Arenaviruses, New World: One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.Arenaviruses, Old World: One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the Old World complex. It includes LASSA VIRUS and LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS, although the latter has worldwide distribution now.Arenavirus: The only genus in the family ARENAVIRIDAE. It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution.Arenaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ARENAVIRIDAE.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Arenaviridae: A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.Cercopithecidae: The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral: A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.Hemorrhagic Fever, American: Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).Junin virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.Pichinde virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, one of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing a fatal infection in the cricetine rodent Oryzomys albigularis. Asymptomatic laboratory infection in humans has been reported.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Virus Physiological Processes: Biological activities of viruses and their interactions with the cells they infect.Platyrrhini: An infraorder of New World monkeys, comprised of the families AOTIDAE; ATELIDAE; CEBIDAE; and PITHECIIDAE. They are found exclusively in the Americas.Cebidae: A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI, consisting of nine subfamilies: ALOUATTINAE; AOTINAE; Atelinae; Callicebinae; CALLIMICONINAE; CALLITRICHINAE; CEBINAE; Pithecinae; and SAIMIRINAE. They inhabit the forests of South and Central America, comprising the largest family of South American monkeys.Dystroglycans: Dystrophin-associated proteins that play role in the formation of a transmembrane link between laminin-2 and DYSTROPHIN. Both the alpha and the beta subtypes of dystroglycan originate via POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of a single precursor protein.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.PrimatesLassa Fever: An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.Filoviridae: A family of RNA viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, containing filamentous virions. Although they resemble RHABDOVIRIDAE in possessing helical nucleocapsids, Filoviridae differ in the length and degree of branching in their virions. There are two genera: EBOLAVIRUS and MARBURGVIRUS.Transferrins: A group of iron-binding proteins that tightly bind two ferrate ions along with two carbonate ions. They are found in the bodily fluids of vertebrates where they act as transport and storage molecules for iron.Catarrhini: An infraorder of PRIMATES comprised of the families CERCOPITHECIDAE (old world monkeys); HYLOBATIDAE (siamangs and GIBBONS); and HOMINIDAE (great apes and HUMANS). With the exception of humans, they all live exclusively in Africa and Asia.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Boidae: A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Pongo pygmaeus: A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Callithrix: A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.Gorilla gorilla: This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.Lemur: A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.Strepsirhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Saimiri: A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Theropithecus: A genus of Old World monkeys of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, that inhabits the mountainous regions of Ethiopia. The genus consists of only one species, Theropithecus gelada.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.North AmericaDatura: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain TROPANES. The common name of trumpet flower is also sometimes used for GELSEMIUM.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Electron Microscope Tomography: A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Proprotein Convertases: Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Alouatta: A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Virus Release: Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.Peromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Primate Diseases: Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Monkey Diseases: Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Hylobates: A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).Cyclophilin A: A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Lymphocryptovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans and new world primates. The type species human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) is better known as the Epstein-Barr virus.Erythrocebus patas: A species of the genus ERYTHROCEBUS, subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE. It inhabits the flat open arid country of Africa. It is also known as the patas monkey or the red monkey.Mutant Chimeric Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have mutated by the fusing of protein coding regions of more than one gene. Such hybrid proteins are responsible for some instances of ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE and defective biological processes such as NEOPLASMS.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Colobus: A genus of Old World monkeys, subfamily COLOBINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, that inhabits the forests of Africa. It consists of eight species: C. angolensis (Angolan colobus), C. badius or C. rufomitratus (Red or Bay colobus), C. guereza (Guereza or Eastern black-and-white colobus), C. kirkii (Kirk's colobus), C. polykomos (King colobus or Western black-and-white colobus), C. satanas (Black colobus), and C. verus (Olive colobus). Some authors recognize Procolobus as a separate genus and then the olive colobus is recognized as the species P. verus.Galago: A genus of the family Lorisidae having four species which inhabit the forests and bush regions of Africa south of the Sahara and some nearby islands. The four species are G. alleni, G. crassicaudatus, G. demidovii, and G. senegalensis. There is another genus, Euoticus, containing two species which some authors have included in the Galago genus.Mandrillus: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, comprising two species: the drill (M. leucophaeus) and the mandrill (M. sphinx). They are usually found in thick rainforest and have a gentle disposition despite their ferocious reputation. Some authors consider Mandrillus a subgenus of PAPIO.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.AfricaViral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Saguinus: A genus in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE consisting of 12 species and found in Panama as well as South America. Species seen most frequently in the literature are S. oedipus (cotton-top marmoset), S. nigricollis, and S. fusicollis.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis: A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Cebus: A genus of the family CEBIDAE, subfamily CEBINAE, consisting of four species which are divided into two groups, the tufted and untufted. C. apella has tufts of hair over the eyes and sides of the head. The remaining species are without tufts - C. capucinus, C. nigrivultatus, and C. albifrons. Cebus inhabits the forests of Central and South America.Ape Diseases: Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Endogenous Retroviruses: Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.Cercopithecus: A genus of Old World monkeys found in Africa although some species have been introduced into the West Indies. This genus is composed of at least twenty species: C. AETHIOPS, C. ascanius, C. campbelli, C. cephus, C. denti, C. diana, C. dryas, C. erythrogaster, C. erythrotis, C. hamlyni, C. lhoesti, C. mitis, C. mona, C. neglectus, C. nictitans, C. petaurista, C. pogonias, C. preussi, C. salongo, and C. wolfi.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Aotidae: A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).Phlebotomus: A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Begomovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.Macaca nemestrina: A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Hantaan virus: The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Corchorus: A plant genus of the family TILIACEAE. Members contain cycloartane saponins and CARDENOLIDES.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.EuropeWorld War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Papio hamadryas: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE, which has a well-studied trilevel social structure consisting of troops, bands, and clans.Aotus trivirgatus: A species in the family AOTIDAE, inhabiting the forested regions of Central and South America (from Panama to the Amazon). Vocalizations occur primarily at night when they are active, thus they are also known as Northern night monkeys.Leishmania major: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.

