition, we demonstrate that ...
Approach and Results-The HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A increased levels of Arg2 mRNA, protein, and activity in both human aortic endothelial cells and mouse aortic rings. These changes occurred in both time- and dose-dependent patterns and resulted in Arg2-dependent endothelial dysfunction. Trichostatin A and the atherogenic stimulus oxidized low-density lipoprotein enhanced the activity of common promoter regions of Arg2. HDAC inhibition with trichostatin A also decreased endothelial nitric oxide, and these effects were blunted by arginase inhibition. Nonselective class I HDAC inhibitors enhanced Arg2 expression, whereas the only selective inhibitor that increased Arg2 expression was mocetinostat, a selective inhibitor of HDACs 1 and 2. Additionally, mouse aortic rings preincubated with mocetinostat exhibited dysfunctional relaxation. Overexpression of HDAC2 (but not HDAC 1, 3, or 8) cDNA in human aortic endothelial cells suppressed Arg2 expression in a concentration-dependent manner, and siRNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vivo whole body and organ arginine metabolism during endotoxemia (sepsis) is dependent on mouse strain and gender. AU - Luiking, Y.C.. AU - Hallemeesch, M.M.. AU - Vissers, Y.L.J.. AU - Lamers, W.H.. AU - Deutz, N.E.P.. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - In vivo whole body and organ arginine metabolism during endotoxemia (sepsis) is dependent on mouse strain and gender.Luiking YC, Hallemeesch MM, Vissers YL, Lamers WH, Deutz NE.Maastricht University, Department of Surgery, The Netherlands.Arginine metabolism involves various organs such as the kidney, the intestines, and the liver, which act together in an interorgan axis. Major pathways for arginine production are protein breakdown and de novo arginine production from citrulline; disposal of arginine is mainly used for protein synthesis or used by the enzymes arginase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). To assess in vivo organ arginine metabolism under normal conditions and during endotoxemia we used a mouse model, and analyzed ...
2PHO: Crystal structure of human arginase I complexed with thiosemicarbazide reveals an unusual thiocarbonyl mu-sulfide ligand in the binuclear manganese cluster.
BioAssay Systems Arginase Assay Kit (DARG-100) measures arginase activity. A chromogen forms a colored complex with urea produced in the reaction. The color (430nm) is proportional to the arginase activity. Samples: enzyme preparations, serum, plasma & tissue culture. Detection range: 0.3 - 800 U/L.
BioVendor - BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products.
Increasing evidence supports the multifaceted effect of tumor-produced prostanoids on cancer progression. PGE2 not only enhances tumorigenesis by conferring a metastatic phenotype, increasing resistance to apoptosis and stimulating angiogenesis, it also impairs the host immune response. PGE2 has been shown to decrease IL-12 and increase IL-10 production in dendritic cells and macrophages (24-26). PGE2 may also influence a wide range of T cell functions, including inhibition of T lymphocyte activation and proliferation (27), promoting the development of a Th2 response and inhibiting the production of the Th1 cytokines IL-2 and interferon γ (28). PGE2 produced by macrophages may also decrease proliferation and inhibit T cell cytotoxic responses (29, 30). However, macrophage-derived PGE2 is not playing a role in the induction of arginase I, because the injection of 3LL in COX-2 knockout mice was similar to wild-type mice bearing tumors. The multiplicity of effects caused by PGE2 may be explained ...
Arginase Mouse anti-Human, Clone: sl6arg, eBioscience™ 25μg; Unlabeled Arginase Mouse anti-Human, Clone: sl6arg, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies Ar to Az
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Small-molecule arginase inhibitors are currently described as promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of variety of diseases, including cancer. Arginase vaccination could induce Th1 inflammation at tumor sites where regulatory myeloid cells otherwise prevent lymphocyte infiltration....
Many arginine deprivation studies have been done on different cancer cell lines to understand the complete mechanisms of HuArgI(Co)-PEG5000. Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer worldwide, and it represents over half of all gastrointestinal cancer death. Therefore, the first purpose of this study is to examine the cytotoxic effect of HuArgI(Co)-PEG5000 on colorectal cancer cell lines (HT-29, Caco-2, Sw837, Sw1116, SKco-1). The second aim is to investigate the effect of arginase depletion on colorectal cancer cell line Caco-2 metastatic and invasive abilities. This is achieved by performing cytotoxicity, 2D and 3D migration assays, western immunoblotting, immunostaining, and Förster Resonance energy transfer. Analysis of the results show that HuArgI(Co)-PEG5000 downregulates ASS1 and RhoA expression levels while it also downregulates cell migration, adhesion, and invasion in Caco-2 cell lines. However, L-citrulline can significantly restore arginine levels and hence counter ...
PHILADELPHIA - Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania and other institutions have identified an enzyme that appears to play a key role in bringing on sexual dysfunction in both men and women - and a second molecule that can just as easily yank the offending enzyme out of commission. The findings, which carry the possibility of new treatments for sexual disorders, are scheduled to appear in two papers in the March 13 issue of Biochemistry, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Chemical Society, the worlds largest scientific society. Led by Penn chemist David W. Christianson, the team found that the enzyme arginase can effectively short-circuit a biochemical pathway critical to male sexual arousal. But unlike remedies developed expressly for erectile dysfunction, which have proven disappointing in clinical trials with women, treatments that home in on arginase may offer hope for both sexes. There is intense interest in new targets for sexual dysfunction therapy, said Christianson, the ...
Cardiovascular complications of diabetes are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) is strongly implicated..
The spread of tumorous cells and the formation of metastases in other organs are the main cause of cancer relapse. This study has also enabled the identification of a molecule (arginase 1) which is strongly expressed in white blood cells in the presence of a cancer and which promotes the formation of metastases. The inhibition of this molecule stimulates the activation of the anti-tumorous T-lymphocytes and greatly reduces the formation of metastases.. These results have potential implications for breast cancer patients. On the one hand, antiangiogenic treatments could be used in combination with existing immunotherapy treatments. On the other, arginase inhibitors are already at a clinical development stage and could be tested for the prevention of relapses.. C. Secondini, O. Coquoz, L. Spagnuolo, L. Ciarloni, T. Spinetti, S. Peyvandi, F. Botta, C. Bourquin and C. Rüegg. Arginase inhibition suppresses lung metastasis in the 4T1 breast cancer model independently of the immunomodulatory and ...
l-Arginine did not produce the anticipated reversal of insulin resistance produced byl-NAME, but, rather,l-arginine by itself caused insulin resistance (48.8 ± 8.2%) (Fig. 5).l-NAME not only blocks NOS but also blocks arginine uptake across the hepatocyte plasma membrane (8).l-Arginine is metabolized by NOS to NO and by arginase to urea andl-ornithine (6). Because the liver has a very high arginase activity, it is possible that mostl-arginine administered is converted to l-ornithine by the liver, although l-arginine can reverse the vascular effects ofl-NAME in the liver (12).l-Arginine also causes release of growth hormone (7, 14) and glucagon; both hormones reduce insulin sensitivity. This may explain why we could not reverse insulin resistance caused by l-NAME withl-arginine and whyl-arginine caused insulin resistance.. Reduction in blood flow to the nerves in diabetes leads to neuropathy (3, 4, 9, 17, 25) and has been suggested to result from a decrease in NO production in the vasculature ...
l-Arg is a nonessential amino acid that plays a central role in several biological systems including the immune response. l-Arg is metabolized by arginase I, arginase II, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (11) . Arginase I and arginase II are encoded by two distinct genes and hydrolyze l-Arg into urea and l-ornithine, the latter being the main substrate for the production of polyamines that are required for cell cycle progression. l-Arg is also metabolized by inducible nitric oxide synthase to citrulline and nitric oxide, a highly reactive compound important in vascular homeostasis, and as part of the cytotoxic mechanism of macrophages (12) . The importance of l-Arg on the immune response was initially suggested by the association between an impaired T-cell function and the reduction in serum l-Arg levels found in patients and rodents after liver transplantation or trauma, a process that was rapidly reversed by the enteral or parenteral supplementation of l-Arg (23) . However, the mechanisms ...
Arginase 1 antibody LS-C745125 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to bovine Arginase 1 (ARG1). Validated for ELISA and WB.
Structural and useful characterization of C0021158, a high-affinity monoclonal antibody that inhibits Arginase 2 perform by way of a novel non-competitive mechanism of motion Arginase 2 (ARG2) is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine. The dysregulated expression of ARG2 inside particular tumor microenvironments generates an immunosuppressive area of interest that successfully renders the […]. ...
Structural and useful characterization of C0021158, a high-affinity monoclonal antibody that inhibits Arginase 2 perform by way of a novel non-competitive mechanism of motion Arginase 2 (ARG2) is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine. The dysregulated expression of ARG2 inside particular tumor microenvironments generates an immunosuppressive area of interest that successfully renders the […]. ...
Individual polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) are usually immunosuppressive. PMNact were put into pre-activated T cells that are focused on polyclonal proliferation already. This suppression was partly reversed by catalase addition (< 0·01) and generally reversed by addition of exogenous interleukin-2 (< 0·001) but had not been significantly decreased by nitric oxide synthase inhibition myeloperoxidase inhibition or addition of surplus arginine. Pursuing removal of PMNact suppressed T cells could react to additional arousal normally. Furthermore to suppressing proliferation co-culture with PMNact also induced a substantial reduction in T-cell viability that was reversed by catalase addition (< 0·05). The addition of the arginase inhibitor < 0·001). These data show that PMN when turned on can both induce T-cell loss of life and reversibly inhibit proliferation of turned on T cells. The systems underlying these distinctive processes and the consequences of arginase inhibitors on PMN induced ...
Most men know that L-Arginine plays a role in the production of erectile strength-promoting nitric oxide, something I cover in my link on The Failures and Successes of Arginine.
International Journal of Hypertension is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of hypertension.
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Currie, G A.; Gyure, L; and Cifuentes, L, Microenvironmental arginine depletion by macrophages in vivo. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 3434 ...
Top performende anti-Rind (Kuh) Arginase, Liver Antikörper für Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)) vergleichen & kaufen.
van den Berg MPM, Kurhade SH, Maarsingh H, Erceg S, Hulsbeek IR, Boekema PH, Kistemaker LEM, van Faassen M, Kema IP, Elsinga PH, Dömling A, Meurs H, Gosens R. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2020 Jul;374(1):62-73. Publication: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32269169/ Abstract Arginase is a potential target for asthma treatment. However, there are currently no arginase inhibitors available for clinical […]. ...
Calithera Biosciences, Inc. is a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company. The Company focuses on discovering and developing small molecule drugs directed against tumor and immune cell targets that control key metabolic pathways in the tumor microenvironment. It is engaged in developing agents that take advantage of the metabolic requirements of tumor cells and cancer-fighting immune cells, such as cytotoxic T-cells. The Companys lead product candidate, CB-839, is a critical enzyme in tumor cells. Its other product candidate, CB-1158, is being developed for hematology and oncology indications. CB-1158 is a potent and selective orally bioavailable inhibitor of the enzyme arginase. CB-839 is a selective, reversible and orally bioavailable inhibitor of human glutaminase. CB-1158 has single agent anti-tumor activity in syngeneic mouse tumor models that has been demonstrated to act through an immune mechanism. CB-1158 is being tested in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with solid tumors.
