One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.
One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the Old World complex. It includes LASSA VIRUS and LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS, although the latter has worldwide distribution now.
The only genus in the family ARENAVIRIDAE. It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution.
Virus diseases caused by the ARENAVIRIDAE.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.
The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.
A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.
Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, one of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing a fatal infection in the cricetine rodent Oryzomys albigularis. Asymptomatic laboratory infection in humans has been reported.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Biological activities of viruses and their interactions with the cells they infect.
An infraorder of New World monkeys, comprised of the families AOTIDAE; ATELIDAE; CEBIDAE; and PITHECIIDAE. They are found exclusively in the Americas.
A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI, consisting of nine subfamilies: ALOUATTINAE; AOTINAE; Atelinae; Callicebinae; CALLIMICONINAE; CALLITRICHINAE; CEBINAE; Pithecinae; and SAIMIRINAE. They inhabit the forests of South and Central America, comprising the largest family of South American monkeys.
Dystrophin-associated proteins that play role in the formation of a transmembrane link between laminin-2 and DYSTROPHIN. Both the alpha and the beta subtypes of dystroglycan originate via POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of a single precursor protein.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.
A family of RNA viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, containing filamentous virions. Although they resemble RHABDOVIRIDAE in possessing helical nucleocapsids, Filoviridae differ in the length and degree of branching in their virions. There are two genera: EBOLAVIRUS and MARBURGVIRUS.
A group of iron-binding proteins that tightly bind two ferrate ions along with two carbonate ions. They are found in the bodily fluids of vertebrates where they act as transport and storage molecules for iron.
An infraorder of PRIMATES comprised of the families CERCOPITHECIDAE (old world monkeys); HYLOBATIDAE (siamangs and GIBBONS); and HOMINIDAE (great apes and HUMANS). With the exception of humans, they all live exclusively in Africa and Asia.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.
A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
A genus of Old World monkeys of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, that inhabits the mountainous regions of Ethiopia. The genus consists of only one species, Theropithecus gelada.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain TROPANES. The common name of trumpet flower is also sometimes used for GELSEMIUM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).
A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans and new world primates. The type species human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) is better known as the Epstein-Barr virus.
A species of the genus ERYTHROCEBUS, subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE. It inhabits the flat open arid country of Africa. It is also known as the patas monkey or the red monkey.
Proteins produced from GENES that have mutated by the fusing of protein coding regions of more than one gene. Such hybrid proteins are responsible for some instances of ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE and defective biological processes such as NEOPLASMS.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A genus of Old World monkeys, subfamily COLOBINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, that inhabits the forests of Africa. It consists of eight species: C. angolensis (Angolan colobus), C. badius or C. rufomitratus (Red or Bay colobus), C. guereza (Guereza or Eastern black-and-white colobus), C. kirkii (Kirk's colobus), C. polykomos (King colobus or Western black-and-white colobus), C. satanas (Black colobus), and C. verus (Olive colobus). Some authors recognize Procolobus as a separate genus and then the olive colobus is recognized as the species P. verus.
A genus of the family Lorisidae having four species which inhabit the forests and bush regions of Africa south of the Sahara and some nearby islands. The four species are G. alleni, G. crassicaudatus, G. demidovii, and G. senegalensis. There is another genus, Euoticus, containing two species which some authors have included in the Galago genus.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, comprising two species: the drill (M. leucophaeus) and the mandrill (M. sphinx). They are usually found in thick rainforest and have a gentle disposition despite their ferocious reputation. Some authors consider Mandrillus a subgenus of PAPIO.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A genus in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE consisting of 12 species and found in Panama as well as South America. Species seen most frequently in the literature are S. oedipus (cotton-top marmoset), S. nigricollis, and S. fusicollis.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE, subfamily CEBINAE, consisting of four species which are divided into two groups, the tufted and untufted. C. apella has tufts of hair over the eyes and sides of the head. The remaining species are without tufts - C. capucinus, C. nigrivultatus, and C. albifrons. Cebus inhabits the forests of Central and South America.
Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
A genus of Old World monkeys found in Africa although some species have been introduced into the West Indies. This genus is composed of at least twenty species: C. AETHIOPS, C. ascanius, C. campbelli, C. cephus, C. denti, C. diana, C. dryas, C. erythrogaster, C. erythrotis, C. hamlyni, C. lhoesti, C. mitis, C. mona, C. neglectus, C. nictitans, C. petaurista, C. pogonias, C. preussi, C. salongo, and C. wolfi.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).
A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A plant genus of the family TILIACEAE. Members contain cycloartane saponins and CARDENOLIDES.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.
Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE, which has a well-studied trilevel social structure consisting of troops, bands, and clans.
A species in the family AOTIDAE, inhabiting the forested regions of Central and South America (from Panama to the Amazon). Vocalizations occur primarily at night when they are active, thus they are also known as Northern night monkeys.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.

New World arenavirus clade C, but not clade A and B viruses, utilizes alpha-dystroglycan as its major receptor. (1/23)

Alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG) has been identified as a major receptor for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa virus, two Old World arenaviruses. The situation with New World arenaviruses is less clear: previous studies demonstrated that Oliveros virus also exhibited high-affinity binding to alpha-DG but that Guanarito virus did not. To extend these initial studies, several additional Old and New World arenaviruses were screened for entry into mouse embryonic stem cells possessing or lacking alpha-DG. In addition, representative viruses were further analyzed for direct binding to alpha-DG by means of a virus overlay protein blot assay technique. These studies indicate that Old World arenaviruses use alpha-DG as a major receptor, whereas, of the New World arenaviruses, only clade C viruses (i.e., Oliveros and Latino viruses) use alpha-DG as a major receptor. New World clade A and B arenaviruses, which include the highly pathogenic Machupo, Guanarito, Junin, and Sabia viruses, appear to use a different receptor or coreceptor for binding. Previous studies with LCMV have suggested the need for a small aliphatic amino acid at LCMV GP1 glycoprotein amino acid position 260 to allow high-affinity binding to alpha-DG. As reported herein, this requirement appears to be broadly applicable to the arenaviruses as determined by more extensive analysis of alpha-DG receptor usage and GP1 sequences of Old and New World arenaviruses. In addition, GP1 amino acid position 259 also appears to be important, since all arenaviruses showing high-affinity alpha-DG binding possess a bulky aromatic amino acid (tyrosine or phenylalanine) at this position.  (+info)

Human macrophages, but not dendritic cells, are activated and produce alpha/beta interferons in response to Mopeia virus infection. (2/23)

Lassa virus (LV) and Mopeia virus (MV) are closely related members of the Arenavirus genus, sharing 75% amino acid sequence identity. However, LV causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, whereas MV cannot induce disease. We have previously shown that antigen-presenting cells (APC)-macrophages (MP) and dendritic cells (DC)-sustain high replication rates of LV but are not activated, suggesting that they play a role in the immunosuppression observed in severe cases of Lassa fever. Here, we infected human APC with MV and analyzed the cellular responses induced. MV infection was productive in MP and even more so in DC. Apoptosis was not induced in either cell type. Moreover, unlike DC, MP were early and strongly activated in response to MV, as shown by the increased surface expression of CD86, CD80, CD54, CD40, and HLA-abc and by the production of mRNA encoding alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), IFN-beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6. In addition, MV-infected MP produced less of the virus than DC, which was related to the fact that these cells secreted IFN-alpha. Thus, the strong activation of MP is probably a major event in the control of MV infection and may be involved in the induction of an adaptive immune response in infected hosts. These results may explain the difference in pathogenicity between LV and MV.  (+info)

Phylogeny and evolution of old world arenaviruses. (3/23)

The intention of this study was to investigate the genomics, phylogeny and evolution of the Old World arenaviruses based on sequence data representing the four viral genes. To achieve this aim, we sequenced the complete S and L RNA segments of Ippy virus (IPPYV), Mobala virus (MOBV) and Mopeia virus (MOPV). Full-length sequences of the NP, GPC, Z and L genes were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to compare resulting tree topologies. Each of the five Old World arenavirus species (namely Lassa virus [LASV], IPPYV, MOBV, MOPV and Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV]) are monophyletic; seven selected strains of LASV showed a similar topology regardless of the gene under analysis; IPPYV rooted the three other African arenaviruses; the four African arenaviruses are rooted by the ubiquitous LCMV; and the tree topologies of the three African arenaviruses other than LASV are identical regardless of the gene used for analysis. No evidence for significant evolutionary events such as intra- or intersegmental recombination was obtained.  (+info)

Old World and clade C New World arenaviruses mimic the molecular mechanism of receptor recognition used by alpha-dystroglycan's host-derived ligands. (4/23)

alpha-Dystroglycan (DG) is an important cellular receptor for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and also serves as the receptor for Old World arenaviruses Lassa fever virus (LFV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and clade C New World arenaviruses. In the host cell, alpha-DG is subject to a remarkably complex pattern of O glycosylation that is crucial for its interactions with ECM proteins. Two of these unusual sugar modifications, protein O mannosylation and glycan modifications involving the putative glycosyltransferase LARGE, have recently been implicated in arenavirus binding. Considering the complexity of alpha-DG O glycosylation, our present study was aimed at the identification of the specific O-linked glycans on alpha-DG that are recognized by arenaviruses. As previously shown for LCMV, we found that protein O mannosylation of alpha-DG is crucial for the binding of arenaviruses of distinct phylogenetic origins, including LFV, Mobala virus, and clade C New World arenaviruses. In contrast to the highly conserved requirement for O mannosylation, more generic O glycans present on alpha-DG are dispensable for arenavirus binding. Despite the critical role of O-mannosyl glycans for arenavirus binding under normal conditions, the overexpression of LARGE in cells deficient in O mannosylation resulted in highly glycosylated alpha-DG that was functional as a receptor for arenaviruses. Thus, modifications by LARGE but not O-mannosyl glycans themselves are most likely the crucial structures recognized by arenaviruses. Together, the data demonstrate that arenaviruses recognize the same highly conserved O-glycan structures on alpha-DG involved in ECM protein binding, indicating a strikingly similar mechanism of receptor recognition by pathogen- and host-derived ligands.  (+info)

Genetic identification of Kodoko virus, a novel arenavirus of the African pigmy mouse (Mus Nannomys minutoides) in West Africa. (5/23)

Genetic evidence of a novel arenavirus species related to but distinct from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was obtained from a rodent belonging to an endemic African subgenus of Mus (Nannomys). The phylogenetic position among Old World arenaviruses of this new arenavirus, named Kodoko virus, was reconstructed based on L and NP genes sequences. The finding of an Old World arenavirus related to LCMV outside the known geographical range of LCMV in a novel rodent species reveals new insights about the evolutionary history of arenaviruses.  (+info)

