One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.
One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the Old World complex. It includes LASSA VIRUS and LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS, although the latter has worldwide distribution now.
The only genus in the family ARENAVIRIDAE. It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution.
Virus diseases caused by the ARENAVIRIDAE.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.
The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.
A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.
Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, one of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing a fatal infection in the cricetine rodent Oryzomys albigularis. Asymptomatic laboratory infection in humans has been reported.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Biological activities of viruses and their interactions with the cells they infect.
An infraorder of New World monkeys, comprised of the families AOTIDAE; ATELIDAE; CEBIDAE; and PITHECIIDAE. They are found exclusively in the Americas.
A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI, consisting of nine subfamilies: ALOUATTINAE; AOTINAE; Atelinae; Callicebinae; CALLIMICONINAE; CALLITRICHINAE; CEBINAE; Pithecinae; and SAIMIRINAE. They inhabit the forests of South and Central America, comprising the largest family of South American monkeys.
Dystrophin-associated proteins that play role in the formation of a transmembrane link between laminin-2 and DYSTROPHIN. Both the alpha and the beta subtypes of dystroglycan originate via POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of a single precursor protein.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
'Primates' is a taxonomic order comprising various species of mammals, including humans, apes, monkeys, and others, distinguished by distinct anatomical and behavioral characteristics such as forward-facing eyes, grasping hands, and complex social structures.
An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.
A family of RNA viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, containing filamentous virions. Although they resemble RHABDOVIRIDAE in possessing helical nucleocapsids, Filoviridae differ in the length and degree of branching in their virions. There are two genera: EBOLAVIRUS and MARBURGVIRUS.
A group of iron-binding proteins that tightly bind two ferrate ions along with two carbonate ions. They are found in the bodily fluids of vertebrates where they act as transport and storage molecules for iron.
An infraorder of PRIMATES comprised of the families CERCOPITHECIDAE (old world monkeys); HYLOBATIDAE (siamangs and GIBBONS); and HOMINIDAE (great apes and HUMANS). With the exception of humans, they all live exclusively in Africa and Asia.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.
A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
A genus of Old World monkeys of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, that inhabits the mountainous regions of Ethiopia. The genus consists of only one species, Theropithecus gelada.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
While there isn't a specific medical definition for "North America," I can provide a geographical definition that is often used in public health and medical contexts: North America is the third largest continent by area, encompassing 23 independent states, including the United States, Canada, and Mexico, which are home to diverse populations, cultures, and ecosystems, and share common health-related challenges such as obesity, diabetes, and healthcare access disparities.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain TROPANES. The common name of trumpet flower is also sometimes used for GELSEMIUM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).
A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans and new world primates. The type species human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) is better known as the Epstein-Barr virus.
A species of the genus ERYTHROCEBUS, subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE. It inhabits the flat open arid country of Africa. It is also known as the patas monkey or the red monkey.
Proteins produced from GENES that have mutated by the fusing of protein coding regions of more than one gene. Such hybrid proteins are responsible for some instances of ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE and defective biological processes such as NEOPLASMS.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A genus of Old World monkeys, subfamily COLOBINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, that inhabits the forests of Africa. It consists of eight species: C. angolensis (Angolan colobus), C. badius or C. rufomitratus (Red or Bay colobus), C. guereza (Guereza or Eastern black-and-white colobus), C. kirkii (Kirk's colobus), C. polykomos (King colobus or Western black-and-white colobus), C. satanas (Black colobus), and C. verus (Olive colobus). Some authors recognize Procolobus as a separate genus and then the olive colobus is recognized as the species P. verus.
A genus of the family Lorisidae having four species which inhabit the forests and bush regions of Africa south of the Sahara and some nearby islands. The four species are G. alleni, G. crassicaudatus, G. demidovii, and G. senegalensis. There is another genus, Euoticus, containing two species which some authors have included in the Galago genus.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, comprising two species: the drill (M. leucophaeus) and the mandrill (M. sphinx). They are usually found in thick rainforest and have a gentle disposition despite their ferocious reputation. Some authors consider Mandrillus a subgenus of PAPIO.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
I'm afraid there seems to be a misunderstanding - "Africa" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, consisting of 54 countries with diverse cultures, peoples, languages, and landscapes. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help answer those for you!
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A genus in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE consisting of 12 species and found in Panama as well as South America. Species seen most frequently in the literature are S. oedipus (cotton-top marmoset), S. nigricollis, and S. fusicollis.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE, subfamily CEBINAE, consisting of four species which are divided into two groups, the tufted and untufted. C. apella has tufts of hair over the eyes and sides of the head. The remaining species are without tufts - C. capucinus, C. nigrivultatus, and C. albifrons. Cebus inhabits the forests of Central and South America.
Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
A genus of Old World monkeys found in Africa although some species have been introduced into the West Indies. This genus is composed of at least twenty species: C. AETHIOPS, C. ascanius, C. campbelli, C. cephus, C. denti, C. diana, C. dryas, C. erythrogaster, C. erythrotis, C. hamlyni, C. lhoesti, C. mitis, C. mona, C. neglectus, C. nictitans, C. petaurista, C. pogonias, C. preussi, C. salongo, and C. wolfi.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).
A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A plant genus of the family TILIACEAE. Members contain cycloartane saponins and CARDENOLIDES.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'Europe' is a geographical continent and not a medical term; therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE, which has a well-studied trilevel social structure consisting of troops, bands, and clans.
A species in the family AOTIDAE, inhabiting the forested regions of Central and South America (from Panama to the Amazon). Vocalizations occur primarily at night when they are active, thus they are also known as Northern night monkeys.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.

New World arenavirus clade C, but not clade A and B viruses, utilizes alpha-dystroglycan as its major receptor. (1/23)

Alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG) has been identified as a major receptor for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa virus, two Old World arenaviruses. The situation with New World arenaviruses is less clear: previous studies demonstrated that Oliveros virus also exhibited high-affinity binding to alpha-DG but that Guanarito virus did not. To extend these initial studies, several additional Old and New World arenaviruses were screened for entry into mouse embryonic stem cells possessing or lacking alpha-DG. In addition, representative viruses were further analyzed for direct binding to alpha-DG by means of a virus overlay protein blot assay technique. These studies indicate that Old World arenaviruses use alpha-DG as a major receptor, whereas, of the New World arenaviruses, only clade C viruses (i.e., Oliveros and Latino viruses) use alpha-DG as a major receptor. New World clade A and B arenaviruses, which include the highly pathogenic Machupo, Guanarito, Junin, and Sabia viruses, appear to use a different receptor or coreceptor for binding. Previous studies with LCMV have suggested the need for a small aliphatic amino acid at LCMV GP1 glycoprotein amino acid position 260 to allow high-affinity binding to alpha-DG. As reported herein, this requirement appears to be broadly applicable to the arenaviruses as determined by more extensive analysis of alpha-DG receptor usage and GP1 sequences of Old and New World arenaviruses. In addition, GP1 amino acid position 259 also appears to be important, since all arenaviruses showing high-affinity alpha-DG binding possess a bulky aromatic amino acid (tyrosine or phenylalanine) at this position.  (+info)

Human macrophages, but not dendritic cells, are activated and produce alpha/beta interferons in response to Mopeia virus infection. (2/23)

Lassa virus (LV) and Mopeia virus (MV) are closely related members of the Arenavirus genus, sharing 75% amino acid sequence identity. However, LV causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, whereas MV cannot induce disease. We have previously shown that antigen-presenting cells (APC)-macrophages (MP) and dendritic cells (DC)-sustain high replication rates of LV but are not activated, suggesting that they play a role in the immunosuppression observed in severe cases of Lassa fever. Here, we infected human APC with MV and analyzed the cellular responses induced. MV infection was productive in MP and even more so in DC. Apoptosis was not induced in either cell type. Moreover, unlike DC, MP were early and strongly activated in response to MV, as shown by the increased surface expression of CD86, CD80, CD54, CD40, and HLA-abc and by the production of mRNA encoding alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), IFN-beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6. In addition, MV-infected MP produced less of the virus than DC, which was related to the fact that these cells secreted IFN-alpha. Thus, the strong activation of MP is probably a major event in the control of MV infection and may be involved in the induction of an adaptive immune response in infected hosts. These results may explain the difference in pathogenicity between LV and MV.  (+info)

Phylogeny and evolution of old world arenaviruses. (3/23)

The intention of this study was to investigate the genomics, phylogeny and evolution of the Old World arenaviruses based on sequence data representing the four viral genes. To achieve this aim, we sequenced the complete S and L RNA segments of Ippy virus (IPPYV), Mobala virus (MOBV) and Mopeia virus (MOPV). Full-length sequences of the NP, GPC, Z and L genes were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to compare resulting tree topologies. Each of the five Old World arenavirus species (namely Lassa virus [LASV], IPPYV, MOBV, MOPV and Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV]) are monophyletic; seven selected strains of LASV showed a similar topology regardless of the gene under analysis; IPPYV rooted the three other African arenaviruses; the four African arenaviruses are rooted by the ubiquitous LCMV; and the tree topologies of the three African arenaviruses other than LASV are identical regardless of the gene used for analysis. No evidence for significant evolutionary events such as intra- or intersegmental recombination was obtained.  (+info)

Old World and clade C New World arenaviruses mimic the molecular mechanism of receptor recognition used by alpha-dystroglycan's host-derived ligands. (4/23)

alpha-Dystroglycan (DG) is an important cellular receptor for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and also serves as the receptor for Old World arenaviruses Lassa fever virus (LFV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and clade C New World arenaviruses. In the host cell, alpha-DG is subject to a remarkably complex pattern of O glycosylation that is crucial for its interactions with ECM proteins. Two of these unusual sugar modifications, protein O mannosylation and glycan modifications involving the putative glycosyltransferase LARGE, have recently been implicated in arenavirus binding. Considering the complexity of alpha-DG O glycosylation, our present study was aimed at the identification of the specific O-linked glycans on alpha-DG that are recognized by arenaviruses. As previously shown for LCMV, we found that protein O mannosylation of alpha-DG is crucial for the binding of arenaviruses of distinct phylogenetic origins, including LFV, Mobala virus, and clade C New World arenaviruses. In contrast to the highly conserved requirement for O mannosylation, more generic O glycans present on alpha-DG are dispensable for arenavirus binding. Despite the critical role of O-mannosyl glycans for arenavirus binding under normal conditions, the overexpression of LARGE in cells deficient in O mannosylation resulted in highly glycosylated alpha-DG that was functional as a receptor for arenaviruses. Thus, modifications by LARGE but not O-mannosyl glycans themselves are most likely the crucial structures recognized by arenaviruses. Together, the data demonstrate that arenaviruses recognize the same highly conserved O-glycan structures on alpha-DG involved in ECM protein binding, indicating a strikingly similar mechanism of receptor recognition by pathogen- and host-derived ligands.  (+info)

Genetic identification of Kodoko virus, a novel arenavirus of the African pigmy mouse (Mus Nannomys minutoides) in West Africa. (5/23)

Genetic evidence of a novel arenavirus species related to but distinct from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was obtained from a rodent belonging to an endemic African subgenus of Mus (Nannomys). The phylogenetic position among Old World arenaviruses of this new arenavirus, named Kodoko virus, was reconstructed based on L and NP genes sequences. The finding of an Old World arenavirus related to LCMV outside the known geographical range of LCMV in a novel rodent species reveals new insights about the evolutionary history of arenaviruses.  (+info)

Old World arenavirus infection interferes with the expression of functional alpha-dystroglycan in the host cell. (6/23)

alpha-Dystroglycan (alpha-DG) is an important cellular receptor for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins as well as the Old World arenaviruses lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and the human pathogenic Lassa fever virus (LFV). Specific O-glycosylation of alpha-DG is critical for its function as receptor for ECM proteins and arenaviruses. Here, we investigated the impact of arenavirus infection on alpha-DG expression. Infection with an immunosuppressive LCMV isolate caused a marked reduction in expression of functional alpha-DG without affecting biosynthesis of DG core protein or global cell surface glycoprotein expression. The effect was caused by the viral glycoprotein (GP), and it critically depended on alpha-DG binding affinity and GP maturation. An equivalent effect was observed with LFVGP. Viral GP was found to associate with a complex between DG and the glycosyltransferase LARGE in the Golgi. Overexpression of LARGE restored functional alpha-DG expression in infected cells. We provide evidence that virus-induced down-modulation of functional alpha-DG perturbs DG-mediated assembly of laminin at the cell surface, affecting normal cell-matrix interactions.  (+info)

Basolateral entry and release of New and Old World arenaviruses from human airway epithelia. (7/23)

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Different mechanisms of cell entry by human-pathogenic Old World and New World arenaviruses. (8/23)

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Arenaviruses, New World, are a group of viruses in the Arenaviridae family that primarily infect rodents and can cause disease in humans. They are named after the Latin word "arena" which means "sand" because of the sandy-like appearance of their virions when viewed under an electron microscope.

New World arenaviruses include several different species, such as Junín virus, Machupo virus, Guanarito virus, and Sabia virus, among others. These viruses are endemic to certain regions in the Americas, particularly in South America. They are transmitted to humans through close contact with infected rodents or their excreta, and can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with high fatality rates if left untreated.

Some New World arenaviruses, such as Junín virus and Machupo virus, have been associated with outbreaks of human disease in the past, while others, like Guanarito virus and Sabia virus, have caused sporadic cases of illness. There are currently no vaccines available for most New World arenaviruses, although research is ongoing to develop effective countermeasures against these viruses.

Arenaviruses, Old World, are a group of viruses within the Arenaviridae family that primarily cause disease in humans and animals in Africa and Europe. These viruses are enveloped and have a bi-segmented single-stranded RNA genome. The name "Old World" is used to distinguish them from the New World arenaviruses, which are found in the Americas.

Some of the most well-known Old World arenaviruses include Lassa fever virus, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and Lujo virus. These viruses can cause a range of symptoms in humans, from mild febrile illness to severe hemorrhagic fever.

Lassa fever virus is endemic in West Africa and can cause a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever. LCMV is found worldwide and typically causes a mild illness in humans, although it can lead to more severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. Lujo virus was first identified in 2008 in South Africa and has caused a small number of severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever cases.

Old World arenaviruses are primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta, although human-to-human transmission can also occur through close contact with an infected person's blood or bodily fluids. Prevention and control measures include avoiding contact with rodents, practicing good hygiene, and using personal protective equipment when caring for sick individuals.

Arenavirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Arenaviridae. These viruses are enveloped and have a single-stranded, bi-segmented RNA genome. They are named after the Latin word "arena" which means "sand" because their virions contain ribosomes which resemble sand granules when viewed under an electron microscope.

