One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.
One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the Old World complex. It includes LASSA VIRUS and LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS, although the latter has worldwide distribution now.
The only genus in the family ARENAVIRIDAE. It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution.
Virus diseases caused by the ARENAVIRIDAE.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.
The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.
A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.
Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, one of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing a fatal infection in the cricetine rodent Oryzomys albigularis. Asymptomatic laboratory infection in humans has been reported.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Biological activities of viruses and their interactions with the cells they infect.
An infraorder of New World monkeys, comprised of the families AOTIDAE; ATELIDAE; CEBIDAE; and PITHECIIDAE. They are found exclusively in the Americas.
A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI, consisting of nine subfamilies: ALOUATTINAE; AOTINAE; Atelinae; Callicebinae; CALLIMICONINAE; CALLITRICHINAE; CEBINAE; Pithecinae; and SAIMIRINAE. They inhabit the forests of South and Central America, comprising the largest family of South American monkeys.
Dystrophin-associated proteins that play role in the formation of a transmembrane link between laminin-2 and DYSTROPHIN. Both the alpha and the beta subtypes of dystroglycan originate via POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of a single precursor protein.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.
A family of RNA viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, containing filamentous virions. Although they resemble RHABDOVIRIDAE in possessing helical nucleocapsids, Filoviridae differ in the length and degree of branching in their virions. There are two genera: EBOLAVIRUS and MARBURGVIRUS.
A group of iron-binding proteins that tightly bind two ferrate ions along with two carbonate ions. They are found in the bodily fluids of vertebrates where they act as transport and storage molecules for iron.
An infraorder of PRIMATES comprised of the families CERCOPITHECIDAE (old world monkeys); HYLOBATIDAE (siamangs and GIBBONS); and HOMINIDAE (great apes and HUMANS). With the exception of humans, they all live exclusively in Africa and Asia.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.
A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
A genus of Old World monkeys of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, that inhabits the mountainous regions of Ethiopia. The genus consists of only one species, Theropithecus gelada.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain TROPANES. The common name of trumpet flower is also sometimes used for GELSEMIUM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).
A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans and new world primates. The type species human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) is better known as the Epstein-Barr virus.
A species of the genus ERYTHROCEBUS, subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE. It inhabits the flat open arid country of Africa. It is also known as the patas monkey or the red monkey.
Proteins produced from GENES that have mutated by the fusing of protein coding regions of more than one gene. Such hybrid proteins are responsible for some instances of ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE and defective biological processes such as NEOPLASMS.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A genus of Old World monkeys, subfamily COLOBINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, that inhabits the forests of Africa. It consists of eight species: C. angolensis (Angolan colobus), C. badius or C. rufomitratus (Red or Bay colobus), C. guereza (Guereza or Eastern black-and-white colobus), C. kirkii (Kirk's colobus), C. polykomos (King colobus or Western black-and-white colobus), C. satanas (Black colobus), and C. verus (Olive colobus). Some authors recognize Procolobus as a separate genus and then the olive colobus is recognized as the species P. verus.
A genus of the family Lorisidae having four species which inhabit the forests and bush regions of Africa south of the Sahara and some nearby islands. The four species are G. alleni, G. crassicaudatus, G. demidovii, and G. senegalensis. There is another genus, Euoticus, containing two species which some authors have included in the Galago genus.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, comprising two species: the drill (M. leucophaeus) and the mandrill (M. sphinx). They are usually found in thick rainforest and have a gentle disposition despite their ferocious reputation. Some authors consider Mandrillus a subgenus of PAPIO.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A genus in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE consisting of 12 species and found in Panama as well as South America. Species seen most frequently in the literature are S. oedipus (cotton-top marmoset), S. nigricollis, and S. fusicollis.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE, subfamily CEBINAE, consisting of four species which are divided into two groups, the tufted and untufted. C. apella has tufts of hair over the eyes and sides of the head. The remaining species are without tufts - C. capucinus, C. nigrivultatus, and C. albifrons. Cebus inhabits the forests of Central and South America.
Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
A genus of Old World monkeys found in Africa although some species have been introduced into the West Indies. This genus is composed of at least twenty species: C. AETHIOPS, C. ascanius, C. campbelli, C. cephus, C. denti, C. diana, C. dryas, C. erythrogaster, C. erythrotis, C. hamlyni, C. lhoesti, C. mitis, C. mona, C. neglectus, C. nictitans, C. petaurista, C. pogonias, C. preussi, C. salongo, and C. wolfi.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).
A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A plant genus of the family TILIACEAE. Members contain cycloartane saponins and CARDENOLIDES.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.
Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE, which has a well-studied trilevel social structure consisting of troops, bands, and clans.
A species in the family AOTIDAE, inhabiting the forested regions of Central and South America (from Panama to the Amazon). Vocalizations occur primarily at night when they are active, thus they are also known as Northern night monkeys.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.