Old World arenavirus infection interferes with the expression of functional alpha-dystroglycan in the host cell. (6/23)

alpha-Dystroglycan (alpha-DG) is an important cellular receptor for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins as well as the Old World arenaviruses lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and the human pathogenic Lassa fever virus (LFV). Specific O-glycosylation of alpha-DG is critical for its function as receptor for ECM proteins and arenaviruses. Here, we investigated the impact of arenavirus infection on alpha-DG expression. Infection with an immunosuppressive LCMV isolate caused a marked reduction in expression of functional alpha-DG without affecting biosynthesis of DG core protein or global cell surface glycoprotein expression. The effect was caused by the viral glycoprotein (GP), and it critically depended on alpha-DG binding affinity and GP maturation. An equivalent effect was observed with LFVGP. Viral GP was found to associate with a complex between DG and the glycosyltransferase LARGE in the Golgi. Overexpression of LARGE restored functional alpha-DG expression in infected cells. We provide evidence that virus-induced down-modulation of functional alpha-DG perturbs DG-mediated assembly of laminin at the cell surface, affecting normal cell-matrix interactions.  (+info)

Basolateral entry and release of New and Old World arenaviruses from human airway epithelia. (7/23)

 (+info)

Different mechanisms of cell entry by human-pathogenic Old World and New World arenaviruses. (8/23)