Arenaviruses are primarily associated with rodents and can cause chronic infection in their natural hosts. Some arenaviruses can also infect humans and other animals, causing severe hemorrhagic fevers. Examples of human diseases caused by arenaviruses include Lassa fever, Argentine hemorrhagic fever, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever.

These viruses are typically transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta, but some can also be spread from person to person through close contact with an infected individual's blood or other bodily fluids. There are currently no vaccines available for most arenaviruses, and treatment is primarily supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and complications.

Arenaviridae infections are viral illnesses caused by members of the Arenaviridae family of viruses, which include several Old World and New World arenaviruses. These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta.

Old World arenaviruses include Lassa fever virus, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and Lujo virus, among others. They are endemic in Africa and can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates.

New World arenaviruses, found mainly in the Americas, include Junin virus, Machupo virus, Guanarito virus, and Sabia virus. These viruses can cause hemorrhagic fever as well, although their severity varies.

In general, Arenaviridae infections can present with a wide range of symptoms, from mild flu-like illness to severe hemorrhagic fever, depending on the specific virus and the individual's immune status. Treatment typically involves supportive care, while some viruses have specific antiviral therapies available. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents and their excreta, as well as implementing public health interventions to control rodent populations in endemic areas.

Lassa virus is an arenavirus that causes Lassa fever, a type of hemorrhagic fever. It is primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their urine and droppings. The virus can also be spread through person-to-person transmission via direct contact with the blood, urine, feces, or other bodily fluids of an infected person.

The virus was first discovered in 1969 in the town of Lassa in Nigeria, hence its name. It is endemic to West Africa and is a significant public health concern in countries such as Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, and Nigeria. The symptoms of Lassa fever can range from mild to severe and may include fever, sore throat, muscle pain, chest pain, and vomiting. In severe cases, the virus can cause bleeding, organ failure, and death.

Prevention measures for Lassa fever include avoiding contact with rodents, storing food in rodent-proof containers, and practicing good hygiene. There is no vaccine available to prevent Lassa fever, but ribavirin, an antiviral drug, has been shown to be effective in treating the disease if administered early in the course of illness.

Arenaviridae is a family of viruses that includes several species known to cause disease in humans and animals. The name "Arenaviridae" comes from the Latin word "arena," meaning "sand," due to the sandy appearance of these viruses when viewed under an electron microscope.

The virions (complete virus particles) of Arenaviridae are typically enveloped, spherical or pleomorphic in shape, and measure between 50-300 nanometers in diameter. The genome of Arenaviridae viruses is composed of two single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments called the L (large) segment and the S (small) segment. These segments encode for several viral proteins, including the glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP), and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L).

Arenaviridae viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta. Some of the most well-known human pathogens in this family include Lassa fever virus, Junín virus, Machupo virus, and Guanarito virus, which can cause severe hemorrhagic fevers. Other Arenaviridae viruses, such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), can cause milder illnesses in humans, including fever, rash, and meningitis.

Prevention and control of Arenaviridae infections typically involve reducing exposure to infected rodents and their excreta, as well as the development of vaccines and antiviral therapies for specific viruses in this family.

Cercopithecidae is a family of Old World primates, which includes monkeys such as baboons, macaques, and langurs. These primates are characterized by their adaptations for arboreal or terrestrial living, and they have complex social structures. The family Cercopithecidae is divided into two subfamilies: Cercopithecinae (guenons, macaques, and langurs) and Colobinae (leaf monkeys and colobus monkeys). These primates are found in Africa and Asia, and they play important ecological roles in their environments.

**Hemorrhagic fevers, viral** are a group of severe, potentially fatal illnesses caused by viruses that affect the body's ability to regulate its blood vessels and clotting abilities. These viruses belong to several different families including *Filoviridae* (e.g., Ebola, Marburg), *Arenaviridae* (e.g., Lassa, Machupo), *Bunyaviridae* (e.g., Hantavirus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and *Flaviviridae* (e.g., Dengue, Yellow Fever).

The initial symptoms are non-specific and include sudden onset of fever, fatigue, muscle aches, joint pains, headache, and vomiting. As the disease progresses, it may lead to capillary leakage, internal and external bleeding, and multi-organ failure resulting in shock and death in severe cases.

The transmission of these viruses can occur through various means depending on the specific virus. For example, some are transmitted via contact with infected animals or their urine/feces (e.g., Hantavirus), others through insect vectors like ticks (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever) or mosquitoes (Dengue, Yellow Fever), and yet others through direct contact with infected body fluids (Ebola, Marburg).

There are no specific treatments for most viral hemorrhagic fevers. However, some experimental antiviral drugs have shown promise in treating certain types of the disease. Supportive care, such as maintaining blood pressure, replacing lost fluids and electrolytes, and managing pain, is critical to improving outcomes. Prevention measures include avoiding areas where the viruses are common, using personal protective equipment when caring for infected individuals or handling potentially contaminated materials, and controlling insect vectors.

Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), World Health Organization (WHO).

Hemorrhagic fever, American is a group of viral diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected ticks, mosquitoes or rodents. The most common types of American hemorrhagic fevers include:

1. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS): It is caused by Sin Nombre virus and is transmitted to humans through inhalation of aerosolized urine, droppings or saliva of infected rodents.
2. Colorado Tick Fever (CTF): It is caused by a Coltivirus and is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick.
3. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE): It is caused by an Alphavirus and is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito.
4. Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) and Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE): They are also caused by Alphaviruses and are transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito.

These diseases are called hemorrhagic fevers because they are characterized by bleeding disorders, high fever, muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue. In severe cases, they can lead to shock, organ failure, and death. There are no specific treatments for these diseases, but early detection and supportive care can improve outcomes. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents, using insect repellent, and wearing protective clothing in areas where the diseases are common.

Junin virus is a type of arenavirus that causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever, a severe and often fatal disease endemic to Argentina. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through contact with the excreta of infected rodents, particularly the dryland vole (Microtus parvulus).

The Junin virus has a lipid envelope and a single-stranded RNA genome that encodes for four structural proteins and several nonstructural proteins. The viral glycoproteins are responsible for receptor binding, membrane fusion, and host immune response evasion.

Argentine hemorrhagic fever caused by Junin virus is characterized by fever, muscle pain, headache, and gastrointestinal symptoms, which can progress to severe bleeding, shock, and multi-organ failure in severe cases. The virus has a high case fatality rate if left untreated, but antiviral therapy with ribavirin and immune plasma from convalescent patients has significantly improved survival rates.

Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents, using personal protective equipment during high-risk activities, and implementing rodent control programs in endemic areas. Vaccination with the Candid #1 vaccine has also been shown to be effective in preventing Argentine hemorrhagic fever caused by Junin virus.

Pichinde virus (PICV) is an enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Arenaviridae. It is primarily found in rodents, specifically the Pichinde deer mouse (Oligoryzomys fulvescens), which are endemic to South America, particularly Colombia.

PICV is not known to cause disease in humans and is often used as a model organism for studying arenaviral pathogenesis and immunity. However, accidental laboratory infections have been reported, resulting in mild febrile illness or seroconversion without symptoms. Therefore, it is recommended that appropriate biosafety measures be taken when handling this virus.

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is an Old World arenavirus that primarily infects rodents, particularly the house mouse (Mus musculus). The virus is harbored in these mice without causing any apparent disease, but they can shed the virus in their urine, droppings, and saliva.

Humans can contract LCMV through close contact with infected rodents or their excreta, inhalation of aerosolized virus, or ingestion of contaminated food or water. In humans, LCMV infection can cause a mild to severe illness called lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), which primarily affects the meninges (the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and, less frequently, the brain and spinal cord itself.

The incubation period for LCMV infection is typically 1-2 weeks, after which symptoms may appear. Initial symptoms include fever, malaise, headache, muscle aches, and nausea. In some cases, the illness may progress to involve the meninges (meningitis), resulting in neck stiffness, light sensitivity, and altered mental status. In rare instances, LCMV infection can lead to encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or myelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord), causing more severe neurological symptoms such as seizures, paralysis, or long-term neurological damage.

Most individuals who contract LCMV recover completely within a few weeks to months; however, immunocompromised individuals are at risk for developing severe and potentially fatal complications from the infection. Pregnant women infected with LCMV may also face an increased risk of miscarriage or fetal abnormalities.

Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents, especially house mice, and their excreta, maintaining good hygiene, and using appropriate personal protective equipment when handling potentially contaminated materials. There is no specific treatment for LCMV infection; management typically involves supportive care to alleviate symptoms and address complications as they arise.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Virus Physiological Processes" is not a widely recognized or established medical term or concept. Physiological processes typically refer to the functions and activities that occur within living organisms, like cells or organ systems. Viruses, however, are not considered alive in the traditional sense; they are obligate parasites that require host cells to replicate. Therefore, it's not typical to speak of physiological processes in relation to viruses.

If you have a more specific context or term related to virology or virus biology, I would be happy to help interpret or define that!

Platyrrhini is a biological term that refers to a New World monkey group, primarily characterized by their wide, flattened noses. The name "Platyrrhini" comes from the Greek words "platys," meaning flat or broad, and "rhinos," meaning nose.

This paraphyletic group includes five families: Cebidae (capuchin monkeys, squirrel monkeys, and titi monkeys), Aotidae (night monkeys), Pitheciidae (tamarins, marmosets, sakis, and uakaris), Atelidae (spider monkeys, howler monkeys, woolly monkeys, and muriquis), and Callitrichidae (marmosets and tamarins).

Platyrrhini monkeys are native to Central and South America. They have a diverse range of physical characteristics, diets, and behaviors. Some notable differences between Platyrrhini and Old World monkeys include their opposable thumbs, claws instead of nails on some digits, and a unique digestive system that allows them to metabolize various plant materials efficiently.

Cebidae is a family of primates that includes monkeys and capuchins found in the tropical rainforests and woodlands of Central and South America. This family is divided into two subfamilies: Cebinae (capuchin monkeys) and Saimiriinae (squirrel monkeys). These animals are known for their adaptability, complex social structures, and diverse behaviors. They have a varied diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. Some notable members of this family include the white-faced capuchin, the black-capped squirrel monkey, and the golden lion tamarin.

Dystroglycans are a type of protein that play a crucial role in the structure and function of the muscle membrane (sarcolemma). They are an essential component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, which helps maintain the stability and integrity of the sarcolemma during muscle contraction and relaxation.

Dystroglycans consist of two subunits: alpha-dystroglycan and beta-dystroglycan. Alpha-dystroglycan is a large, heavily glycosylated protein that extends from the intracellular space to the extracellular matrix, where it interacts with various extracellular matrix proteins such as laminin and agrin. Beta-dystroglycan, on the other hand, spans the muscle membrane and binds to dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein that helps maintain the structural integrity of the sarcolemma.

Mutations in genes encoding for proteins involved in the glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan can lead to a group of genetic disorders known as congenital muscular dystrophies, which are characterized by muscle weakness, hypotonia, and developmental delays. These disorders include Walker-Warburg syndrome, Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, and Muscle-Eye-Brain disease, among others.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

In a medical or scientific context, "Primates" is a biological order that includes various species of mammals, such as humans, apes, monkeys, and prosimians (like lemurs and lorises). This group is characterized by several distinct features, including:

1. A forward-facing eye position, which provides stereoscopic vision and depth perception.
2. Nails instead of claws on most digits, except for the big toe in some species.
3. A rotating shoulder joint that allows for a wide range of motion in the arms.
4. A complex brain with a well-developed cortex, which is associated with higher cognitive functions like problem-solving and learning.
5. Social structures and behaviors, such as living in groups and exhibiting various forms of communication.

Understanding primates is essential for medical and biological research since many human traits, diseases, and behaviors have their origins within this group.

Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus. It is primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta, and it can also spread from person to person via bodily fluids. The symptoms of Lassa fever typically include fever, sore throat, muscle pain, chest pain, headache, and vomiting. In severe cases, the disease can cause bleeding from the mouth and nose, as well as complications such as deafness and encephalitis. Lassa fever is endemic to West Africa, particularly in Nigeria, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

Filoviridae is a family of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that includes three genera: Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and Cuevavirus. These viruses are known to cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, with high fatality rates. The most well-known members of this family are Ebola virus and Marburg virus.

The virions of Filoviridae are filamentous, often having a "U," "6," or "hook" shape, and can be up to 14,000 nanometers in length. The genome of these viruses is non-segmented and contains seven genes that encode for structural proteins and enzymes necessary for replication.

Transmission of Filoviridae occurs through direct contact with infected bodily fluids or contaminated surfaces, and infection can result in a range of symptoms including fever, severe headache, muscle pain, weakness, fatigue, and hemorrhage. There are currently no approved vaccines or antiviral treatments for Filoviridae infections, although several are in development.

Transferrins are a type of protein found in the plasma component of blood that bind and transport iron ions (Fe3+) from digestion of food or recycling of red blood cells to the cells where they are needed for various metabolic processes, such as the production of hemoglobin. They play a crucial role in maintaining iron homeostasis in the body by preventing the accumulation of free iron, which can be toxic and contribute to the development of oxidative stress and diseases. Transferrins have a high affinity for iron and are capable of binding two ferric ions per molecule. The transferrin-iron complex is then recognized and internalized by specific transferrin receptors on the surface of cells, where the iron is released and utilized.

Catarrhini is a taxonomic group within the order Primates, which includes Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. This group is defined by several distinct anatomical features, most notably the presence of a specific type of nose and throat structure that results in a downward-facing nostril and a narrow nasopharynx.

The term "catarrhine" comes from the Greek words "kata," meaning "downwards," and "rhis," meaning "nose." This refers to the distinctive shape of the nose and throat, which is different from that of New World monkeys (Platyrrhini), which have a wider nasopharynx and outward-facing nostrils.

Other features that distinguish Catarrhini from other primates include a more complex brain, a greater reliance on color vision, and a more varied diet that includes both plants and animals. Within the Catarrhini group, there are two main subgroups: Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys) and Hominoidea (apes and humans).

Overall, the medical definition of "Catarrhini" refers to a specific taxonomic group within the order Primates that includes Old World monkeys, apes, and humans, and is characterized by distinct anatomical features such as downward-facing nostrils and a narrow nasopharynx.

Virus internalization, also known as viral entry, is the process by which a virus enters a host cell to infect it and replicate its genetic material. This process typically involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The viral envelope proteins bind to specific receptors on the surface of the host cell.
2. Entry: The virus then enters the host cell through endocytosis or membrane fusion, depending on the type of virus.
3. Uncoating: Once inside the host cell, the viral capsid is removed, releasing the viral genome into the cytoplasm.
4. Replication: The viral genome then uses the host cell's machinery to replicate itself and produce new viral particles.