Data Availability StatementAll data generated or analyzed in this scholarly research are one of them published content. phosphorylated Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Mitogen-activated proteins kinases Asunaprevir biological activity kinase 1 (MEK1) was examined by traditional western blotting. Xenograft tumor model was set up to measure tumor development in vivo. Outcomes Circ_0032821 was upregulated in individual GC tumors and cells significantly. Moreover, circ_0032821 may be a biomarker for the advanced Tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, lymphoid node metastasis and poor prognosis in gastric cancers. Knockdown of circ_0032821 by transfection induced loss of cell proliferation, EMT, invasion and migration, but boost of autophagy of AGS and HGC-27 cells in vitro, aswell as induced tumor development inhibition in vivo. Besides, overexpression of circ_0032821 by transfection functioned the contrary effects in individual GC cells. Mechanically, the MEK1/ERK1/2 signaling ...
We be experiencing even shown that TFS can shut down eminence epilepticus (SE)--more than 30 min of constant possession activity without full revival of consciousness from seizures. In addition to complete nutrition, immunologic protection is transferred from mam to infant via chest tap and affectionateВ-infant bonding is promoted. Anti-inflammatory effects of Zocor in subjects with hypercholesteremia benicar 20 mg without a prescription arrhythmia types ecg. As a result, this debate will be limited to the bosses of emergent cardiac conditions that are more typically establish in children. The investigation of Leishmania arginase genes revealed the presence of undivided of the most visit glycosome import signals, the PST1 carboxyl signal, which consists of tree amino acids В- SKL (Opperdoes and Szikora 2006; da Silva et al. Every cardinal wants a whiter brighter smiling trusted plendil 10mg heart attack 50 years. The continued drink of these methods at an end many decades has also generated a ...
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Arginase 1 antibody (arginase, liver) for Conjugation, IM, WB. Anti-Arginase 1 pAb (GTX22111) is tested in Bovine samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Arginase 1 antibody (arginase, liver) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Arginase 1 pAb (GTX113131) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Description: Quantitative determination of free and total sialic acid (NANA) by colorimetric (549nm) or fluorimetric (555nm/585nm) methods. Procedure: 2.5 hrs. Kit size: 100 tests. Detection limit: fluorimetric assay 0.5 µM, colorimetric assay 5 µM. Shelf life: 3 ...
enhanced arginase-1 activity was associated with increased lung inflammation. Moreover, in patients with pulmonary TB, lung damage correlated with increased serum activity of arginase-1, which was elevated in TB patients coinfected with helminths. Together, our data indicate that helminth coinfection induces arginase-1-expressing type 2 granulomas, thereby increasing inflammation and TB disease severity. These results also provide insight into the mechanisms by which helminth coinfections drive increased susceptibility, disease progression, and severity in TB.. ...
Argininemia is a rare, hereditary, urea cycle disorder. It is included in the category of inborn metabolic disorders of which there are no cures. It is also referenced in the literature as hyperargininemia, ARG1 deficiency, and arginase deficiency. This genetic disease is characterized by the absence of the enzyme, arginase. Arginase is the last enzyme necessary in the urea cycle, which is a metabolic pathway occurring in the liver. The metabolism of proteins in the diet creates nitrogen, as a waste product, in the circulatory system. The urea cycle processes this nitrogen, in the form of ammonia, from the blood, through a sequence of biochemical processes. Arginase is responsible for the incorporation of ammonia into urea, which can then be excreted from the body in urine. If urea cannot be synthesized, nitrogen accumulates in the blood and body tissues, as ammonia, which is a highly toxic substance, and may lead to brain damage and /or death. Arginase is also the enzyme necessary to regenerate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arginine deprivation and tumour cell death: arginase and its inhibition. AU - Wheatley, Denis. AU - Philip, R.. AU - Campbell, E.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Arginase treatment of cell cultures reduced arginine in the medium to similar to micromolar levels within 5-30 min, and proved as effective as arginine-free medium (AFM) prepared by formulation. The enzyme was heat stable and as active at pH 7.2 as at pH 9.9. It persisted in culture for at least 3 days with only a small diminution in its speed of action, and still actively destroyed arginine after 6 days, since arginine supplementation failed to rescue viable cells.Addition of L-norvaline, an inhibitor of arginase, rescued cells from arginase-induced deprivation. Its efficacy at low concentrations was short-lived (probably , 1 day), while at higher concentrations it did not appear to inhibit completely the enzyme. However, L-norvaline at these same levels also slowed the growth of positive non-enzyme treated controls ...
Manganese in natural waters and earths crust - its availability to organisms; manganese transport in micro-organisms; manganese uptake and transport in plants; manganese metabolism in animals and humans including the toxicity of manganese; interrelations between manganese and other metal ions in health and disease; the use of manganese as a probe for elucidating the role of magnesium ions in ribozymes; Mn2+ as a probe of divalent metal ion binding and function in enzymes and other proteins; enzymes and proteins containing manganese - an overview; manganese (II) in concanavalin and other lectin proteins; manganese-activated phosphatases; manganese (II) as a probe for the mechanism and specificity of restriction endonucleases; the role of the binuclear manganese (II) site in xylose isomerase; arginase - a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme; the use of model complexes to elucidate the structure and function of manganese redox enzymes; manganese (II)-dependent extradiol-cleaving catechol ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
DEHYDRO-2(S)-AMINO-6-BORONOHEXANOIC ACID | C6H13BNO5- | CID 657085 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Although the role of Arg1 and l-arginine metabolism in immune responses has been well recognized, little is known about their effects on DC biology (11). Our study demonstrated that Arg1, one of the key l-arginine-metabolizing enzymes, is a novel regulator of myeloid DC differentiation and shed new light on the immunoregulatory roles of Arg1 and l-arginine metabolism.. Our results support the idea that the level of Arg1 expression specifically impacts CD8α+ cDC differentiation. No effect on CD11b+ DCs or pDCs was observed upon the modulation of Arg1 expression. Arg1 expression is much higher in CD8α+ cDCs from Flt3L-cultured mouse BM and equivalent human cDC2, compared with other DC subsets. However, CD8α+ cDCs from fresh mouse spleen express a low level of Arg1 (see Fig. S10 in the supplemental material), which is consistent with the results from ImmGen (http://www.immgen.org/). The differential pattern of Arg1 expression in CD8α+ cDCs from in vivo and in vitro sources indicates that a ...
We can test the effectiveness of your compound against these parameters. We have previously demonstrated efficacy of bronchodilator drugs (β2 agonists, anticholinergics, Rho-kinase inhibitors) and anti-inflammatory drugs (glucocorticopsteroids, arginase inhibitors) in this model.. A unique feature of this model is that guinea pigs can be instrumented using a balloon catheter to measure lung function online in freely moving unrestrained animals. This way, not only hyperresponsiveness to histamine, but also the nature and size of the early and late asthmatic response can be measured including effects of pharmacological treatments hereon. This can be done without the need for surgical interventions during the treatment period, without the need for anaesthesia (which effectively blocks the neural component of airway hyperresponsiveness) and with the possibility of repeated and on-line measurements in time.. Furthermore, the guinea pig offers a number of unique characteristics that make the model ...
KW: skepticism about Stanfield Rogers; probably referring to: ON ARGINASE OF SHOPE PAPILLOMAS ORTH G, VIELLE F, CHANGEUX JP VIROLOGY 31: (4) 729-& 1967; my calendar: _Tue 16 Jan 1968~ Century 21- Human implications of biological discovery; jl 8/5/00 ...
NO synthesis is compromised during sepsis through lack of arginine de novo synthesis and may thereby contribute to impaired microcirculation and organ dysfunction. Supplementation of L-citrulline in septic patients will increase NO production without increased arginase activity and these effects will be studied on arginine-NO metabolism,improved organ function, vascular permeability and microcirculation ...
Arginase 1 (Arg1), which converts l-arginine into ornithine and urea, exerts pleiotropic immunoregulatory effects. However, the function of Arg1 in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains poorly characterized. Here, we found that Arg1 expression correlated with the degree of inflammation in intestinal tissues from IBD patients. In mice, Arg1 was upregulated in an IL-4/IL-13- and intestinal microbiota-dependent manner. Tie2-Cre Arg1fl/fl mice lacking Arg1 in hematopoietic and endothelial cells recovered faster from colitis than Arg1-expressing (Arg1fl/fl) littermates. This correlated with decreased vessel density, compositional changes in intestinal microbiota, diminished infiltration by myeloid cells, and an accumulation of intraluminal polyamines that promote epithelial healing. The proresolving effect of Arg1 deletion was reduced by an l-arginine-free diet, but rescued by simultaneous deletion of other l-arginine-metabolizing enzymes, such as Arg2 or Nos2, demonstrating that protection from ...
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In diesem Zusammenhang beschäftigen wir uns mit dem Stoffwechsel der Aminosäure Arginin in Tumorzellen und in Immunzellen. Seit unserer Erstbeschreibung der Expression des Arginin-verstoffwechselnden Enzyms Arginase in humanen Granulozyten zeigte es sich in den letzten Jahren, dass bestimmte myeloische Zellen (sogenannte myeloische Suppressorzellen, MDSC) in Tumorpatienten durch Arginase-vermittelte Depletion des Arginins die Funktion antitumoraler T-Lymphozyten hemmen. Auf der anderen Seite sind auch Tumorzellen von einer adäquaten Verfügbarkeit des Arginins abhängig und eine möglichst effiziente Arginin-Depletion stellt eine neue potentielle antitumorale Therapie dar. Wir entwickeln daher Strategien, um die beeinträchtigte Immunantwort im Kontext von Argininmangel wiederherzustellen (Projekt 1), studieren die Expression und Regulation von Arginin-Transportproteinen in Zellen des humanen Immunsystems (Projekt 2) sowie in Myelom-Tumorzellen (Projekt 3), etablieren und analysieren ...
Health, ...In a new study published in the scientific journal Circulation ... The fact that we could demonstrate the presence of arginase in severa...Complications in diabetes patients result from constrictions of the bl...In this present study the researchers analysed the function of the ar...,Enzyme,explains,angina,in,diabetics,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Binding of alpha,alpha-Disubstituted Amino Acids to Arginase Suggests New Avenues for Inhibitor Design. Ilies, M.,Di Costanzo, L.,Dowling, D.P. et al. ...
In people with arginase deficiency, arginase is missing, and arginine is not broken down properly. consequently, urea cannot be ... "Arginase Deficiency". GeneReviews. PMID 20301338. Retrieved 20 November 2016.update 2014 "Arginase Deficiency: Background, ... The ARG1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called arginase, this enzyme controls the last steps of the urea cycle ... "arginase deficiency". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 20 November 2016. Hames, David; Hooper, Nigel (2005). Instant Notes in ...
"Arginase formulations and methods". Wipo (PCT). WO (8495A2). 2011. Ryan, Sinéad M; Mantovani, Giuseppe; Wang, Xuexuan; ...