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Several viruses in the Arenaviridae family infect humans and cause severe hemorrhagic fevers which lead to high case fatality rates. Due to their pathogenicity and geographic tropisms, these viruses remain very understudied. As a result, an effective vaccine or therapy is urgently needed. Here, we describe efforts to produce cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies that bind to both New and Old World arenaviruses. All of our MAbs seem to be nonneutralizing and nonprotective and target subunit 2 of the glycoprotein. Due to the lack of reagents such as recombinant glycoproteins and antibodies for rapid detection assays, our MAbs could be beneficial as analytic and diagnostic tools.
Three patients who received visceral-organ transplants from a single donor on the same day died of a febrile illness 4 to 6 weeks after transplantation. Culture, polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and serologic assays, and oligonucleotide microarray analysis for a wide range of infectious agents were not informative.,We evaluated RNA obtained from the liver and kidney transplant recipients. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing was used to identify microbial sequences not found by means of other methods. The specificity of sequences for a new candidate pathogen was confirmed by means of culture and by means of PCR, immunohistochemical, and serologic analyses.,High-throughput sequencing yielded 103,632 sequences, of which 14 represented an Old World arenavirus. Additional sequence analysis showed that this new arenavirus was related to lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses. Specific PCR assays based on a unique sequence confirmed the presence of the virus in the kidneys, liver, blood, and cerebrospinal ...
From the town of Bogglewort comes the halfling Willy Muttonchop. He has left the Grand County of the Mootland to explore the Old World as he really enjoys living among the other taller denizens of the Empire. Due to certain lucky circumstances there are always interesting things to show up in his pockets. Unfortunately some of the taller folks seem to be not very polite while Willy is around for a longer amount of time. But he has a sunny disposition and doesnt bother to move along and meet new friends. As a true son of The Moot Willy adores a good meal. Time will tell if the halfling still can keep up with his luck even in the more dangerous parts of the Old World. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Attenuated replication of lassa virus vaccine candidate ML29 in STAT-1 -/- mice AU - Johnson, Dylan M.. AU - Jokinen, Jenny D.. AU - Lukashevich, Igor S.. PY - 2019/3/1. Y1 - 2019/3/1. N2 - Lassa virus (LASV), a highly prevalent mammalian arenavirus endemic in West Africa, can cause Lassa fever (LF), which is responsible for thousands of deaths annually. LASV is transmitted to humans from naturally infected rodents. At present, there is not an effective vaccine nor treatment. The genetic diversity of LASV is the greatest challenge for vaccine development. The reassortant ML29 carrying the L segment from the nonpathogenic Mopeia virus (MOPV) and the S segment from LASV is a vaccine candidate under current development. ML29 demonstrated complete protection in validated animal models against a Nigerian strain from clade II, which was responsible for the worst outbreak on record in 2018. This study demonstrated that ML29 was more attenuated than MOPV in STAT1 -/- mice, a small animal ...
The Center for One Health Research Department of Environment & Occupational Health Sciences School of Public Health University of Washington Box 357234 Seattle, WA, USA ...
A host of disease-causing viruses called arenaviruses lurk in animal populations in various parts of the world, sometimes crossing over into humans. When they do cross over, they can be lethal, and few treatments exist.. Now researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science have devised a clever decoy for these viruses that may keep them from spreading in the body.. Two disease-causing arenaviruses, known as Junín and Machupo, circulate through rodent populations, mainly in South America, and they can infect humans when people come in contact with affected rodents. Similar to Ebola, these diseases can cause the body to bleed out, and the only treatments, to date, are risky and complex, as they are taken from the blood of survivors.. The study, reported in Nature Communications, arose from an earlier research question in the group of Dr Ron Diskin of the Weizmann Institutes Structural Biology Department: how are certain arenaviruses able to move from rodents or other animals into ...
Arenaviruses are feared as agents that cause viral hemorrhagic fevers. We report the identification, isolation, and genetic characterization of 2 novel arenaviruses from Namaqua rock mice in Namibia. These findings extend knowledge of the distribution and diversity of arenaviruses in Africa.
Old World warblers are a large group of birds formerly grouped together in the bird family Sylviidae. The family held over 400 species in over 70 genera, and were the source of much taxonomic confusion. Two families were split out initially, the cisticolas into Cisticolidae and the kinglets into Regulidae. In the past ten years they have been the subject of much research and many species are now placed into other families, including the Acrocephalidae, Cettiidae, Phylloscopidae, and Megaluridae. In addition some species have been moved into existing families or have not yet had their placement fully resolved. A smaller family of warblers, together with some babblers formerly placed in the family Timaliidae and the parrotbills, are retained in a much smaller family Sylviidae. Most Old World warblers are of generally undistinguished appearance, though some Asian species are boldly marked. The sexes are often identical, but may be clearly distinct, notably in the genus Sylvia. They are of small to ...
In events from a mile down, there is something to be said for the inertia you carry through from a brisk pace developed when youre primarily using anaerobic systems. This is most significant in an event like the 400 while you burn up ATP in the first couple of seconds (free energy, some say), but I think its demonstrated as far up as the 1500. Tim finished that 1500 after opening in 52. Thats obviously too fast, but it suggests to me that the optimal opening pace for him is probably a 54, as it costs you less from an energy perspective to float and try to avoid deceleration (especially when a positive-split race allows room for some deceleration, while an even-split race requires metronomic maintenance that might be more draining/equally draining). ...
Taken together, the viruses that cause VHFs are distributed over much of the globe. However, because each virus is associated with one or more particular host species, the virus and the disease it causes are usually seen only where the host species live(s). Some hosts, such as the rodent species carrying several of the New World arenaviruses, live in geographically restricted areas. Therefore, the risk of getting VHFs caused by these viruses is restricted to those areas. Other hosts range over continents, such as the rodents that carry viruses which cause various forms of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America, or the different set of rodents that carry viruses which cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe and Asia. A few hosts are distributed nearly worldwide, such as the common rat. It can carry Seoul virus, a cause of HFRS; therefore, humans can get HFRS anywhere where the common rat is found.. While people usually become infected only in areas ...
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Shop for Usingers Old World Style Wieners at Pick n Save. Find quality meat & seafood products to add to your Shopping List or order online for Delivery or Pickup.
Researchers have uncovered structural and functional details of a key Lassa virus protein; this new information may aid the development of vaccines.
Someone asked me about my childhood in regards to my last post about the new sex-ed curriculum in Ontario. Well, my childhood was great, I cant say I was a perfect child of course, I had a little attitude at times :) but all in all, it was good. The sun seemed to shine most…
A gorgeous reflective cross with flared arms and a vintage old world style. Have it custom engraved with babys name and date. This cross is nickel plated to make it non-tarnishing. The back of the cross includes hardware to be hung on a wall. Makes a thoughtful gift for baptisms or welcoming a new baby.
Heres to those who choose to shy away from the norm. To those who embrace old world chic and prefer things of substance rather than perceived value ...
The established animal model for Lassa fever is based on the new world arenavirus Pichinde (PIC). Natural isolates of PIC virus are attenuated in guinea pigs, but serial guinea pig passage renders them extremely virulent in that host. We have compared the nucleotide sequences of the small RNA segments of two attenuated, low-passage variants of the PIC virus Munchique strain (CoAn 4763) and two virulent, high-passage derivatives. Missense mutations in the glycoprotein precursor (GPC) gene at codons GPC-119, GPC-140, and GPC-164 and the nucleoprotein gene (NP) codons NP-35 and NP-374 were most closely associated with virulence. Codon GPC-140 is predicted to represent a region of peak hydrophilicity of the glycoprotein 1 (GP1); it is conceivable that mutations at this site could influence virulence by altering B cell epitopes or virus attachment protein conformation.
Old World vultures are not closely related to the superficially similar New World vultures and condors, and do not share that groups good sense of smell. The similarities between the two groups of vultures are due to convergent evolution, rather than a close relationship. They were widespread in both the Old World and North America during the Neogene. Old World vultures are probably a polyphyletic group within Accipitridae, with the palm-nut vulture, Egyptian vulture and bearded vulture separate from the others.[1] Most authorities refer to two major clades: Gypaetinae and Aegypiinae (Aegypius, Gyps, Sarcogyps, Torgos, Trigonoceps and possibly Necrosyrtes). The former seem to be nested with Perninae hawks, while the latter are closely related and possibly even synonymous with Aquilinae.[2] Within Aegypiinae, Torgos, Aegypius, Sarcogyps and Trigonoceps are particularly closely related and possibly within the same genus.[3][4]. Both Old World and New World vultures are scavenging birds, feeding ...
To determine whether Lassa virus was circulating in southern Mali, we tested samples from small mammals from 3 villages, including Soromba, where in 2009 a British citizen probably contracted a lethal Lassa virus infection. We report the isolation and genetic characterization of Lassa virus from an area previously unknown for Lassa fever.
I identify as a fan of the New World of Darkness line. I love Changeling: the Lost with a rabid passion, and have a soft spot for the other games as well. Recently, I picked up a few books from the Old World of Darkness line. They are kind of thick and intimidating, and before diving in, I would like to know a bit about what to expect. What is the Old World of Darkness like? How is it different from its successor?
Find album reviews, stream songs, credits and award information for Blood Oranges - Brave Old World on AllMusic - 1999 - On Blood Oranges, Brave Old World combines the…
Palladium Hoteles y Resorts. Hoteles de playa todo incluido y hoteles de ciudad. Hoteles de lujo ,suites de lujo, Garden villas, con servicios especiales para adultos y familias. Hoteles con spa y servicios especiales para bodas y lunas de miel. Hoteles de negocio para eventos y congresos. Reserva online mejor precio garantizado, ofertas especiales, y ofertas exclusivas
Palladium Hoteles y Resorts. Hoteles de playa todo incluido y hoteles de ciudad. Hoteles de lujo ,suites de lujo, Garden villas, con servicios especiales para adultos y familias. Hoteles con spa y servicios especiales para bodas y lunas de miel. Hoteles de negocio para eventos y congresos. Reserva online mejor precio garantizado, ofertas especiales, y ofertas exclusivas
Please Note, The ebooks are not always PDF format, you might receive epub/kindle formats after purchase. This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-3
La premiación se llevará a cabo el 31 de marzo en Almeda Mall con jueces que decidirán quien es la "Mujer Extraordinaria" de Houston. Hay $1,500 en premios para la ganadora, incluyendo un tratameinto de lujo de spa; para consentir a las mujeres de nuestra vida ...
A new, relatively expensive wine like this with a story to tell needs to be either hand-sold or have a pleasingly, appropriately classy label. So a much-needed redesign was finally arranged and the colour-coded quadrant layout replaced with a clean, fresh herald with a touch of gold, on a white background. Eye-catching but with a nod to tradition, it looks fresh but evokes Old World heritage and, more importantly, stands out well on a quick scan of shelves ...
Abstract The objectives of this study were to extend our knowledge of the geographic distribution and rodent host range of arenaviruses in North America. Sera from wild rodents collected from the southern and western United States were tested for antibody against Tamiami, Pichinde, Junin, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses, using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibody to at least one arenavirus was found in 220 (3.1%) of 7,106 rodents tested. The antibody-positive animals included Mus musculus from Florida and Texas; Neotoma albigula from Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico; N. fuscipes and N. lepida from California: N. mexicana from Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah; N. stephensi from Arizona and New Mexico; and Oryzomys palustris and Sigmodon hispidus from Florida. Sigmodon hispidus seropositive for Tamiami virus were found only in Florida (156 [27.0%] of 578 tested), although 463 hispid cotton rats from outside that state were examined. High-titered antibodies to Tamiami virus were present
Arenaviruses are enveloped, bipartite negative single-stranded RNA viruses that can cause a wide spectrum of disease in humans and experimental animals including hemorrhagic fever. The majority of these viruses are rodent-borne and the arenavirus family can be divided into two groups: the Lassa-Lymphocytic choriomeningitis serocomplex and the Tacaribe serocomplex. Arenavirus-induced disease may include characteristic symptoms ranging from fever, malaise, body aches, petechiae, dehydration, hemorrhage, organ failure, shock, and in severe cases death. Currently, there are few prophylactic and therapeutic treatments available for arenavirus-induced symptoms. Supportive care and ribavirin remain the predominant strategies for treating most of the arenavirus-induced diseases. Therefore, efficacy testing of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies in relevant animal models is necessary. Because of the potential for person-to-person spread, the ability to cause lethal or debilitating disease in humans,