It's important to note that the specific mechanisms of virus internalization can vary widely between different types of viruses, and are an active area of research in virology and infectious disease.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Boidae is a family of snakes, also known as boas. This family includes many different species of large, non-venomous snakes found in various parts of the world, particularly in Central and South America, Africa, and Asia. Boas are known for their strong bodies and muscular tails, which they use to constrict their prey before swallowing it whole. Some well-known members of this family include the anaconda, the python, and the boa constrictor.

Hominidae, also known as the "great apes," is a family of primates that includes humans (Homo sapiens), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). This family is characterized by their upright walking ability, although not all members exhibit this trait. Hominidae species are known for their high intelligence, complex social structures, and expressive facial features. They share a common ancestor with the Old World monkeys, and fossil records suggest that this split occurred around 25 million years ago.

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

Nucleoproteins are complexes formed by the association of proteins with nucleic acids (DNA or RNA). These complexes play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as packaging and protecting genetic material, regulating gene expression, and replication and repair of DNA. In these complexes, proteins interact with nucleic acids through electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and other non-covalent interactions, leading to the formation of stable structures that help maintain the integrity and function of the genetic material. Some well-known examples of nucleoproteins include histones, which are involved in DNA packaging in eukaryotic cells, and reverse transcriptase, an enzyme found in retroviruses that transcribes RNA into DNA.

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "snakes" is not a medical term. It refers to a group of legless reptiles that can be found on every continent except Antarctica. If you have any questions about snakes in a different context, please provide more information and I'll do my best to help!

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

"Pongo pygmaeus" is the scientific name for the Bornean orangutan, a great ape species native to the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. They are one of the two species of orangutans, with the other being "Pongo abelii," the Sumatran orangutan. Bornean orangutans are highly intelligent and exhibit advanced tool use, social behaviors, and emotional expressions. They have a reddish-brown fur coat, long arms, and a distinctively shaped face. Unfortunately, they are critically endangered due to habitat loss and hunting.

"Rodentia" is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in biology. It refers to the largest order of mammals, comprising over 40% of all mammal species. Commonly known as rodents, this group includes mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, guinea pigs, squirrels, prairie dogs, capybaras, beavers, and many others.

While "Rodentia" itself is not a medical term, certain conditions or issues related to rodents can have medical implications. For instance, rodents are known to carry and transmit various diseases that can affect humans, such as hantavirus, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV). Therefore, understanding the biology and behavior of rodents is important in the context of public health and preventive medicine.

Rodent-borne diseases are infectious diseases transmitted to humans (and other animals) by rodents, their parasites or by contact with rodent urine, feces, or saliva. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Some examples of rodent-borne diseases include Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Leptospirosis, Salmonellosis, Rat-bite fever, and Plague. It's important to note that rodents can also cause allergic reactions in some people through their dander, urine, or saliva. Proper sanitation, rodent control measures, and protective equipment when handling rodents can help prevent the spread of these diseases.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Callithrix is a genus of New World monkeys, also known as marmosets. They are small, active primates found in the forests of South and Central America. The term "Callithrix" itself is derived from the Greek words "kallis" meaning beautiful and "thrix" meaning hair, referring to their thick, vibrantly colored fur.

Marmosets in the genus Callithrix are characterized by their slender bodies, long, bushy tails, and specialized dental structures that allow them to gouge tree bark to extract sap and exudates, which form a significant part of their diet. They also consume fruits, insects, and small vertebrates.

Some well-known species in this genus include the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), the white-headed marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi), and the buffy-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix aurita). Marmosets are popular subjects of research due to their small size, short gestation period, and ease of breeding in captivity.

"Gorilla gorilla" is the scientific name for the Western Gorilla, a subspecies of the Gorilla genus. Western Gorillas are divided into two subspecies: the Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and the Cross River Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli). Western Gorillas are native to the forests of central Africa, with Western Lowland Gorillas found in countries such as Gabon, Cameroon, Congo, and Equatorial Guinea, and Cross River Gorillas having a more restricted range along the border region of Nigeria and Cameroon.

Western Lowland Gorillas are the most numerous and widespread of all gorilla subspecies, but they still face significant threats from habitat loss, poaching, and disease. Cross River Gorillas are one of the world's 25 most endangered primates, with only a few hundred individuals remaining in the wild. Conservation efforts are underway to protect both subspecies and their habitats, including anti-poaching patrols, habitat restoration, and community education programs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Lemur" is not typically used in medical definitions. It is a common name that refers to primates belonging to the infraorder Lemuriformes. They are native to Madagascar and are divided into five families: Cheirogaleidae (dwarf lemurs), Daubentoniidae (aye-aye), Indriidae (indris, sifakas, and avahis), Lepilemuridae (sportive lemurs), and Lemuridae (true lemurs). If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to help!

Strepsirhini is a term used in primatology and physical anthropology to refer to a parvorder of primates that includes lemurs, lorises, and galagos (bushbabies). This group is characterized by several features, including a wet nose, a grooming claw on the second digit of the hind foot, and a toothcomb - a set of lower incisors and canines specialized for grooming.

The term Strepsirhini comes from the Greek words "streptos" meaning twisted and "rhinos" meaning nose, referring to the wet, rhinarium (naked, moist snout) found in these primates. This is one of the two major divisions within the infraorder Lemuriformes, the other being Haplorhini, which includes tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans.

A viral attachment, in the context of virology, refers to the initial step in the infection process of a host cell by a virus. This involves the binding or adsorption of the viral particle to specific receptors on the surface of the host cell. The viral attachment proteins, often located on the viral envelope or capsid, recognize and interact with these receptors, leading to a close association between the virus and the host cell. This interaction is highly specific, as different viruses may target various cell types based on their unique receptor-binding preferences. Following attachment, the virus can enter the host cell and initiate the replication cycle, ultimately leading to the production of new viral particles and potential disease manifestations.

Transferrin receptors are membrane-bound proteins found on the surface of many cell types, including red and white blood cells, as well as various tissues such as the liver, brain, and placenta. These receptors play a crucial role in iron homeostasis by regulating the uptake of transferrin, an iron-binding protein, into the cells.

Transferrin binds to two ferric ions (Fe3+) in the bloodstream, forming a complex known as holo-transferrin. This complex then interacts with the transferrin receptors on the cell surface, leading to endocytosis of the transferrin-receptor complex into the cell. Once inside the cell, the acidic environment within the endosome causes the release of iron ions from the transferrin molecule, which can then be transported into the cytoplasm for use in various metabolic processes.

After releasing the iron, the apo-transferrin (iron-free transferrin) is recycled back to the cell surface and released back into the bloodstream, where it can bind to more ferric ions and repeat the cycle. This process helps maintain appropriate iron levels within the body and ensures that cells have access to the iron they need for essential functions such as DNA synthesis, energy production, and oxygen transport.

In summary, transferrin receptors are membrane-bound proteins responsible for recognizing and facilitating the uptake of transferrin-bound iron into cells, playing a critical role in maintaining iron homeostasis within the body.

The "Americas" is a term used to refer to the combined landmasses of North America and South America, which are separated by the Isthmus of Panama. The Americas also include numerous islands in the Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. This region is home to a diverse range of cultures, ecosystems, and historical sites. It is named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci, who was one of the first Europeans to explore and map parts of South America in the late 15th century.

"Saimiri" is the genus name for the group of primates known as squirrel monkeys. These small, agile New World monkeys are native to Central and South America and are characterized by their slim bodies, long limbs, and distinctive hairless faces with large eyes. They are omnivorous and known for their active, quick-moving behavior in the trees. There are several species of squirrel monkey, including the Central American squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii) and the much more widespread common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

"Papio" is a term used in the field of primatology, specifically for a genus of Old World monkeys known as baboons. It's not typically used in human or medical contexts. Baboons are large monkeys with robust bodies and distinctive dog-like faces. They are native to various parts of Africa and are known for their complex social structures and behaviors.

"Theropithecus" is a genus of Old World monkeys that includes the extinct species "Theropithecus oswaldi" and the currently existing species "Theropithecus gelada." These monkeys are native to Africa and are known for their distinctive long, pointed canines in males. The term "Theropithecus" comes from the Greek words "ther," meaning beast, and "pithekos," meaning ape.

It is important to note that "Theropithecus" species are not to be confused with "Theropoda," which is a group of dinosaurs that includes modern birds and their extinct relatives. The similarity in the names is purely coincidental.

Inclusion bodies, viral are typically described as intracellular inclusions that appear as a result of viral infections. These inclusion bodies consist of aggregates of virus-specific proteins, viral particles, or both, which accumulate inside the host cell's cytoplasm or nucleus during the replication cycle of certain viruses.

The presence of inclusion bodies can sometimes be observed through histological or cytological examination using various staining techniques. Different types of viruses may exhibit distinct morphologies and locations of these inclusion bodies, which can aid in the identification and diagnosis of specific viral infections. However, it is important to note that not all viral infections result in the formation of inclusion bodies, and their presence does not necessarily indicate active viral replication or infection.

"Pan troglodytes" is the scientific name for a species of great apes known as the Common Chimpanzee. They are native to tropical rainforests in Western and Central Africa. Common Chimpanzees are our closest living relatives, sharing about 98.6% of our DNA. They are highly intelligent and social animals, capable of using tools, exhibiting complex behaviors, and displaying a range of emotions.

Here is a medical definition for 'Pan troglodytes':

The scientific name for the Common Chimpanzee species (genus Pan), a highly intelligent and social great ape native to tropical rainforests in Western and Central Africa. They are our closest living relatives, sharing approximately 98.6% of our DNA. Known for their complex behaviors, tool use, and emotional expression, Common Chimpanzees have been extensively studied in the fields of anthropology, psychology, and primatology to better understand human evolution and behavior.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "North America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the third largest continent in the world, which includes countries such as the United States, Canada, and Mexico, among others. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health topics, I'd be happy to help with those!

'Datura' is a genus of plants that belong to the family Solanaceae, also known as nightshades. These plants are native to North and South America but have been introduced and naturalized in many parts of the world. Some common names for plants in this genus include Jimson weed, thorn apple, and angel's trumpet.

Datura species contain a variety of toxic alkaloids, including scopolamine, atropine, and hyoscyamine, which can have hallucinogenic effects when ingested. However, these plants are also highly poisonous and can cause serious harm or death if consumed. Ingesting even small amounts can result in symptoms such as dilated pupils, dry mouth, rapid heartbeat, confusion, agitation, and delirium.

It is worth noting that Datura is sometimes used in traditional medicine practices, but it should only be administered under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider, as improper use can lead to severe adverse effects.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Haplorhini is a term used in the field of primatology and physical anthropology to refer to a parvorder of simian primates, which includes humans, apes (both great and small), and Old World monkeys. The name "Haplorhini" comes from the Greek words "haploos," meaning single or simple, and "rhinos," meaning nose.

The defining characteristic of Haplorhini is the presence of a simple, dry nose, as opposed to the wet, fleshy noses found in other primates, such as New World monkeys and strepsirrhines (which include lemurs and lorises). The nostrils of haplorhines are located close together at the tip of the snout, and they lack the rhinarium or "wet nose" that is present in other primates.

Haplorhini is further divided into two infraorders: Simiiformes (which includes apes and Old World monkeys) and Tarsioidea (which includes tarsiers). These groups are distinguished by various anatomical and behavioral differences, such as the presence or absence of a tail, the structure of the hand and foot, and the degree of sociality.

Overall, Haplorhini is a group of primates that share a number of distinctive features related to their sensory systems, locomotion, and social behavior. Understanding the evolutionary history and diversity of this group is an important area of research in anthropology, biology, and psychology.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Electron microscope tomography (EMT) is a 3D imaging technique used in electron microscopy. It involves collecting a series of images of a sample at different tilt angles, and then using computational algorithms to reconstruct the 3D structure of the sample from these images.

In EMT, a sample is prepared and placed in an electron microscope, where it is exposed to a beam of electrons. The electrons interact with the atoms in the sample, producing contrast that allows the features of the sample to be visualized. By tilting the sample and collecting images at multiple angles, a range of perspectives can be obtained, which are then used to create a 3D reconstruction of the sample.

EMT is a powerful tool for studying the ultrastructure of cells and tissues, as it allows researchers to visualize structures that may not be visible using other imaging techniques. It has been used to study a wide range of biological systems, including viruses, bacteria, organelles, and cells.

EMT is a complex technique that requires specialized equipment and expertise to perform. However, it can provide valuable insights into the structure and function of biological systems, making it an important tool in the field of biology and medicine.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Nucleocapsid proteins are structural proteins that are associated with the viral genome in many viruses. They play a crucial role in the formation and stability of the viral particle, also known as the virion. In particular, nucleocapsid proteins bind to the viral RNA or DNA genome and help to protect it from degradation by host cell enzymes. They also participate in the assembly and disassembly of the virion during the viral replication cycle.

In some viruses, such as coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid protein is also involved in regulating the transcription and replication of the viral genome. The nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2, for example, has been shown to interact with host cell proteins that are involved in the regulation of gene expression, which may contribute to the virus's ability to manipulate the host cell environment and evade the immune response.

Overall, nucleocapsid proteins are important components of many viruses and are often targeted by antiviral therapies due to their essential role in the viral replication cycle.

Proprotein convertases (PCs) are a group of calcium-dependent serine proteases that play a crucial role in the post-translational modification of proteins. They are responsible for cleaving proproteins into their active forms by removing the propeptide or inhibitory sequences, thereby regulating various biological processes such as protein maturation, activation, and trafficking.

There are nine known human proprotein convertases, including PC1/3, PC2, PC4, PACE4, PC5/6, PC7, Furin, Subtilisin/Kexin type 1 Protease (SKI-1/S1P), and Neuropsin. These enzymes are characterized by their conserved catalytic domain and a distinct prodomain that regulates their activity.

Proprotein convertases have been implicated in several physiological processes, including blood coagulation, neuroendocrine signaling, immune response, and cell differentiation. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been associated with various diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of proprotein convertases is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these diseases.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

"Alouatta" is a genus of species that are commonly known as howler monkeys. They are native to the forests of Central and South America. These monkeys are recognized for their loud howls, which can be heard miles away in the forest. The howls are used to communicate with other members of their group and establish territory. Howler monkeys have a strong grip and spend most of their time in the trees. They are primarily herbivores, eating mostly leaves, fruits, and buds.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

'Virus release' in a medical context typically refers to the point at which a virus that has infected a host cell causes that cell to rupture or disintegrate, releasing new viruses into the surrounding tissue or bodily fluids. This is a key step in the replication cycle of many viruses and can lead to the spread of infection throughout the body.