Evidence of boronic acid mimics as transition state analogue inhibitors of human arginase I was elucidated by x-ray crystal ... Among the synthesized analogues, R = L-Leu possesses the most potent inhibitory activity (Ki = 9.1 nM). Arginase is a binuclear ... 2003). "Design of amino acid sulfonamides as transition-state analogue inhibitors of arginase". J Am Chem Soc. 125 (43): 13052- ... Maarsingh, Harm; Johan Zaagsma; Herman Meurs (October 2009). "Arginase: a key enzyme in the pathophysiology of allergic asthma ...
Arginine is cleaved by arginase to form urea and ornithine. The ornithine is then transported back to the mitochondria to begin ... Deficiency of arginase) Hyperornithinemia, hyperammonemia, homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome (Deficiency of the mitochondrial ... synthetase I OTC Ornithine transcarbamoylase ASS argininosuccinate synthetase ASL argininosuccinate lyase ARG1 arginase 1 ...
"Pirfenidone inhibits lung allograft fibrosis through L-arginine-arginase pathway". Am. J. Transplant. 5 (6): 1256-63. doi: ...
They also promote extracellular matrix synthesis via production of ornithine, via arginase; this is used as a precursor for ...
The Effect of Variation in Dietary Protein upon the Hepatic Arginase of the Rat". Biochemical Journal. 51 (5): 681-686. doi: ...
... arginase, a bimetallic enzyme binuclear Mn2-metalloenzyme arginase, crucial for pathogenesis of the ... Arginase of H. pylori also plays a role in evasion of the pathogen from the host immune system mainly by various proposed ... George G, Kombrabail M, Raninga N, Sau AK (March 2017). "Arginase of Helicobacter Gastric Pathogens Uses a Unique Set of Non- ... mechanisms, arginase competes with host-inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase for the common substrate L-arginine, and thus ...
Arginase deficiency Citrullinemia N-acetylglutamate synthetase deficiency Ornithine translocase deficiency Carbamoyl phosphate ...
The compound is found in legumes that contain canavanine, from which it is produced by the action of arginase. The most common- ...
With his distinguished English pupil Henry Drysdale Dakin, Kossel investigated arginase, the ferment which hydrolyses arginine ...
He studied chemistry at the University of Leeds with Julius B. Cohen, and then he worked with Albrecht Kossel on arginase at ...
Das P, Lahiri A, Chakravortty D,2010, Modulation of the arginase pathway in the context of microbial pathogenesis: a metabolic ...
In 1904, two Germans A. Kossel and H. D. Dakin had shown that arginine could be hydrolysed by the enzyme arginase to form ...
"Differential regulation of nitric oxide synthase-2 and arginase-1 by type 1/type 2 cytokines in vivo: granulomatous pathology ...
There is an accumulation of metabolic enzymes that suppress T cell proliferation and activation, including IDO and arginase, ...
D-arginase EC 3.5.3.11: agmatinase EC 3.5.3.12: agmatine deiminase EC 3.5.3.13: formimidoylglutamate deiminase EC 3.5.3.14: ... arginase EC 3.5.3.2: guanidinoacetase EC 3.5.3.3: creatinase EC 3.5.3.4: allantoicase EC 3.5.3.5: formimidoylaspartate ...
... arginase deficiency, and N-Acetylglutamate synthase deficiency. Other diseases that may appear similar to CTLN1 include the ...
Arginase: a key enzyme in the pathophysiology of allergic asthma opening novel therapeutic perspectives. Br J Pharmacol. ... Design of amino acid sulfonamides as transition-state analogue inhibitors of arginase. J Am Chem Soc. 2003, 125 (43): 13052-7. ... Probing the Specificity Determinants of Amino Acid Recognition by Arginase. Biochemistry. 2009, 48 (1): 121-131. doi:10.1021/ ...
L-Ornithine is one of the products of the action of the enzyme arginase on L-arginine, creating urea. Therefore, ornithine is a ...
"Inhibition of S6K1 accounts partially for the anti-inflammatory effects of the arginase inhibitor L-norvaline". BMC ...
"A performance evaluation of three drug-induced liver injury biomarkers in the rat: alpha-glutathione S-transferase, arginase 1 ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are GTP and H2O, whereas its 3 products are formate, 2,5-diamino-6-hydroxy-4-(5-phosphoribosylamino)pyrimidine, and diphosphate.. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically in cyclic amidines. The systematic name of this enzyme class is GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (diphosphate-forming). Other names in common use include guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase II, and GTP-8-formylhydrolase. This enzyme participates in riboflavin metabolism.. ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are N-succinyl-LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate and H2O, whereas its two products are succinate and LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically in linear amides. The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-succinyl-LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate amidohydrolase. This enzyme is also called N-succinyl-L-alpha,epsilon-diaminopimelic acid deacylase. This enzyme participates in lysine biosynthesis. ...
Arginase. *ABH. *Nω-Hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA). *chlorogenic acid. *ginseng. *epicatechin ...
Arginase. *ABH. *Nω-Hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA). *chlorogenic acid. *korean red ginseng root water extract ...
... is found in the retina (RETGC) and modulates phototransduction in rods and cones. It is part of the calcium negative feedback system that is activated in response to the hyperpolarization of the photoreceptors by light. This causes less intracellular calcium, which stimulates guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). Studies have shown that cGMP synthesis in cones is about 5-10 times higher than it is in rods, which may play an important role in modulating cone adaption to light.[2] In addition, studies have shown that zebrafish express a higher number of GCAPs than mammals, and that zebrafish GCAPs can bind at least three calcium ions.[3] Guanylate cyclase 2C (GC-C) is an enzyme expressed mainly in intestinal neurons. Activation of GC-C amplifies the excitatory cell response that is modulated by glutamate and acetylcholine receptors. GC-C, while known mainly for its secretory regulation in the intestinal epithelium, is also expressed in the brain. To be specific, it is ...
Sodium nitrite is used for the curing of meat because it prevents bacterial growth and, as it is a reducing agent (opposite of oxidation agent), in a reaction with the meat's myoglobin, gives the product a desirable pink-red "fresh" color, such as with corned beef. This use of nitrite goes back to the Middle Ages, and in the US has been formally used since 1925. Because of the relatively high toxicity of nitrite (the lethal dose in humans is about 22 milligrams per kilogram of body weight), the maximum allowed nitrite concentration in meat products is 200 ppm. At these levels, some 80 to 90% of the nitrite in the average U.S. diet is not from cured meat products, but from natural nitrite production from vegetable nitrate intake. Under certain conditions - especially during cooking - nitrites in meat can react with degradation products of amino acids, forming nitrosamines, which are known carcinogens.[6] However, the role of nitrites (and to some extent nitrates) in preventing botulism by ...
Arginase. *ABH. *Nω-Hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA). *chlorogenic acid. *ginseng. *epicatechin ...
... was the first practical explosive produced that was stronger than black powder. It was first synthesized by the Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero in 1847, working under Théophile-Jules Pelouze at the University of Turin.[6] Sobrero initially called his discovery pyroglycerine and warned vigorously against its use as an explosive.[7] Nitroglycerin was later adopted as a commercially useful explosive by Alfred Nobel, who experimented with safer ways to handle the dangerous compound after his younger brother, Emil Oskar Nobel, and several factory workers were killed in an explosion at the Nobels' armaments factory in 1864 in Heleneborg, Sweden.[8] One year later, Nobel founded Alfred Nobel and Company in Germany and built an isolated factory in the Krümmel hills of Geesthacht near Hamburg. This business exported a liquid combination of nitroglycerin and gunpowder called "Blasting Oil", but this was extremely unstable and difficult to handle, as evidenced in numerous catastrophes. The ...
Arginase deficiency is an inherited disorder that causes the amino acid arginine (a building block of proteins) and ammonia to ... In people with arginase deficiency, arginase is damaged or missing, and arginine is not broken down properly. As a result, urea ... Mutations in the ARG1 gene cause arginase deficiency.. Arginase deficiency belongs to a class of genetic diseases called urea ... Arginase deficiency usually becomes evident by about the age of 3. It most often appears as stiffness, especially in the legs, ...
If untreated, arginase deficiency usually progresses to severe spasticity, loss of ambulation, complete loss of bowel and ... Arginase deficiency in untreated individuals is characterized by episodic hyperammonemia of variable degree that is ... Measurement of red blood cell arginase enzyme activity. Most affected individuals have no detectable arginase enzyme activity ( ... 2) Arginase enzyme activity is reduced in liver as well as red blood cells, but arginase enzyme activity in liver is rarely ...
Arginase deficiency is thought to be the least common of the urea cycle disorders. This entity also manifests itself in a ... encoded search term (Arginase%20Deficiency) and Arginase Deficiency What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and ... Prenatal diagnosis fro arginase deficiency by second-trimester fetal erythrocyte arginase assay and first-trimester ARG1 ... Arginase deficiency is thought to be the least common of the urea cycle disorders. This entity also manifests itself in a ...
... Renée C. Benson,1 Karen A. Hardy,1 and Claudia R. Morris2 ... Renée C. Benson, Karen A. Hardy, and Claudia R. Morris, "Arginase and Arginine Dysregulation in Asthma," Journal of Allergy, ...
Arginase deficiency is thought to be the least common of the urea cycle disorders. This entity also manifests itself in a ... encoded search term (Arginase Deficiency) and Arginase Deficiency What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and ... Prenatal diagnosis fro arginase deficiency by second-trimester fetal erythrocyte arginase assay and first-trimester ARG1 ... Arginase deficiency with lethal neonatal expression: evidence for the glutamine hypothesis of cerebral edema. J Pediatr. 2003 ...
... develop and commercialize Symbiosciences portfolio of arginase inhibitors, discovered as part of Mars cocoa flavanol... ... By inhibiting arginase, it may be possible to restore the tumor killing activity of cytotoxic T cells by preventing the ... Calitheras arginase program or other potential product candidates that Calithera develops may not progress through clinical ... About Tumor Immunology and Arginase Inhibitors. The field of tumor immunology is focused on developing agents that activate the ...
Arginase I is constitutive, and "extrahepatic" arginase (arginase II) is induced in vessel endothelium cells by ... Arginase and NOS compete for a common substratum-L-arginine. However, activity of arginase exceeds NOS activity by thousand ... The arginase is an enzyme of urea cycle that hydrolyzes L-arginine to ornithine and urea. There are two isoforms of this enzyme ... Arginase Inhibitor in the Pharmacological Correction of Endothelial Dysfunction. Mihail V. Pokrovskiy,1 Mihail V. Korokin,2 ...
Arginase activity was associated with the cell-envelope fraction obtained by centrifugation of lysates. A Km of 22+/-3 mM was ... Divalent cations stimulated arginase activity, and the most potent activators were Co2+,Ni2+,Mn2+. The activity was highly ... In situ characterization of Helicobacter pylori arginase.. Mendz GL1, Holmes EM, Ferrero RL. ... Amino acid sequence analyses revealed important differences between the deduced structures of H. pylori arginase and those of ...