The structure reveals how the virus evades its hosts immune system, and how it hijacks infected cells vital machinery in a process scientists call cap-stealing. Details of the structure could guide future efforts to develop an effective anti-viral drug and vaccine.. The findings are published in this weeks issue of Nature.. Lassa virus represents a family of viruses - arenaviruses - whose natural hosts are rodents and which cause hemorrhagic fevers in Africa and South America. New varieties of arenavirus continue to emerge, such as the deadly Lujo virus identified recently in Zambia and South Africa.. Lassa virus infects between 100,000 and 300,000 people every year in West Africa, with an estimated 5,000 deaths according to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Most people infected experience a mild illness, but about 20 per cent suffer a severe multisystem disease with internal bleeding and immune suppression. Around one per cent of all infections are fatal. A common ...
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) caused by arenaviruses are acute diseases characterized by fever, headache, general malaise, impaired cellular immunity, eventual neurologic involvement, and hemostatic alterations that may ultimately lead to shock and death. The causes of the bleeding are still poorly understood. However, it is generally accepted that these causes are associated to some degree with impaired hemostasis, endothelial cell dysfunction and low platelet counts or function. In this article, we present the current knowledge about the hematological alterations present in VHF induced by arenaviruses, including new aspects on the underlying pathogenic mechanisms.
There are 170 calories in 1 serving, 1/2 pizza (3.6 oz) of AC LaRocco Old World Veggie Ultra Thin Sprouted Grain Pizza, frozen. Youd need to walk 44 minutes to burn 170 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
This weeks high/low weekend is a comparison of the new world and old world styles of wine. Australia is representing the new world with a Riesling from Edna Valley. I bet a few of you didnt even know that Australia made Rieslings (you are not alone). But, they certainly do and if you enjoy Riesling with petrol characteristics, then you should really try Australia. The old world is being represented by Spain with a traditional, … Read more. ...
International adventure with a fast-track family (& dogs) of Old World values, adopting the Russian-Italian-American good life on the go…!
Of all Swedens cities, none manage to blend Old World influences with modern-day charm half as well as Gothenburg. Situat... ...
Fr linear-oblong, slightly flattened laterally, tipped by the slender stylopodia, the ribs low and obtuse; oil-tubes 1-4 in the intervals, 2 on the commissure; carpophore bifid to the base; umbels compound, the rays ±unequal; invol none or of a single small bract; umbellets few-fld, the 0-3 bractlets minute, the pedicels very unequal; sep minute or obsolete; pet white; branching, glabrous herbs with trifoliolate lvs and numerous loose, irregular umbels arising terminally and from the upper axils. 4, the others Old World ...
Pictures of the Old World (Slovak: Obrazy starého sveta) is a 1972 Slovak documentary film by Dušan Hanák. The film is about old people who seemingly live at the edge of society. Pictures of the Old World was voted in 2000 by Slovak critics as the best Slovak film of all time. The film won the Best Non-Fiction Film at 1990 Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards. The film was banned until 1988 and so it is officially premiered in July 1988. The film consists of dialogues with old people who havent been deformed by civilisation. The film tries to find answers to questions of human existence. People featured in the film tell their life stories that are linked to their ancestors customs. Their lives are often sad and unhappy. All of them are the evidence of human power and freemasonry. The most of them live the remain of their lives lonely with animals as their only friends. List of films considered the best Pictures of the Old World on IMDb Pictures of the Old World at Rotten Tomatoes ...
Davies J, Lokuge K, Glass K. Vaccine 37(26):3451-3456, 2019; 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.05.010. Lassa fever is an acute viral illness caused by Lassa virus (LASV), a rodent-borne pathogen. LASV is endemic to much of Sub-Saharan West Africa, where seasonal outbreaks cause significant morbidity and mortality. Increased global awareness of LASV has led to development of improved diagnostic tests, treatments and vaccines. As vaccine candidates are trialled, it is essential to assess the potential outcomes of introducing a LASV vaccination program in endemic regions. This study investigates the potential outcomes of routine and pulse vaccination strategies using a deterministic mathematical model that captures seasonal LASV transmission between rodents and humans. For plausible parameter values, we find that immunization of 40% of infants at 70% vaccine effectiveness achieves a population-level reduction in infectious case numbers of 30%, while coverage of 60% at 90% vaccine effectiveness achieves a 56% ...
We have analyzed human genetic diversity in 33 Old World populations including 23 populations obtained through Genographic Project studies. A set of 1,536
The Eastern; Or Old World Embracing Ancient and Modern History Volume 2 by Henry Howard Brownell, 9781236520265, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
THIS IS A WARNING for the so-called gods/demons/aliens/ upper level masons shiv, krishna, brahma, indra and William Defoe and their female counterparts for example laxami, durga, sarasvarti, indrani are All bunch of DEMONS (demons are basically those that have gone against/are enemies of the Prime Creator - Lalita MahaKali Rajarajeshvari) who use a multitude of…
Portugal; Rocky, rugged Atlantic coasts where salt spray mists the air…green hills and winding country roads…medieval towns perched above deep river gorges…
Portugal; Rocky, rugged Atlantic coasts where salt spray mists the air…green hills and winding country roads…medieval towns perched above deep river gorges…
Deep rustic elegance defines the mood delivered in the Savoir mouldings - a collection that marries old world charm with modern day elegance. Inspired by the medieval town of Cognac in France, Savoir is the very definition of refinement, class and design. ...
Cattle egret Definition: a small, white egret ( Bubulcus ibis ), an Old World bird that has expanded its range to... | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und Beispiele
Elm proudly wears his familys signet ring, passed to him by his great great granduncle. Being the last decendant of his noble house, Elm Ironfist seeks to shed light on the disappearance of said great great granduncle Lorri Ironfist. Lorri left the seat of the Ironfist clan over a hundred winters ago, set to distinguish a plague of ratskins. Since that time Lorri and his family relic Axe of Thain are lost in the dungeons of the old world.. ...
F. Bairlein, P. Alström, R. Aymí, P. Clement, A. Dyrcz, G. Gargallo, F. Hawkins, S. Madge, D. Pearson, L. Svensson: Family Sylviidae (Old World Warblers). W: J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, D.A. Christie: Handbook of the Birds of the World. Cz. 11: Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, 2006, s. 647-648, 661-664, 667-679. ISBN 84-96553-06-X. (ang.) ...
A complete explosion of the Seicercus burkii group has taken place, unfortunately, without the authors proposing vernacular names. For the time being, I have picked from trip reports, lacking suggestions. But these proposals are premature, to say the least.. As if it is not enough, two genuinely new taxa in this group have also been described. References to these can be found here. ...
28 JULY II, 1940 AIR STRATEGY (CONTINUED defence. But she has dissociated herself from the affairs of the Old World. Her outlook is inconsistent. There cannot be one law for the New World and another
Define bloody-nosed beetle: a dull blue Old World chrysomelid beetle (Timarcha tenebricosa) that exudes a drop of reddish fluid from its head when…
Hp2 L2.1 - HP2 L2.1 ist eine besonders vielseitige Jacke, die sowohl für Anfänger als auch für fortgeschrittene Skifahrer eine ideale Wahl ist.
It is a member of Clade A of the Tacaribe (or "New World") serocomplex of the family Arenaviridae. Laboratory workers infected ... Zuckerman 2014, p. 10 "Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused by Arenaviruses" (PDF). The Center for Food Security and Public Health. ... Zuckerman, Ben (2014). Howard, C R (ed.). Arenaviruses. Elsevier. p. 7. ISBN 9780080877372. ... an arenavirus with a mammalian host. It was first found in semiaquatic rodents of the genus Oryzomys in tropical forest in the ...
... all three being New World arenaviruses. The virus is named after Bear Canyon, the area it was originally discovered in. Cajimat ... An Arenavirus Naturally Associated with the California Mouse (Peromyscus californicus)". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (7): ... "Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses". Virology. 367 (2): 235-243. doi: ...
"Phylogeny and evolution of old world arenaviruses". Virology. 350 (2): 251-7. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2006.01.026. PMID 16494913. ... Gonzalez JP, Sanchez A, Rico-Hesse R (July 1995). "Molecular phylogeny of Guanarito virus, an emerging arenavirus affecting ... "One Health Initiative - One World One Medicine One Health". www.onehealthinitiative.com. Retrieved 2018-06-29. Ezama A, ... Arenavirus, Hantavirus, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic virus and others. In the late 90s he began working as a professor of ...
... the Old World arenaviruses, and the New World arenaviruses. Old World arenaviruses include lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus ... New world arena viruses are further broken down into three clades, A, B, and C. The Guanarito arena virus belongs to clade B ... February 2008). "Receptor determinants of zoonotic transmission of New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses". Proc. Natl. Acad ... Arenaviruses causing hemorrhagic fevers, along with a genus of virus called filoviruses, were categorized in Category A; these ...
Alpha-dystroglycan is also used as a receptor by viruses of the New World clade C arenaviruses (Oliveros and Latino viruses). ... The life cycle of Lassa mammarenavirus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa mammarenavirus enters the cell by the ... It shares this receptor with the prototypic Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Receptor recognition ... the New World arenaviruses of clades A and B, which include the important viruses Machupo, Guanarito, Junin, and Sabia in ...
Picornaviruses have been identified from a diverse array of bat species around the world. Arenaviruses are mainly associated ... The first arenavirus identified in bats was Tacaribe mammarenavirus, which was isolated from Jamaican fruit bats and the great ... The hepadnovirus found in the tent-making bat, which is a New World species, was the closest relative of human hepadnoviruses. ... "Ebola virus disease". World Health Organization. 10 February 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020. "What is Ebola Virus Disease?". ...
"Fatal Illnesses Associated With a New World Arenavirus --- California, 1999--2000". MMWR Weekly. Fulhorst, Charles; Charrel, ... Arenavirus-specific RNA was detected in each patient using RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequence of the patients were essentially ... Like other arenaviruses, WWAV appears to be transmitted through rodents. Therefore, direct contact with rodents, their feces, ... in the family Arenaviridae change the name of genus Arenavirus to Mammarenavirus and convert the names of its constituent ...
They suggested that scholars consider "New World arenaviruses" and the role these pathogens may have played in colonial disease ... animals imported from the Old World were potentially disease vectors for illnesses of New and Old World origins.[citation ... However, the symptoms of cocoliztli were still not identical to the typhus, or spotted fever, observed in the Old World at that ... Given that many of the Old World pathogens being considered as responsible for the cocoliztli outbreak, it is significant that ...
Specifically it is an old world arenavirus, which is enveloped, single-stranded, and bi-segmented RNA. This virus has both a ... World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 5 June 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015. Dongo, A. E.; Kesieme, E. B.; ... "Lassa fever". World Health Organization. Retrieved 11 September 2017. McCormick, J. B.; King, I. J.; Webb, P. A.; Scribner, C. ... "Lassa Fever - Nigeria". World Health Organization. 1 March 2018. Edward-Ekpu, Uwagbale. "Nigeria is already dealing with a ...
Sequencing of the viral genome has shown that this virus belongs to the Old World arenavirus group. Comparisons with other ... viral genome sequences showed that this virus is equidistant from other Old World and New World arenaviruses. It is distantly ... identified the etiological agent of the outbreak as an Old World arenavirus using molecular and serological tests. Sequencing ... "Discovery of new arenavirus associated with hemorrhagic fever - first identified in nearly four decades". News-Medical.net. ...
As receptors for phosphatidylserine, TIM proteins bind many families of viruses [filovirus, flavivirus, New World arenavirus ...
... arenavirus MeSH B04.820.057.070.100 - arenaviruses, old world MeSH B04.820.057.070.100.500 - lassa virus MeSH B04.820.057.070. ... arenavirus MeSH B04.909.777.080.070.100 - arenaviruses, old world MeSH B04.909.777.080.070.100.500 - lassa virus MeSH B04.909. ... 100.550 - lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus MeSH B04.820.057.070.800 - arenaviruses, new world MeSH B04.820.057.070.800.450 - ... 777.080.070.100.550 - lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus MeSH B04.909.777.080.070.800 - arenaviruses, new world MeSH B04.909. ...
... fever on the developing world Monoclonal antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus react with pathogenic arenaviruses ... Johnson, K. M.; Taylor, P.; Tomori, O.; Elliott, L. H. (1981-11-01). "Recovery of a Lassa-Related Arenavirus in Zimbabwe". The ... He served as the Regional Virologist for the World Health Organization Africa Region (1994-2004) before he was appointed as the ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "What can Nigeria's Ebola experience teach the world?". The Guardian. October 7, 2014. ...
The Maiztegui National Human Viral Disease Institute has performed research for the World Health Organization since 1985 and ... currently specializes in four areas: Arenaviruses Arboviruses Hantavirus Production of biological specimens ANLIS (in Spanish) ...
He is a member of the World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases. He is also director for biodefense ... His arenavirus research concentrates on the effects of infection on cellular function, particularly those molecular ... Peters, C. J. and Mark Olshaker (1998), Virus Hunter: Thirty Years of Battling Hot Viruses Around the World, Random House. ... of viral diseases including more than 70 publications on Rift Valley fever virus and more than 60 publications on arenaviruses ...