New World arenavirus clade C, but not clade A and B viruses, utilizes alpha-dystroglycan as its major receptor. (1/23)

Alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG) has been identified as a major receptor for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa virus, two Old World arenaviruses. The situation with New World arenaviruses is less clear: previous studies demonstrated that Oliveros virus also exhibited high-affinity binding to alpha-DG but that Guanarito virus did not. To extend these initial studies, several additional Old and New World arenaviruses were screened for entry into mouse embryonic stem cells possessing or lacking alpha-DG. In addition, representative viruses were further analyzed for direct binding to alpha-DG by means of a virus overlay protein blot assay technique. These studies indicate that Old World arenaviruses use alpha-DG as a major receptor, whereas, of the New World arenaviruses, only clade C viruses (i.e., Oliveros and Latino viruses) use alpha-DG as a major receptor. New World clade A and B arenaviruses, which include the highly pathogenic Machupo, Guanarito, Junin, and Sabia viruses, appear to use a different receptor or coreceptor for binding. Previous studies with LCMV have suggested the need for a small aliphatic amino acid at LCMV GP1 glycoprotein amino acid position 260 to allow high-affinity binding to alpha-DG. As reported herein, this requirement appears to be broadly applicable to the arenaviruses as determined by more extensive analysis of alpha-DG receptor usage and GP1 sequences of Old and New World arenaviruses. In addition, GP1 amino acid position 259 also appears to be important, since all arenaviruses showing high-affinity alpha-DG binding possess a bulky aromatic amino acid (tyrosine or phenylalanine) at this position.  (+info)

Human macrophages, but not dendritic cells, are activated and produce alpha/beta interferons in response to Mopeia virus infection. (2/23)

Lassa virus (LV) and Mopeia virus (MV) are closely related members of the Arenavirus genus, sharing 75% amino acid sequence identity. However, LV causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, whereas MV cannot induce disease. We have previously shown that antigen-presenting cells (APC)-macrophages (MP) and dendritic cells (DC)-sustain high replication rates of LV but are not activated, suggesting that they play a role in the immunosuppression observed in severe cases of Lassa fever. Here, we infected human APC with MV and analyzed the cellular responses induced. MV infection was productive in MP and even more so in DC. Apoptosis was not induced in either cell type. Moreover, unlike DC, MP were early and strongly activated in response to MV, as shown by the increased surface expression of CD86, CD80, CD54, CD40, and HLA-abc and by the production of mRNA encoding alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), IFN-beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6. In addition, MV-infected MP produced less of the virus than DC, which was related to the fact that these cells secreted IFN-alpha. Thus, the strong activation of MP is probably a major event in the control of MV infection and may be involved in the induction of an adaptive immune response in infected hosts. These results may explain the difference in pathogenicity between LV and MV.  (+info)

Phylogeny and evolution of old world arenaviruses. (3/23)

The intention of this study was to investigate the genomics, phylogeny and evolution of the Old World arenaviruses based on sequence data representing the four viral genes. To achieve this aim, we sequenced the complete S and L RNA segments of Ippy virus (IPPYV), Mobala virus (MOBV) and Mopeia virus (MOPV). Full-length sequences of the NP, GPC, Z and L genes were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to compare resulting tree topologies. Each of the five Old World arenavirus species (namely Lassa virus [LASV], IPPYV, MOBV, MOPV and Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV]) are monophyletic; seven selected strains of LASV showed a similar topology regardless of the gene under analysis; IPPYV rooted the three other African arenaviruses; the four African arenaviruses are rooted by the ubiquitous LCMV; and the tree topologies of the three African arenaviruses other than LASV are identical regardless of the gene used for analysis. No evidence for significant evolutionary events such as intra- or intersegmental recombination was obtained.  (+info)

Old World and clade C New World arenaviruses mimic the molecular mechanism of receptor recognition used by alpha-dystroglycan's host-derived ligands. (4/23)

alpha-Dystroglycan (DG) is an important cellular receptor for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and also serves as the receptor for Old World arenaviruses Lassa fever virus (LFV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and clade C New World arenaviruses. In the host cell, alpha-DG is subject to a remarkably complex pattern of O glycosylation that is crucial for its interactions with ECM proteins. Two of these unusual sugar modifications, protein O mannosylation and glycan modifications involving the putative glycosyltransferase LARGE, have recently been implicated in arenavirus binding. Considering the complexity of alpha-DG O glycosylation, our present study was aimed at the identification of the specific O-linked glycans on alpha-DG that are recognized by arenaviruses. As previously shown for LCMV, we found that protein O mannosylation of alpha-DG is crucial for the binding of arenaviruses of distinct phylogenetic origins, including LFV, Mobala virus, and clade C New World arenaviruses. In contrast to the highly conserved requirement for O mannosylation, more generic O glycans present on alpha-DG are dispensable for arenavirus binding. Despite the critical role of O-mannosyl glycans for arenavirus binding under normal conditions, the overexpression of LARGE in cells deficient in O mannosylation resulted in highly glycosylated alpha-DG that was functional as a receptor for arenaviruses. Thus, modifications by LARGE but not O-mannosyl glycans themselves are most likely the crucial structures recognized by arenaviruses. Together, the data demonstrate that arenaviruses recognize the same highly conserved O-glycan structures on alpha-DG involved in ECM protein binding, indicating a strikingly similar mechanism of receptor recognition by pathogen- and host-derived ligands.  (+info)

Genetic identification of Kodoko virus, a novel arenavirus of the African pigmy mouse (Mus Nannomys minutoides) in West Africa. (5/23)

Genetic evidence of a novel arenavirus species related to but distinct from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was obtained from a rodent belonging to an endemic African subgenus of Mus (Nannomys). The phylogenetic position among Old World arenaviruses of this new arenavirus, named Kodoko virus, was reconstructed based on L and NP genes sequences. The finding of an Old World arenavirus related to LCMV outside the known geographical range of LCMV in a novel rodent species reveals new insights about the evolutionary history of arenaviruses.  (+info)