The assay is based on the coversion of arginine to ornithine and urea by arginase present in 1/8 inch disc of dried blood on ... A simple fluorescent spot screening test has been developed for the identification of individuals with arginase deficiency ( ... A simple screening test for arginase deficiency (hyperargininemia) J Lab Clin Med. 1977 Apr;89(4):876-80. ... A simple fluorescent spot screening test has been developed for the identification of individuals with arginase deficiency ( ...
Rabbit polyclonal Liver Arginase antibody. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat. Cited in 22 publication(s ... Anti-liver Arginase antibody (ab91279). Rabbit polyclonal Liver Arginase antibody. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, ICC/IF and tested ... Liver Arginase was immunoprecipitated using 0.5mg Mouse Liver tissue lysate, 5µg of Rabbit polyclonal to Liver Arginase and ... All lanes : Anti-liver Arginase antibody (ab91279) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Liver (Mouse) Tissue Lysate. Lane 2 : Liver (Rat) ...
Home Topics Drug Discovery Arginetix Pockets $10.75M to Further R&D of Arginase Inhibitors ... Arginase is an enzyme that competes with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) for the use of the common substrate L- ... Elevated arginase limits L-arginine available for eNOS, resulting in both a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) production (reducing ... Arginetix Pockets $10.75M to Further R&D of Arginase Inhibitors. October 2, 2009. 0 ...
Arginase-2, mitochondrial (Arg2), Arginase-1 (Arg1), Arginase (Arg2). This subpathway is part of the pathway urea cycle, which ... "Role of arginase 1 from myeloid cells in th2-dominated lung inflammation.". Barron L., Smith A.M., El Kasmi K.C., Qualls J.E., ... "Local arginase 1 activity is required for cutaneous wound healing.". Campbell L., Saville C.R., Murray P.J., Cruickshank S.M., ... arginase activity Source: MGI ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the function, process or ...
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Human Liver Arginase protein (ab95487). Please download our general protocols ...
Arginase 1 Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Immunocytochemistry, Immunohistochemistry ... arginase; arginase 1 antibody; arginase 1, liver; arginase I; arginase, liver; Arginase-1; liver antibody; Liver-type arginase ... liver-type arginase antibody; Type I arginase; type I arginase antibody ... Cite Arginase 1 Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Arginase 1 Polyclonal Antibody from ...
enhanced arginase-1 activity was associated with increased lung inflammation. Moreover, in patients with pulmonary TB, lung ... infection resulted in accumulation of high arginase-1-expressing macrophages in the lung, which formed type 2 granulomas and ... Helminth-induced arginase-1 exacerbates lung inflammation and disease severity in tuberculosis. ... Helminth-induced arginase-1 exacerbates lung inflammation and disease severity in tuberculosis. ...
Arginase 1 (Arg1), which converts l-arginine into ornithine and urea, exerts pleiotropic immunoregulatory effects. However, the ... Arginase impedes the resolution of colitis by altering the microbiome and metabolome. ... Arginase impedes the resolution of colitis by altering the microbiome and metabolome. ...
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Arginase (D915_000092). This subpathway is part of the pathway urea cycle, which is itself part of Nitrogen metabolism.. View ... IPR014033 Arginase. IPR006035 Ureohydrolase. IPR023696 Ureohydrolase_dom_sf. IPR020855 Ureohydrolase_Mn_BS. ... IPR014033 Arginase. IPR006035 Ureohydrolase. IPR023696 Ureohydrolase_dom_sf. IPR020855 Ureohydrolase_Mn_BS. ... Belongs to the arginase family.PROSITE-ProRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ...
What is arginase deficiency? Meaning of arginase deficiency medical term. What does arginase deficiency mean? ... Looking for online definition of arginase deficiency in the Medical Dictionary? arginase deficiency explanation free. ... Arginase Deficiency has allowed us to do things that can and hopefully will help people with Arginase Deficiency and Urea Cycle ... arginase deficiency. arginase deficiency. an autosomal-recessive aminoacidopathy involving the biosynthesis of urea; arginine ...
ChIP sequencing and standard ChIP analyses of macrophages identified arginase 1 (Arg1) as a target of Fra-1. Luciferase ... Transcription factor Fra-1 targets arginase-1 to enhance macrophage-mediated inflammation in arthritis. ... Transcription factor Fra-1 targets arginase-1 to enhance macrophage-mediated inflammation in arthritis. ... This phenotype was reversed by treatment with the arginase inhibitor Nω-hydroxy-nor-ʟ-arginine, while ʟ-arginine ...
Arginase I and FEV1% were negatively correlated with job strain and positively correlated with job control and social support. ... It is concluded that serum levels of arginase I may be useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of job stress in healthy female ... Multiple regression analysis showed negative association of arginase I with job strain and positive association with job ... arginase I, L-arginine, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and NOx), clinical parameters, and job strain using a Japanese version of ...
Comparisons of the LmARG structure with that of the archetypal arginase, human arginase I, reveal that all residues important ... Arginase. A. 330. Leishmania mexicana. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ARG. EC: 3.5.3.1. ... Arginase from parasitic protozoa belonging to the genus Leishmania is a potential drug target for the treatment of ... Arginase from parasitic protozoa belonging to the genus Leishmania is a potential drug target for the treatment of ...
Browse our Arginase 1/ARG1/liver Arginase Antibodies all backed by our Guarantee+. ... Arginase 1/ARG1/liver Arginase Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... Arginase 1/ARG1/liver Arginase Antibodies. We offer Arginase 1/ARG1/liver Arginase Antibodies for use in common research ... Alternate Names for Arginase 1/ARG1/liver Arginase Antibodies. anti-Arginase 1/ARG1/liver Arginase antibody, anti-ARG1 antibody ...
Nitrite analysis and arginase assays. Arginase assays were previously described [10]. Briefly, neutrophils were plated at 5×105 ... 1996) Molecular cloning of cDNA for nonhepatic mitochondrial arginase (arginase II) and comparison of its induction with nitric ... Arginase 1 (Arg1) is a cytosolic enzyme constitutively expressed in the liver where it functions in nitrogen elimination by ... 2004) Arginase I production in the tumor microenvironment by mature myeloid cells inhibits T-cell receptor expression and ...
Whereas previous studies have focused primarily on effects of high cholesterol diets on arginase expression and arginine ... Increased catabolism of arginine by arginase is increasingly viewed as an important pathophysiological factor in cardiovascular ... The HC diet resulted in significantly elevated plasma arginase in both strains, but the HF diet increased plasma arginase only ... also resulted in increased arginase activity and expression of the type II isozyme of arginase in multiple tissues of apoE ...
Three types of arginase murine models have been developed: an arginase I,14 an arginase II,15 and a double arginase I and II ... 16 Although a comparison of vascular responses between arginase I and arginase II KOs was desirable, both the arginase I and ... Because arginase and NO synthase share l-arginine as their precursor substrate, arginase has been postulated to inhibit NO ... Generation of a mouse model for arginase II deficiency by targeted disruption of the arginase II gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2001; 21 ...
Arginase. A, B, C, D, E, F. 299. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: rocF, BSU40320, argI. ... 1.7 Angstrom Resolution Crystal Structure of Arginase from Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb6NFP/ ... 1.7 Angstrom Resolution Crystal Structure of Arginase from Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168. Minasov, G., Wawrzak, Z. ...
keywords = "arginase, nitric oxide, arginase inhibitors, molecular imaging, positron emission tomography (PET)", ... N2 - Arginase is a widely known enzyme of the urea cycle that catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. ... AB - Arginase is a widely known enzyme of the urea cycle that catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. ... Santos Clemente, dos, G., van Waarde, A., F. Antunes, I., Dömling, A., & Elsinga, P. H. (2020). Arginase as a Potential ...
Arginase was isolated from human liver and erythrocytes. The purification procedure used acetone precipitation, heat-treatment ... Purification and Properties of Arginase From Human Liver and Erythrocytes Biochem J. 1978 Nov 1;175(2):449-54. doi: 10.1042/ ... The liver arginase showed a mol.wt. of 107000 determined by gel filtration and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.9S. Treatment ... Arginase was isolated from human liver and erythrocytes. The purification procedure used acetone precipitation, heat-treatment ...
Calithera Biosciences has dosed the first patients in a Phase 1b trial of the arginase inhibitor CB-280 in adults with cystic ... Inhibiting arginase may reduce infection and improve lung function in people with CF, according to Calithera Bio, which added ... Cystic Fibrosis: Phase 1B Trial Begins for Arginase Inhibitor. Posted by RT Staff , Jul 29, 2020 , Business News, Clinical ... Calithera Biosciences Inc has dosed the first patients in its Phase 1b clinical trial of the arginase inhibitor CB-280 in adult ...