New World arenavirus clade C, but not clade A and B viruses, utilizes alpha-dystroglycan as its major receptor. (1/23)

Alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG) has been identified as a major receptor for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa virus, two Old World arenaviruses. The situation with New World arenaviruses is less clear: previous studies demonstrated that Oliveros virus also exhibited high-affinity binding to alpha-DG but that Guanarito virus did not. To extend these initial studies, several additional Old and New World arenaviruses were screened for entry into mouse embryonic stem cells possessing or lacking alpha-DG. In addition, representative viruses were further analyzed for direct binding to alpha-DG by means of a virus overlay protein blot assay technique. These studies indicate that Old World arenaviruses use alpha-DG as a major receptor, whereas, of the New World arenaviruses, only clade C viruses (i.e., Oliveros and Latino viruses) use alpha-DG as a major receptor. New World clade A and B arenaviruses, which include the highly pathogenic Machupo, Guanarito, Junin, and Sabia viruses, appear to use a different receptor or coreceptor for binding. Previous studies with LCMV have suggested the need for a small aliphatic amino acid at LCMV GP1 glycoprotein amino acid position 260 to allow high-affinity binding to alpha-DG. As reported herein, this requirement appears to be broadly applicable to the arenaviruses as determined by more extensive analysis of alpha-DG receptor usage and GP1 sequences of Old and New World arenaviruses. In addition, GP1 amino acid position 259 also appears to be important, since all arenaviruses showing high-affinity alpha-DG binding possess a bulky aromatic amino acid (tyrosine or phenylalanine) at this position.  (+info)

Human macrophages, but not dendritic cells, are activated and produce alpha/beta interferons in response to Mopeia virus infection. (2/23)

Lassa virus (LV) and Mopeia virus (MV) are closely related members of the Arenavirus genus, sharing 75% amino acid sequence identity. However, LV causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, whereas MV cannot induce disease. We have previously shown that antigen-presenting cells (APC)-macrophages (MP) and dendritic cells (DC)-sustain high replication rates of LV but are not activated, suggesting that they play a role in the immunosuppression observed in severe cases of Lassa fever. Here, we infected human APC with MV and analyzed the cellular responses induced. MV infection was productive in MP and even more so in DC. Apoptosis was not induced in either cell type. Moreover, unlike DC, MP were early and strongly activated in response to MV, as shown by the increased surface expression of CD86, CD80, CD54, CD40, and HLA-abc and by the production of mRNA encoding alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), IFN-beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6. In addition, MV-infected MP produced less of the virus than DC, which was related to the fact that these cells secreted IFN-alpha. Thus, the strong activation of MP is probably a major event in the control of MV infection and may be involved in the induction of an adaptive immune response in infected hosts. These results may explain the difference in pathogenicity between LV and MV.  (+info)

Phylogeny and evolution of old world arenaviruses. (3/23)

The intention of this study was to investigate the genomics, phylogeny and evolution of the Old World arenaviruses based on sequence data representing the four viral genes. To achieve this aim, we sequenced the complete S and L RNA segments of Ippy virus (IPPYV), Mobala virus (MOBV) and Mopeia virus (MOPV). Full-length sequences of the NP, GPC, Z and L genes were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to compare resulting tree topologies. Each of the five Old World arenavirus species (namely Lassa virus [LASV], IPPYV, MOBV, MOPV and Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV]) are monophyletic; seven selected strains of LASV showed a similar topology regardless of the gene under analysis; IPPYV rooted the three other African arenaviruses; the four African arenaviruses are rooted by the ubiquitous LCMV; and the tree topologies of the three African arenaviruses other than LASV are identical regardless of the gene used for analysis. No evidence for significant evolutionary events such as intra- or intersegmental recombination was obtained.  (+info)