Old World arenavirus infection interferes with the expression of functional alpha-dystroglycan in the host cell. (6/23)

alpha-Dystroglycan (alpha-DG) is an important cellular receptor for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins as well as the Old World arenaviruses lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and the human pathogenic Lassa fever virus (LFV). Specific O-glycosylation of alpha-DG is critical for its function as receptor for ECM proteins and arenaviruses. Here, we investigated the impact of arenavirus infection on alpha-DG expression. Infection with an immunosuppressive LCMV isolate caused a marked reduction in expression of functional alpha-DG without affecting biosynthesis of DG core protein or global cell surface glycoprotein expression. The effect was caused by the viral glycoprotein (GP), and it critically depended on alpha-DG binding affinity and GP maturation. An equivalent effect was observed with LFVGP. Viral GP was found to associate with a complex between DG and the glycosyltransferase LARGE in the Golgi. Overexpression of LARGE restored functional alpha-DG expression in infected cells. We provide evidence that virus-induced down-modulation of functional alpha-DG perturbs DG-mediated assembly of laminin at the cell surface, affecting normal cell-matrix interactions.  (+info)

Basolateral entry and release of New and Old World arenaviruses from human airway epithelia. (7/23)

 (+info)

Different mechanisms of cell entry by human-pathogenic Old World and New World arenaviruses. (8/23)