  • Mutations in the ARG1 gene cause arginase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The ARG1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called arginase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Arginase-1 (ARG1) catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine into ornithine and urea, a critical step for the urea cycle. (thermofisher.com)
  • Arginase 1 (Arg1), which converts l-arginine into ornithine and urea, exerts pleiotropic immunoregulatory effects. (jci.org)
  • ChIP sequencing and standard ChIP analyses of macrophages identified arginase 1 (Arg1) as a target of Fra-1. (jci.org)
  • This phenotype was reversed by treatment with the arginase inhibitor Nω-hydroxy-nor-ʟ-arginine, while ʟ-arginine supplementation increased arginase activity and alleviated arthritis, supporting the notion that reduced arthritis in macrophage-specific Fra-1-deficient mice resulted from enhanced Arg1 expression and activity. (jci.org)
  • Each Arginase 1/ARG1/liver Arginase Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Arginase 1/ARG1/liver Arginase Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Bovine, Human, Mouse, Porcine, Rat. (novusbio.com)
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  • Arginase 1 (Arg1) is a cytosolic enzyme constitutively expressed in the liver where it functions in nitrogen elimination by catalyzing arginine hydrolysis to urea and ornithine [1] , [2] . (plos.org)
  • Two arginase isoforms coexist, the type I (Arg1) predominantly expressed in the liver and the type II (Arg2) expressed throughout extrahepatic tissues. (rug.nl)
  • Arginase 1 antibody detects ARG1 protein at cytosol on Cal27 xenograft by immunohistochemical analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Arginase 1 antibody detects ARG1 protein by western blot analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Arginase 1 antibody LS-C745125 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to bovine Arginase 1 (ARG1). (lsbio.com)
  • Among various mechanisms responsible for immune suppression, arginase-1 (ARG1)-carrying small extracellular vesicles (EVs) emerge as important contributors to tumor growth and tumor escape from the host immune system. (izon.com)
  • Increased expression of ARG1 in mouse OvCa cells is associated with accelerated tumor progression that can be blocked by an arginase inhibitor. (izon.com)
  • Mutations in ARG1 lead to an unstable arginase enzyme, a protein found in the cytosol and responsible for the final step of the urea cycle. (statpearls.com)
  • Arginase-1, encoded by the ARG1 gene, is a cytosolic metalloenzyme expressed predominantly in hepatocytes which plays a key role in the urea cycle by catalyzing the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. (attogene.com)
  • The identification of 1 mutation in each allele of the ARG1 gene, encoding for arginase by DNA sequencing, can definitively confirm the diagnosis. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • This rapid increase in ammonia may lead to episodes of irritability, refusal to eat, and vomiting.In some affected individuals, signs and symptoms of arginase deficiency may be less severe, and may not appear until later in life.Mutations in the ARG1 gene cause arginase deficiency. (medigoo.com)
  • This cycle processes excess nitrogen, generated when protein is used by the body, to make a compound called urea that is excreted by the kidneys.The ARG1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called arginase. (medigoo.com)
  • The ARG1 gene expresses itself in human liver tissues and synthesizes the arginase enzyme, the last step of the urea cycle. (webclearinghouse.net)
  • There are 14 known mutations of the ARG1 gene that can cause arginase deficiency. (webclearinghouse.net)
  • It is also referenced in the literature as hyperargininemia, ARG1 deficiency, and arginase deficiency. (webclearinghouse.net)
  • In contrast, inhibiting arginase with ABH or other boronic acid inhibitors will maintain normal cellular levels of arginine, thus allowing for normal muscle relaxation and sexual response. (wikipedia.org)
  • I am particularly excited about this agreement because we believe we can apply our core expertise in tumor biology to rapidly advance Symbioscience's potent and selective small-molecule arginase inhibitors into the clinic to develop a first-in-class immuno-oncology therapy for cancer patients. (cnbc.com)
  • Under the terms of the agreement, Calithera will obtain exclusive, worldwide rights to Symbioscience's arginase inhibitors for drug research, development and commercialization. (cnbc.com)
  • Calithera's preclinical program in tumor immunology is focused on developing selective inhibitors of the enzyme arginase, an enzyme produced by myeloid derived suppressor cells in the tumor microenvironment that depletes arginine, a naturally occurring amino acid that is critical for the activation, growth and survival of the body's cancer-fighting cytotoxic T cells. (cnbc.com)
  • The inhibitors of arginase suppress the activity of the given enzyme, raising and production of nitrogen oxide, preventing the development of endothelial dysfunction. (hindawi.com)
  • The company is developing small molecule inhibitors of arginase for endothelial dysfunction including pulmonary arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, and asthma. (genengnews.com)
  • Arginetix will use the money to further discovery activities as well as pursue development of its arginase inhibitors for cardiovascular and pulmonary indications. (genengnews.com)
  • These complexes include the reactive substrate analogue 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH) and the hydroxylated substrate analogue nor-N(ω)-hydroxy-l-arginine (nor-NOHA), which are the most potent arginase inhibitors known to date. (rcsb.org)
  • Thus, arginase is a potential biomarker of disease progression and severity and has recently been the subject of research studies regarding the therapeutic efficacy of arginase inhibitors. (rug.nl)
  • This review gives a comprehensive overview of the pathophysiological role of arginase and the current state of development of arginase inhibitors, discussing the potential of arginase as a molecular imaging biomarker and stimulating the development of novel specific and high-affinity arginase imaging probes. (rug.nl)
  • As part of this agreement, Calithera retained the rights to develop additional arginase inhibitors in specific non-oncology indications, including CF. The molecule being evaluated in these clinical trials, CB-280, is wholly owned by Calithera. (rtmagazine.com)
  • Furthermore, local perivascular application of the potent and selective arginase inhibitors S -(2-boronoethyl)- l -cysteine (BEC) or N G -hydroxy-nor- l -arginine (L-OHNA) immediately after injury markedly attenuated medial and neointimal DNA synthesis and neointima formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • For quantitative determination of arginase activity and screen for its inhibitors. (bioassaysys.com)
  • HTS for inhibitor screening and evaluation of arginase inhibitors. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Studies show that arginase inhibitors have been proved to be beneficial in cardiovascular and nervous system diseases. (bioassaysys.com)
  • BioAssay Systems arginase inhibitor screening kit provides a sensitive and convenient method to screen for arginase inhibitors. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Does the kit come with arginase or control inhibitors? (bioassaysys.com)
  • What arginase inhibitors were tested using this kit? (bioassaysys.com)
  • Open in another window The X-ray crystal framework of arginase from (SmARG) as well as the structures of it is complexes with several amino acid solution inhibitors have already been established at atomic resolution. (immune-source.com)
  • b) Arginase inhibitors 2(parasites in Clinofibrate leishmaniasis,21?23in peptic ulcer disease,24,25 and particular cancer tumor cells.26?29 Accordingly, inhibition of SmARG might provide the parasite more vunerable to the immune response. (immune-source.com)
  • Signaling through the PGE 2 receptor E-prostanoid 4 expressed in MSCs induced arginase I. Furthermore, blocking arginase I expression using COX-2 inhibitors elicited a lymphocyte-mediated antitumor response. (rupress.org)
  • The STK inhibitors PP2 (10 microM) and herbimycin A (10 microM) also prevented the L/T-induced expression of both arginase II and iNOS mRNA in bPAEC. (mysciencework.com)
  • Around a decade ago, researchers began to speculate that arginase inhibitors could be used to improve erectile function. (peaktestosterone.com)
  • In this fashion, arginase is an indirect regulator of penile and vaginal blood flow and specific arginase inhibitors may improve genital blood flow during sexual arousal . (peaktestosterone.com)
  • Subsequent animal studies showed that endothelial function was improved with arginase inhibitors but none studied erectile tissues as far as I know. (peaktestosterone.com)
  • This was addressed in 2009 when a study examined in vitro the effects of four arginase inhibitors on human penile erectile tissues from the corpus cavernosum. (peaktestosterone.com)
  • Their results were lackluster and the authors concluded that " arginase inhibitors appeared to be ineffective in reversing the adrenergic tension and increasing the electrically induced relaxation of isolated HCC. (peaktestosterone.com)
  • In addition, I have not been able to find any legal, approved arginase inhibitors. (peaktestosterone.com)
  • However, arginase inhibitors are likely to be forthcoming due to an interesting application: protecting diabetics from heart and arterial disease. (peaktestosterone.com)
  • 5] Several lines of evidence point to this being a root cause issue for many of the debilitating effects of diabetes and arginase inhibitors look promising. (peaktestosterone.com)
  • However, at this point, I do not see any physicians using arginase inhibitors for treatment of erectile dysfunction. (peaktestosterone.com)
  • Small-molecule arginase inhibitors are currently described as promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of variety of diseases, including cancer. (secutor.info)
  • Arginase deficiency belongs to a class of genetic diseases called urea cycle disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Depletion of arginine due to elevated levels of arginase has been observed in renal cell carcinoma and acute myeloid leukemia patients. (cnbc.com)
  • Our results indicate that arginase expression can modulate NO synthesis in bovine venular EC and that basal levels of arginase I and II are limiting for endothelial syntheses of polyamines, proline, and glutamate and may have important implications for wound healing, angiogenesis, and cardiovascular function. (physiology.org)
  • Increased levels of arginase activity in blood have been associated with liver damage. (bioassaysys.com)
  • There are increased numbers of MDSCs in patients with SLE, and these cells produce elevated levels of arginase-1 compared with MDSCs from healthy controls. (sciencemag.org)
  • Levels of arginase activity have positive correlation with HbA1c levels in diabetic patients (R2=0.8 Pearson r=0.87). (alliedacademies.org)
  • The plasma levels of arginase, ODC, TGF-β and PGE2 were higher in DCL patients, than those from LCL patients or endemic control. (kuleuven.be)
  • MDSCs are recruited to sites of cancer-associated inflammation and express high levels of arginase-1 (4). (cstj.co.jp)
  • Myeloid suppressor cells (MSCs) producing high levels of arginase I block T cell function by depleting l -arginine in cancer, chronic infections, and trauma patients. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we report that high expression levels and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and low levels of arginase-1 (Arg 1) activity in the peritoneal macrophages of rats are responsible for their resistance against T. gondii infection, due to high nitric oxide and low polyamines within these cells. (salford.ac.uk)
  • high levels of arginase, myeloperoxidase, and elastase, all contained in neutrophils' granules, were found in the plasma of VL patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • Two separate isozymes of the enzyme arginase have been reported. (medscape.com)
  • Drs. Wenbo Zhang (from left), Ruth Caldwell and R. William Caldwell have shown that elevated levels of the enzyme arginase contribute to vascular eye damage in diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Elevated levels of the enzyme arginase contribute to vascular eye damage and Medical College of Georgia researchers say therapies to normalize its levels could halt progression of potentially blinding diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Inside the phagocyte, iNOS competes with the enzyme arginase-1 for a common substrate, the amino acid l -arginine. (asm.org)
  • We show here that the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans influences l -arginine availability for nitric oxide production by induction of the substrate-competing host enzyme arginase-1. (asm.org)
  • Botanical Drug Puerarin Attenuates 6-Hydroxydopamine(6-OHDA)-Induced Neurotoxicity via UpregulatingMitochondrial Enzyme Arginase-2. (bioassaysys.com)
  • It results from the absence of the enzyme arginase 1, which causes ammonia to build up in the body. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • It results from the absence of the enzyme arginase 1, which breaks down arginine to ornithine and urea, leading to episodic hyperammonemia. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • We have linked activation of the urea hydrolase enzyme arginase to the latter complications in models of DR. Both arginase and nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes utilize L-arginine as substrate. (openrepository.com)
  • Arginase deficiency is a rare inherited disorder characterized by complete or partial lack of the enzyme arginase. (medigoo.com)
  • This genetic disease is characterized by the absence of the enzyme, arginase. (webclearinghouse.net)
  • Hyperargininemia due to liver arginase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Molecular basis of hyperargininemia: structure-function consequences of mutations in human liver arginase. (medscape.com)
  • A simple fluorescent spot screening test has been developed for the identification of individuals with arginase deficiency (hyperargininemia). (nih.gov)
  • The screening assay has been used to identify successfully both heterozygous and homozygous arginase-deficient crabeater macaques (M. fascicularis) as well as three patients with hyperargininemia. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical biochemical and molecular spectrum of hyperargininemia due to arginase I deficiency. (docme.ru)
  • American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C (Seminars in Medical Genetics) 142C:113 - 120 (2006) A R T I C L E Clinical, Biochemical, and Molecular Spectrum of Hyperargininemia Due to Arginase I Deficiency FERNANDO SCAGLIA* AND BRENDAN LEE The urea cycle consists of six consecutive enzymatic reactions that convert waste nitrogen into urea. (docme.ru)
  • Hyperargininemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the arginase I enzyme. (docme.ru)
  • Hyperargininemia due to arginase deficiency is an inherited autosomal recessive disease. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Hyperargininemia due to arginase deficiency is a rare, inherited, urea cycle disorder. (who.int)
  • We report a case of arginase deficiency in a 5-year old boy presenting with mild hyperammonemia, hyperargininemia, and dibasic aminoaciduria. (who.int)
  • Additionally, 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexonic acid (ABH) is an L-arginine analogue that also creates a tetrahedral intermediate similar to that formed in the catalysis of the natural substrate, and is a potent inhibitor of human arginase I. Arginase II is coexpressed with nitric oxide (NO) synthase in smooth muscle tissue, such as the muscle in the genitals of both men and women. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since NO synthase and arginase compete for the same substrate (L-arginine), over-expressed arginase can affect NO synthase activity and NO-dependent smooth muscle relaxation by depleting the substrate pool of L-arginine that would otherwise be available to NO synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, supplementing the diet with additional L-arginine will decrease the amount of competition between arginase and NO synthase by providing extra substrate for each enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arginase is an enzyme that competes with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) for the use of the common substrate L-arginine. (genengnews.com)
  • Functions in L-arginine homeostasis in nonhepatic tissues characterized by the competition between nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and arginase for the available intracellular substrate arginine. (uniprot.org)
  • Comparisons of the LmARG structure with that of the archetypal arginase, human arginase I, reveal that all residues important for substrate binding and catalysis are strictly conserved. (rcsb.org)
  • Because arginase and NO synthase share l -arginine as their precursor substrate, arginase has been postulated to inhibit NO synthesis by competing with endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) for l -arginine. (ahajournals.org)
  • L-Homoarginine was not a substrate for liver arginase. (nih.gov)
  • In endothelial cells (ECs), l -arginine is the substrate for both NO synthase (NOS) and arginase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Arginase impairs endothelial function by competing with endothelial nitric oxide synthase for substrate L-arginine. (ahajournals.org)
  • Increased expression and activity of arginase, metabolizing the nitric oxide substrate l-arginine, may result in reduced production of nitric oxide and thereby endothelial dysfunction. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Blocking the C. albicans -induced arginase activity with the arginase-specific substrate inhibitor N ω-hydroxy-nor-arginine (nor-NOHA) or the chitinase inhibitor bisdionin F restored nitric oxide production and increased the efficiency of fungal killing. (asm.org)
  • Reduced NO arise from reduced production or increased elimination of NO. Arginase is an enzyme which metabolizes the substrate, L-arginine, which is used to produce NO. By competitive inhibition arginase may result in reduced NObioavailability. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Arginase in ECs also uses L-arginine as a substrate to produce urea and ornithine. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Arginase might be important in the regulation of NO since both arginase and NO synthase use L-arginine as a common substrate. (scopemed.org)
  • H. pylori arginase [EC 3.5.31, RocF] hydrolyzes arginine to ornithine and urea, the latter of which may serve as an endogenous substrate for the powerful H. pylori urease enzyme, to generate carbon dioxide and ammonia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to L-arginine cotyledon arginase showed substrate specificity towards agmatine and L-canavanine, whereas the liver arginase showed substrate specificity towards only L-canavanine. (ijbs.com)
  • The reason is simple: NO synthase and arginase compete for the same substrate (L-arginine) . (peaktestosterone.com)
  • The morbidity associated with arginase deficiency is high, but the rarity of the condition makes citing statistics impossible. (medscape.com)
  • Symptoms associated with arginase deficiency differ from those associated with other disorders of the urea cycle. (medigoo.com)
  • Instead, S. mansoni infection resulted in accumulation of high arginase-1-expressing macrophages in the lung, which formed type 2 granulomas and exacerbated inflammation in Mtb -infected mice. (jci.org)
  • 5 Furthermore, studies examining arginine metabolism in activated macrophages show that the majority of l -arginine is consumed for the production of urea rather than NO, such that when arginase is inhibited or the culture medium is supplemented with l -arginine, increased NO synthesis is observed. (ahajournals.org)
  • Arginase-1 (Arg-1) is a marker for alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) and is mainly induced by the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 through the common IL-4 receptor-alpha (Rα) subunit. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell separation studies showed that the increased arginase activity was limited to a specific subset of CD11b+, CD14−, CD15+ cells with a polymorphonuclear granulocyte morphology and markers, instead of macrophages or dendritic cells described in mouse models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We report here that C. albicans blocks nitric oxide production in human-monocyte-derived macrophages by induction of host arginase activity. (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate that blocking of host arginase-1 activity restored nitric oxide production and increased the killing potential of macrophages. (asm.org)
  • Inhibition of arginase or ODC abrogates L. amazonensis replication in infected human macrophages. (kuleuven.be)
  • Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of mouse primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) using Arginase-1 (D4E3M™) XP ® Rabbit mAb (green). (cstj.co.jp)
  • In infected macrophages L-arginine is catalysed by NOS2 or arginase, contributing to host defense or parasite killing, respectively. (pasteur.fr)
  • A balance between NOS2 and arginase activities is a crucial factor in the progression of the Leishmania infection inside macrophages. (pasteur.fr)
  • In response to T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines, resident macrophages induce arginase I inhibiting NO production from L-arginine, thereby promoting parasite proliferation. (pasteur.fr)
  • The hArgII mice had elevated tissue arginase activity except in liver and in resident peritoneal macrophages, confirming endothelial specificity of the transgene. (pitt.edu)
  • ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3608-0175 , Ayala, FJ and Lun, ZR 2012, 'Differences in iNOS and arginase expression and activity in the macrophages of rats are responsible for the resistance against T. gondii infection' , PLoS ONE, 7 (4) , e35834. (salford.ac.uk)
  • Determination of arginase activity in macrophages: a micromethod: I.M. Corraliza, et al. (adipogen.com)
  • Th1/Th2-regulated expression of arginase isoforms in murine macrophages and dendritic cells: M. Munder, et al. (adipogen.com)
  • M2 macrophages were stained with a Goat Plyclonal Anti- Arginase Antibody (Cat. (labshake.com)
  • Rabbit polyclonal Liver Arginase antibody. (abcam.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Arginase 1 Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-85267. (thermofisher.com)
  • Arginase 1 antibody (GTX113131) dilution: 1:500. (genetex.com)
  • Mouse tissue extract (50 µg) was separated by 12% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with Arginase 1 antibody (GTX113131) diluted at 1:10000. (genetex.com)
  • Arginase activity and parasite growth were decreased in infected cells pre-incubated with anti-MR antibody as compared with infected cells treated with control antibody. (ijbs.com)
  • Arginase deficiency is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. (nih.gov)
  • As an autosomal recessive trait, arginase deficiency equally affects both genders. (medscape.com)
  • Arginase deficiency (Arginininemia) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by hyperammonemia secondary to arginine accumulation. (statpearls.com)
  • Arginase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • Upregulated arginase activity, which competes with nitric oxide synthase (NOS), impairs nitric oxide production and has been implicated in various metabolic disorders. (mdpi.com)
  • As part of the fight, arginase increases to provide substrates for tissue repair and to dampen the actions of inducible nitric oxide synthase. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The complicating news is that nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells, which makes the nitric oxide that enables blood vessels to relax, also is competing with arginase for the L-arginine. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), caveolin-1, and arginase-2 were not changed by ANG II infusion. (diva-portal.org)
  • We hypothesized that the Src family tyrosine kinases (STKs) are involved in the upregulation of arginase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in response to inflammatory stimuli in pulmonary endothelial cells. (mysciencework.com)
  • The expression of cardiac arginase 1 (Arg-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the activity of associated signaling pathways was examined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Blockade of the arginase pathway prevented these alterations, suggesting a primary role of arginase in retinal vascular dysfunction and injury. (openrepository.com)
  • It is characterized by lowered activity of arginase in hepatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A proposed reason for the continuation of arginase function is suggested by increased activity of arginase II in the kidneys of subjects with arginase I deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the high activity of arginase enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine into ornithine and urea, the bioavailability of nitrogen oxide decreases. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, in patients with pulmonary TB, lung damage correlated with increased serum activity of arginase-1, which was elevated in TB patients coinfected with helminths. (jci.org)
  • Arginine dependence on the activity of Arginase I (human) (rec. (adipogen.com)
  • A deficiency, usually near complete absence, of activity of arginase, blocks the final step of the cycle. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • abstract = "Arginase is a widely known enzyme of the urea cycle that catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. (rug.nl)
  • There are several isoforms of mammalian arginase. (thermofisher.com)
  • At least two isoforms of mammalian arginase exist (types I and II) which differ in their tissue distribution, subcellular localization, immunologic crossreactivity and physiologic function. (genetex.com)
  • There are two distinct isoforms of mammalian arginase (arginase I and II), which are encoded by different genes and differ in molecular and immunological properties, tissue distribution, subcellular location, and regulation of expression ( 9 , 19 ). (physiology.org)
  • Because individuals with arginase deficiency may be asymptomatic unless they become sufficiently ill or physically stressed, siblings of children with arginase deficiency should be tested. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • Arginase I is a cytosolic enzyme abundantly expressed in the liver, 1 whereas mitochondrial arginase II is ubiquitously expressed in extrahepatic tissues, including the vasculature and the kidney. (ahajournals.org)
  • Arginase I is a cytosolic enzyme that is abundantly expressed in the liver and plays a central role in the urea cycle, whereas arginase II is a mitochondrial protein that is concentrated in the kidney. (ahajournals.org)
  • Upregulated arginase, a ureahydrolase enzyme with two isoforms (A1-cytosolic and A2-mitochondrial), is implicated in pathologies associated with obesity and diabetes. (mdpi.com)
  • Arginase I (a cytosolic enzyme) is highly expressed in the liver and to a much lesser extent in a few other cell types, whereas expression of arginase II (a mitochondrial enzyme) is widespread ( 20 , 25 ). (physiology.org)
  • Now, we show that the addition of arginine together with inhibition of intracellular arginase activity increased cytosolic nitric oxide and enhanced the rescue effect of ORKAMBI® on F508del-CFTR mediated chloride conductance at the cell surface of patient-derived bronchial and nasal epithelial cultures. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Arginase I is a cytosolic enzyme, mostly expressed in the liver as a pivotal component of the urea cycle, providing in addition L-ornithine for polyamine synthesis. (pasteur.fr)
  • Mammalian arginase is active as a trimer, but some bacterial arginases are hexameric. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike trypanosomatids, mammalian hosts have two arginases (arginase I and II), which have close structural and kinetic resemblances, but localize in different subcellular organelles, respond to different stimuli and have different immunological reactivity. (pasteur.fr)
  • The assay is based on the coversion of arginine to ornithine and urea by arginase present in 1/8 inch disc of dried blood on filter paper. (nih.gov)
  • Arginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. (genetex.com)
  • Arginase catalyzes the conversion of arginine to ornithine and urea, completing the last step in the urea cycle. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Arginase catalyzes the conversion of arginine to ornithine and urea, important for protection against NH 3 toxicity and for cell growth and repair. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Long-term treatment of arginase deficiency is based on a low-protein diet and, possibly, administration of oral sodium benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate. (medscape.com)
  • Full length human Arginase 1 Recombinant protein. (thermofisher.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Arginase 1. (genetex.com)
  • Methods and Results- Balloon injury of rat carotid arteries resulted in a sustained increase in arginase activity in the vessel wall and the induction of arginase I protein in both the media and neointima of injured vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Substantial arginase I protein and arginase activity was also detected in rat cultured aortic VSMCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, treatment of VSMCs with BEC or L-OHNA, or knockdown of arginase I protein, arrested cells in the G 0 /G 1 phase of the cell cycle and induced the expression of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, p21. (ahajournals.org)