Old World and clade C New World arenaviruses mimic the molecular mechanism of receptor recognition used by alpha-dystroglycan's host-derived ligands. (4/23)

alpha-Dystroglycan (DG) is an important cellular receptor for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and also serves as the receptor for Old World arenaviruses Lassa fever virus (LFV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and clade C New World arenaviruses. In the host cell, alpha-DG is subject to a remarkably complex pattern of O glycosylation that is crucial for its interactions with ECM proteins. Two of these unusual sugar modifications, protein O mannosylation and glycan modifications involving the putative glycosyltransferase LARGE, have recently been implicated in arenavirus binding. Considering the complexity of alpha-DG O glycosylation, our present study was aimed at the identification of the specific O-linked glycans on alpha-DG that are recognized by arenaviruses. As previously shown for LCMV, we found that protein O mannosylation of alpha-DG is crucial for the binding of arenaviruses of distinct phylogenetic origins, including LFV, Mobala virus, and clade C New World arenaviruses. In contrast to the highly conserved requirement for O mannosylation, more generic O glycans present on alpha-DG are dispensable for arenavirus binding. Despite the critical role of O-mannosyl glycans for arenavirus binding under normal conditions, the overexpression of LARGE in cells deficient in O mannosylation resulted in highly glycosylated alpha-DG that was functional as a receptor for arenaviruses. Thus, modifications by LARGE but not O-mannosyl glycans themselves are most likely the crucial structures recognized by arenaviruses. Together, the data demonstrate that arenaviruses recognize the same highly conserved O-glycan structures on alpha-DG involved in ECM protein binding, indicating a strikingly similar mechanism of receptor recognition by pathogen- and host-derived ligands.  (+info)

Genetic identification of Kodoko virus, a novel arenavirus of the African pigmy mouse (Mus Nannomys minutoides) in West Africa. (5/23)

Genetic evidence of a novel arenavirus species related to but distinct from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was obtained from a rodent belonging to an endemic African subgenus of Mus (Nannomys). The phylogenetic position among Old World arenaviruses of this new arenavirus, named Kodoko virus, was reconstructed based on L and NP genes sequences. The finding of an Old World arenavirus related to LCMV outside the known geographical range of LCMV in a novel rodent species reveals new insights about the evolutionary history of arenaviruses.  (+info)

Old World arenavirus infection interferes with the expression of functional alpha-dystroglycan in the host cell. (6/23)

alpha-Dystroglycan (alpha-DG) is an important cellular receptor for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins as well as the Old World arenaviruses lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and the human pathogenic Lassa fever virus (LFV). Specific O-glycosylation of alpha-DG is critical for its function as receptor for ECM proteins and arenaviruses. Here, we investigated the impact of arenavirus infection on alpha-DG expression. Infection with an immunosuppressive LCMV isolate caused a marked reduction in expression of functional alpha-DG without affecting biosynthesis of DG core protein or global cell surface glycoprotein expression. The effect was caused by the viral glycoprotein (GP), and it critically depended on alpha-DG binding affinity and GP maturation. An equivalent effect was observed with LFVGP. Viral GP was found to associate with a complex between DG and the glycosyltransferase LARGE in the Golgi. Overexpression of LARGE restored functional alpha-DG expression in infected cells. We provide evidence that virus-induced down-modulation of functional alpha-DG perturbs DG-mediated assembly of laminin at the cell surface, affecting normal cell-matrix interactions.  (+info)

Basolateral entry and release of New and Old World arenaviruses from human airway epithelia. (7/23)


Different mechanisms of cell entry by human-pathogenic Old World and New World arenaviruses. (8/23)