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Several viruses in the Arenaviridae family infect humans and cause severe hemorrhagic fevers which lead to high case fatality rates. Due to their pathogenicity and geographic tropisms, these viruses remain very understudied. As a result, an effective vaccine or therapy is urgently needed. Here, we describe efforts to produce cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies that bind to both New and Old World arenaviruses. All of our MAbs seem to be nonneutralizing and nonprotective and target subunit 2 of the glycoprotein. Due to the lack of reagents such as recombinant glycoproteins and antibodies for rapid detection assays, our MAbs could be beneficial as analytic and diagnostic tools.
Three patients who received visceral-organ transplants from a single donor on the same day died of a febrile illness 4 to 6 weeks after transplantation. Culture, polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and serologic assays, and oligonucleotide microarray analysis for a wide range of infectious agents were not informative.,We evaluated RNA obtained from the liver and kidney transplant recipients. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing was used to identify microbial sequences not found by means of other methods. The specificity of sequences for a new candidate pathogen was confirmed by means of culture and by means of PCR, immunohistochemical, and serologic analyses.,High-throughput sequencing yielded 103,632 sequences, of which 14 represented an Old World arenavirus. Additional sequence analysis showed that this new arenavirus was related to lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses. Specific PCR assays based on a unique sequence confirmed the presence of the virus in the kidneys, liver, blood, and cerebrospinal ...
From the town of Bogglewort comes the halfling Willy Muttonchop. He has left the Grand County of the Mootland to explore the Old World as he really enjoys living among the other taller denizens of the Empire. Due to certain lucky circumstances there are always interesting things to show up in his pockets. Unfortunately some of the taller folks seem to be not very polite while Willy is around for a longer amount of time. But he has a sunny disposition and doesnt bother to move along and meet new friends. As a true son of The Moot Willy adores a good meal. Time will tell if the halfling still can keep up with his luck even in the more dangerous parts of the Old World. ...
The Center for One Health Research Department of Environment & Occupational Health Sciences School of Public Health University of Washington Box 357234 Seattle, WA, USA ...
Arenaviruses are feared as agents that cause viral hemorrhagic fevers. We report the identification, isolation, and genetic characterization of 2 novel arenaviruses from Namaqua rock mice in Namibia. These findings extend knowledge of the distribution and diversity of arenaviruses in Africa.
Old World warblers are a large group of birds formerly grouped together in the bird family Sylviidae. The family held over 400 species in over 70 genera, and were the source of much taxonomic confusion. Two families were split out initially, the cisticolas into Cisticolidae and the kinglets into Regulidae. In the past ten years they have been the subject of much research and many species are now placed into other families, including the Acrocephalidae, Cettiidae, Phylloscopidae, and Megaluridae. In addition some species have been moved into existing families or have not yet had their placement fully resolved. A smaller family of warblers, together with some babblers formerly placed in the family Timaliidae and the parrotbills, are retained in a much smaller family Sylviidae. Most Old World warblers are of generally undistinguished appearance, though some Asian species are boldly marked. The sexes are often identical, but may be clearly distinct, notably in the genus Sylvia. They are of small to ...
Taken together, the viruses that cause VHFs are distributed over much of the globe. However, because each virus is associated with one or more particular host species, the virus and the disease it causes are usually seen only where the host species live(s). Some hosts, such as the rodent species carrying several of the New World arenaviruses, live in geographically restricted areas. Therefore, the risk of getting VHFs caused by these viruses is restricted to those areas. Other hosts range over continents, such as the rodents that carry viruses which cause various forms of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America, or the different set of rodents that carry viruses which cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe and Asia. A few hosts are distributed nearly worldwide, such as the common rat. It can carry Seoul virus, a cause of HFRS; therefore, humans can get HFRS anywhere where the common rat is found.. While people usually become infected only in areas ...
Researchers have uncovered structural and functional details of a key Lassa virus protein; this new information may aid the development of vaccines.
Someone asked me about my childhood in regards to my last post about the new sex-ed curriculum in Ontario. Well, my childhood was great, I cant say I was a perfect child of course, I had a little attitude at times :) but all in all, it was good. The sun seemed to shine most…
The established animal model for Lassa fever is based on the new world arenavirus Pichinde (PIC). Natural isolates of PIC virus are attenuated in guinea pigs, but serial guinea pig passage renders them extremely virulent in that host. We have compared the nucleotide sequences of the small RNA segments of two attenuated, low-passage variants of the PIC virus Munchique strain (CoAn 4763) and two virulent, high-passage derivatives. Missense mutations in the glycoprotein precursor (GPC) gene at codons GPC-119, GPC-140, and GPC-164 and the nucleoprotein gene (NP) codons NP-35 and NP-374 were most closely associated with virulence. Codon GPC-140 is predicted to represent a region of peak hydrophilicity of the glycoprotein 1 (GP1); it is conceivable that mutations at this site could influence virulence by altering B cell epitopes or virus attachment protein conformation.
To determine whether Lassa virus was circulating in southern Mali, we tested samples from small mammals from 3 villages, including Soromba, where in 2009 a British citizen probably contracted a lethal Lassa virus infection. We report the isolation and genetic characterization of Lassa virus from an area previously unknown for Lassa fever.
I identify as a fan of the New World of Darkness line. I love Changeling: the Lost with a rabid passion, and have a soft spot for the other games as well. Recently, I picked up a few books from the Old World of Darkness line. They are kind of thick and intimidating, and before diving in, I would like to know a bit about what to expect. What is the Old World of Darkness like? How is it different from its successor?
Find album reviews, stream songs, credits and award information for Blood Oranges - Brave Old World on AllMusic - 1999 - On Blood Oranges, Brave Old World combines the…
Palladium Hoteles y Resorts. Hoteles de playa todo incluido y hoteles de ciudad. Hoteles de lujo ,suites de lujo, Garden villas, con servicios especiales para adultos y familias. Hoteles con spa y servicios especiales para bodas y lunas de miel. Hoteles de negocio para eventos y congresos. Reserva online mejor precio garantizado, ofertas especiales, y ofertas exclusivas
Palladium Hoteles y Resorts. Hoteles de playa todo incluido y hoteles de ciudad. Hoteles de lujo ,suites de lujo, Garden villas, con servicios especiales para adultos y familias. Hoteles con spa y servicios especiales para bodas y lunas de miel. Hoteles de negocio para eventos y congresos. Reserva online mejor precio garantizado, ofertas especiales, y ofertas exclusivas
Please Note, The ebooks are not always PDF format, you might receive epub/kindle formats after purchase. This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-3
La premiación se llevará a cabo el 31 de marzo en Almeda Mall con jueces que decidirán quien es la "Mujer Extraordinaria" de Houston. Hay $1,500 en premios para la ganadora, incluyendo un tratameinto de lujo de spa; para consentir a las mujeres de nuestra vida ...