In July 2019, the World Health Organization declared the Congo Ebola outbreak a world health emergency. The length of time ... arenaviruses, and flaviviruses" (PDF). Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 October ... Health topics: Ebola virus disease - World Health Organization. Videos: Ebola outbreak response - World Health Organization. " ... Urging the world to offer aid to the affected regions, its Director-General said, "Countries affected to date simply do not ...
Guanarito virus New World arenavirus - Junin virus New World arenavirus - Machupo virus New World arenavirus - Sabia virus ... hemorrhagic fever Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Ebola virus Lassa virus Lujo virus Marburg virus New World arenavirus ...
The life cycle of Lassa virus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa virus enters the cell by the receptor-mediated ... It shares this receptor with the prototypic Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Receptor recognition ... the New World arenaviruses of clades A and B, which include the important viruses Machupo, Guanarito, Junin, and Sabia in ... a b Donaldson, Ross I. (2009). The Lassa Ward:One Man's Fight Against One of the World's Deadliest Diseases. St. Martin's Press ...
"Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers". World Health Organization (WHO). United Nations (UN). "Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (VHFs) Virus ... Prophylactic (preventive) ribavirin may be effective for some bunyavirus and arenavirus infections (available only as an ... 2004). Return of the Black Death: The World's Greatest Serial Killer West Sussex; John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-470-09000-6. ... and HFRS due to Old World Hantavirus infection) and can be used only under an experimental protocol as IND approved by the U.S ...
The New World and Old World species diverged less than 45,000 years ago. The New World species evolved between 41,400 and 3,300 ... virus is the only arenavirus to exist in both areas but is classified as an Old World virus. Old and New World area viruses ... termini of the virion RNA species of New World and Old World arenaviruses". Virology. 121 (1): 200-3. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(82) ... The Old World species evolved between 23,100 and 1,880 years ago, most likely in southern Africa. Some arenaviruses are ...
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are productively infected and activated through TLR-7 early after arenavirus infection. Cell Host ... featuring the top immunologists from around the world. In order to make the talks available longitudinally, the recorded talks ... DDX3 suppresses type I interferons and favors viral replication during Arenavirus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2018 Jul 12;14(7): ... "Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are productively infected and activated through TLR-7 early after arenavirus infection". Cell Host ...
"A brief history of vaccines and how they changed the world". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2020-04-30. "Creating a world in ... category A arenavirus) Chlamydia psittaci (category B) Naegleria fowleri (category B) Balamuthia mandrillaris (category B) St. ... CEPI promotes the idea that a proactive approach is required to "create a world in which epidemics are no longer a threat to ... In 2014, the Western African Ebola virus epidemic demonstrated how ill-prepared the world was to handle such an epidemic. In ...
The mortality rate varies significantly depending on the form, being up to 50% in New World hantaviruses (the Americas), up to ... With the exception of Hantaviruses and Arenaviruses, all viruses in the Bunyavirales order are transmitted by arthropods ( ... 15% in Old World hantaviruses (Asia and Europe), and as little as 0.1% in Puumala virus (mostly Scandinavia). The antibody ...
Then He Watched The World Forget". HuffPost. Retrieved 5 November 2019.. *^ Piot P, Marshall R (2012). No time to lose: a life ... arenaviruses, and flaviviruses" (PDF). Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 October ... Ebola virus disease (Report). World Health Organization. Retrieved 6 June 2019.. *^ a b "CDC urges all US residents to avoid ... "World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 14 May 2018.. *^ Yong E (21 May 2018). "Most Maps of the New Ebola Outbreak Are ...
It has particular importance to farmers in certain regions of the world where it infects cattle. This is because its clinical ... "Properties of replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus vectors expressing glycoproteins of filoviruses and arenaviruses ... Disease card on World Organisation for Animal Health. ...
The island of Vir in Croatia is one of the biggest described endemic places of origin of LCMV in the world, with IFA testing ... The first arenavirus, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus (LCMV), was isolated in 1933 by Charles Armstrong during a ... World Health Organ. 55 (5): 599-603. PMC 2366689. PMID 338190. ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, version 4. [2] Centers for ... LCMV has been shown to cause illness in New World primates such as macaques, marmosets and tamarins. Infections have also been ...
Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M.D. (2005). "Superfamily Muroidea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: ... "Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses". Virology. 367 (2): 235-243. doi: ...
The arenaviruses have a somewhat reduced case-fatality rate compared to disease caused by filoviruses, but are more widely ... Bisher, Jamie, "During World War I, Terrorists Schemed to Use Anthrax in the Cause of Finnish Independence," Military History, ... In 1980, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the eradication of smallpox, a highly contagious and incurable disease. ... Bio terrorism is used to threaten people, governments and countries By the time World War I began, attempts to use anthrax were ...
Prevalence of antibodies to arenaviruses in rodents from the southern and western United States: evidence for an arenavirus ... eds.). Orders and families of Recent mammals of the world. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 686 pp. Carleton, M.D. and Musser, G. ... An arenavirus normally associated with woodrats (Neotoma) has also been found in Florida marsh rice rats. Antibodies against ... 894-1531 in Wilson, D.E. and Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd ed. ...
Arenavirus: Guanarito virus,[2] Junín virus,[2] Lassa fever virus,[2] Lujo virus,[3] Machupo virus[2] ve Sabiá virus[2] ... "World J. Gastroenterol. 16 (6), s. 698-702. PMC 2817057 $2. PMID 20135717.. KB1 bakım: Birden fazla ad: yazar listesi (link) ... "World J Hepatol. 3 (4), s. 83-92. doi:10.4254/wjh.v3.i4.83. PMC 3098392 $2. PMID 21603030.. ... "Genetic detection and characterization of Lujo virus, a new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from southern Africa" ...
World Health Organization. World Health Organization. August 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 August 2014. ... arenaviruses, and flaviviruses" (PDF). Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 October ... WHO: Ebola haemorrhagic fever - World Health Organization, Global Alert and Response. *[1] - World Health Organization, Fact ... World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 29 July 2014.. *^ a b c "Monitoring Symptoms and Controlling Movement ...
World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.. ... Louis encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis virus), bunyavirus (La Crosse strain), arenavirus (lymphocytic choriomeningitis ... World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.. ...
World Health Organisation report, 24 September 2014. *^ Einstein MH, Schiller JT, Viscidi RP, Strickler HD, Coursaget P, Tan T ... Examples include geminiviruses, which are ssDNA plant viruses and arenaviruses, which are ssRNA viruses of animals.[94] ... The ancient Virus World and evolution of cells. Biology Direct. 2006;1:29. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-1-29. PMID 16984643. ... The evidence for an ancestral world of RNA cells[61] and computer analysis of viral and host DNA sequences are giving a better ...
Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World-Told from Inside by the Man ... "Properties of Replication-Competent Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors Expressing Glycoproteins of Filoviruses and Arenaviruses ... Garrett, Laurie (1994). The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World Out of Balance. New York, USA: Farrar, Straus & ... Marburgviruses are World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogens, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment,[51] ...
Walt Disney World), multi-purpose arena at Walt Disney World in Florida Arena (1953 film), a 3-D Western starring Gig Young The ... California Arenavirus Arenas (disambiguation) Larena (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with ...
There are only two centres in the world authorised by the WHO to keep stocks of smallpox virus: the State Research Center of ... Examples include geminiviruses, which are ssDNA plant viruses and arenaviruses, which are ssRNA viruses of animals. Genome size ... Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Bibcode:1993nlp..book.....F. In 1887, Buist visualised one of the largest, Vaccinia ... The evidence for an ancestral world of RNA cells and computer analysis of viral and host DNA sequences are giving a better ...
This isolation strongly suggests that Old World fruit bats are involved in the natural maintenance of marburgviruses and that ... "Properties of Replication-Competent Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors Expressing Glycoproteins of Filoviruses and Arenaviruses ... Marburgviruses are World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogens, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment, ... In early 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) began investigating an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever in Angola, which ...
World Health Organization (2020). Therapeutics and COVID-19: living guideline, 20 November 2020. World Health Organization (WHO ... and one which covered both arenaviruses and coronaviruses. In October 2015, the United States Army Medical Research Institute ... Boseley S (30 June 2020). "US buys up world stock of key Covid-19 drug". The Guardian. Baragona S (29 June 2020). "US Procures ... In November 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) updated its guideline on therapeutics for COVID-19 to include a ...
This occurs primarily in third world countries. Strict personal hygiene and the avoidance of raw and unpeeled foods can help ... Other viruses than can cause hepatitis include: Adenoviruses Arenaviruses: Guanarito virus, Junín virus, Lassa fever virus, ...
Old World Arenaviruses. Virus, date isolated. Natural host. Geographic distribution. Naturally occurring human disease. Human ... New World Arenaviruses. Virus, date isolated. Natural host. Geographic distribution. Naturally occurring human disease. Human ... Phylogeny of New World arenaviruses based on the complete coding sequences of the small genomic segment identified an ... New World. *Downs, Wilbur G.; Anderson, C. R.; Spence, L.; Aitken, T. H. G., and Greenhall, A. H. Tacaribe virus, a new agent ...
New World arenavirus - Junin virus 2010. Current. New World arenavirus - Machupo virus(https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/ ... New World arenavirus - Guanarito virus(https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/new-world-arenavirus-guanarito-virus/) ... New World arenavirus - Sabia virus(https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/new-world-arenavirus-sabia-virus/) ... wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/new-world-arenavirus-junin-virus/case-definition/2011/) ...
α-Dystroglycan is a cellular receptor for New World clade C and Old World arenaviruses (25-27). Four New World clade B ... the Old World arenaviruses, which include lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa virus (LASV), and the New World ... and the geographic distribution of each arenavirus is determined by the range of its corresponding host. New World arenaviruses ... 2002) New World arenavirus clade C, but not clade A, B viruses, utilizes alpha-dystroglycan as its major receptor. J Virol 76: ...
New World Clade B Arenaviruses Can Use Transferrin Receptor 1 (TfR1)-Dependent and -Independent Entry Pathways, and ... New World Clade B Arenaviruses Can Use Transferrin Receptor 1 (TfR1)-Dependent and -Independent Entry Pathways, and ... New World Clade B Arenaviruses Can Use Transferrin Receptor 1 (TfR1)-Dependent and -Independent Entry Pathways, and ... New World Clade B Arenaviruses Can Use Transferrin Receptor 1 (TfR1)-Dependent and -Independent Entry Pathways, and ...
Pichinde virus is an arenavirus which causes severe illness similar to Lassa fever in strain 13 guinea pigs, but does not cause ... We used this infection to evaluate the effect of arenavirus on liver morphology and function. When guinea pigs were infected ... The Effect of an Arenavirus Infection on Liver Morphology and Function * Helen L. Lucia, Dorian H. Coppenhaver, Robert L. ... Pichinde virus is an arenavirus which causes severe illness similar to Lassa fever in strain 13 guinea pigs, but does not cause ...
Browse by Exposure: Arenaviruses, New World (1 article). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ...
Access New World Arenavirus - Guanarito Virus case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health ... New World arenavirus - Junin virus 2010 Current New World arenavirus - Machupo virus ...
A novel arenavirus was identified. The source of the first patients infection remains undetermined. ... known Old World arenaviruses (5). The novel arenavirus was isolated in culture from the blood and liver samples of patients 2 ... Isolation of an arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus from Mastomys natalensis in south-east Africa. Bull World Health ... Old World arenaviruses not known to be pathogenic for humans include Ippy and Mobala viruses from the Central African Republic ...
The genus Arenavirus includes 22 viral species and 9 additional arenaviruses that have been recently discovered, for which ... Arenaviruses are single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that cause chronic infections in rodents and zoonotically ... Fatal illnesses associated with a new world arenavirus--California, 1999-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000 Aug 11. 49(31): ... encoded search term (Arenaviruses) and Arenaviruses What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * ...
Fatal illnesses associated with a New World arenavirus-California, 1999-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000;49:709-11.PubMed ... The arenaviruses (family Arenaviridae, genus Arenavirus) known to occur in North America include Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV ... Delgado S, Erickson BR, Agudo R, Blair PJ, Vallejo E, Albariño CG, Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a ... Fulhorst CF, Milazzo ML, Armstrong LR, Childs JE, Rollin PE, Khabbaz R, Hantavirus and arenavirus antibodies in persons with ...