Several viruses in the Arenaviridae family infect humans and cause severe hemorrhagic fevers which lead to high case fatality rates. Due to their pathogenicity and geographic tropisms, these viruses remain very understudied. As a result, an effective vaccine or therapy is urgently needed. Here, we describe efforts to produce cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies that bind to both New and Old World arenaviruses. All of our MAbs seem to be nonneutralizing and nonprotective and target subunit 2 of the glycoprotein. Due to the lack of reagents such as recombinant glycoproteins and antibodies for rapid detection assays, our MAbs could be beneficial as analytic and diagnostic tools.
Three patients who received visceral-organ transplants from a single donor on the same day died of a febrile illness 4 to 6 weeks after transplantation. Culture, polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and serologic assays, and oligonucleotide microarray analysis for a wide range of infectious agents were not informative.,We evaluated RNA obtained from the liver and kidney transplant recipients. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing was used to identify microbial sequences not found by means of other methods. The specificity of sequences for a new candidate pathogen was confirmed by means of culture and by means of PCR, immunohistochemical, and serologic analyses.,High-throughput sequencing yielded 103,632 sequences, of which 14 represented an Old World arenavirus. Additional sequence analysis showed that this new arenavirus was related to lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses. Specific PCR assays based on a unique sequence confirmed the presence of the virus in the kidneys, liver, blood, and cerebrospinal ...
From the town of Bogglewort comes the halfling Willy Muttonchop. He has left the Grand County of the Mootland to explore the Old World as he really enjoys living among the other taller denizens of the Empire. Due to certain lucky circumstances there are always interesting things to show up in his pockets. Unfortunately some of the taller folks seem to be not very polite while Willy is around for a longer amount of time. But he has a sunny disposition and doesnt bother to move along and meet new friends. As a true son of The Moot Willy adores a good meal. Time will tell if the halfling still can keep up with his luck even in the more dangerous parts of the Old World. ...
Im glad those gadgets and gizmos are on the market because they make food prep more accessible to people who have mobility or dexterity issues or folks...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Attenuated replication of lassa virus vaccine candidate ML29 in STAT-1 -/- mice AU - Johnson, Dylan M.. AU - Jokinen, Jenny D.. AU - Lukashevich, Igor S.. PY - 2019/3/1. Y1 - 2019/3/1. N2 - Lassa virus (LASV), a highly prevalent mammalian arenavirus endemic in West Africa, can cause Lassa fever (LF), which is responsible for thousands of deaths annually. LASV is transmitted to humans from naturally infected rodents. At present, there is not an effective vaccine nor treatment. The genetic diversity of LASV is the greatest challenge for vaccine development. The reassortant ML29 carrying the L segment from the nonpathogenic Mopeia virus (MOPV) and the S segment from LASV is a vaccine candidate under current development. ML29 demonstrated complete protection in validated animal models against a Nigerian strain from clade II, which was responsible for the worst outbreak on record in 2018. This study demonstrated that ML29 was more attenuated than MOPV in STAT1 -/- mice, a small animal ...
The Center for One Health Research Department of Environment & Occupational Health Sciences School of Public Health University of Washington Box 357234 Seattle, WA, USA ...
A host of disease-causing viruses called arenaviruses lurk in animal populations in various parts of the world, sometimes crossing over into humans. When they do cross over, they can be lethal, and few treatments exist.. Now researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science have devised a clever decoy for these viruses that may keep them from spreading in the body.. Two disease-causing arenaviruses, known as Junín and Machupo, circulate through rodent populations, mainly in South America, and they can infect humans when people come in contact with affected rodents. Similar to Ebola, these diseases can cause the body to bleed out, and the only treatments, to date, are risky and complex, as they are taken from the blood of survivors.. The study, reported in Nature Communications, arose from an earlier research question in the group of Dr Ron Diskin of the Weizmann Institutes Structural Biology Department: how are certain arenaviruses able to move from rodents or other animals into ...
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Photos-Jones, E. , Koukouli-Chrysanthaki, C., Tylecote, R. F. and Gialoglou, G. (1989) Precious metals extraction in Palaia Kavala, N.E. Greece. In: Hauptmann, A., Pernicka, E. and Wagner, G. A. (eds.) Archäometallurgie der Alten Welt : Beiträge zum Internationalen Symposium Old World archaeometallurgy, Heidelberg 1987 = Old World archaeometallurgy : proceedings of the International Symposium Old World archaeometallurgy, Heidelberg 1987. Selbstverlag des Deutschen Bergbau-Museums: Bochum, Germany, pp. 179-190. ISBN 9783921533420 ...
Arenaviruses are feared as agents that cause viral hemorrhagic fevers. We report the identification, isolation, and genetic characterization of 2 novel arenaviruses from Namaqua rock mice in Namibia. These findings extend knowledge of the distribution and diversity of arenaviruses in Africa.