A new, relatively expensive wine like this with a story to tell needs to be either hand-sold or have a pleasingly, appropriately classy label. So a much-needed redesign was finally arranged and the colour-coded quadrant layout replaced with a clean, fresh herald with a touch of gold, on a white background. Eye-catching but with a nod to tradition, it looks fresh but evokes Old World heritage and, more importantly, stands out well on a quick scan of shelves ...
Abstract The objectives of this study were to extend our knowledge of the geographic distribution and rodent host range of arenaviruses in North America. Sera from wild rodents collected from the southern and western United States were tested for antibody against Tamiami, Pichinde, Junin, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses, using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibody to at least one arenavirus was found in 220 (3.1%) of 7,106 rodents tested. The antibody-positive animals included Mus musculus from Florida and Texas; Neotoma albigula from Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico; N. fuscipes and N. lepida from California: N. mexicana from Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah; N. stephensi from Arizona and New Mexico; and Oryzomys palustris and Sigmodon hispidus from Florida. Sigmodon hispidus seropositive for Tamiami virus were found only in Florida (156 [27.0%] of 578 tested), although 463 hispid cotton rats from outside that state were examined. High-titered antibodies to Tamiami virus were present
Arenaviruses are enveloped, bipartite negative single-stranded RNA viruses that can cause a wide spectrum of disease in humans and experimental animals including hemorrhagic fever. The majority of these viruses are rodent-borne and the arenavirus family can be divided into two groups: the Lassa-Lymphocytic choriomeningitis serocomplex and the Tacaribe serocomplex. Arenavirus-induced disease may include characteristic symptoms ranging from fever, malaise, body aches, petechiae, dehydration, hemorrhage, organ failure, shock, and in severe cases death. Currently, there are few prophylactic and therapeutic treatments available for arenavirus-induced symptoms. Supportive care and ribavirin remain the predominant strategies for treating most of the arenavirus-induced diseases. Therefore, efficacy testing of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies in relevant animal models is necessary. Because of the potential for person-to-person spread, the ability to cause lethal or debilitating disease in humans,
The structure reveals how the virus evades its hosts immune system, and how it hijacks infected cells vital machinery in a process scientists call "cap-stealing". Details of the structure could guide future efforts to develop an effective anti-viral drug and vaccine.. The findings are published in this weeks issue of Nature.. Lassa virus represents a family of viruses - arenaviruses - whose natural hosts are rodents and which cause hemorrhagic fevers in Africa and South America. New varieties of arenavirus continue to emerge, such as the deadly "Lujo" virus identified recently in Zambia and South Africa.. Lassa virus infects between 100,000 and 300,000 people every year in West Africa, with an estimated 5,000 deaths according to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Most people infected experience a mild illness, but about 20 per cent suffer a severe multisystem disease with internal bleeding and immune suppression. Around one per cent of all infections are fatal. A common ...
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) caused by arenaviruses are acute diseases characterized by fever, headache, general malaise, impaired cellular immunity, eventual neurologic involvement, and hemostatic alterations that may ultimately lead to shock and death. The causes of the bleeding are still poorly understood. However, it is generally accepted that these causes are associated to some degree with impaired hemostasis, endothelial cell dysfunction and low platelet counts or function. In this article, we present the current knowledge about the hematological alterations present in VHF induced by arenaviruses, including new aspects on the underlying pathogenic mechanisms.
There are 170 calories in 1 serving, 1/2 pizza (3.6 oz) of AC LaRocco Old World Veggie Ultra Thin Sprouted Grain Pizza, frozen. Youd need to walk 44 minutes to burn 170 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
Of all Swedens cities, none manage to blend Old World influences with modern-day charm half as well as Gothenburg. Situat... ...
International adventure with a fast-track family (& dogs) of Old World values, adopting the Russian-Italian-American good life on the go…!
Pictures of the Old World (Slovak: Obrazy starého sveta) is a 1972 Slovak documentary film by Dušan Hanák. The film is about old people who seemingly live at the edge of society. Pictures of the Old World was voted in 2000 by Slovak critics as the best Slovak film of all time. The film won the Best Non-Fiction Film at 1990 Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards. The film was banned until 1988 and so it is officially premiered in July 1988. The film consists of dialogues with old people who havent been "deformed by civilisation." The film tries to find answers to questions of human existence. People featured in the film tell their life stories that are linked to their ancestors customs. Their lives are often sad and unhappy. All of them are the evidence of human power and freemasonry. The most of them live the remain of their lives lonely with animals as their only friends. List of films considered the best Pictures of the Old World on IMDb Pictures of the Old World at Rotten Tomatoes ...
Davies J, Lokuge K, Glass K. Vaccine 37(26):3451-3456, 2019; 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.05.010. Lassa fever is an acute viral illness caused by Lassa virus (LASV), a rodent-borne pathogen. LASV is endemic to much of Sub-Saharan West Africa, where seasonal outbreaks cause significant morbidity and mortality. Increased global awareness of LASV has led to development of improved diagnostic tests, treatments and vaccines. As vaccine candidates are trialled, it is essential to assess the potential outcomes of introducing a LASV vaccination program in endemic regions. This study investigates the potential outcomes of routine and pulse vaccination strategies using a deterministic mathematical model that captures seasonal LASV transmission between rodents and humans. For plausible parameter values, we find that immunization of 40% of infants at 70% vaccine effectiveness achieves a population-level reduction in infectious case numbers of 30%, while coverage of 60% at 90% vaccine effectiveness achieves a 56% ...
The Eastern; Or Old World Embracing Ancient and Modern History Volume 2 by Henry Howard Brownell, 9781236520265, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
THIS IS A WARNING for the so-called gods/demons/aliens/ upper level masons shiv, krishna, brahma, indra and William Defoe and their female counterparts for example laxami, durga, sarasvarti, indrani are All bunch of DEMONS (demons are basically those that have gone against/are enemies of the Prime Creator - Lalita MahaKali Rajarajeshvari) who use a multitude of…
Portugal; Rocky, rugged Atlantic coasts where salt spray mists the air…green hills and winding country roads…medieval towns perched above deep river gorges…
Portugal; Rocky, rugged Atlantic coasts where salt spray mists the air…green hills and winding country roads…medieval towns perched above deep river gorges…
Deep rustic elegance defines the mood delivered in the Savoir mouldings - a collection that marries old world charm with modern day elegance. Inspired by the medieval town of Cognac in France, Savoir is the very definition of refinement, class and design. ...
Elm proudly wears his familys signet ring, passed to him by his great great granduncle. Being the last decendant of his noble house, Elm Ironfist seeks to shed light on the disappearance of said great great granduncle Lorri Ironfist. Lorri left the seat of the Ironfist clan over a hundred winters ago, set to distinguish a plague of ratskins. Since that time Lorri and his family relic "Axe of Thain" are lost in the dungeons of the old world.. ...
Cattle egret Definition: a small, white egret ( Bubulcus ibis ), an Old World bird that has expanded its range to... | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und Beispiele