Fatal Illnesses Associated With a New World Arenavirus - California, 1999- 2000. Preventive measures for arenavirus infections ... Arenaviruses are rodent-borne enveloped RNA viruses and broken down into two groups, Old World and New World. Several ... The South American hemorrhagic fever viruses belong to the Tacaribe complex or New World arena viruses (e.g., Junin, Machupo, ... Fatal Illnesses Associated With a New World Arenavirus - California, 1999- 2000. *State-Specific Prevalence of Disability among ...
Here, we describe efforts to produce cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies that bind to both New and Old World arenaviruses. All ... Antibodies to the Glycoprotein GP2 Subunit Cross-React between Old and New World Arenaviruses. Several viruses in the ... Here, we describe efforts to produce cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies that bind to both New and Old World arenaviruses. All ... Antibodies to the Glycoprotein GP2 Subunit Cross-React between Old and New World Arenaviruses ...
The ability of a New World (NW) clade B arenavirus to enter cells using human transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) strictly correlates ... Host-species transferrin receptor 1 orthologs are cellular receptors for nonpathogenic New World clade B arenaviruses Academic ... Our data support an in vivo role for TfR1 in the replication of most, if not all, NW clade B arenaviruses, and suggest that ... Amapari (AMAV) and Tacaribe (TCRV), two nonpathogenic NW clade B arenaviruses that do not use human TfR1, are closely related ...
The arenaviruses are a large family of emerging negative-stranded RNA viruses that include several severe human pathogens ... Old World arenaviruses New World arenaviruses Lassa virus Machupo virus Junin virus Glycoprotein Proprotein convertases ... Differential recognition of old world and New World arenavirus envelope glycoproteins by subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (Ski-1)/ ... Utilization of human Dc-Sign and L-Sign for entry and infection of host cells by the New World arenavirus, Junin virus. Biochem ...
... and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]). ... In the New World, malaria has a much more recent history; it is ... CDC continues to work closely with USDA, the World Health Organization, the World Animal Health Organization, the Food and ... but in much of the New World and in many European cities in the Old World. It was not uncommon for ships to arrive in port with ... The growth of world air travel has averaged 5 percent per year for the past 30 years, and the current rate of increase is ...
... all three being New World arenaviruses. The virus is named after Bear Canyon, the area it was originally discovered in. Cajimat ... An Arenavirus Naturally Associated with the California Mouse (Peromyscus californicus)". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (7): ... "Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses". Virology. 367 (2): 235-243. doi: ...
Antibody to at least one arenavirus was found in 220 (3.1%) of 7,106 rodents tested. The antibody-positive animals included Mus ... The results suggest that arenaviruses are widely distributed in the southern United States and that one or more indigenous ... arenaviruses are associated with Neotoma spp. in North America. ... geographic distribution and rodent host range of arenaviruses ... Research on Dengue during World War II 1 Author: Albert B. Sabin ... Antibody to at least one arenavirus was found in 220 (3.1%) of ...
"Phylogeny and evolution of old world arenaviruses". Virology. 350 (2): 251-7. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2006.01.026. PMID 16494913. ... Gonzalez JP, Sanchez A, Rico-Hesse R (July 1995). "Molecular phylogeny of Guanarito virus, an emerging arenavirus affecting ... "One Health Initiative - One World One Medicine One Health". www.onehealthinitiative.com. Retrieved 2018-06-29. Ezama A, ... Arenavirus, Hantavirus, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic virus and others. In the late 90s he began working as a professor of ...
The new world arenavirus tacaribe virus induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in infected cells. In: Journal of General Virology ... The new world arenavirus tacaribe virus induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in infected cells. Journal of General Virology. ... The new world arenavirus tacaribe virus induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in infected cells. / Wolff, Svenja; Groseth, ... Wolff, S, Groseth, A, Meyer, B, Jackson, D, Strecker, T, Kaufmann, A & Becker, S 2016, The new world arenavirus tacaribe virus ...
Murphy, Frederick A. & Whitfield, Sylvia G. (‎1975)‎. Morphology and morphogenesis of arenaviruses*. Bulletin of the World ...
Host-Species Transferrin Receptor 1 Orthologs Are Cellular Receptors for Nonpathogenic New World Clade B Arenaviruses Jonathan ...
World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Vaccine Immunology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.. 3. Division ... To investigate the mechanisms underlying arenavirus nAb evasion we engineered several arenavirus envelope-chimeric viruses and ... Arenavirus Glycan Shield Promotes Neutralizing Antibody Evasion and Protracted Infection.. Sommerstein R1,2, Flatz L1, Remy MM1 ... Arenaviruses such as Lassa virus (LASV) can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. As a major impediment to vaccine ...
In this article, we present the current knowledge about the hematological alterations present in VHF induced by arenaviruses, ... caused by arenaviruses are acute diseases characterized by fever, headache, general malaise, impaired cellular immunity, ... Transferrin receptor 1 is a cellular receptor for new world haemorrhagic fever arenaviruses. Nature 2007, 446, 92-96. [Google ... In the rodent, arenaviruses usually establish a persistent chronic infection with few symptoms [1]. However, arenaviruses may ...
Tacaribe complex (New world arenaviruses) Rotavirus Parvovirus Lentivirus Orthopoxvirus Orthopoxvirus Ebolavirus Lentivirus ...
Tacaribe complex (New world arenaviruses) Comments Electron micrograph. Arenaviridae are RNA viruses whose particles are ...
The Old World arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) poses the highest public health concern among HF arenaviruses. LASV is estimated to ... 2006) Identification and characterization of potent small molecule inhibitor of hemorrhagic fever New World arenaviruses. ... 2006) Phylogeny and evolution of Old World arenaviruses. Virology 350:251-257. ... Arenaviruses are mostly noncytolytic, and recombinant arenaviruses expressing reporter genes have not been available, which has ...
Classification: Arenaviridae, Arenavirus, New World Arenaviruses Product Format: freeze-dried For-Profit: $168.00 Non-Profit: $ ...
The life cycle of Lassa virus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa virus enters the cell by the receptor-mediated ... It shares this receptor with the prototypic Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Receptor recognition ... the New World arenaviruses of clades A and B, which include the important viruses Machupo, Guanarito, Junin, and Sabia in ... a b Donaldson, Ross I. (2009). The Lassa Ward:One Mans Fight Against One of the Worlds Deadliest Diseases. St. Martins Press ...
Pathogenic Old World arenaviruses inhibit TLR2/Mal-dependent proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. ... Novel mechanism of arenavirus-induced liver pathology.. Beier JI, Jokinen JD, Holz GE, Whang PS, Martin AM, Warner NL, Arteel ... Past, present, and future of arenavirus taxonomy.. Radoshitzky SR, Bào Y, Buchmeier MJ, Charrel RN, Clawson AN, Clegg CS, ... An attenuated Lassa vaccine in SIV-infected rhesus macaques does not persist or cause arenavirus disease but does elicit Lassa ...
Find out information about arenavirus. A family of ribonucleic acid animal viruses consisting of a single genus, Arenavirus, ... having an enveloped, spherical pleomorphic form Explanation of arenavirus ... LCMV is the only arenavirus to exist in both areas; however, it is classified as an Old World virus.. Chapter 7 Viral zoonoses ... redirected from arenavirus). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.. Related to arenavirus: bunyavirus ...
  • The family Arenaviridae consists of a single genus ( Arenavirus ) composed of at least 24 viruses ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The arenaviruses (family Arenaviridae , genus Arenavirus ) known to occur in North America include Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV), 7 other members of the Tacaribe serocomplex ( Table 1 ), and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV, the prototypic member of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis-Lassa serocomplex). (cdc.gov)
  • It is a member of Clade A of the Tacaribe (or "New World") serocomplex of the family Arenaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • An arenavirus is a bisegmented ambisense RNA virus that is a member of the family Arenaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the family Arenaviridae, arenaviruses were formerly all placed in the genus Arenavirus, but in 2014 were divided into the genera Mammarenavirus for those with mammalian hosts and Reptarenavirus for those infecting snakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The family Arenaviridae , genus Arenavirus, consists of two phylogenetically independent groups: Old World (OW) and New World (NW) complexes. (mdpi.com)
  • Arenaviruses (family Arenaviridae) are primarily rodent-borne RNA viruses. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Our data show that these New World arenaviruses are specifically adapted to the TfR1 orthologs of their respective rodent hosts and identify key commonalities between these orthologs and human TfR1 necessary for efficient transmission of these viruses to humans. (pnas.org)
  • Arenaviruses are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented RNA viruses with ambisense genomes ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The phylogenetic diversity of arenaviruses is likely the result of long-term coevolution of the viruses and their corresponding hosts ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Arenaviruses are rodent-borne enveloped RNA viruses and broken down into two groups, Old World and New World. (cdc.gov)
  • The South American hemorrhagic fever viruses belong to the Tacaribe complex or New World arena viruses (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • The arenaviruses are a large family of emerging negative-stranded RNA viruses that include several severe human pathogens causing hemorrhagic fevers with high mortality. (springer.com)
  • To investigate the mechanisms underlying arenavirus nAb evasion we engineered several arenavirus envelope-chimeric viruses and glycan-deficient variants thereof. (nih.gov)
  • B-C) We infected C57BL/6 mice i.v. with 2x10 5 PFU of the indicated recombinant LCM viruses carrying a range of clade B arenavirus GPs. (nih.gov)
  • The arenaviruses are essentially rodent-borne viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • In contrast, the other arenaviruses infect different types of rodents with circumscribed geographical distribution patterns that relate to the distribution of the associated viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Arenaviruses are enveloped viruses with a bisegmented negative-strand (NS) RNA genome ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although they are categorized as negative-sense viruses, arenaviruses are ambisense. (wikipedia.org)
  • [21] Alpha-dystroglycan is also used as a receptor by viruses of the New World clade C arenaviruses (Oliveros and Latino viruses). (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the New World arenaviruses of clades A and B, which include the important viruses Machupo , Guanarito , Junin , and Sabia in addition to the non pathogenic Amapari virus, use the transferrin receptor 1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • A family of ribonucleic acid animal viruses consisting of a single genus, Arenavirus, having an enveloped, spherical pleomorphic form. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The genetic diversity of arenaviruses in their respective rodent hosts provides a vast reservoir for the continual emergence of new viruses ( 1 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Arenaviruses are enveloped viruses, with a bisegmented RNA genome that encodes the ambisense expression of four proteins. (asm.org)
  • The Old World arenaviruses, such as LASV and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), as well as several nonpathogenic New World viruses, use the cellular α-dystroglycan protein for uptake into the endosome ( 15 , 64 ). (asm.org)
  • The prototype of the family, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a member of the Old World arenavirus group, which also includes Ippy (IPPV), Lassa (LASV), Mobala (MOBV), and Mopeia (MOPV) viruses. (hindawi.com)
  • Viral haemorrhagic fevers are a group of illnesses caused by several distinct families of viruses: arenaviruses, filoviruses, bunyaviruses and flaviviruses. (www.gov.uk)
  • Lassa fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic illness caused by Lassa virus, a member of the arenavirus family of viruses. (springer.com)
  • And this virus, described in the journal mBio , appears to be related to both Ebola and another deadly class of viruses called arenaviruses . (npr.org)
  • VHFs are caused by viruses of four distinct families: arenaviruses, filoviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses. (medicinenet.com)
  • The rodent hosts of arenaviruses are chronically infected with the viruses but the viruses donot seem to cause any illness to the rodents. (kenyon.edu)
  • One is that at some point snakes carried both arenaviruses and Ebola viruses, allowing them to swap genes. (nhpr.org)
  • Dr Ben Neuman, in collaboration with labs in California and Oregon and AVI Biopharma of Corvallis Oregon, has designed a drug which reduces the spread of infection of a family of viruses known as arenaviruses by up to 90% in laboratory tests. (healthcanal.com)
  • Dr Neuman, from the University of Reading's School of Biological Sciences, showed that three related PPMO compounds could prevent the spread of infection from cells which were infected by four different viruses of the arenavirus family. (healthcanal.com)
  • In some cases, as with New World hantaviruses, hamsters represent the only known small animal model of human disease caused by these viruses, elevating their importance as a tool to understand human disease pathogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • Guanarito virus is one of the diseases derived from the family Arenaviruses, which can vary in severity in subgroups of Old World and New World viruses. (inquisitr.com)
  • The receptor for several arenaviruses, alpha-dystroglycan, was identified, the replication strategy of these viruses was decoded, and application of a reverse genetics system for studying viral gene function and viral biology is well underway. (worldcat.org)
  • Arenavirus is a group or family of viruses whose members are generally associated with conditions transmitted by jungle rodents of the genus "calomys" in humans. (flutrackers.com)