  • The degree of variation in arginase was explored at the DNA sequence, enzyme activity and protein expression levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The human arginase I gene, which maps to chromosome 6q23, encodes a 322 amino acid protein. (biossusa.com)
  • Arginase I exists as a homotrimeric protein and contains a binuclear manganese cluster. (biossusa.com)
  • The reaction normally mediated by arginase is the terminal step in the urea cycle, which liberates urea with regeneration of ornithine (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Arginase catalyzes the fifth and final step in the urea cycle, a series of biochemical reactions in mammals during which the body disposes of harmful ammonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells express both arginase I and II, although the distribution appears vessel and species dependent. (ahajournals.org)
  • In various models of hypertension, increased arginase expression or activity is associated with increased vascular proliferation 10 and decreased NO bioavailability, 11-13 which results in reduced vascular compliance and heightened vascular reactivity, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • 16 Although a comparison of vascular responses between arginase I and arginase II KOs was desirable, both the arginase I and double arginase I and II KO mice develop a severe form of hyperammonemia and die within 10 to 14 days after birth. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because arginase has recently been shown to modulate NO-mediated dilation of coronary arterioles by reducing l -arginine availability, we hypothesized that upregulation of vascular arginase in hypertension contributes to decreased NO-mediated vasodilation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 Furthermore, the activity and expression of arginase-I can be increased after vascular insult (eg, ischemia-reperfusion) and subsequently can lead to the impairment of NO-mediated vasodilation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Emerging studies indicate that arginase plays an important role in regulating vascular cell function. (ahajournals.org)
  • The researchers suspect an elevated arginase level is a red flag of early vascular damage in the eyes as well as the heart, kidneys and other organs. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Inside the diabetic eye, high glucose levels trigger inflammation and, in an apparent effort to fight it, arginase actually ends up contributing to inflammation and vascular disease as well. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Recently arginase upregulation has been shown to play a role in vascular dysfunction in diabetes by limiting Larginine bioavailability to eNOS and thus limiting NO production. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Arginase can be regarded as a novel marker for the vascular complications of diabetes. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Drugs targeting arginase or its signaling pathway may show benefits in delaying or preventing these vascular complications of the disease. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Excessive arginase activity has been linked to cardiovascular diseases, also contribute to vascular structural problems and neural toxicity. (bioassaysys.com)
  • A 2016 study suggests an adverse effect of arginase-1 deficiency on level 5 cortical motor neurons, as well as diminished synaptic transmission in a neonatal mouse model, recoverable by gene therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Rescue of the Functional Alterations of Motor Cortical Circuits in Arginase Deficiency by Neonatal Gene Therapy. (medscape.com)
  • To understand the roles of arginase isoforms in EC arginine metabolism, bovine coronary venular EC were stably transfected with the Escherichia coli lacZ gene (lacZ-EC, control), rat arginase I cDNA (AI-EC), or mouse arginase II cDNA (AII-EC). (physiology.org)
  • and other trypanosomatids a single gene encoding arginase has been described. (pasteur.fr)
  • Arginase deficiency is passed down by a child's parents when they are both carriers of an abnormal gene for the arginase 1 enzyme. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • Methodology/Principal Findings: Transgenic mice on a C57BL/6 background with endothelial-specific overexpression of human arginase II (hArgII) gene under the control of the Tie2 promoter were produced. (pitt.edu)
  • however, inducible NO synthase-mediated S -nitrosylation of arginase can decrease the Michaelis constant of arginase to a level where it can compete with eNOS. (ahajournals.org)
  • The levels of amino acids reflecting arginase relative activity compared to NO synthase were significantly higher in subjects with diabetes mellitus, suggesting a higher arginase activity in this group. (avhandlingar.se)
  • N-hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA), an intermediate of NO biosynthesis, is a moderate inhibitor of arginase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper is about a way of correction of endothelial dysfunction with the inhibitor of arginase: L-norvaline. (hindawi.com)
  • CB-280 is a potent and selective oral inhibitor of arginase. (calithera.com)
  • The HC diet, which promotes atherogenesis, also resulted in increased arginase activity and expression of the type II isozyme of arginase in multiple tissues of apoE(-/-) mice only. (cdc.gov)
  • These were associated with increased arginase activity and expression, decreased bioavailable nitric oxide (NO), increased superoxide formation and increased leukostasis. (openrepository.com)
  • 18-20 Interestingly, we previously reported that VSMCs possess arginase activity and postulated a physiological role for arginase in augmenting cell growth by optimizing polyamine synthesis in these cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • For example, because of its colocalization with ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in the cytosol, arginase I may preferentially direct ornithine to polyamine synthesis, whereas arginase II may preferentially direct ornithine to proline and glutamate production due to the colocalization of arginase II and ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) in mitochondria (Fig. 1 ). (physiology.org)
  • In situ transcriptomic analyses reinforced the association between arginase expression and enzymes involved in prostaglandin and polyamine synthesis. (kuleuven.be)
  • Elevated arginase limits L-arginine available for eNOS, resulting in both a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) production (reducing signaling critical for normal function) as well as eNOS uncoupling, leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (genengnews.com)
  • 8 Lastly, it has been shown recently that arginase II is found in the mitochondria where is regulates eNOS. (ahajournals.org)
  • 13 Specifically, arginase appears to serve as an endogenous competitor of eNOS for l -arginine and to play a counteracting role in NO-mediated dilation in normal vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Arginase in the vasculature can compete with eNOS for L-arginine and has been implicated in atherosclerosis. (pitt.edu)
  • Once activated, arginase competes with eNOS and reacts with L-arginine, resulting in reduced NO availability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some aminoacids metabolically and structurally unrelated with arginine catabolic compounds induce arginase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, the mechanisms that induce arginase I in MSCs in cancer are unknown. (rupress.org)
  • In situ characterization of Helicobacter pylori arginase. (nih.gov)
  • The properties of Helicobacter pylori arginase activity in metabolically competent cells and lysates were investigated with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the nitrogen metabolism of the bacterium. (nih.gov)
  • Amino acid sequence analyses revealed important differences between the deduced structures of H. pylori arginase and those of other organisms. (nih.gov)
  • This finding was consistent with experimental data which showed that H. pylori arginase has unique properties. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that H. pylori arginase modulates multiple host signaling and metabolic pathways of infected gastric epithelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • H. pylori arginase in gastric epithelial cell response is unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These studies demonstrated that H. pylori arginase exhibits extensive genotypic and phenotypic variation which may be used to understand mechanisms of microheterogeneity in H. pylori . (biomedcentral.com)
  • [ 1 ] Type I is found in the liver and contributes the vast majority of hepatic arginase activity, whereas type II is inducible and found in extrahepatic tissues. (medscape.com)
  • The Michaelis-Menten constant for cotyledon arginase and hepatic arginase were found to be 42 mM and 2 mM respectively. (ijbs.com)
  • Whereas previous studies have focused primarily on effects of high cholesterol diets on arginase expression and arginine metabolism in specific blood vessels, there is no information regarding the impact of lipid diets on arginase activity or arginine bioavailability at a systemic level. (cdc.gov)
  • Arginase, a key hepatic urea cycle enzyme, hydrolyzes l -arginine to urea and l -ornithine and is responsible for the disposal of excess nitrogen resulting from amino acid and nucleotide metabolism. (ahajournals.org)
  • Arginase is involved in the nitric oxide (NO) pathway and immune cell arginine metabolism. (adipogen.com)
  • Arginase II Plays a Central Role in the Sexual Dimorphism of Arginine Metabolism in C57BL/6 Mice. (wroc.pl)
  • The purified proteins were characterized as to their native molecular weight, subunit structure, amino acid composition, hexose content, behavior on disc gel electrophoresis, and reaction with polyclonal antibodies raised against a liver arginase antigen. (unh.edu)
  • Several distinct antigenic determinants were recognized by anti-liver arginase antibodies. (unh.edu)
  • Bovine liver arginase antibodies were also observed to cross-react with the arginase enzyme in a mouse liver homogenate. (unh.edu)
  • The second isozyme, Arginase II, has been implicated in the regulation of intracellular arginine/ornithine levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6 In endothelial cells, inhibition of arginase stimulates NO production, 7 whereas overexpression of arginase I or II decreases intracellular l -arginine concentrations and suppresses NO synthesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, we postulate that during T. cruzi infection, Cz may contact with MR, increasing MR recycling which leads to arginase activity up-regulation and intracellular parasite growth. (ijbs.com)
  • Specifically, arginase converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and urea. (wikipedia.org)
  • arginase is responsible for the hydrolysis of arginine into ornithine and urea, thus playing an essential role in hepatic and intestinal urea synthesis from ammonia as well as providing ornithine for the synthesis of polyamines, proline, and glutamate ( 13 , 29 , 36 ). (physiology.org)
  • Arginase-1 catalyzes the final step of the urea cycle converting L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea (5). (cstj.co.jp)
  • Arginase, commonly found in liver, erythrocytes, and salivary glands, catalyzes the fifth and last reaction of the urea cycle, hydrolyzing L-arginine into ornithine and urea. (statpearls.com)
  • Arginase (RocF) hydrolyzes L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea, and urease hydrolyzes urea to carbon dioxide and ammonium, which can neutralize acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • L-Arginine is enzymatically hydrolyzed by arginase producing L-ornithine and urea. (pasteur.fr)
  • BioAssay Systems arginase assay kit provides a sensitive and convenient method for arginase activity determination. (bioassaysys.com)
  • These results suggest that NO-mediated dilation of coronary arterioles is inhibited in hypertension by an increase in arginase activity in EC, which limits l -arginine availability to NOS for NO production. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cell studies also agreed with these findings, as high glucose (25 mmol/L, 72 h) treatment to ECs resulted in a 66% increase in arginase activity. (alliedacademies.org)
  • This increase in arginase activity was concomitant with a 27% drop in NO produced by EC. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Furthermore, experimental research has demonstrated beneficial effects of arginase inhibition. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Inhibition of arginase activity by N ω -hydroxy-nor- l -arginine or incubation with l -arginine partially restored NO release and dilation to adenosine in HT vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • We hypothesized that inhibition of arginase activity improves endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In some affected individuals, signs and symptoms of arginase deficiency may be less severe, and may not appear until later in life. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The accumulation of ammonia and arginine are believed to cause the neurological problems and other signs and symptoms of arginase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are the symptoms of arginase deficiency? (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • The incidence of arginase deficiency cannot be cited because of the absence of any population screening data. (medscape.com)
  • The incidence of Arginase deficiency is 1:950,000. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • More information about many topics relevant to children with arginase deficiency and many other chronic conditions and their families can be found in the left menu. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • Infants and young children with arginase deficiency usually seem normal until age 1-4 when they start to show muscle tightness and developmental delay. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • There are no published guidelines for care of children with arginase deficiency. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • Children with arginase deficiency, whether diagnosed presymptomatically or after disabilities are present, should be considered to have a chronic condition. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • Although most children with arginase deficiency will have an indolent course, there have been case reports of severe presentations in infancy with acute hyperammonemia as in other urea cycle disorders. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • The severe hyperammonemia observed in other urea cycle defects is rarely observed in patients with arginase deficiency for at least 2 identifiable reasons. (medscape.com)