The process of virus release often follows a phase of viral replication inside the host cell, where the virus uses the cell's machinery to produce multiple copies of its genetic material and proteins. Once enough new viruses have been produced, they can cause the host cell membrane to break down, allowing the viruses to exit and infect other cells.

It is important to note that not all viruses follow this pattern of replication, and some may use alternative mechanisms such as budding or exocytosis to release new viruses from infected cells.

"Peromyscus" is not a medical term, but a genus of rodents commonly known as "deer mice." They are small mammals that belong to the family Cricetidae and are found in various parts of North America. Peromyscus mice can carry and transmit diseases, such as Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), although they are not typically referred to in a medical context unless discussing potential zoonotic risks.

Primatology is the study of primates, which includes humans and non-human primates such as monkeys, apes, and lemurs. Primate diseases refer to the range of infectious and non-infectious health conditions that affect these animals. These diseases can be caused by various factors including bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, genetics, environmental conditions, and human activities such as habitat destruction, hunting, and keeping primates as pets.

Examples of primate diseases include:

1. Retroviral infections: Primates are susceptible to retroviruses, including simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) which is the precursor to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
2. Herpesviruses: Many primate species are infected with herpesviruses that can cause a range of diseases from mild skin infections to severe neurological disorders.
3. Tuberculosis: Primates can contract tuberculosis, which is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and can affect multiple organs.
4. Malaria: Primates are hosts to various species of Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria.
5. Hepatitis: Primates can be infected with hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis B and C.
6. Respiratory infections: Primates can suffer from respiratory infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
7. Gastrointestinal diseases: Primates can develop gastrointestinal disorders due to bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections.
8. Neurological disorders: Primates can suffer from neurological conditions such as encephalitis and meningitis caused by various pathogens.
9. Reproductive diseases: Primates can experience reproductive health issues due to infectious agents or environmental factors.
10. Cancer: Primates, like humans, can develop cancer, which can be caused by genetic predisposition, viral infections, or environmental factors.

Understanding primate diseases is crucial for the conservation of endangered species, managing zoonotic diseases that can spread from animals to humans, and advancing medical research, particularly in the fields of infectious diseases and cancer.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

There is no single medical definition for "Monkey Diseases." However, monkeys can carry and be infected with various diseases that are zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted from animals to humans. Some examples include:

1. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV): A virus similar to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes AIDS in monkeys. It is not typically harmful to monkeys but can cause AIDS in humans if transmitted, which is rare.
2. Herpes B Virus: Also known as Macacine herpesvirus 1 or Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, it is a virus that commonly infects macaque monkeys. It can be transmitted to humans through direct contact with an infected monkey's saliva, eye fluid, or cerebrospinal fluid, causing a severe and potentially fatal illness called B encephalitis.
3. Tuberculosis (TB): Monkeys can contract and transmit tuberculosis to humans, although it is not common.
4. Simian Retrovirus (SRV): A virus that can infect both monkeys and great apes, causing immunodeficiency similar to HIV/AIDS in humans. It is not known to infect or cause disease in humans.
5. Various parasitic diseases: Monkeys can carry and transmit several parasites, including malaria-causing Plasmodium species, intestinal worms, and other parasites that can affect human health.

It's important to note that while monkeys can carry and transmit these diseases, the risk of transmission is generally low, and most cases occur in individuals who have close contact with monkeys, such as primatologists, zookeepers, or laboratory workers. Always follow safety guidelines when interacting with animals, including monkeys, to minimize the risk of disease transmission.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

Host-pathogen interactions refer to the complex and dynamic relationship between a living organism (the host) and a disease-causing agent (the pathogen). This interaction can involve various molecular, cellular, and physiological processes that occur between the two entities. The outcome of this interaction can determine whether the host will develop an infection or not, as well as the severity and duration of the illness.

During host-pathogen interactions, the pathogen may release virulence factors that allow it to evade the host's immune system, colonize tissues, and obtain nutrients for its survival and replication. The host, in turn, may mount an immune response to recognize and eliminate the pathogen, which can involve various mechanisms such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and the production of antimicrobial agents.

Understanding the intricacies of host-pathogen interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases. This knowledge can help identify new targets for therapeutic interventions, inform vaccine design, and guide public health policies to control the spread of infectious agents.

"Hylobates" is not a medical term, but a biological genus name. It refers to a group of small, tailless primates known as gibbons or lesser apes, which are native to the forests of Southeast Asia. They are known for their agility in moving through trees by brachiation (arm-over-arm swinging).

There are currently 10 species recognized in the genus Hylobates, including the lar gibbon, agile gibbon, and siamang. While not a medical term, understanding the natural history of animals like gibbons can be important for medical professionals who work with them or study their diseases, as well as for conservationists and others interested in their welfare.

Cyclophilin A is a type of intracellular protein that belongs to the immunophilin family. It has peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, which means it helps in folding and assembling other proteins by catalyzing the cis-trans isomerization of proline residues.

Cyclophilin A is widely distributed in various tissues and cells, including immune cells such as T lymphocytes. It plays a crucial role in the immune system by binding to and activating the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A, which is used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs.

In addition to its role in protein folding and immunosuppression, Cyclophilin A has been implicated in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, gene expression, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). It also plays a role in viral replication, particularly of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS.

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA viruses replicate by using an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate their RNA genome.

There are several different groups of RNA viruses, including:

1. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that is complementary to the mRNA and must undergo transcription to produce mRNA before translation can occur. Examples include influenza virus, measles virus, and rabies virus.
2. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that can serve as mRNA and can be directly translated into protein after entry into the host cell. Examples include poliovirus, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses.
3. Double-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome consisting of double-stranded RNA and use a complex replication strategy involving both transcription and reverse transcription. Examples include rotaviruses and reoviruses.

RNA viruses are known to cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as hepatitis C, polio, and COVID-19. Due to their high mutation rates and ability to adapt quickly to new environments, RNA viruses can be difficult to control and treat with antiviral drugs or vaccines.

Lymphocryptovirus is a genus of gammaherpesviruses that primarily infect B lymphocytes in humans and other primates. The most well-known member of this genus is the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is associated with several human diseases, including infectious mononucleosis, Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

These viruses have a complex life cycle that involves both latent and lytic phases of infection. During the latent phase, the virus genome persists in the host cell without producing new virions, while during the lytic phase, the virus replicates and produces new virions, which can then infect other cells.

Lymphocryptoviruses typically establish lifelong infections in their hosts, and immune evasion is a key feature of their biology. They express a variety of proteins that help them to avoid detection and elimination by the host's immune system, including proteins that inhibit apoptosis, interfere with antigen presentation, and modulate cytokine signaling.

Overall, lymphocryptoviruses are important pathogens that can cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans and other primates. Further research is needed to better understand their biology and develop effective strategies for prevention and treatment.

'Erythrocebus patas' is a scientific name for the Patas monkey, also known as the hussar monkey or red monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to the savannas and woodlands of central Africa. The Patas monkey is known for its long legs, slender body, and reddish-brown fur. It is the fastest primate, capable of reaching speeds up to 34 miles per hour (55 kilometers per hour).

The medical community may not have a specific definition related to 'Erythrocebus patas' as it is primarily studied by zoologists and biologists. However, understanding the characteristics and habits of this species can contribute to broader scientific knowledge and potentially inform research in fields such as comparative medicine or evolutionary biology.

A chimeric protein is a protein that contains parts or sequences from different proteins that do not naturally occur together. These are often created in a laboratory for research purposes, such as to study the function of specific domains of a protein or to design new therapeutics.

A mutant chimeric protein is a type of chimeric protein that contains one or more mutations, which can be either naturally occurring or introduced in the lab. These mutations may alter the function, stability, or other properties of the protein, making it useful for studying the effects of specific genetic changes on protein function.

In summary, mutant chimeric proteins are laboratory-created proteins that contain sequences from different proteins and one or more mutations, which can be used to study the effects of genetic changes on protein function.

"World Health" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in the context of global health, which can be defined as:

"The area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It emphasizes trans-national health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and engages stakeholders from across sectors and societies." (World Health Organization)

Therefore, "world health" could refer to the overall health status and health challenges faced by populations around the world. It encompasses a broad range of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities, including social, economic, environmental, and political determinants. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in monitoring and promoting global health, setting international standards and guidelines, and coordinating responses to global health emergencies.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is not a medical condition or term, but rather a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. Here's a brief description:

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as the global authority on public health issues. Established in 1948, WHO's primary role is to coordinate and collaborate with its member states to promote health, prevent diseases, and ensure universal access to healthcare services. WHO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and has regional offices around the world. It plays a crucial role in setting global health standards, monitoring disease outbreaks, and providing guidance on various public health concerns, including infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, mental health, environmental health, and maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health.

I'm not a medical professional, but the term "History, Ancient" is not a medical term per se. However, in a broader context, it could refer to the study of ancient medical practices, theories, and beliefs that existed in civilizations prior to the Middle Ages or Classical Antiquity. This might include the examination of ancient texts, artifacts, and archaeological evidence to understand how illnesses were treated and viewed in these historical periods. It forms an essential part of the evolution of medical knowledge and practices over time.

"Colobus" is a genus of Old World monkeys that are native to the forests of Africa. The name "Colobus" is derived from the Greek word "kolobos," which means "mutilated" or "maimed." This refers to the distinctive absence or reduction of thumbs in these primates, which is a characteristic feature of their anatomy.

Colobus monkeys are known for their striking black and white fur coats, which vary in pattern depending on the species. They have a long, bushy tail that can be as long as their body, and they use it for balance while moving through trees. Colobus monkeys are herbivores and primarily feed on leaves, fruits, and seeds.

There are several species of Colobus monkeys, including the black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza), the red colobus (Piliocolobus badius), and the Angola colobus (Colobus angolensis), among others. These primates are social animals and live in groups that can range from a few individuals to several hundred, depending on the species and availability of resources.

Colobus monkeys face various threats to their survival, including habitat loss due to deforestation, hunting for bushmeat, and disease. Conservation efforts are underway to protect these fascinating primates and ensure their continued survival in the wild.

"Galago" is not a term used in human or animal medicine. It is the scientific name for a group of small, nocturnal primates native to continental Africa, also known as bushbabies or nagapies. They are not typically associated with medical conditions or treatments. If you have any questions about primatology or zoology, I would be happy to try and help answer those!

"Mandrillus" is a genus of primates that includes two species: the mandrill (M. sphinx) and the drill (M. leucophaeus). These Old World monkeys are native to the rainforests of central Africa, particularly in Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, and Congo.

Mandrills are known for their distinctive appearance, with males having brightly colored faces and rear ends. They are also the largest and most sexually dimorphic monkeys, with males being significantly larger and more brightly colored than females.

Mandrills are primarily frugivorous, feeding on a diet that consists mainly of fruits, but they also eat other plant materials, insects, and occasionally small vertebrates. They live in large, hierarchical groups called troops, which can consist of several hundred individuals.

Mandrills have a complex social structure, with males competing for dominance and access to females. They are known for their loud, distinctive calls, which can be heard up to a mile away and are used to communicate with other members of their troop.

Overall, Mandrillus species are important indicators of the health and diversity of tropical rainforests in central Africa, and they play a critical role in seed dispersal and forest regeneration.

Leishmania is a genus of protozoan parasites that are the causative agents of Leishmaniasis, a group of diseases with various clinical manifestations. These parasites are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. The disease has a wide geographic distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of Asia, Africa, South America, and Southern Europe.

The Leishmania species have a complex life cycle that involves two main stages: the promastigote stage, which is found in the sandfly vector, and the amastigote stage, which infects mammalian hosts, including humans. The clinical manifestations of Leishmaniasis depend on the specific Leishmania species and the host's immune response to the infection.

The three main forms of Leishmaniasis are:

1. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL): This form is characterized by skin lesions, such as ulcers or nodules, that can take several months to heal and may leave scars. CL is caused by various Leishmania species, including L. major, L. tropica, and L. aethiopica.

2. Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL): Also known as kala-azar, VL affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Symptoms include fever, weight loss, anemia, and enlarged liver and spleen. VL is caused by L. donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi species.

3. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (MCL): This form affects the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, and throat, causing destruction of tissues and severe disfigurement. MCL is caused by L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis species.

Prevention and control measures for Leishmaniasis include vector control, early diagnosis and treatment, and protection against sandfly bites through the use of insect repellents and bed nets.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Africa" actually refers to a continent, not a medical condition or concept. Africa is the second-largest continent in the world, consisting of 54 countries and a wide range of diverse ethnic groups, cultures, languages, and landscapes. It is home to a vast array of wildlife, including many species that are not found anywhere else in the world. If you have any questions about Africa's geography, history, or culture, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

Viral envelope proteins are structural proteins found in the envelope that surrounds many types of viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the virus's life cycle, including attachment to host cells, fusion with the cell membrane, and entry into the host cell. They are typically made up of glycoproteins and are often responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host organism. The exact structure and function of viral envelope proteins vary between different types of viruses.

"Saguinus" is a genus of small, New World monkeys that are commonly known as tamarins. They are native to the forests of Central and South America. Tamarins have a slender body with long limbs, a specialized claw-like nail on their second digit of the foot, and a distinct coat coloration that varies between species. They primarily feed on fruits, insects, and exudates from trees. Tamarins are also known for their social structure, typically living in family groups consisting of a mated pair and their offspring.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. A "medical definition" refers to the explanation of a medical term or concept. On the other hand, "15th century" is a historical time period and does not have a medical definition per se. However, I can provide you with some context regarding the medical advancements and practices during the 15th century.

The 15th century was marked by significant developments in medicine, particularly in Europe, as it transitioned from medieval to early modern medicine. Some key aspects of 15th-century medicine include:

1. Universities and medical education: Universities became more prominent centers for medical education, with institutions like the University of Bologna, Padua, Montpellier, and Salamanca playing crucial roles in shaping medical thought. Medical faculties taught subjects such as anatomy, physiology, pathology, surgery, and pharmacology based on ancient Greek and Roman texts, mainly Galen and Hippocrates.

2. Anatomical studies: The 15th century saw the beginning of a more accurate understanding of human anatomy. Italian anatomist and physician Mondino de Luzzi (c. 1270–1326) is known for his influential anatomy textbook, "Anathomia," which was widely used during this period. Later in the century, Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564), often regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy, began his groundbreaking work on detailed dissections and accurate representations of the human body.

3. Renaissance of medical illustrations: The 15th century marked a revival in medical illustrations, with artists like Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) creating highly accurate anatomical drawings based on dissections. These detailed images helped physicians better understand the human body and its functions.