  • After the virus was identified, researchers were able to grow an isolate one of the viruses in the laboratory and found that it doesn't fit perfectly into either of the two known categories of arenaviruses: Old World and New World. (medicaldaily.com)
  • While the two strains looked like distant relatives of other arenaviruses, the strains of viruses found in the recent study had a gene or protein coat that was more similar to those of Ebola viruses. (medicaldaily.com)
  • This book is as much an autobiography of Dr. Peters as it is a story of how very deadly viruses can (and do) jump on some sort of vector (like a rhesus monkey) and travel to populated areas of the world (like Reston, Virginia). (historyofvaccines.org)
  • The research group led by Professor Daniel Pinschewer of the University of Basel had already discovered in previous studies that viruses from the arenavirus family are highly suitable as vehicles for triggering a strong immune response. (bionity.com)
  • We are excited to continue this line of research to further evaluate in animal models the potential of targeting DDX3 to counteract infections with arenaviruses and perhaps other hemorrhagic fever viruses. (news-medical.net)
  • According to the World Health Organization , Lassa fever is "an acute viral hemorrhagic illness caused by Lassa virus, a member of the arenavirus family of viruses," and was first identified in 1969 and named after the town in Nigeria where it was discovered. (theepochtimes.com)
  • We used this infection to evaluate the effect of arenavirus on liver morphology and function. (ajtmh.org)
  • We describe a nosocomial outbreak of infection with a novel arenavirus involving 5 patients, 4 of whom died, which occurred in South Africa in September-October 2008. (cdc.gov)
  • Banerjee C, Allen LJ, Salazar-Bravo J. Models for an arenavirus infection in a rodent population: consequences of horizontal, vertical and sexual transmission. (medscape.com)
  • The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) and University of Texas Medical Center recently identified evidence of infection with an arenavirus in three patients hospitalized with similar fatal illnesses. (cdc.gov)
  • During the arenavirus life cycle, processing of the viral envelope glycoprotein precursor (GPC) by the cellular subtilisin kexin isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/site-1 protease (S1P) is crucial for productive infection. (springer.com)
  • Apart from being an essential host factor for arenavirus infection, SKI-1/S1P is involved in the regulation of important physiological processes and linked to major human diseases. (springer.com)
  • The crucial role of SKI-1/S1P in arenavirus infection and other major human diseases combined with its nature as an enzyme makes SKI-1/S1P further an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. (springer.com)
  • Arenavirus infection induces discrete cytosolic structures for Rna replication. (springer.com)
  • Here we show that infection with Tacaribe virus (TCRV), which is widely considered the prototype for non-pathogenic arenaviruses, leads to stronger induction of apoptosis than does infection with its human-pathogenic relative Junı´n virus. (umn.edu)
  • Arenavirus Glycan Shield Promotes Neutralizing Antibody Evasion and Protracted Infection. (nih.gov)
  • In the rodent, arenaviruses usually establish a persistent chronic infection with few symptoms [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Human infection with an arenavirus is likely to be very uncommon. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The new AG129 mouse TCRV infection model provides a safe and cost-effective means to conduct early-stage pre-clinical evaluations of candidate antiviral therapies that target clade B arenaviruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Presently, there are no clade B arenavirus infection models outside of newborn mice suitable for early stage antiviral drug development and proof-of-concept studies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) as the receptor for New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses, and an antibody that inhibits the infection of all five pathogenic New World arenaviruses. (scripps.edu)
  • At present, there are no licensed vaccines to prevent arenavirus infection and no effective therapies. (asm.org)
  • The South American Arenaviruses are very rare causes of infection in travellers. (www.gov.uk)
  • The systematic collection will allow to corroborate the possible association between arenaviruses infection and pathogenesis of odontogenic tumors in humans. (springer.com)
  • Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for new-world arenaviruses: Guanarito, Junin and Machupo virus. (abcam.com)
  • Due to this fact, other groups have used PIC as a model virus for arenavirus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Minister of Health, Gabriela Monta o, said today that no new suspected case of Arenavirus was reported , rather it was discharged to two people with signs of infection. (flutrackers.com)
  • Callitrichid hepatitis (CH) is an acute, often fatal viral infection of New World primates from the family Callitrichidae. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we investigated the mechanisms underlying LASV endocytosis in human cells in the context of productive arenavirus infection, using recombinant lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) expressing the LASV glycoprotein (rLCMV-LASVGP). (selleckchem.com)
  • When combined with ribavirin, which is currently used to treat human arenavirus infection, EMD 1214063 showed additive antiviral effects. (selleckchem.com)
  • A related arenavirus, Pichinde virus (PICV), is capable of causing a disease in guinea pigs that mimics LASV infection in humans. (emory.edu)
  • Further experiments with Lassa virus and Junín virus, an arenavirus endemic in Argentina, confirmed the importance of DDX3 in arenavirus infection of human cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Overall, these findings reveal the importance of DDX3 in arenavirus infection and identify it as a potential target for new anti-arenavirus strategies. (news-medical.net)
  • Arenaviruses such as Lassa virus (LASV) can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. (nih.gov)
  • The Old World arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) poses the highest public health concern among HF arenaviruses. (pnas.org)
  • Recent studies have identified small molecule inhibitors of Tacaribe virus ( 7 ) and LASV ( 8 ) cell entry, but their antiviral activity in animal models of HF arenaviruses has not been examined. (pnas.org)
  • Reverse genetics systems have been now developed for LCMV ( 11 ), LASV ( 12 ), and Tacaribe virus ( 13 ), which are allowing investigators to examine the cis -acting sequences and trans -acting factors that control arenavirus replication and gene expression, as well as assembly and budding ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Lassa virus ( LASV ) is an arenavirus that causes Lassa hemorrhagic fever , [1] a type of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), in humans and other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several arenaviruses, chiefly Lassa virus (LASV), cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and represent a serious public health problem in their areas of endemicity ( 3 , 31 , 39 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The pathogenic Old World arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) causes a severe hemorrhagic fever with a high rate of mortality in humans. (selleckchem.com)
  • Rodents of the Muridae family are the natural hosts of most arenaviruses, and the geographic distribution of each arenavirus is determined by the range of its corresponding host. (pnas.org)
  • Arenaviruses associated with rodents are known to cause fatal hemorrhagic fevers in humans in South America and West Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibody to at least one arenavirus was found in 220 (3.1%) of 7,106 rodents tested. (ajtmh.org)
  • In this regard, arenaviruses are etiologic agents of emerging diseases as a result of environmental modifications by humans, through the creation of new ecological environments either for agricultural production or for places to live that favor contact with wild rodents [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Because of the epidemiological association with rodents, some arenaviruses and bunyaviruses are designated as roboviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is an arenavirus carried by rodents, most notably domestic house mice (Mus musculus), but also laboratory and pet rodents (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Humans can get infected with the arenaviruses when an individual comes into contact with the excretions or materials contaminated with the excretions of infected rodents. (kenyon.edu)
  • Arenaviruses are normally found in small mammals, such as rodents and bats. (healthcanal.com)
  • Arenaviruses cause chronic infections of rodents with a worldwide distribution ( 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The virus is an arenavirus, one that can infect rodents and then be transferred to humans. (inquisitr.com)
  • New research published July 12 in the journal PLOS Pathogens uncovered a protein enabling the replication of arenaviruses, pathogens carried by rodents that can infect humans and cause lethal hemorrhagic fevers. (news-medical.net)
  • The Old World arenaviruses include the agents of Lassa fever and lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM). (cdc.gov)
  • However, the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) has proven to be a Rosetta stone for the investigation of virus-host interactions. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) has proven to be a superb workhorse in the field of virology and immunology ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • It shares this receptor with the prototypic Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus (LSMV) was the first arenavirus to be isolated in 1933 during a study of an epidemic of St. Louis Encephalitis. (kenyon.edu)
  • The previously unknown arenavirus, which was identified using genetic extracts of blood and liver from the victims and through unbiased high-throughput sequencing, is distantly related to Lassa virus and Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Moreover, compelling evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance ( 23 , 32 ) and poses a special threat to immunocompromised individuals, as illustrated by cases of transplant-associated infections by LCMV with fatal outcomes ( 10 , 36 , 40 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The previously unknown arenavirus, which is distantly related to the Lassa virus and Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, was characterized using the rapid and sensitive sequencing technology of 454 Life Sciences. (pressebox.com)
  • Transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) is a cellular receptor for the New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses Machupo (MACV), Junín (JUNV), and Guanarito (GTOV). (pnas.org)
  • Other examples include Junín, Machupo, Guanarito and Sabia arenaviruses that cause sporadic outbreaks of haemorrhagic fevers in South America. (biomedcentral.com)
  • She had visited a tourist camp on the Zambezi River on July 30 and 31, 2008, and participated in a polocrosse tournament on August 1 and 2 (but neither event occurred within the known incubation period of arenavirus infections from the date of onset of her illness). (cdc.gov)
  • Preventive measures for arenavirus infections include control of rodent populations and their exclusion from human dwellings. (cdc.gov)
  • Taken together, our data identify and characterize an important virus-host cell interaction of the prototypic, non-pathogenic arenavirus TCRV, which provides important insight into the growing field of arenavirus research aimed at better understanding the diversity in responses to different arenavirus infections and their functional consequences. (umn.edu)
  • Arenaviruses merit significant interest both as tractable experimental model systems to study acute and persistent viral infections and as clinically important human pathogens ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • 2007) In vitro and in vivo activities of T-705 against arenavirus and bunyavirus infections. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, these arenaviruses are classified as BSL-4 pathogens, thus making it difficult to develop diagnostic techniques for these virus infections in institutes without BSL-4 facilities. (mdpi.com)
  • Arenavirus infections are relatively common in humans in some areas of the world and can cause severe illnesses. (kenyon.edu)
  • Stenglein soon found genetic code for a virus related to so-called arenaviruses, which can cause deadly infections in people. (nhpr.org)
  • It is also thought that PPMO could one day be given as a preventative measure to people who will be travelling to places where arenavirus infections are common. (healthcanal.com)
  • According to the WHO, the Lassa virus-;an arenavirus with symptoms similar to the Ebola virus-;is currently widespread in West Africa, with nearly 300,000 infections and more than 5,000 deaths reported per year. (news-medical.net)
  • Therefore, understanding how arenaviruses exploit the host molecules is important and may lead to new treatments to fight these deadly infections. (news-medical.net)
  • Molecular phylogeny of Guanarito virus, an emerging arenavirus affecting humans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Amapari (AMAV) and Tacaribe (TCRV), two nonpathogenic NW clade B arenaviruses that do not use human TfR1, are closely related to the NW arenaviruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. (scripps.edu)
  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) caused by arenaviruses are acute diseases characterized by fever, headache, general malaise, impaired cellular immunity, eventual neurologic involvement, and hemostatic alterations that may ultimately lead to shock and death. (mdpi.com)
  • Zuckerman 2014, p. 10 "Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused by Arenaviruses" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fukushi S, Tani H, Yoshikawa T, Saijo M, Morikawa S. Serological Assays Based on Recombinant Viral Proteins for the Diagnosis of Arenavirus Hemorrhagic Fevers. (mdpi.com)
  • Members of both genera can cause life-threatening diseases in humans: arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fevers in the Americas and Africa, and hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. (cdc.gov)
  • α-Dystroglycan is a cellular receptor for New World clade C and Old World arenaviruses ( 25 - 27 ). (pnas.org)
  • Four New World clade B arenaviruses (MACV, JUNV, GTOV, and SABV) use transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) as a cellular receptor ( 28 ). (pnas.org)
  • The ability of a New World (NW) clade B arenavirus to enter cells using human transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) strictly correlates with its ability to cause hemorrhagic fever. (scripps.edu)
  • Our data support an in vivo role for TfR1 in the replication of most, if not all, NW clade B arenaviruses, and suggest that with modest changes in their GPs the nonpathogenic arenaviruses could use human TfR1 and emerge as human pathogens. (scripps.edu)