F. Bairlein, P. Alström, R. Aymí, P. Clement, A. Dyrcz, G. Gargallo, F. Hawkins, S. Madge, D. Pearson, L. Svensson: Family Sylviidae (Old World Warblers). W: J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, D.A. Christie: Handbook of the Birds of the World. Cz. 11: Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, 2006, s. 647-648, 661-664, 667-679. ISBN 84-96553-06-X. (ang.) ...
28 JULY II, 1940 AIR STRATEGY (CONTINUED defence. But she has dissociated herself from the affairs of the Old World. Her outlook is inconsistent. There cannot be one law for the New World and another
Define bloody-nosed beetle: a dull blue Old World chrysomelid beetle (Timarcha tenebricosa) that exudes a drop of reddish fluid from its head when…
Hp2 L2.1 - HP2 L2.1 ist eine besonders vielseitige Jacke, die sowohl für Anfänger als auch für fortgeschrittene Skifahrer eine ideale Wahl ist.
Lassa virus belongs to the Arenaviridae family and causes Lassa fever, also known as Lassa haemorrhagic fever (LHF). It is a haemorrhagic illness that occurs between one and three weeks after infection.. Lassa fever is a zoonotic disease, meaning it passes from animals to humans. The natural host of Lassa virus is the rodent Mastomys natalensis, otherwise known as the Natal multimammate mouse or rat.. The virus is spread when a person comes into contact with items contaminated with the rodents urine or faeces - for example, by handling objects, eating or through open wounds. It can also be inhaled.. Lassa virus can pass from person to person via bodily fluids, and can spread in healthcare settings if suitable precautions are not taken.. ...
Definition of arenavirus - any of a group of RNA viruses (including that causing Lassa fever) that appear under an electron microscope to contain granules th
Lassa Virus Essay, Research Paper The Lassa virus is a vulgar virus with a high mortality rate and an expensive cure. Lassa was strange to me because I have never heard of the virus before. As I was reading in my research, I began to realize the risk the virus has on people.
This butter soft elk skin jacket is entirely sewn by hand. All lacing is hand cut and wholes are punched well over 1,000 times to cross lace the elk hides into a beautiful garment honoring the traditions of old world craftsmanship. The fringe is individually cut and tied to elongate the graceful flow of the hide. The inside lining is of satin, and is the only thing sewn by machine. Buttons are made of elk antler and stained to appear "aged". The making of this jacket is a worthy time consuming process. Taking on a life of its own, the wearer makes it a 3 dimensional work of art through the patina of simply being ...
Why is Angela Merkel so successful? Because she's a chancellor without qualities, writes author Juli Zeh. The SZ discusses criticism that the Gates Foundation now has inordinate financial clout. The FAZ reflects on the artistic significance of Damien Hirst's shark, now dissolving in its formaldehyde soup. And Die Welt fails to understand Old World objections to Google Print.
In Canada’s eastern part lies a beautiful province that is prominently French and blends old world charm with modern technology and natural marvels. Whether
World Health Organization. World Health Organization. August 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 August 2014. ... arenaviruses, and flaviviruses" (PDF). Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 October ... WHO: Ebola haemorrhagic fever - World Health Organization, Global Alert and Response. *[1] - World Health Organization, Fact ... World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 29 July 2014.. *^ a b c "Monitoring Symptoms and Controlling Movement ...
World Health Organisation report, 24 September 2014 *^ Einstein MH, Schiller JT, Viscidi RP, Strickler HD, Coursaget P, Tan T, ... Examples include geminiviruses, which are ssDNA plant viruses and arenaviruses, which are ssRNA viruses of animals.[94] ... The evidence for an ancestral world of RNA cells[62] and computer analysis of viral and host DNA sequences are giving a better ... The ancient Virus World and evolution of cells. Biology Direct. 2006;1:29. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-1-29. .mw-parser-output cite. ...
Arenavirus: Guanarito virus,[2] Junín virus,[2] Lassa fever virus,[2] Lujo virus,[3] Machupo virus[2] ve Sabiá virus[2] ... "World J. Gastroenterol. 16 (6), s. 698-702. PMC 2817057 $2. PMID 20135717.. KB1 bakım: Birden fazla ad: yazar listesi (link) ... "World J Hepatol. 3 (4), s. 83-92. doi:10.4254/wjh.v3.i4.83. PMC 3098392 $2. PMID 21603030.. ... "Genetic detection and characterization of Lujo virus, a new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from southern Africa" ...
The life cycle of Lassa virus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa virus enters the cell by the receptor-mediated ... It shares this receptor with the prototypic Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Receptor recognition ... the New World arenaviruses of clades A and B, which include the important viruses Machupo, Guanarito, Junin, and Sabia in ... a b Donaldson, Ross I. (2009). The Lassa Ward:One Man's Fight Against One of the World's Deadliest Diseases. St. Martin's Press ...
World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.. ... Louis encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis virus), bunyavirus (La Crosse strain), arenavirus (lymphocytic choriomeningitis ... World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.. ...
Lassa virus is a member of the Arenavirida family of viruses.[7] Specifically it is an old world arenavirus, which is enveloped ... "World Health Organization. Retrieved 2017-09-11.. *^ McCormick, J. B.; King, I. J.; Webb, P. A.; Scribner, C. L.; Craven, R. B ... "World Health Organization. 1 March 2018.. *^ Kieny, Marie-Paule. "After Ebola, a Blueprint Emerges to Jump-Start R&D". ... World Health Organization. April 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.. *^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Lassa ...
"Fatal Illnesses Associated With a New World Arenavirus --- California, 1999--2000". MMWR Weekly. Fulhorst, Charles; Charrel, ... Arenavirus-specific RNA was detected in each patient using RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequence of the patients were essentially ... Like other arenaviruses, WWAV appears to be transmitted through rodents. Therefore, direct contact with rodents, their feces, ... Although it is unclear if WWAV can be transmitted nosocomially, other arenaviruses have been transmitted through contact with ...
Arenaviruses. Elsevier. p. 7. ISBN 9780080877372. Zuckerman 2014, p. 10 "Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused by Arenaviruses" (PDF ... It is a member of Clade A of the Tacaribe (or "New World") serocomplex of the family Arenaviridae. Laboratory workers infected ... an arenavirus with a mammalian host. It was first found in semiaquatic rodents of the genus Oryzomys in tropical forest in the ...
World Health Organization, Global Alert and Response [1] - World Health Organization, Fact Sheet 103 Ebola Virus Disease, ... arenaviruses, and flaviviruses" (PDF). Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 October ... World Health Organization. World Health Organization. August 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 August 2014. ... Urging the world to offer aid to the affected regions, the Director-General said, "Countries affected to date simply do not ...
... arenavirus.pdf, last updated: February 23, 2010. Aguilar PV, Carmago W, Vargas J, Guevara C, Roca Y, Felices V, et al. ... The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World - Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran It ... Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused by Arenaviruses, http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/viral_hemorrhagic_fever_ ...
... arenavirus MeSH B04.820.057.070.100 --- arenaviruses, old world MeSH B04.820.057.070.100.500 --- lassa virus MeSH B04.820. ... arenavirus MeSH B04.909.777.080.070.100 --- arenaviruses, old world MeSH B04.909.777.080.070.100.500 --- lassa virus MeSH ... 057.070.100.550 --- lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus MeSH B04.820.057.070.800 --- arenaviruses, new world MeSH B04.820. ... B04.909.777.080.070.100.550 --- lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus MeSH B04.909.777.080.070.800 --- arenaviruses, new world ...