4. Development of hospitals: Hospitals during this time became more organized and specialized, focusing on specific medical conditions or patient populations. For example, mental health institutions, known as "madhouses" or "asylums," were established to treat individuals with mental illnesses.

5. Plague and public health: The ongoing threat of the bubonic plague (Black Death) led to increased efforts in public health, including improved sanitation practices and the establishment of quarantine measures for infected individuals.

6. Humoral theory: Although challenged by some during this period, the ancient Greek humoral theory—which posited that the balance of four bodily fluids or "humors" (blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile) determined a person's health—remained influential in medical practice.

7. Surgery: Barber-surgeons continued to perform various surgical procedures, including bloodletting, tooth extraction, and amputations. However, anesthesia was still not widely used, and pain management relied on opium or alcohol-based preparations.

8. Pharmacology: The use of herbal remedies and other natural substances to treat illnesses remained popular during the 15th century. Physicians like Nicholas Culpeper (1616–1654) compiled extensive lists of medicinal plants and their uses, contributing to the development of modern pharmacology.

9. Astrology and medicine: Despite growing skepticism among some scholars, astrological beliefs continued to influence medical practice in the 15th century. Physicians often consulted astrological charts when diagnosing and treating patients.

10. Medical education: Universities across Europe offered formal medical education, with students studying anatomy, physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. However, many practitioners still learned their trade through apprenticeships or self-study.

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) is a viral infectious disease caused by the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The infection primarily affects the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges), as well as the cerebrospinal fluid, brain, and spinal cord tissue. It is transmitted to humans through close contact with infected rodents, particularly the house mouse (Mus musculus) or its urine, feces, saliva, or nesting materials.

The symptoms of LCM can vary widely but often include fever, severe headache, stiff neck, sensitivity to light, and sometimes vomiting. In some cases, it may also cause muscle aches, joint pain, and rash. A more severe form of the disease can affect the brain and spinal cord, causing confusion, seizures, or even long-term neurological damage.

LCM is typically diagnosed based on symptoms, laboratory tests, and detection of LCMV in cerebrospinal fluid or blood. Treatment usually involves supportive care to manage symptoms, as there is no specific antiviral therapy available for this infection. Most people with LCM recover completely within a few weeks, but severe cases may require hospitalization and intensive care support.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with rodents, especially their urine, feces, and saliva, and maintaining good hygiene practices such as washing hands thoroughly after handling animals or being in areas where rodents might be present.

"Macaca mulatta" is the scientific name for the Rhesus macaque, a species of monkey that is native to South, Central, and Southeast Asia. They are often used in biomedical research due to their genetic similarity to humans.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Asia" is not a medical term. It is the largest continent in the world, comprising about 30% of the Earth's total land area and containing around 60% of the world's current human population. It is divided into several regions, including Northern Asia (Siberia), Eastern Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Taiwan), Southern Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives), Southeastern Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Brunei), and Western Asia (Middle East).

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help.

"Macaca fascicularis" is the scientific name for the crab-eating macaque, also known as the long-tailed macaque. It's a species of monkey that is native to Southeast Asia. They are called "crab-eating" macaques because they are known to eat crabs and other crustaceans. These monkeys are omnivorous and their diet also includes fruits, seeds, insects, and occasionally smaller vertebrates.

Crab-eating macaques are highly adaptable and can be found in a wide range of habitats, including forests, grasslands, and wetlands. They are also known to live in close proximity to human settlements and are often considered pests due to their tendency to raid crops and steal food from humans.

These monkeys are social animals and live in large groups called troops. They have a complex social structure with a clear hierarchy and dominant males. Crab-eating macaques are also known for their intelligence and problem-solving abilities.

In medical research, crab-eating macaques are often used as animal models due to their close genetic relationship to humans. They are used in studies related to infectious diseases, neuroscience, and reproductive biology, among others.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with Leishmania parasites, which are transmitted through the bite of infected female sandflies. The disease primarily affects the skin and mucous membranes, causing lesions that can be disfiguring and stigmatizing. There are several clinical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis, including localized, disseminated, and mucocutaneous.

Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of the disease, characterized by the development of one or more nodular or ulcerative lesions at the site of the sandfly bite, typically appearing within a few weeks to several months after exposure. The lesions may vary in size and appearance, ranging from small papules to large plaques or ulcers, and can be painful or pruritic (itchy).

Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis is a more severe form of the disease, characterized by the widespread dissemination of lesions across the body. This form of the disease typically affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those receiving immunosuppressive therapy.

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is a rare but severe form of the disease, characterized by the spread of infection from the skin to the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, and throat. This can result in extensive tissue destruction, disfigurement, and functional impairment.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, epidemiological data, and laboratory tests such as parasite detection using microscopy or molecular techniques, or serological tests to detect antibodies against the Leishmania parasites. Treatment options for cutaneous leishmaniasis include systemic or topical medications, such as antimonial drugs, miltefosine, or pentamidine, as well as physical treatments such as cryotherapy or thermotherapy. The choice of treatment depends on various factors, including the species of Leishmania involved, the clinical form of the disease, and the patient's overall health status.

"Cebus" is a genus of New World monkeys, also known as capuchin monkeys. They are small to medium-sized primates that are native to Central and South America. Capuchin monkeys are named after the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, because of their similarity in color to the robes worn by the friars.

Capuchin monkeys are highly intelligent and social animals, living in groups of up to 30 individuals. They have a diverse diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. Capuchin monkeys are known for their problem-solving abilities and have been observed using tools in the wild.

There are several species of capuchin monkeys, including the white-fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons), the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella), and the weeper capuchin (Cebus olivaceus). They vary in size, coloration, and behavior, but all share the characteristic cap of hair on their heads that gives them their name.

I'm not aware of a specific medical term called "Ape diseases." However, many primates, including apes, can suffer from diseases that are similar to those that affect humans. Some examples include:

1. Tuberculosis (TB): Both humans and apes can be infected with this bacterial disease, which primarily affects the lungs but can also impact other parts of the body.
2. Hepatitis: Apes can contract various forms of hepatitis, such as hepatitis B and C, just like humans. These viral infections affect the liver and can cause acute or chronic illness.
3. Respiratory infections: Both apes and humans are susceptible to respiratory infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
4. Gastrointestinal diseases: Apes can suffer from gastrointestinal issues, such as diarrhea, due to various bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections.
5. Retroviral infections: Some apes are known to be infected with retroviruses, like simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), which is similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). SIV can lead to a condition called simian AIDS in apes.
6. Zoonotic diseases: Apes can contract zoonotic diseases, which are transmitted from animals to humans, such as Ebola and Marburg viruses.
7. Cardiovascular diseases: Apes can develop heart conditions similar to those seen in humans, including hypertension and atherosclerosis.
8. Neurological disorders: Some apes may suffer from neurological issues, like Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease, although research on these topics is still ongoing.

It's important to note that while apes can contract many of the same diseases as humans, there are also numerous diseases specific to each species due to differences in genetics, environment, and behavior.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Anthropology is the scientific study of humans, human behavior, and societies in the past and present. It includes the study of language, culture, biology, and archaeology. In a medical context, anthropologists may study how cultural factors influence health and illness, health care practices and beliefs, and the impact of medical systems on individuals and communities. This field is known as medical anthropology.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are DNA sequences that have integrated into the genome of germ cells and are therefore passed down from parent to offspring through generations. These sequences are the remnants of ancient retroviral infections, where the retrovirus has become a permanent part of the host's genetic material.

Retroviruses are RNA viruses that replicate by reverse transcribing their RNA genome into DNA and integrating it into the host cell's genome. When this integration occurs in the germ cells, the retroviral DNA becomes a permanent part of the host organism's genome and is passed down to future generations.

Over time, many ERVs have accumulated mutations that render them unable to produce infectious viral particles. However, some ERVs remain capable of producing functional viral proteins and RNA, and may even be able to produce infectious viral particles under certain conditions. These active ERVs can play a role in various biological processes, both beneficial and detrimental, such as regulating gene expression, contributing to genome instability, and potentially causing disease.

It is estimated that up to 8% of the human genome consists of endogenous retroviral sequences, making them an important component of our genetic makeup.

"Cercopithecus" is a genus of Old World monkeys that are commonly known as guenons. These monkeys are native to Africa and are characterized by their colorful fur, long tails, and distinctive facial features. They are agile animals that live in a variety of habitats, including forests, savannas, and mountains.

The term "Cercopithecus" is derived from the Greek words "kerkos," meaning tail, and "pithekos," meaning ape or monkey. This name reflects the long tails that are characteristic of these monkeys.

There are several species of guenons within the genus "Cercopithecus," including the vervet monkey, the grivet, the tantalus monkey, and the de Brazza's monkey, among others. These monkeys are important members of their ecosystems and play a key role in seed dispersal and forest regeneration. They are also popular subjects of research due to their complex social structures and behaviors.

Chiroptera is the scientific order that includes all bat species. Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight, and they are distributed worldwide with the exception of extremely cold environments. They vary greatly in size, from the bumblebee bat, which weighs less than a penny, to the giant golden-crowned flying fox, which has a wingspan of up to 6 feet.

Bats play a crucial role in many ecosystems as pollinators and seed dispersers for plants, and they also help control insect populations. Some bat species are nocturnal and use echolocation to navigate and find food, while others are diurnal and rely on their vision. Their diet mainly consists of insects, fruits, nectar, and pollen, although a few species feed on blood or small vertebrates.

Unfortunately, many bat populations face significant threats due to habitat loss, disease, and wind turbine collisions, leading to declining numbers and increased conservation efforts.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Macaca" is not a medical term. It is the name of a genus that includes several species of monkeys, commonly known as macaques. These primates are often used in biomedical research due to their similarities with humans in terms of genetics and physiology. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

Aotidae is a family of nocturnal primates also known as lorises or slow lorises. They are native to Southeast Asia and are characterized by their small size, round head, large eyes, and a wet-nosed face. Slow lorises have a toxic bite, which they use to defend themselves against predators. They are currently listed as vulnerable or endangered due to habitat loss and hunting.

"Phlebotomus" is a genus of sandflies, which are small flies that are known to transmit various diseases such as leishmaniasis. These flies are typically found in warm and humid regions around the world, particularly in the Mediterranean, Middle East, Africa, and Asia. The females of this genus feed on the blood of mammals, including humans, for egg production. It is important to note that not all species of Phlebotomus are vectors of disease, but those that are can cause significant public health concerns in affected areas.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. A "history" in medical terms usually refers to the detailed account of a patient's symptoms, illnesses, and treatments over time. It is a crucial part of the medical record and helps healthcare professionals understand the patient's health status and inform their care plans.

On the other hand, "16th century" refers to a specific period in history, spanning from 1501 to 1600 AD.

There isn't a direct medical definition for 'History, 16th Century.' However, if you are interested in learning about the medical advancements and practices during that time, I would be happy to provide some information. The 16th century was marked by significant developments in anatomy, surgery, and pharmacology, thanks to pioneers like Andreas Vesalius, Ambroise Paré, and William Shakespeare, who incorporated medical themes into his plays.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

A virion is the complete, infectious form of a virus outside its host cell. It consists of the viral genome (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat called the capsid, which is often surrounded by a lipid membrane called the envelope. The envelope may contain viral proteins and glycoproteins that aid in attachment to and entry into host cells during infection. The term "virion" emphasizes the infectious nature of the virus particle, as opposed to non-infectious components like individual capsid proteins or naked viral genome.

Begomovirus is a genus of viruses in the family *Geminiviridae* that infect plants. These viruses are transmitted by insects, specifically whiteflies, and have circular, single-stranded DNA genomes. Begomoviruses cause various diseases in economically important crops, such as tomatoes, beans, cassava, and cotton, leading to significant yield losses worldwide. The name "Begomovirus" is derived from the type species *Bean golden mosaic virus*, which was isolated from beans in Mexico.

"Macaca nemestrina," also known as the pig-tailed macaque, is not a medical term but a species name in biology. It refers to a specific species of monkey that is native to Southeast Asia. The pig-tailed macaque is a medium-sized monkey with a reddish-brown fur and a distinctive tail that resembles a pig's tail. They are omnivorous and live in social groups that can range from a few individuals to several hundred.

While "Macaca nemestrina" may not have a direct medical definition, these monkeys have been used as models in biomedical research due to their close genetic relationship with humans. Some studies involving pig-tailed macaques have contributed to our understanding of various human diseases and conditions, such as infectious diseases, neurological disorders, and reproductive health. However, it is important to note that the use of animals in research remains a controversial topic, and ethical considerations must be taken into account when conducting such studies.

Cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) is a type of electron microscopy where the sample is studied at cryogenic temperatures, typically liquid nitrogen temperatures. This technique is used to investigate the structure and shape of biological molecules and complexes, viruses, and other nanoscale particles.

In Cryo-EM, the sample is rapidly frozen to preserve its natural structure and then imaged using a beam of electrons. The images are collected at different angles and then computationally combined to generate a 3D reconstruction of the sample. This technique allows researchers to visualize biological structures in their native environment with near-atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their function and behavior.

Cryo-EM has become an increasingly popular tool in structural biology due to its ability to image large and complex structures that are difficult or impossible to crystallize for X-ray crystallography. It has been used to determine the structures of many important biological molecules, including membrane proteins, ribosomes, viruses, and protein complexes involved in various cellular processes.

Alphaviruses are a genus of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that belong to the family Togaviridae. They are enveloped viruses and have a icosahedral symmetry with a diameter of approximately 70 nanometers. Alphaviruses are transmitted to vertebrates by mosquitoes and other arthropods, and can cause a range of diseases in humans and animals, including arthritis, encephalitis, and rash.

Some examples of alphaviruses that can infect humans include Chikungunya virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These viruses are usually found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, and can cause outbreaks of disease in humans and animals.

Alphaviruses have a wide host range, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and insects. They replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and have a genome that encodes four non-structural proteins (nsP1 to nsP4) involved in viral replication, and five structural proteins (C, E3, E2, 6K, and E1) that form the virion.

Prevention and control of alphavirus infections rely on avoiding mosquito bites, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and reducing mosquito breeding sites. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for alphavirus infections, but supportive care can help manage symptoms. Vaccines are available for some alphaviruses, such as Eastern equine encephalitis virus and Western equine encephalitis virus, but not for others, such as Chikungunya virus.

Hantaan virus (HTNV) is a species of the genus Orthohantavirus, which causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. This enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus is primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta, particularly the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Asia. The virus was initially isolated in 1976 from the Hantaan River area in Korea.

HTNV infection leads to a spectrum of clinical manifestations in HFRS, ranging from mild to severe forms. The symptoms often include fever, headache, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and blurred vision. In severe cases, it can cause acute renal failure, hypotension, and hemorrhagic complications. The incubation period for HTNV infection typically ranges from 7 to 42 days.