  • All of the highly pathogenic New World arenaviruses (NWA) phylogenetically segregate into clade B and require maximum biosafety containment facilities for their study. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Tacaribe virus (TCRV) is a nonpathogenic member of clade B that is closely related to the VHF arenaviruses at the amino acid level. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In contrast, in a hamster model of arenaviral hemorrhagic fever based on challenge with clade A Pichinde arenavirus, MY-24 did not offer significant protection against mortality. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Abraham J, Kwong JA, Albariño CG, Lu JG, Radoshitzky SR, Salazar-Bravo J, Farzan M, Spiropoulou CF, Choe H. Host-species transferrin receptor 1 orthologs are cellular receptors for nonpathogenic New World clade B arenaviruses. (scripps.edu)
  • Several arenaviruses cause viral hemorrhagic fever syndromes in Africa and South America. (cdc.gov)
  • More recently, new arenaviruses have been associated with HF, such as Chapare virus in Bolivia [ 2 ] or Lujo virus (LUJV) in Southern Africa [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In Africa, only Lassa and Lujo arenaviruses are known to be highly pathogenic to humans. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • It is the first new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from Africa identified in nearly four decades. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A detailed genetic analysis of this novel arenavirus, named Lujo virus, after the sites of the outbreak (Lusaka, Zambia, and Johannesburg, South Africa) is published online in PLoS Pathogens ( http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000455 ). (bio-medicine.org)
  • We were honored in this most recent example to work with outstanding investigators at the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases, South Africa, the CII, and the World Health Organization. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 4 deaths in S. Africa from unknown virus-now identified as arenavirus. (slideserve.com)
  • The new species, named 'Lujo virus' for the geographic origin of the outbreak (Lusaka, Zambia and Johannesburg, South Africa), is the first hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from Africa identified in the past three decades. (pressebox.com)
  • However, arenaviruses may occasionally be transmitted to humans through material contaminated with an infected rodent's excreta. (mdpi.com)
  • Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans for which no licensed vaccines are available and current therapeutic intervention is limited to the off-label use of the wide-spectrum antiviral ribavirin. (pnas.org)
  • However, several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans, associated with high morbidity and mortality ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Arenavirus typically is associated with wild wood rats and believed to be transmitted to humans in dust carrying an infected rodent's urine, feces or saliva, a health expert said Friday. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Arenaviruses are generally associated with rodent-transmitted diseases in humans. (kenyon.edu)
  • Some arenaviruses can also infect humans, potentially causing severe disease or death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sabiá virus, one of five arenaviruses from South America known to cause hemorrhagic fever in humans, emerged in 1990 when it was isolated from a fatal case in Sao Paulo, Brazil. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Arenavirus steals cap from cellular RNA and replication occurs. (kenyon.edu)
  • The molecular biology section of the Special Pathogens Branch has an active program that uses molecular biology approaches to investigate disease outbreaks and to analyze mechanisms of replication, maintenance, and transmission of bunyaviruses, filoviruses, and arenaviruses. (asm.org)
  • Three amino acid changes in the C terminus of L are required for increased virulence of the P18 strain by increasing the rate of viral genome replication, indicating that the rate of viral genome replication is an important factor in arenavirus pathogenesis. (emory.edu)
  • In addition to other chapters in this volume, many reviews have been published in recent years about arenaviruses and their pathogenesis [ 1 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Choe H, Jemielity S, Abraham J, Radoshitzky SR, Farzan M. Transferrin receptor 1 in the zoonosis and pathogenesis of New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses. (scripps.edu)
  • LCMV infects Mus musculus , the common mouse, which explains why this virus is the only arenavirus with a worldwide distribution. (mdpi.com)
  • So this virus is actually a mashup, or a genetic mix of arenaviruses and Ebola virus. (nhpr.org)
  • Another possibility, he says, is that "Ebola and arenavirus as we know them today evolved from this. (nhpr.org)
  • Lassa virus, a member of the Arenavirus family, is very different from Ebolavirus (a filovirus), but both are zoonotic pathogens that may cause hemorrhagic fever. (virology.ws)
  • Pichinde virus is an arenavirus which causes severe illness similar to Lassa fever in strain 13 guinea pigs, but does not cause severe illness in man. (ajtmh.org)
  • The pathogenic New World arenaviruses, such as JUNV, bind the host cell transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) through the G1 receptor-binding subunit of GPC ( 1 , 54 ), whereupon the virus is endocytosed. (asm.org)
  • These zoonotic events are enabled by the specific interaction between the New World arenaviral attachment glycoprotein, GP1, and cell surface human transferrin receptor (hTfR1). (rcsb.org)
  • Our results uncover novel mechanisms used by arenavirus to exploit the host machinery and subvert immunity, singling out DDX3 as a potential host target for developing new therapies against highly pathogenic arenaviruses,' the authors write in the study. (news-medical.net)
  • Thus, arenavirus envelope glycosylation impairs the protective efficacy rather than the induction of nAbs, and thereby prevents efficient antibody-mediated virus control. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we present the structural basis for how a mouse-derived neutralizing antibody (nAb), OD01, disrupts this interaction by targeting the receptor-binding surface of the GP1 glycoprotein from Junín virus (JUNV), a hemorrhagic fever arenavirus endemic in central Argentina. (rcsb.org)
  • A class of novel, highly divergent arenaviruses, properly known as reptarenaviruses, have also been discovered which infect snakes to produce inclusion body disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entry of arenaviruses into their target cells is facilitated by the two noncovalently linked surface glycoproteins GP1 and GP2. (pnas.org)
  • We recently developed arenavirus neutralization assays using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based pseudotypes bearing arenavirus recombinant glycoproteins. (mdpi.com)
  • The cellular proprotein convertase site 1 protease (S1P) has been implicated in the proteolytic processing of the glycoproteins (GPs) of Old World arenaviruses. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Site-specific antibodies define a cleavage site conserved among arenavirus GP-C glycoproteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The team closely examined the interaction between the virus proteins and the host proteins, a process that yielded the creation of a map - the first ever - of human protein partners of arenavirus and hantavirus glycoproteins (GPs). (uvm.edu)
  • Therefore, it is of great importance to detect these pathogens rapidly and specifically in order to minimize the risk and scale of arenavirus outbreaks. (mdpi.com)
  • Genetic diversity among arenavirus species in their respective rodent hosts supports the continued emergence of new pathogens. (asm.org)
  • To investigate the role of synanthropic small mammals as potential reservoirs of emerging pathogens in Ethiopia, we sampled rodent and shrew species in areas near human habitations and screened them for hantavirus and arenavirus RNA. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Rodent-borne pathogens like hantaviruses and arenaviruses are simple, but resourceful, and very successful at propagating. (uvm.edu)
  • Arenaviruses are one of the most neglected tropical pathogens. (emory.edu)
  • A research team from several institutions being led by the University of California San Diego has deciphered a key component behind a rising epidemic of pathogens that the World Health Organization (WHO) recently added to its list of critical emerging diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • A growing number of arenaviruses can cause a devastating viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) syndrome. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In 2008, a highly fatal outbreak of HF in Johannesburg was attributed to a previously unknown arenavirus , dubbed the Lujo virus (i. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Intensive laboratory investigation attributed the outbreak to a novel arenavirus , dubbed 'Lujo' (i. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The diseases derived from arenaviruses range in severity. (wikipedia.org)
  • When symptomatic, they generally begin with a minor nonspecific flu-like illness that may evolve to one of a few syndromes (see table Arbovirus, Arenavirus, and Filovirus Diseases ). (merckmanuals.com)
  • The Centre for Disease Control estimates that arenavirus diseases, such as Lassa Fever, kill an estimated 5,000 people each year, mostly in the developing world. (healthcanal.com)
  • Dr. Peters tells us of his background in medicine and how he started to work in some very remote parts of the world in tracking down diseases that are the stuff of nightmares. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • The virions are enveloped and include nonequimolar amounts of each genomic RNA species, designated L and S, coding for four ORFs (N, GPC, L, and Z). The arenavirus Junín (JUNV) is the etiological agent of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever, an acute disease with high mortality rate. (hindawi.com)
  • Junín virus (JUNV) is a South American arenavirus, the etiological agent of a severe endemo-epidemic disease called Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF). (hindawi.com)
  • In 1949, Haldane [ 1 ] made the observation that sickle cell anaemia, thalassaemias and other blood cell disorders were prominent in malaria-endemic regions of the world. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 52 (‎4-6)‎, 409 - 419. (who.int)
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (eurosurveillance.org)
  • He has consulted intensively for multiple U.S. organizations including NASA, Ministries of Health, and the World Health Organization. (cdc.gov)
  • The goal of this article is to review the recent advances in developing laboratory diagnostic assays based on recombinant viral proteins for the diagnosis of VHFs and epidemiological studies on the VHFs caused by arenaviruses. (mdpi.com)
  • The group now reports in the journal Cell Reports Medicine that the combination of two different arenaviruses produced promising results in animal experiments. (bionity.com)
  • Detection of novel divergent arenaviruses in boid snakes with inclusion body disease in the Netherlands. (springer.com)
  • Public health concerns posed by human pathogenic arenaviruses are aggravated by the lack of licensed vaccines and current therapy being limited to the use of the nucleoside analog ribavirin (Rib) that can cause significant side effects and requires an early and i.v. administration for optimal efficacy ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Flexal mammarenavirus (also known as the Flexal virus or FLEV, and previously known by the laboratory code BeAn 293022) is a mammarenavirus: an arenavirus with a mammalian host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, several New World arenaviruses, chiefly Junin virus, cause viral HF disease ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • however, it is classified as an Old World virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Seoul virus in black and Norway rats worldwide) and arenaviruses (e.g. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The 3 sequences cluster with Mobala virus (80% bootstrap support), an arenavirus discovered in Praomys sp. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Last Wednesday, the Minister of Health, Gabriela Monta o, reported that the virus that caused the death of two people and left in critical condition two doctors is the arenavirus. (flutrackers.com)
  • Structural basis for receptor recognition by New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses. (springer.com)
  • 6%, which would fall very close to the proposed cut off between species and strains for other arenavirus genotypes (Garcia et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most arenaviruses seem to be restricted to a single rodent species or even sub-species [ 14 , 15 ] suggesting adaptation to those specific hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A total of 201 small mammals from 6 species were screened for arenaviruses and hantaviruses (Table). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Some hosts, such as the rodent species carrying several of the New World arenaviruses, live in geographically restricted areas. (medic8.com)
  • Researchers analyzed DNA samples taken from boas and pythons and identified two strains of DNA that belonged to the arenavirus family that did not look like your ordinary arenaviruses. (medicaldaily.com)
  • Specific members of the order Rodentia are the principal hosts of the arenaviruses, for which natural host relationships have been well characterized. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to the recognized arenavirus hosts, other Texas rodent genera (Onychomys, Baiomys, Peromyscus, Dipodomys, and Chaetodipus) have tested positive for arenavirus antibodies (Milazzo et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since the subject of arenaviruses was visited by Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 14 years ago, enormous advances have been made in this area. (worldcat.org)
  • Here, we describe efforts to produce cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies that bind to both New and Old World arenaviruses. (omictools.com)
  • Sandwich antigen-capture (Ag-capture) ELISAs using these mAbs as capture antibodies were developed and confirmed to be sensitive and specific for detecting the respective arenavirus NPs. (mdpi.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies specific for these arenavirus proteins also reacted with the three CHV antigens. (elsevier.com)
  • It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution. (umassmed.edu)
  • Fine mapping of a peptide sequence containing an antigenic site conserved among arenaviruses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Unbiased, high-throughput sequencing with the 454 Sequencing system revealed the presence of a previously undiscovered Old World arenavirus. (pressebox.com)
  • These two DDX3-dependent arenavirus exploitation strategies were previously undiscovered. (news-medical.net)