  • The distinct tendency to develop spastic diplegia in patients with arginase deficiency, as compared with patients with other urea cycle disorders, suggests a specific pathogenic mechanism at the CNS level, apart from the generalized toxicity of hyperammonemia. (medscape.com)
  • Although urea cycle disorders are included in newborn screening panels in the U.S. and many other countries, it is not yet clear how easily patients with arginase deficiency can be diagnosed with this methodology. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • This product has been assayed against 1.0 microg of Arginase [Bovine Liver] in a standard sandwich ELISA using Peroxidase conjugated Affinity Purified anti-Rabbit IgG [H&L] (Goat) and (ABTS (2,2? (genetex.com)
  • Assay by immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc against anti-Rabbit Serum as well as purified and partially purified Arginase [Bovine Liver]. (genetex.com)
  • When analyzed by disc gel electrophoresis, a bovine liver or brain arginase enzyme will appear as a diffuse band. (unh.edu)
  • For example, children with spastic diplegic CP may look the same on neurological examination, but may have different etiologic antecedents, including brain injury associated with prematurity, brain malformation, specific genetic disease such as arginase deficiency , or HIV/AIDS. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pharmacological blockade or genetic deficiency of arginase-2 conferred kidney protection in Ins2(Akita) mice or STZ-induced diabetic renal injury. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of COX-2, but not COX-1, blocked arginase I induction in vitro and in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Arginase upregulation is associated with aging and cardiovascular diseases. (ahajournals.org)
  • Together, the data demonstrate a central role of STK in the upregulation of both arginase II and iNOS in bPAEC in response to L/T treatment. (mysciencework.com)
  • Although schistosomiasis is normally treated successfully with praziquantel, presently believed to focus on schistosomal voltage-gated Ca2+ stations,8 the constant risk of praziquantel-resistant schistosomes portends an immediate need for substitute drug goals.9?12 The binuclear manganese metalloenzyme arginase may comprise just this alternative. (immune-source.com)
  • Arginase deficiency is an inherited disorder that causes the amino acid arginine (a building block of proteins) and ammonia to accumulate gradually in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 2 Together with the production of urea, arginase is also responsible for the biosynthesis of polyamines and the amino acids ornithine, proline, and glutamate. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study examined whether circulating amino acid metabolite ratios are associated with arginase and NOS activities and whether arginine bioavailability is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). (mdpi.com)
  • This study demonstrated that altered ratios of circulating amino acid metabolites indicates increased arginase activity and decreased arginine bioavailability, both of which can be potential markers for MetS risk. (mdpi.com)
  • Moon J, Kim OY, Jo G, Shin M-J. Alterations in Circulating Amino Acid Metabolite Ratio Associated with Arginase Activity Are Potential Indicators of Metabolic Syndrome: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. (mdpi.com)
  • The crux of the problem seems to be too much competition for L-arginine, an amino acid arginase requires to take any action - good or bad, says Dr. William Caldwell. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Amino acid S232, which was I232 in the arginase-negative clinical strain A2, was critical for arginase activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The activity of guanidino compounds as alternate substrates for Vigna catjang cotyledon and buffalo liver arginase is critically dependent on the length of the amino acid side chain and the number of carbon atoms. (ijbs.com)
  • In higher plants urea and ornithine formed as products of arginase reaction are used in the assimilation of nitrogen into amino acids and the synthesis of polyamines through urease and ornithine decarboxylase respectively [ 8 , 9 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • In addition, arginase II contains a putative amino-terminal mitochondrial localization sequence. (biossusa.com)
  • Increased catabolism of arginine by arginase is increasingly viewed as an important pathophysiological factor in cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis induced by high cholesterol diets. (cdc.gov)
  • These results raise the possibility that systemic changes in arginase activity and global arginine bioavailability may be contributing factors in the initiation and/or progression of cardiovascular disease. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study we report on the cardiovascular phenotype of the arginase II knockout (KO) mouse. (ahajournals.org)
  • The relative contribution of either arginase I or II to whole body cardiovascular function remains unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • Upregulated arginase expression is associated with several pathological processes that can range from cardiovascular, immune-mediated, and tumorigenic conditions to neurodegenerative disorders. (rug.nl)
  • Data related to arginase and NOS activities were collected from non-diabetic Koreans without cardiovascular disease ( n = 1998) in the Ansan-Ansung cohorts (2005-2006). (mdpi.com)
  • Their work, published in the August issue of The American Journal of Pathology , is the first to make the connection between eye disease and arginase, an enzyme known to be a player in cardiovascular disease, according to researchers at MCG and Charlie Norwood Veterans Affairs Medical Center. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the potential cardiovascular therapeutic effects of a long-term treatment with an arginase inhibitor in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with fully developed hypertension. (epfl.ch)
  • However, the functional significance of arginase in regulation of endothelial dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease is unknown. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Conclusion: We conclude that overexpression of arginase II in the endothelium is detrimental to the cardiovascular system. (pitt.edu)
  • Arginase, an important enzyme in the urea cycle, has been reported to be involved in many cardiovascular disorders such as PH, atherosclerosis, MI, and congestive heart failure [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human Arginase 1 is a new biomarker for cardiovascular diseases. (aviscerabioscience.net)
  • Diabetics simply do not respond to normal cardiovascular interventions and scientist recently found out why: diabetics have elevated arginase levels. (peaktestosterone.com)
  • Arginase activities and global arginine bioavailability in wild-type and ApoE-deficient mice: responses to high fat and high cholesterol diets. (cdc.gov)
  • We, therefore, evaluated the effects of high fat (HF) and high fat-high cholesterol (HC) diets on arginase activity in plasma and tissues and on global arginine bioavailability (defined as the ratio of plasma arginine to ornithine + citrulline) in apoE(-/-) and wild-type C57BL/6J mice. (cdc.gov)
  • Although blood pressure (BP) is primarily regulated by the tone of resistance vessels, increased arginase and decreased NO bioavailability are found in both conduit and resistance vessels in hypertensive animals. (ahajournals.org)
  • These metabolite ratios and arginase bioavailability were also significantly correlated with MetS risk-related parameters, which remained significant after adjusting for covariates. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, logistic regression analysis revealed that high ratios of circulating metabolites and low arginine bioavailability, which indicated increased arginase activity, were significantly associated with a high MetS risk. (mdpi.com)
  • Researchers believe that buildup of arginine triggers increased expression of arginase II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophage-specific expression of Arginase-1 is commonly believed to promote inflammation, fibrosis, and wound healing by enhancing L-proline, polyamine, and Th2 cytokine production. (plos.org)
  • Because this arginase inhibition resulted in a decreased susceptibility to experimental Chagas disease our study supports in summary the conclusion that IL-13/IL-4Rα-driven Arg-1 expression contributes to the permissiveness of the host to T. cruzi infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry showed that arginase expression was increased but NOS expression was decreased in arteriolar ECs of HT vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • The inability of arginase blockade or l -arginine supplementation to completely restore vasodilation may be related to downregulation of endothelial NOS expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have recently documented the constitutive expression of arginase-I in porcine coronary arterioles and demonstrated its functional role in modulating coronary microvascular tone under physiological 12 and pathophysiological conditions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, we show arginase-I expression and activity in hESCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, we demonstrate that arginase I expression is not limited to ESCs in culture, but can also be detected in the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm of preimplantation mouse embryos and hESC-derived trophectoderm cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • High arginase II expression correlates with poor survival for neuroblastoma patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The expression of arginase was determined in the internal mammary artery of patients undergoing bypass surgery. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Suppressor myeloid cells with high arginase activity, recently described in mice with cancer, deplete arginine from the microenvironment profoundly inhibiting T cell proliferation, cytokine production, and the expression of T cell receptor CD3ζ chain ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cytoplasmic extracts of PBMC and purified subpopulations from 118 patients were tested for arginase expression by Western blot and arginase activity by conversion of l -arginine to l -ornithine (nanomoles of ornithine per million cells per hour), described elsewhere ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Western blots and enzymatic assays confirmed high-level expression of arginase I in the cytosol of AI-EC and of arginase II in mitochondria of AII-EC. (physiology.org)
  • Several risk factors for atherosclerosis such as diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia are known to upregulate arginase expression and activity. (avhandlingar.se)
  • To determine 1) whether renal arginase activity or expression is increased in diabetes and 2) whether arginase plays a role in development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, kidney arginase-2 expression increased in Ins2(Akita) mice compared with control. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, arginase-1 expression was undetectable in kidneys under normal or diabetes conditions. (nih.gov)
  • These findings indicate that arginase-2 plays a major role in induction of diabetic renal injury and that blocking arginase-2 activity or expression could be a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of DN. (nih.gov)
  • AT(1) receptor activation regulates the mRNA expression of CAT1, CAT2, arginase-1, and DDAH2 in preglomerular vessels from angiotensin II hypertensive rats. (diva-portal.org)
  • In conclusion, CAT1, CAT2, DDAH2, and arginase-1 expression in renal resistance vessels is regulated through the AT(1) receptor. (diva-portal.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry confirmed that arginase I, ODC and cyclooxygenase2 expression was higher in DCL than in LCL lesions. (kuleuven.be)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that the bacterial arginase, RocF, is involved in inhibiting T cell proliferation and CD3ζ expression, suggesting that arginase could be involved in a more general dampening of the immune response, perhaps by down-regulation of certain pro-inflammatory mediators. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arginase I expression was independent of T cell-produced cytokines. (rupress.org)
  • Instead, tumor-derived soluble factors resistant to proteases induced and maintained arginase I expression in MSCs. (rupress.org)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of endothelial-specific elevation of arginase II expression on endothelial function and the development of atherosclerosis. (pitt.edu)
  • Recently studies have shown that increased stimulation of arginase expression in animal systems leads to production of polyamines that promote tumor cell proliferation [ 2 ] and wound healing [ 3 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Arginase II is expressed in non-hepatic tissues, with the highest levels of expression in the kidneys, but, unlike arginase I, is not expressed in liver. (biossusa.com)
  • Melanoma-associated fibroblasts impair CD8+ T cell function and modify expression of immune checkpoint regulators via increased arginase activity. (wroc.pl)
  • Arginase promotes endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in obese rats. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Arginase deficiency is the most uncommon urea cycle disorder. (statpearls.com)
  • The liver arginase showed a mol.wt. (nih.gov)
  • The kinetic properties determined for the purified liver arginase showed an optimum pH of 9.3 and an optimal MnCl2 concentration of 2mM. (nih.gov)
  • The kinetic properties determined for the purified cotyledon and liver arginase showed an optimum pH of 10.0 and pH 9.2 respectively. (ijbs.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether Recombinant Human Arginase 1 (rhArg1)is safe and effective in the treatment of patients with Relapsed or Refractory Leukemia or Lymphoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A 4-fold increase in renal type II arginase has been demonstrated in an affected patient. (medscape.com)
  • The goal of this study was to determine whether myeloid suppressor cells producing high arginase existed in renal cell carcinoma patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 123 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, prior to treatment, were found to have a significantly increased arginase activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Arginase-2 mediates diabetic renal injury. (nih.gov)
  • The increase in kidney arginase activity was associated with a reduction in renal medullary blood flow in wild-type mice after 6 weeks of STZ-induced diabetes, an effect significantly attenuated in diabetic Arg2(-/-) mice. (nih.gov)