Prevention strategies include avoiding contact with rodents, reducing rodent populations in living areas, using personal protective equipment when handling potentially infected materials, and ensuring proper food storage and waste disposal practices. No specific antiviral treatment is available for HFRS caused by HTNV; however, supportive care, such as fluid replacement and hemodialysis, can help manage severe symptoms and improve outcomes.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

'Corchorus' is a genus of flowering plants in the family Malvaceae, also known as Jute. It includes several species that are important for their fiber production, such as Corchorus capsularis (white jute) and Corchorus olitorius (tossa jute). These plants are primarily grown in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in South Asia and Africa. The fibers from the bark of these plants are used to make various products like burlap, hessian cloth, rope, and twine. Additionally, Corchorus species have been used in traditional medicine and as a food source in some cultures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Physical anthropology is a subfield of anthropology that focuses on the study of human biological variation and evolution, both in the past and in the present. It draws upon various scientific disciplines such as genetics, anatomy, physiology, and paleontology to understand the biological origins and development of our species, Homo sapiens.

Physical anthropologists study a wide range of topics, including human and primate evolution, population genetics, skeletal biology, forensic anthropology, and bioarchaeology. They often work with fossil remains, archaeological sites, and living populations to investigate questions related to human adaptation, health, migration, and diversity.

By examining the biological aspects of human existence, physical anthropologists aim to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of what it means to be human, both in terms of our shared characteristics as a species and the unique variations that make each individual and population distinct.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Europe" is a geographical and political designation, rather than a medical one. It refers to the continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Europe is made up of approximately 50 countries, depending on how one defines a "country."

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help answer them!

I must clarify that there is no medical definition for "World War II." World War II (1939-1945) was a major global conflict involving many of the world's nations, including all of the great powers, organized into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was marked by significant events, such as the Holocaust, and had profound social, economic, and political consequences. The medical field did play a crucial role during this time, with advancements in battlefield medicine, military medicine, and the treatment of injuries and diseases on a large scale. However, there is no specific medical definition or concept associated with World War II itself.

A "gene" is a basic unit of heredity in living organisms. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes are responsible for inherited traits, such as eye color, hair color, and height, as well as susceptibility to certain diseases.

"Pol" is short for "polymerase," which is an enzyme that helps synthesize DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid). In the context of genes, "pol" often refers to "DNA polymerase," an enzyme that plays a crucial role in DNA replication and repair.

Therefore, "genes, pol" may refer to the genes involved in the regulation or function of DNA polymerases. These genes are essential for maintaining the integrity and stability of an organism's genome. Mutations in these genes can lead to various genetic disorders and cancer.

Paleontology is not a medical field, but rather it is a branch of earth sciences and biology that deals with the study of prehistoric life forms through the examination of plant and animal fossils, including those of extinct organisms. It involves various disciplines such as stratigraphy, geochronology, and systematics to understand the evolutionary history of life on Earth.

However, I understand that you are looking for information related to a non-medical topic, so here is some additional context:

Paleontology can be divided into several subdisciplines, including vertebrate paleontology (the study of fossilized animals with backbones), invertebrate paleontology (the study of fossilized animals without backbones), paleobotany (the study of fossil plants), micropaleontology (the study of microscopic fossils), and taphonomy (the study of the processes that occur after an organism's death, leading to its preservation as a fossil).

Paleontologists use various techniques to study fossils, including comparative anatomy, histology (the study of tissue structure), and geochemistry. They also rely on other scientific fields such as genetics, physics, and chemistry to help them interpret the data they collect from fossils.

Through their research, paleontologists can learn about the morphology, behavior, ecology, and evolutionary relationships of extinct organisms, providing valuable insights into the history of life on Earth.

Leishmaniasis is a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan parasites of the Leishmania species, which are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. The disease presents with a variety of clinical manifestations, depending upon the Leishmania species involved and the host's immune response.

There are three main forms of leishmaniasis: cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), and visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar. CL typically presents with skin ulcers, while MCL is characterized by the destruction of mucous membranes in the nose, mouth, and throat. VL, the most severe form, affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow, causing symptoms like fever, weight loss, anemia, and enlarged liver and spleen.

Leishmaniasis is prevalent in many tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of Asia, Africa, South America, and southern Europe. The prevention strategies include using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and improving housing conditions to minimize exposure to sandflies. Effective treatment options are available for leishmaniasis, depending on the form and severity of the disease, geographical location, and the Leishmania species involved.

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

"Papio hamadryas" is a species of old world monkey, also known as the Hamadryas baboon. It is not a medical term or concept. Here's a brief overview of its biological significance:

The Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) is native to the Horn of Africa and the southwestern Arabian Peninsula. They are highly social primates, living in large groups called troops. These troops can consist of hundreds of individuals, but they are hierarchically structured with multiple adult males, harems of females, and their offspring.

Hamadryas baboons have a distinctive appearance, characterized by their dog-like faces, hairless calluses on their rumps, and long, flowing manes. They primarily feed on plants, but they are also known to consume small vertebrates and invertebrates. Their gestation period is approximately six months, and females typically give birth to a single offspring.

In captivity, Hamadryas baboons have been used as subjects in various biomedical research studies due to their close phylogenetic relationship with humans. However, the term 'Papio hamadryas' itself does not have a medical definition.

'Aotus trivirgatus' is a species of New World monkey, also known as the owl monkey or the white-bellied night monkey. It is native to South America, particularly in countries like Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil. This nocturnal primate is notable for being one of the few monogamous species of monkeys, and it has a diet that mainly consists of fruits, flowers, and insects.

The medical community may study 'Aotus trivirgatus' due to its use as a model organism in biomedical research. Its genetic similarity to humans makes it a valuable subject for studies on various diseases and biological processes, including infectious diseases, reproductive biology, and aging. However, the use of this species in research has been controversial due to ethical concerns regarding animal welfare.

"Leishmania major" is a species of parasitic protozoan that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, a type of disease transmitted through the bite of infected female sandflies. The organism's life cycle involves two main stages: the promastigote stage, which develops in the sandfly vector and is infective to mammalian hosts; and the amastigote stage, which resides inside host cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, where it replicates.

The disease caused by L. major typically results in skin ulcers or lesions that can take several months to heal and may leave permanent scars. While not usually life-threatening, cutaneous leishmaniasis can cause significant disfigurement and psychological distress, particularly when it affects the face. In addition, people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, may be at risk of developing more severe forms of the disease.

L. major is found primarily in the Old World, including parts of North Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia. It is transmitted by various species of sandflies belonging to the genus Phlebotomus. Preventive measures include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and reducing outdoor activities during peak sandfly feeding times.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Glycosylation is the enzymatic process of adding a sugar group, or glycan, to a protein, lipid, or other organic molecule. This post-translational modification plays a crucial role in modulating various biological functions, such as protein stability, trafficking, and ligand binding. The structure and composition of the attached glycans can significantly influence the functional properties of the modified molecule, contributing to cell-cell recognition, signal transduction, and immune response regulation. Abnormal glycosylation patterns have been implicated in several disease states, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

In medical terms, "fossils" do not have a specific or direct relevance to the field. However, in a broader scientific context, fossils are the remains or impressions of prehistoric organisms preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock. They offer valuable evidence about the Earth's history and the life forms that existed on it millions of years ago.

Paleopathology is a subfield of paleontology that deals with the study of diseases in fossils, which can provide insights into the evolution of diseases and human health over time.

Gene duplication, in the context of genetics and genomics, refers to an event where a segment of DNA that contains a gene is copied, resulting in two identical copies of that gene. This can occur through various mechanisms such as unequal crossing over during meiosis, retrotransposition, or whole genome duplication. The duplicate genes are then passed on to the next generation.

Gene duplications can have several consequences. Often, one copy may continue to function normally while the other is free to mutate without affecting the organism's survival, potentially leading to new functions (neofunctionalization) or subfunctionalization where each copy takes on some of the original gene's roles.

Gene duplication plays a significant role in evolution by providing raw material for the creation of novel genes and genetic diversity. However, it can also lead to various genetic disorders if multiple copies of a gene become dysfunctional or if there are too many copies, leading to an overdose effect.

Botany is the scientific study of plants, encompassing various disciplines such as plant structure, function, evolution, diversity, distribution, ecology, and application. It involves examining different aspects like plant anatomy, physiology, genetics, molecular biology, systematics, and ethnobotany. The field of botany has contributed significantly to our understanding of the natural world, agriculture, medicine, and environmental conservation.