He discovered more novel viruses than any person previously, including members of the Arenavirus, Hantavirus, Lyssavirus and ... World Renowned Authority on Infectious Diseases, Robert E. Shope", YaleNews, Yale University, February 4, 2004, retrieved ... His group identified alphavirus, arenavirus and flavivirus as potential bioterrorist risks, and Shope worked with structural ...
As receptors for phosphatidylserine, TIM proteins bind many families of viruses [filovirus, flavivirus, New World arenavirus ...
Sessa R, Palagiano C, Scifoni MG, di Pietro M, Del Piano M. The major epidemic infections: a gift from the Old World to the New ... Examples include geminiviruses, which are ssDNA plant viruses and arenaviruses, which are ssRNA viruses of animals. Genome size ... The ancient Virus World and evolution of cells. Biology Direct. 2006;1:29. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-1-29. PMID 16984643. Dimmock p ... There are only two centres in the world that are authorised by the WHO to keep stocks of smallpox virus: the State Research ...
Washington, D.C., U.S.A: Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the World Health ... Arenaviruses. Intervirol. 4, 207-213. Gernot H. Bergold (1911-2003) (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www. ... Disease card on World Organisation for Animal Health. ...
Prevalence of antibodies to arenaviruses in rodents from the southern and western United States: evidence for an arenavirus ... eds.). Orders and families of Recent mammals of the world. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 686 pp. Carleton, M.D. and Musser, G. ... An arenavirus normally associated with woodrats (Neotoma) has also been found in Florida marsh rice rats. Antibodies against ... 894-1531 in Wilson, D.E. and Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd ed. ...
Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M.D. (2005). "Superfamily Muroidea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A ... "Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses". Virology. Elsevier. 367 (2): 235-243 ...
The INEVH has performed research for the World Health Organization since 1985 and currently specializes in four areas: ... Arenaviruses Arboviruses Hantavirus Production of biological specimens ANLIS (in Spanish) Archived 2006-10-04 at the Wayback ...
He is a member of the World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases. He is also director for biodefense ... His arenavirus research concentrates on the effects of infection on cellular function, particularly those molecular ... Peters, C. J. and Mark Olshaker (1998), Virus Hunter: Thirty Years of Battling Hot Viruses Around the World, Random House. ... of viral diseases including more than 70 publications on Rift Valley fever virus and more than 60 publications on arenaviruses ...
Sequencing of the viral genome has shown that this virus belongs to the Old World arenavirus group. Comparisons with other ... viral genome sequences showed that this virus is equidistant from other Old World and New World arenaviruses. It is distantly ... identified the etiological agent of the outbreak as an Old World arenavirus using molecular and serological tests. Sequencing ... "Discovery of new arenavirus associated with hemorrhagic fever - first identified in nearly four decades". News-Medical.net. ...
It has particular importance to farmers in certain regions of the world where it can infect cattle. This is because its ... Properties of replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus vectors expressing glycoproteins of filoviruses and arenaviruses ... Disease card on World Organisation for Animal Health. ...
Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World-Told from Inside by the Man ... "Properties of Replication-Competent Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors Expressing Glycoproteins of Filoviruses and Arenaviruses ... This isolation strongly suggests that Old World fruit bats are involved in the natural maintenance of marburgviruses and that ... Marburgviruses are World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogens, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment, ...
Arenaviruses are divided into two groups: the Old World and the New World viruses. The differences between these groups are ... termini of the virion RNA species of New World and Old World arenaviruses". Virology. 121 (1): 200-3. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(82) ... At least eight arenaviruses are known to cause human disease. The diseases derived from arenaviruses range in severity. Aseptic ... The life cycle of the arenavirus is restricted to the cell cytoplasm. Within the family Arenaviridae, arenaviruses were ...
The island of Vir in Croatia is one of the biggest described endemic places of origin of LCMV in the world, with IFA testing ... The first arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), was isolated in 1933 by Charles Armstrong during a study of an ... World Health Organ. 55 (5): 599-603. PMC 2366689 . PMID 338190. ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, version 4. [2] Centers for ... LCMV has been shown to cause illness in New World primates such as macaques, marmosets and tamarins. Infections have also been ...
Most deaths are due to hepatitis B and hepatitis C. East Asia is the region of the world most affected. Play media The most ... Other viruses than can cause hepatitis include: Adenoviruses Arenaviruses: Guanarito virus, Junín virus, Lassa fever virus, ... This occurs primarily in third world countries. Strict personal hygiene and the avoidance of raw and unpeeled foods can help ...
... and Arenaviruses (Lassa Fever) and collaborative projects with the U.S. Army to develop therapies for Ebola and Lassa viruses. ... and possibly aid in the detection of DNA-based life elsewhere in the universe." She returned to Earth on October 30, 2016 after ...
Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World-Told from Inside by the Man ... "Properties of Replication-Competent Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors Expressing Glycoproteins of Filoviruses and Arenaviruses ... Garrett, Laurie (1994). The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World Out of Balance. New York, USA: Farrar, Straus & ... Marburgviruses are World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogens, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment,[51] ...
World News. Regenerative Medicine Journal. Point Of View. Regenerative Medicine Journal. Enhancement of abiraterone acetate ... fourier transform infrared spectroscopy Crystal structure of the prefusion surface glycoprotein of the prototypic arenavirus ... bridging biological networks with the electronic digital world Persistent gamma spiking in SI nonsensory fast spiking cells ... progression in breast cancer using somatic mutations and copy number aberrations Lyme disease ecology in a changing world: ...
For each bacteria or virus that has been sequenced anywhere in the world, we have several dozen squares on the checkerboard ... Examples of (-)-strand RNA viruses include arenaviruses (e.g., sabia virus, lassa fever, Machupo, Argentine hemorrhagic fever, ...
Arenaviruses, New World Outcome. Arenaviridae Infections Bioterrorism Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola Hantavirus Infections ...
Arboviruses Arenaviruses can You Get Cytotec Without A Prescription at the can You Get Cytotec Without A Prescription. As an ...
CSTA will be bringing its world class professional development and educator community together again in July of 2018. They are ... arenaviruses, HIV/AIDs, Chikungunya virus, Burkitts lymphoma, and aging. ...
It is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in the world!. Never heard of it :O. Is it the same as Norwalk virus? ... Arenavirus. Bunyavirus. Coronavirus?. Correct! Review question: Does anyone know the clinical significance of the segmented ...
Arenavirus Receptors * Coronavirus Receptors * Filovirus Receptors * Flavivirus Receptors * Herpesvirus Receptors * ...
Arenaviruses, New World Cytochromes B Humans Immunoassay Immunoglobulin G Letters To The Editor Rodent Diseases Rodentia Viral ... Arenavirus RNA was isolated from Mexican deer mice (Peromyscus mexicanus) captured near the site of a 1967 epidemic of ... During a study to extend our knowledge of the host range and genetic diversity of arenaviruses in Great Britain, 66 of 1,147 ... An infectious arenavirus was isolated from 5 of 27 California mice but none of the 7 other rodents... ...