It is a member of Clade A of the Tacaribe (or "New World") serocomplex of the family Arenaviridae. Laboratory workers infected ... Zuckerman 2014, p. 10 "Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused by Arenaviruses" (PDF). The Center for Food Security and Public Health. ... Zuckerman, Ben (2014). Howard, C R (ed.). Arenaviruses. Elsevier. p. 7. ISBN 9780080877372. ... an arenavirus with a mammalian host. It was first found in semiaquatic rodents of the genus Oryzomys in tropical forest in the ...
... all three being New World arenaviruses. The virus is named after Bear Canyon, the area it was originally discovered in. Cajimat ... An Arenavirus Naturally Associated with the California Mouse (Peromyscus californicus)". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (7): ... "Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses". Virology. 367 (2): 235-243. doi: ...
"Phylogeny and evolution of old world arenaviruses". Virology. 350 (2): 251-7. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2006.01.026. PMID 16494913. ... Gonzalez JP, Sanchez A, Rico-Hesse R (July 1995). "Molecular phylogeny of Guanarito virus, an emerging arenavirus affecting ... "One Health Initiative - One World One Medicine One Health". www.onehealthinitiative.com. Retrieved 2018-06-29. Ezama A, ... Arenavirus, Hantavirus, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic virus and others. In the late 90s he began working as a professor of ...
They suggested that scholars consider New World arenaviruses and the role these pathogens may have played in colonial disease ... would have increased the presence of New World rats and mice. These animals may have carried arenaviruses capable of causing ... Somolinos d'Ardois believed cocoliztli was not the result of any known Old World pathogen but possibly a virus of New World ... Given that many Old World pathogens may have caused the cocoliztli outbreak, it is significant that all but two of the most ...
... the Old World arenaviruses, and the New World arenaviruses. Old World arenaviruses include lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus ... New world arena viruses are further broken down into three clades, A, B, and C. The Guanarito arena virus belongs to clade B ... February 2008). "Receptor determinants of zoonotic transmission of New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses". Proc. Natl. Acad ... Arenaviruses causing hemorrhagic fevers, along with a genus of virus called filoviruses, were categorized in Category A; these ...
Picornaviruses have been identified from a diverse array of bat species around the world. Arenaviruses are mainly associated ... The first arenavirus identified in bats was Tacaribe mammarenavirus, which was isolated from Jamaican fruit bats and the great ... The hepadnavirus found in the tent-making bat, which is a New World species, was the closest relative of human hepadnaviruses. ... "Ebola virus disease". World Health Organization. 10 February 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020. "What is Ebola Virus Disease?". ...
"Fatal Illnesses Associated With a New World Arenavirus --- California, 1999--2000". MMWR Weekly. Fulhorst, Charles; Charrel, ... Arenavirus-specific RNA was detected in each patient using RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequence of the patients were essentially ... Like other arenaviruses, WWAV appears to be transmitted through rodents. Therefore, direct contact with rodents, their feces, ... in the family Arenaviridae change the name of genus Arenavirus to Mammarenavirus and convert the names of its constituent ...
Alpha-dystroglycan is also used as a receptor by viruses of the New World clade C arenaviruses (Oliveros and Latino viruses). ... It shares this receptor with the prototypic Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Receptor recognition ... the New World arenaviruses of clades A and B, which include the important viruses Machupo, Guanarito, Junin, and Sabia in ... The life cycle of Lassa mammarenavirus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa mammarenavirus enters the cell by the ...
Specifically it is an old world arenavirus, which is enveloped, single-stranded, and bi-segmented RNA. This virus has both a ... World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 5 June 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015. Dongo, A. E.; Kesieme, E. B.; ... "Lassa fever". World Health Organization. Retrieved 11 September 2017. McCormick, J. B.; King, I. J.; Webb, P. A.; Scribner, C. ... "Lassa Fever - Nigeria". World Health Organization. 1 March 2018. Archived from the original on 1 March 2018. Edward-Ekpu, ...
It is of the "Old World" Arenavirus lineage and is closely related to Lassa mammarenavirus, sharing 75% of its amino acid ... Johnson KM, Taylor P, Elliott LH, Tomori O (November 1981). "Recovery of a Lassa-related arenavirus in Zimbabwe". The American ... Retrieved 8 May 2022.[dead link] Wulff H, McIntosh BM, Hamner DB, Johnson KM (1977). "Isolation of an arenavirus closely ... Gonzalez JP, Emonet S, de Lamballerie X, Charrel R (2007). Childs JE, Mackenzie JS, Richt JA (eds.). "Arenaviruses". Wildlife ...
"Comparative analysis of disease pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of New World and Old World arenavirus infections". The ... It is caused by the Junín virus (an arenavirus, closely related to the Machupo virus, causative agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic ...
Sequencing of the viral genome has shown that this virus belongs to the Old World arenavirus group. Comparisons with other ... viral genome sequences showed that this virus is equidistant from other Old World and New World arenaviruses. It is distantly ... identified the etiological agent of the outbreak as an Old World arenavirus using molecular and serological tests. Sequencing ... "Discovery of new arenavirus associated with hemorrhagic fever - first identified in nearly four decades". News-Medical.net. ...
The New World and Old World species diverged less than 45,000 years ago. The New World species evolved between 41,400 and 3,300 ... termini of the virion RNA species of New World and Old World arenaviruses". Virology. 121 (1): 200-3. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(82) ... Old and New World area viruses appear to have diverged ~45,000 years ago. The Old World Mammarenaviruses originated ~23.1-1.88 ... At least eight arenaviruses are known to cause human disease. The diseases derived from arenaviruses range in severity. Aseptic ...
As receptors for phosphatidylserine, TIM proteins bind many families of viruses [filovirus, flavivirus, New World arenavirus ...
... arenavirus MeSH B04.820.057.070.100 - arenaviruses, old world MeSH B04.820.057.070.100.500 - lassa virus MeSH B04.820.057.070. ... arenavirus MeSH B04.909.777.080.070.100 - arenaviruses, old world MeSH B04.909.777.080.070.100.500 - lassa virus MeSH B04.909. ... 100.550 - lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus MeSH B04.820.057.070.800 - arenaviruses, new world MeSH B04.820.057.070.800.450 - ... 777.080.070.100.550 - lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus MeSH B04.909.777.080.070.800 - arenaviruses, new world MeSH B04.909. ...
... fever on the developing world Monoclonal antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus react with pathogenic arenaviruses ... Johnson, K. M.; Taylor, P.; Tomori, O.; Elliott, L. H. (1981-11-01). "Recovery of a Lassa-Related Arenavirus in Zimbabwe". The ... He served as the Regional Virologist for the World Health Organization Africa Region (1994-2004) before he was appointed as the ... "What can Nigeria's Ebola experience teach the world?". The Guardian. October 7, 2014. Retrieved 2019-09-16. Kupferschmidt, Kai ...
The Maiztegui National Human Viral Disease Institute has performed research for the World Health Organization since 1985 and ... currently specializes in four areas: Arenaviruses Arboviruses Hantavirus Production of biological specimens ANLIS (in Spanish) ...
He is a member of the World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases. He is also director for biodefense ... His arenavirus research concentrates on the effects of infection on cellular function, particularly those molecular ... Peters, C. J. and Mark Olshaker (1998), Virus Hunter: Thirty Years of Battling Hot Viruses Around the World, Random House. ... of viral diseases including more than 70 publications on Rift Valley fever virus and more than 60 publications on arenaviruses ...
Guanarito virus New World arenavirus - Junin virus New World arenavirus - Machupo virus New World arenavirus - Sabia virus ... hemorrhagic fever Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Ebola virus Lassa virus Lujo virus Marburg virus New World arenavirus ...
The two RNA segments are denoted Small (S) and Large (L). It belongs to the New World Clade B lineage of mammarenaviruses and ... in the family Arenaviridae change the name of genus Arenavirus to Mammarenavirus and convert the names of its constituent ... Like other members of the Arenavirus family, the specific zoonotic reservoir and primary transmission vector is suspected to be ... a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia". PLOS Pathog. 4 (4): e1000047. doi: ...
"Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers". World Health Organization (WHO). United Nations (UN). Archived from the original on August 23, 2004 ... Post-exposure prophylactic (preventive) ribavirin may be effective for some bunyavirus and arenavirus infections. VHF isolation ... 2004). Return of the Black Death: The World's Greatest Serial Killer West Sussex; John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-470-09000-6. ... and HFRS due to Old World Hantavirus infection) and can be used only under an experimental protocol as IND approved by the U.S ...
In July 2019, the World Health Organization declared the Congo Ebola outbreak a world health emergency. The length of time ... arenaviruses, and flaviviruses" (PDF). Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 October ... Health topics: Ebola virus disease - World Health Organization. Videos: Ebola outbreak response - World Health Organization. " ... Urging the world to offer aid to the affected regions, its Director-General said, "Countries affected to date simply do not ...
... is an East African arenavirus infecting the multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis). The virus is genetically ... Bull World Health Organ. 52 (4-6): 493-499. PMC 2366657. PMID 182399. (Articles with 'species' microformats, Taxonbars without ... as this has been suggested for other arenaviruses. Günther S, Hoofd G, Charrel R, Röser C, Becker-Ziaja B, Lloyd G, Sabuni C, ... an African arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus, in its natural reservoir host Mastomys natalensis". Sci Rep. 5: 10445. ...
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are productively infected and activated through TLR-7 early after arenavirus infection. Cell Host ... featuring the top immunologists from around the world. In order to make the talks available longitudinally, the recorded talks ... DDX3 suppresses type I interferons and favors viral replication during Arenavirus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2018 Jul 12;14(7): ... "Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are productively infected and activated through TLR-7 early after arenavirus infection". Cell Host ...
"A brief history of vaccines and how they changed the world". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2020-04-30. "Creating a world in ... category A arenavirus) Chlamydia psittaci (category B) Naegleria fowleri (category B) Balamuthia mandrillaris (category B) St. ... CEPI promotes the idea that a proactive approach is required to "create a world in which epidemics are no longer a threat to ... In 2014, the Western African Ebola virus epidemic demonstrated how ill-prepared the world was to handle such an epidemic. In ...
The mortality rate varies significantly depending on the form, being up to 50% in New World hantaviruses (the Americas), up to ... With the exception of Hantaviruses and Arenaviruses, all viruses in the Bunyavirales order are transmitted by arthropods ( ... 15% in Old World hantaviruses (Asia and Europe), and as little as 0.1% in Puumala virus (mostly Scandinavia). The antibody ...
"Hepatitis B". World Health Organization. Retrieved 5 October 2021."Hepatitis C". World Health Organization. Retrieved 5 October ... Other viruses than can cause hepatitis include: Adenoviruses Arenaviruses: Guanarito virus, Junín virus, Lassa fever virus, ... This occurs primarily in third world countries. Strict personal hygiene and the avoidance of raw and unpeeled foods can help ...
First identified in 1958, Argentine hemorrhagic fever is a rodent-borne illness caused by the arenavirus Junin that is endemic ... An online petition was launched on April 27, 2022, asking the World Health Organization to revise its guidelines issued in ... or one-third of the world's population, became infected with this virus. The Spanish influenza pandemic was the first pandemic ...
The island of Vir in Croatia is one of the biggest described endemic places of origin of LCMV in the world, with IFA testing ... The first arenavirus, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus (LCMV), was isolated in 1933 by Charles Armstrong during a ... World Health Organ. 55 (5): 599-603. PMC 2366689. PMID 338190. ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, version 4. [2] Centers for ... LCMV has been shown to cause illness in New World primates such as macaques, marmosets and tamarins. Infections have also been ...
Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M.D. (2005). "Superfamily Muroidea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: ... "Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses". Virology. 367 (2): 235-243. doi: ...
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative ... High impact information on Arenaviruses, New World. *The apparent lack of SKI-1 cleavage at the CCHF virus Gc RKPL site ... Chemical compound and disease context of Arenaviruses, New World. *In cells infected with Machupo virus in the presence of ... Disease relevance of Arenaviruses, New World. *Phylogenetic analysis of a portion of the N gene sequence confirmed that Sabiá ...
Old World/New World Arenaviruses. Arenaviruses are divided into two groups - New World and Old World viruses - based on genetic ... LCMV, classified as an Old World arenavirus, is the only arenavirus found in both the Western and Eastern Hemisphere. ... There are some arenaviruses - both New and Old World - that have been identified in host animals, but no human infection has ... The types of rodents that spread arenaviruses are located across much of the world, including Europe, Asia, Africa, and the ...
Old World arenaviruses. New World arenaviruses. Dandedong. Ippy. Kodoko. Mobala. Mopeia. Morogoro. Lassa. LCMV. Lujo. Lemn. ... compared with Old World and 2 New World arenaviruses*. Virus sequence†. ... Nucleotide and amino acid p-distances of 2 arenaviruses in blood of Mus minutoides and Lemniscomys rosalia mice in Morogoro, ... Sympatric Occurrence of 3 Arenaviruses, Tanzania Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq. , Benny Borremans, Abdul Katakweba, Rhodes Makundi, ...
The genus Arenavirus includes 22 viral species and 9 additional arenaviruses that have been recently discovered, for which ... Arenaviruses are single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that cause chronic infections in rodents and zoonotically ... The New World arenaviruses are further divided into 3 lineages designated clades: A, B, C. LCMV is the only arenavirus to exist ... New World Arenavirus Biology. Annu Rev Virol. 2017 Sep 29. 4 (1):141-158. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full Text]. ...
Old World" by people in this website by year, and whether "Arenaviruses, Old World" was a major or minor topic of these ... One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the Old World complex. It includes LASSA VIRUS and ... "Arenaviruses, Old World" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Arenaviruses, Old World" by people in Profiles. ...
Access New World Arenavirus - Guanarito Virus case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health ... New World arenavirus - Junin virus 2010 Current New World arenavirus - Machupo virus ... New World arenavirus - Chapare virus 2010 Current New World arenavirus - Guanarito virus ...
It is a member of Clade A of the Tacaribe (or "New World") serocomplex of the family Arenaviridae. Laboratory workers infected ... Zuckerman 2014, p. 10 "Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused by Arenaviruses" (PDF). The Center for Food Security and Public Health. ... Zuckerman, Ben (2014). Howard, C R (ed.). Arenaviruses. Elsevier. p. 7. ISBN 9780080877372. ... an arenavirus with a mammalian host. It was first found in semiaquatic rodents of the genus Oryzomys in tropical forest in the ...
Arenaviruses (Arenaviridae) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (World Health ... VHFs are found around the world. Specific diseases are usually limited to areas where the animals that carry them live. For ...
... are on the priority list of the World Health Organisation (WHO) as diseases requiring urgent research and development measures ... Arenaviruses. What are arenaviruses?. Arenaviruses are the largest family of haemorrhagic fever causing viruses. Endemic to ... Quantitative proteomics- Molecular mechanism of arenavirus pathogenesis Despite the high genetic similarity amongst arenavirus ... Host-restriction of arenavirus infection The interplay between host cell immunity and viral replication is a key determinant of ...
... they are divided into two groups-the Old World Arenaviruses and the New World Arenaviruses. ... Among the Old World Arenaviruses, Lassa virus, Lujo virus and Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus are considered the most worthy ... What is known, however, is that the New World Arenaviruses such as Junin and Machupo virus enter human cells after binding to a ... The prime suspects among the New World Arenaviruses are Junin virus, Machupo virus, Guanarito virus and Sabia virus. ...
Categories: Arenaviruses, New World Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Isolation and Characterization of Pirital Virus, a Newly Discovered South American Arenavirus published on May 1997 by The ... that is antigenically and phylogenetically distinct from all known New World arenaviruses. The results of the present study ... alstoni are representatives of a novel New World arenavirus (proposed name Pirital) ... In the present study, four arenavirus isolates recovered from the Municipality of Guanarito (two isolates each from S. alstoni ...
Novel Arenavirus Causes Mystery Illness in Zambia and South Africa. An active, young Zambian safari guide fell ill last month ... Mosquitoes: The Worlds Deadliest Animals. The area surrounding Antananarivo, Madagascar, was not predicted to be a high risk ...
Relationships among Old World arenaviruses by the neutralization test (log neutralization index determined by reduction of ...
The new model is controversial but has been ruled by US regulators and the World Health Organization as safe and scientifically ... Research Roundup: New gonorrhea treatment, Arenavirus vaccine development, Study sheds light on viral infection. Read time: ... The project is aimed at kickstarting the broader development of vaccines for arenaviruses, which include the virus that causes ... Research Roundup: New gonorrhea treatment, Arenavirus vaccine development, Study sheds light on viral infection ...
Arenaviruses also will be targeted by the U-led research.. While viruses in those families are constantly mutating, the goal is ... The research also will be modeled after the success in the world of HIV treatment -developing a combination of drugs that work ...
The Soviet Union weaponized several hemorrhagic fever viruses including Marburg, Ebola, Lassa, and the New World arenaviruses ... Hibakusha is the term widely used in Japan to refer to survivors of the World War II atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ... Al-Qaida means "the base" in Arabic, and acts as an umbrella organization for a number of terrorist groups around the world. ... The city in Japan where the first atomic bomb, little boy, was dropped on 6 August 1945 during World War II. More than ...
Co-circulation of Clade C New World arenaviruses: New geographic distribution and host species ... and arenavirus (Fernandes et al., 2015; Sabino-Santos et al., 2016), and it can act as a reservoir/host of Trypanosoma cruzi ( ...
The combined data suggests the possibility of two virus groups within the Old World arenavirus classification. The proposed ... Serologically related arenaviruses have been isolated from West Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and the Central African Republic. ... It is suggested that the Mopeia viruses are minor antigenic variants of Lassa and should be included within the arenavirus ... and physicochemical characteristics not dissimilar from West African Lassa viruses and those members of the arenavirus family ...
... prepared against Tacaribe and Junin viruses have been used to define further the serological relationships between arenaviruses ... Casals J., Buckley S. M., Cedeno R. 1975; Antigenic properties of the arenaviruses. Bulletin of the World Health Organization ... Kiley M. P., Tomori O., Regnery R. L., Johnson K. M. 1981; Characterization of the arenaviruses Lassa and Mozambique. In The ... Wulff H., Lange J. V., Webb P. A. 1978; Interrelationships among arenaviruses measured by indirect immunofluorescence. ...
Lassa fever: an old world arenavirus Lassa Fever: An Old World Arenavirus ABSTRACT A brief summary of lassa fever, its history ... The creation of the universe The Creation of the Universe This paper will go over the creation of the universe. There are many ... to understand more about the universe and the laws by which the universe works. The more knowledge we have about the universe, ... They claim that physics deals only with the objective, material world, while religion deals only with the world of values. It ...
Hantavirus infects wild rodents throughout the world. There are different types of hantavirus in different parts of the world. ... dedicated to using leading-edge science to save and improve lives around the world. Learn more about the MSD Manuals and our ...
Interestingly, these compounds have previously been identified as inhibitors of New World arenaviruses but were suggested to ... But as the world waits for Bill & Melinda Gates to unveil their latest Ebola vaccine news to the world, there is simply no ... Before Its News® is a community of individuals who report on whats going on around them, from all around the world.. Anyone ... Anyone can become informed about their world.. "United We Stand" Click Here To Create Your Personal Citizen Journalist Account ...
The genus Arenavirus includes 22 viral species and 9 additional arenaviruses that have been recently discovered, for which ... Arenaviruses are single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that cause chronic infections in rodents and zoonotically ... Fatal illnesses associated with a new world arenavirus--California, 1999-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000 Aug 11. 49(31): ... Transferrin receptor 1 is a cellular receptor for New World haemorrhagic fever arenaviruses. Nature. 2007 Mar 1. 446(7131):92-6 ...
Morphology and morphogenesis of arenaviruses. / Murphy, F. A.; Whitfield, S. G. In: Bulletin of the World Health Organization, ... Murphy, F. A. ; Whitfield, S. G. / Morphology and morphogenesis of arenaviruses. In: Bulletin of the World Health Organization ... Murphy, FA & Whitfield, SG 1975, Morphology and morphogenesis of arenaviruses, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol ... Murphy, F. A., & Whitfield, S. G. (1975). Morphology and morphogenesis of arenaviruses. Bulletin of the World Health ...
Pasqual G., Rojek J.M., Masin M., Chatton J.Y., Kunz S., Old world arenaviruses enter the host cell via the multivesicular body ...
... including New World arenaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, hantaviruses, other Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, ... arenaviruses and Ebola virus. Reported by: F Mu]oz, MD, C Jarquin, MD, A Gonzalez, MD, J Amador, MD, J de los Reyes, MD, R ...
A few travelers (including health care workers) from other parts of the world have returned home from Africa with Ebola virus ... dedicated to using leading-edge science to save and improve lives around the world. Learn more about the Merck Manuals and our ...
... single-stranded RNA arenavirus that is endemic in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria, with seasonal peaks in incidence ... LASV has been prioritized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a high threat pathogen for which there is a need for ... World Health Organisation. Lassa Fever R&D: WHO; 2019. Available from: https://www.who.int/blueprint/priority-diseases/key- ... World Health Organisation. List of Blueprint priority diseases: WHO; 2018. Available from: http://www.who.int/blueprint/ ...
Arenavirus, and Filovirus Infections - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Arenavirus infections are relatively common in people in some areas of the world and can cause severe disease. ... Arenaviruses Arenaviruses are spread by rodents. Infections caused by these viruses include lymphocytic choriomeningitis ... Arbovirus, arenavirus, and filovirus are viruses that are spread from animals to people and, with some viruses, from people to ...
  • The most familiar of the arenaviruses include lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and hemorrhagic fevers caused by Lassa virus, Machupo virus, and Junin virus. (medscape.com)
  • This article divides the discussion of these viruses by clinical relevance and manifestations: Old World (Lassa virus, LCMV) and New World (South American hemorrhagic fevers). (medscape.com)
  • Endemic to West Africa and South America, arenaviral haemorrhagic fevers, such as Lassa fever (LF), are on the priority list of the World Health Organisation (WHO) as diseases requiring urgent research and development measures. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • We have partnered with Lassa virus epidemiologists and virologists, Professor Danny Asogun and Dr Deborah Ehichioya, at the Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH) and Ambrose Alli University (AAU) in Nigeria to link the biomedical investigation with social engagement and communication to tackle the spread of the highly fatal arenavirus, Lassa (LASV), in endemic regions in Nigeria. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Among the Old World Arenaviruses, Lassa virus, Lujo virus and Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus are considered the most worthy of disease detectives' attention, largely because of their ability to cause severe disease in people. (gavi.org)
  • The project is aimed at kickstarting the broader development of vaccines for arenaviruses, which include the virus that causes Lassa fever, one of CEPI's priority pathogens. (ghtcoalition.org)
  • The Mozambique and Zimbabwe isolates proved to have morphological and physicochemical characteristics not dissimilar from West African Lassa viruses and those members of the arenavirus family from South America. (bl.uk)
  • It is suggested that the Mopeia viruses are minor antigenic variants of Lassa and should be included within the arenavirus family. (bl.uk)
  • Lassa fever, which is caused by an arenavirus, can affect multiple organs and cause bleeding in late stages. (upr.org)
  • MOPEVAC vaccine, previously developed by the same group of scientists based on a hyper-attenuated Mopeia virus (MOPV), was shown to be efficient against the Lassa virus (LASV), an Old-World arenavirus, in macaques. (star-oddi.com)
  • family members, Lassa disease (LASV) and Junin disease (JUNV) generate regular annual outbreaks of serious human being hemorrhagic fever (HF) in endemic regions of Western world Africa and Argentina, respectively. (cancerdir.com)
  • LASV may be the many prevalent and harmful arenavirus, leading to over 300,000 situations of Lassa fever each year and between 5,000 and 10,000 fatalities [1]. (cancerdir.com)
  • The usage of these different remedies is normally a direct effect of the various mechanism of security linked to both arenavirus HF: security in Argentine HF is dependant on induction of a solid humoral immune system response [8] whereas in Lassa fever affected individual recovery is principally linked to cell-mediated immune system response with low antibody creation [1]. (cancerdir.com)
  • The recent emergence of Zaire ebolavirus in West Africa has come as a surprise in a region more commonly known for its endemic Lassa fever, another viral hemorrhagic fever caused by an Old World arenavirus. (org.in)
  • The prime suspects among the New World Arenaviruses are Junin virus, Machupo virus, Guanarito virus and Sabia virus. (gavi.org)
  • What is known, however, is that the New World Arenaviruses such as Junin and Machupo virus enter human cells after binding to a particular type of molecule known as transferrin receptor 1, or TfR1, and perhaps other types of cell surface receptors too. (gavi.org)
  • Last week, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) and the University of Oxford announced the launch of a new project to develop prototype vaccines against an arenavirus called Junin virus, which causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever. (ghtcoalition.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies prepared against Tacaribe and Junin viruses have been used to define further the serological relationships between arenaviruses of the Tacaribe complex. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was the first arenavirus identified. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1934, the prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), was first isolated during serial monkey passage of human material that was obtained from a fatal infection in the first documented epidemic of St. Louis encephalitis, a totally unrelated virus. (medscape.com)
  • Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus, as one example, is endemic in wild mice and is therefore thought to be a threat to humans wherever wild mice live - which is on every continent of the world except Antarctica. (gavi.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus react with pathogenic arenaviruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Pichinde viruses: generation, characterization and cross-reactivity with other arenaviruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The prototype world-wide distributed arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis trojan (LCMV) may also infect human beings, generally leading to an asymptomatic training course or a light febrile illness occasionally connected with aseptic meningitis. (cancerdir.com)
  • NEW YORK and VIENNA, Austria, Nov. 20, 2023 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- HOOKIPA Pharma Inc. (NASDAQ: HOOK, 'HOOKIPA'), a company developing a new class of immunotherapeutics based on its proprietary arenavirus platform, today announced that the Company has received clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its Investigational New Drug (IND) application for HB-500, a novel arenaviral therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of HIV. (khon2.com)
  • HOOKIPA Pharma Inc. (NASDAQ: HOOK) is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing novel immunotherapies, based on its proprietary arenavirus platform, which are designed to mobilize and amplify targeted T cells and thereby fight or prevent serious disease. (wlns.com)
  • A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá). (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore to both of these pathogens that represent the primary health risk in the family members, there's also four regarded Laquinimod arenaviruses, Sabi, Guanarito, Machupo and Chapare trojan, able to generate very sporadic situations of HF in Brazil, Venezuela and Bolivia, respectively. (cancerdir.com)
  • Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia. (bvsalud.org)
  • In conclusion, two different arenaviruses , Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia . (bvsalud.org)
  • The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention in the US said that the Chapare virus falls in the arenavirus category. (businessinsider.in)
  • The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention in the US said that the Chapare virus falls in the arenavirus category and can spread through direct contact with infected rodents or indirectly through the urine or feces (droppings) of infected rodents. (businessinsider.in)
  • It is a member of Clade A of the Tacaribe (or "New World") serocomplex of the family Arenaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • But as the world waits for Bill & Melinda Gates to unveil their latest Ebola vaccine news to the world, there is simply no mention of these powerful substances that may hold promise (and be extremely inexpensive to get a hold of international) in the fight for our immunity. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Immunohistochemical tests of these tissues with polyclonal antibodies were negative for dengue virus, yellow fever virus, hantaviruses, arenaviruses and Ebola virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Arenaviruses are divided into two groups - New World and Old World viruses - based on genetic differences as well as where the viruses are geographically distributed. (cdc.gov)
  • New World viruses are found in the Western Hemisphere - North and South America. (cdc.gov)
  • Old World viruses occur in the Eastern Hemisphere - Africa, Europe, and Asia. (cdc.gov)
  • The arenaviruses are a large group of viruses that typically affect rodents. (medscape.com)
  • Arenaviruses are single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that cause chronic asymptomatic infections in rodents and zoonotically acquired disease in humans through rodent excreta, especially urine. (medscape.com)
  • One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the Old World complex. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Arenaviruses are the largest family of haemorrhagic fever causing viruses. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The Arenavirus family has scores of viruses in it, several of which are known to infect and cause disease in people as well as animals. (gavi.org)
  • While the family's human pathogenic viruses are fairly closely related, they are divided into two groups-the Old World Arenaviruses and the New World Arenaviruses. (gavi.org)
  • Rats, mice, hamsters, voles and other rodents are the primary carriers of Arenaviruses and are the main route of transmission of the viruses from animals to people. (gavi.org)
  • Arbovirus, arenavirus, and filovirus are viruses that are spread from animals to people and, with some viruses, from people to people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The matrix Z proteins of arenaviruses are related to cellular RING domain proteins, and the matrix proteins of some negative strand RNA viruses are related to cellular cyclophilin. (virology.ws)
  • Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 52 (4-5 6), 409-419. (utmb.edu)
  • Murphy, FA & Whitfield, SG 1975, ' Morphology and morphogenesis of arenaviruses ', Bulletin of the World Health Organization , vol. 52, no. 4-5 6, pp. 409-419. (utmb.edu)
  • An Institut Pasteur team has successfully developed a pentavalent vaccine against the five pathogenic arenaviruses circulating in South America and tested it. (pasteur.fr)
  • FDA is requiring that Valneva perform a post-market study to continue to monitor the vaccine's safety and side effects.With support from Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV), Kenyan manufacturer Universal Corporation Ltd has received prequalification from the World Health Organization (WHO) for sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SPAQ), an antimalarial drug used to prevent seasonal malaria in children during peak transmission periods. (ghtcoalition.org)
  • Zuckerman 2014, p. 10 "Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused by Arenaviruses" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • LCMV, classified as an Old World arenavirus, is the only arenavirus found in both the Western and Eastern Hemisphere. (cdc.gov)
  • The New World arenaviruses are further divided into 3 lineages designated clades: A, B, C. LCMV is the only arenavirus to exist in both areas but is classified as an Old World virus. (medscape.com)
  • The genus Arenavirus includes 22 viral species and 9 additional arenaviruses that have been recently discovered, for which taxonomic status remains pending. (medscape.com)
  • Other arenaviruses from South America and Africa are classic causes of viral hemorrhagic fever syndrome, whereas others have been identified but not found to cause disease or even infection in humans. (medscape.com)
  • Despite the high genetic similarity amongst arenavirus strains, disease can vary from asymptomatic to fatal implying that the interplay between the host immune response and viral replication is a major predictive factor for disease outcome. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Regardless of medical burden depicted by arenavirus attacks, no effective and safe chemotherapy happens to be available enabling examine these pathologies as neglected viral illnesses. (cancerdir.com)
  • Their study, published June 2, 2017 in the journal Science , is the first to show a key piece of the viral structure, called the surface glycoprotein, for any member of the deadly arenavirus family. (gvn.org)
  • The Arenavirus family includes some of the most lethal haemorrhagic fevers known. (gavi.org)
  • New World arenaviruses (NWAs) are known to cause haemorrhagic fevers and can have high mortality rates. (star-oddi.com)
  • In all, the results demonstrate that a kinase inhibitor cocktail consisting of genistein and tyrphostin AG1478 is a broad-spectrum antiviral that may be used as a therapeutic or prophylactic against arenavirus and filovirus hemorrhagic fever. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Symptomatic and travel to New World Arenavirus endemic areas or contact to travellers from these areas. (canada.ca)
  • Aside from the vital circumstance in endemic areas, the high regularity of international surroundings travels in addition has contributed towards the importation of arenavirus HF situations into several cities all over the world [3]. (cancerdir.com)
  • In some areas of the world, arenavirus infections in people are relatively common and can cause severe disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Most infections spread among adult rodents through scratches and bites, although for certain arenaviruses, the virus passes from mother to offspring during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Patients who recover from infections with arenaviruses may continue to shed virus in blood, saliva, urine, or semen for months after they no longer have symptoms," said the CDC. (businessinsider.in)
  • Sequence of the nucleocapsid protein gene of Machupo virus: close relationship with another South American pathogenic arenavirus, Junín. (wikigenes.org)
  • Arenaviruses have been divided into 2 groups based on whether the virus is found to infect Old World (ie, Eastern Hemisphere) rodents (family Muridae, subfamily Murinae) or New World (ie, Western Hemisphere) rodents (family Muridae, subfamily Sigmodontinae). (medscape.com)
  • Flexal mammarenavirus (also known as the Flexal virus or FLEV, and previously known by the laboratory code BeAn 293022) is a mammarenavirus: an arenavirus with a mammalian host. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, new strains of arenaviruses are being discovered, hence, virus sequence diversity is expanding and the likelihood of new outbreaks is increasing, for which disease severity and treatment options are unknown. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The current lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms of key host-virus interactions that potentiate disease pathogenesis or impede disease potential through evasion of host cellular immunity, hampers the development of novel therapeutic strategies for arenavirus infection. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The research also will be modeled after the success in the world of HIV treatment -developing a combination of drugs that work together even if the virus becomes resistant to a single therapeutic. (startribune.com)
  • The combined data suggests the possibility of two virus groups within the 'Old World' arenavirus classification. (bl.uk)
  • Self-replicating, virus like nucleic acids emerged in the pre-cellular world and from the emerged the first cells. (virology.ws)
  • Isolation of the New World Arenaviruses (NWA): Machupo virus. (canada.ca)
  • RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses , which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses . (bvsalud.org)
  • The types of rodents that spread arenaviruses are located across much of the world, including Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. (cdc.gov)
  • In some instances, arenaviruses can spread to people when consuming infected rodents as a food source. (cdc.gov)
  • Hantavirus infects wild rodents throughout the world. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Serologically related arenaviruses have been isolated from West Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and the Central African Republic. (bl.uk)
  • A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. (lookformedical.com)
  • We are currently investigating the mechanisms of host restriction of arenavirus entry that may inform novel strategies to design therapeutic agents that utilise the host cell antiviral immunity to block emerging arenaviruses. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Upon this basis, there can be an essential dependence on the introduction of book therapeutic choices against arenaviruses. (cancerdir.com)
  • This article targets book strategies to determine inhibitors for arenavirus therapy, examining the prospect of antiviral advancements of diverse sponsor factors needed for disease infection. (cancerdir.com)
  • Sequences of arenaviruses in L. rosalia and M. minutoides mice have been deposited in GenBank under accession nos. (cdc.gov)
  • High genetic divergence and recombination in Arenaviruses from the Americas. (wikigenes.org)
  • A species of ARENAVIRUS , part of the New World Arenaviruses ( ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD ), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. (nih.gov)
  • Arenaviruses are either spherical, oval, or pleomorphic and vary between 110 and 130 nanometers in diameter. (gavi.org)
  • Despite multiple intensive studies by disease investigators, the way in which Arenaviruses enter host cells is still something of a mystery. (gavi.org)
  • This marks our fourth active IND program at HOOKIPA-a further testament to the broad potential of our arenavirus platform across multiple disease areas and indications," said Joern Aldag, Chief Executive Officer at HOOKIPA. (khon2.com)
  • In the world of public health, a lot of the media attention is focusing on the Zika outbreak in Latin America, but that's not the only disease on the rise. (upr.org)
  • Arenaviruses are shed into the environment in the urine, saliva, or droppings of infected rodent hosts. (cdc.gov)
  • Arenaviruses, Old World" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)