5.) World Health Organization. Ebola virus disease outbreak: Ebola is no longer a public health emergency of international ... such as arenaviruses, bunyaviruses, filoviruses, orthomyxoviruses, and paramyxoviruses. These viruses share certain biologic, ... The safe operation of high-level biocontainment laboratories throughout the world is of highest importance. These laboratories ...
The Lens serves almost all the patents and scholarly work in the world as a free, open and secure digital public good, with ... arenaviruses, bornaviruses, bunyviruses, orthomyxoviruses (e.g., influenza virus), and rhabdoviruses that are negative-stranded ...
Arenaviruses. Arenavirus is a genus of primitive viruses, at least eight species of which are known to cause serious diseases ... They are divided into two groups called Old World and New World depending on where they were discovered but they also ... The most well-known species is B. Quintana which was the cause of trench fever during the First World War and spread by the ... http://www.who.int/campaigns/world-health-day/2014/global-brief/en/ ...
Dry eye disease is a common condition that affects millions of people world wide. Adherence to and beliefs in lipid-lowering ... Currently, no FDA-licensed vaccines are available to combat arenavirus infections and antiarenaviral therapy is limited to the ...
NO download Craft beer world : a guide to over 350 of the finest beers known to man 2013 by VEGF can function all through the ... The download segmented negative strand viruses arenaviruses bunyaviruses and of the great effect cell-cell into a endoplasmic 1 ... As the staggered functions of functions become the download segmented negative strand viruses arenaviruses bunyaviruses and to ... ROBO2 together is download segmented negative strand viruses arenaviruses bunyaviruses and orthomyxoviruses differentiation ...
In the present cefaclor dose for uti prophylaxis bactrim study, we report that the Z protein of the Old World arenavirus Lassa ...
Back cover: Within a remarkably short period of time it became clear that TT viruses are widely spread globally, infect a large proportion of all human populations studied thus far and represent an extremely heterogeneous group of viruses, now labelled as Anelloviruses. TT virus-like infections have also been noted in various animal species. The classification of this virus group turns out to be difficult, their DNA contains between 2200 and 3800 nucleotides, related so-called TT-mini-viruses and a substantial proportion of intragenomic recombinants further complicate attempts to combine these viruses into a unifying phylogenetic concept. Although studied in many laboratories, the medically most interesting question of their possible pathogenic role in humans remains unanswered until today. It is not unreasonable to suspect that persistence of at least some specific TT virus genotypes may result in some infected individuals in a definable pathogenicity. We believe that this volume provides first ...
These viruses are ubiquitous in fresh water from all over the world. The chlorella viruses have genomes as large as 370 kb that ... hemorrhagic bunya and arenaviruses) to understand the basic mechanisms of the genetic expression of this group of viruses. ...
... of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, ... and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses ... and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses ... and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses ...
Our shipping charges are regionally defined, in the UK, Europe (EEC), North America and the Rest of the World as detailed below ... Arenavirus Receptors * Coronavirus Receptors * Filovirus Receptors * Flavivirus Receptors * Herpesvirus Receptors * ...
Old and New World arenaviruses share a highly conserved epitope in the fusion domain of the glycoprotein 2, which is recognized ...
... arenaviruses, and New World hantaviruses. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 82, 954-960 (2010). doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0636 pmid: ... NIH grant 1U01HG007480-01 and the World Bank (C.H.), European Union grant FP7/2007-2013 278433-PREDEMICS and European Research ...
Ahead of Print -Arenavirus Diversity and Phylogeog.... *Ahead of Print -Deletion Variants of Middle East R... ... Announcement: World Birth Defects Day - March 3, 2.... *Notes from the Field: Verona Integron-Encoded Meta... ...
World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Nov 28;21(44):12576-85.. Cell Assay [2] The human GIST cell lines GK1C and GK3C, and the Imatinib- ...
Online access to the Oxford Textbook of Medicine in low and middle income countries is available through the World Health ... 7.5.17 Arenaviruses. *7.5.18 Filoviruses. *7.5.19 Papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. *7.5.20 Parvovirus B19 ...
Online access to the Oxford Textbook of Medicine in low and middle income countries is available through the World Health ... 7.5.17 Arenaviruses. *7.5.18 Filoviruses. *7.5.19 Papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. *7.5.20 Parvovirus B19 ...
Arenaviruses, New World , Viral Vaccines ... INTRODUCTION: Arenavirus hemorrhagic fever is a severe emerging ... Arenavirus/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Junin virus/immunology , Arenavirus/genetics , Brazil , ... INTRODUÇÃO: A febre hemorrágica por Arenavirus é uma severa doença emergente. MÉTODOS: Considerando que os níveis de anticorpos ... METHODS: Considering that the levels of antibodies against arenavirus in the Brazilian population are completely unknown, we ...
  • Results of this pilot study suggest that the Pirital virus-hamster model is a very promising new small animal model for studying the pathogenesis of arenavirus infections, particularly, the mechanism of direct virus-induced hepatic injury. (ajtmh.org)
  • All rats were seronegative and virus-negative for several rodentborne pathogens enzootic in South Florida, includ- ing hantaviruses, arenaviruses, eastern equine encephalitis virus, and EVEV. (cdc.gov)
  • METHODS: Considering that the levels of antibodies against arenavirus in the Brazilian population are completely unknown, we have standardized an ELISA test for detecting IgG antibodies using a recombinant nucleoprotein from the Junin virus as the antigen. (bvsalud.org)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed arenavirus antigen in the liver and kidney transplants in the recipients. (notifylibrary.org)
  • WHO is also working closely with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in a 'One Health' approach to promote best practices to avoid the emergence and spread of antibacterial resistance, including optimal use of antibiotics in both humans and animals. (who.int)
  • Kate has been a member of the UNO Bioinformatics research group since 2005 and has found success collaborating on a number of disease-related biomedical research projects including but not limited to hearing, arenaviruses, HIV/AIDs, Chikungunya virus, Burkitt's lymphoma, and aging. (omahastem.com)
  • RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. (utmb.edu)
  • The data and information is not guaranteed to be complete or to be fully up to date at any particular moment and it reflects the knowledge and views of the experts participating, not those of the World Health Organisation or the Italian National Transplant Centre. (notifylibrary.org)
  • Rio Grande, fifth longest river of North America, and the 20th longest in the world, forming the border between the U.S. state of Texas and Mexico. (britannica.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show the population studied may present exposure to arenavirus infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • We report here the isolation of an arenavirus from a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) with CH by using in vitro cultures of marmoset hepatocytes and Vero-E6 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The use of this method during an outbreak of disease facilitated the identification of a new arenavirus transmitted through solid-organ transplantation. (notifylibrary.org)
  • The only standard vaccine to consider for Andorra would be tetanus in line with many other developed countries of the world. (tmb.ie)
  • New clinical scenarios demonstrate key applications of microbiology in the real world. (b-ok.org)
  • The safe operation of high-level biocontainment laboratories throughout the world is of highest importance. (thefreelibrary.com)