Old World warblers are a large group of birds formerly grouped together in the bird family Sylviidae. The family held over 400 species in over 70 genera, and were the source of much taxonomic confusion. Two families were split out initially, the cisticolas into Cisticolidae and the kinglets into Regulidae. In the past ten years they have been the subject of much research and many species are now placed into other families, including the Acrocephalidae, Cettiidae, Phylloscopidae, and Megaluridae. In addition some species have been moved into existing families or have not yet had their placement fully resolved. A smaller family of warblers, together with some babblers formerly placed in the family Timaliidae and the parrotbills, are retained in a much smaller family Sylviidae. Most Old World warblers are of generally undistinguished appearance, though some Asian species are boldly marked. The sexes are often identical, but may be clearly distinct, notably in the genus Sylvia. They are of small to ...
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10:00am - 05:00pm Arancibia - 4 Pts F0001926 - Marcelo by Esta dirección de correo electrónico está siendo protegida contra los robots de spam. Necesita tener JavaScript habilitado para poder verlo.. :: Cat.A2 Lincoln ...
In events from a mile down, there is something to be said for the inertia you carry through from a brisk pace developed when youre primarily using anaerobic systems. This is most significant in an event like the 400 while you burn up ATP in the first couple of seconds (free energy, some say), but I think its demonstrated as far up as the 1500. Tim finished that 1500 after opening in 52. Thats obviously too fast, but it suggests to me that the optimal opening pace for him is probably a 54, as it costs you less from an energy perspective to float and try to avoid deceleration (especially when a positive-split race allows room for some deceleration, while an even-split race requires metronomic maintenance that might be more draining/equally draining). ...
Ask Google about the Jewish food history of Toronto and youll get nothing. Ask author/storyteller Michael Wex about Toronto Jewish food his
Taken together, the viruses that cause VHFs are distributed over much of the globe. However, because each virus is associated with one or more particular host species, the virus and the disease it causes are usually seen only where the host species live(s). Some hosts, such as the rodent species carrying several of the New World arenaviruses, live in geographically restricted areas. Therefore, the risk of getting VHFs caused by these viruses is restricted to those areas. Other hosts range over continents, such as the rodents that carry viruses which cause various forms of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America, or the different set of rodents that carry viruses which cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe and Asia. A few hosts are distributed nearly worldwide, such as the common rat. It can carry Seoul virus, a cause of HFRS; therefore, humans can get HFRS anywhere where the common rat is found.. While people usually become infected only in areas ...
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Shop for Usingers Old World Style Wieners at Pick n Save. Find quality meat & seafood products to add to your Shopping List or order online for Delivery or Pickup.
Researchers have uncovered structural and functional details of a key Lassa virus protein; this new information may aid the development of vaccines.
Someone asked me about my childhood in regards to my last post about the new sex-ed curriculum in Ontario. Well, my childhood was great, I cant say I was a perfect child of course, I had a little attitude at times :) but all in all, it was good. The sun seemed to shine most…
A gorgeous reflective cross with flared arms and a vintage old world style. Have it custom engraved with babys name and date. This cross is nickel plated to make it non-tarnishing. The back of the cross includes hardware to be hung on a wall. Makes a thoughtful gift for baptisms or welcoming a new baby.
Heres to those who choose to shy away from the norm. To those who embrace old world chic and prefer things of substance rather than perceived value ...
This intricately designed changing table is built for generations to come employing old world craftsmanship with an incredible attention to detail. Ea…
The established animal model for Lassa fever is based on the new world arenavirus Pichinde (PIC). Natural isolates of PIC virus are attenuated in guinea pigs, but serial guinea pig passage renders them extremely virulent in that host. We have compared the nucleotide sequences of the small RNA segments of two attenuated, low-passage variants of the PIC virus Munchique strain (CoAn 4763) and two virulent, high-passage derivatives. Missense mutations in the glycoprotein precursor (GPC) gene at codons GPC-119, GPC-140, and GPC-164 and the nucleoprotein gene (NP) codons NP-35 and NP-374 were most closely associated with virulence. Codon GPC-140 is predicted to represent a region of peak hydrophilicity of the glycoprotein 1 (GP1); it is conceivable that mutations at this site could influence virulence by altering B cell epitopes or virus attachment protein conformation.
Old World vultures are not closely related to the superficially similar New World vultures and condors, and do not share that groups good sense of smell. The similarities between the two groups of vultures are due to convergent evolution, rather than a close relationship. They were widespread in both the Old World and North America during the Neogene. Old World vultures are probably a polyphyletic group within Accipitridae, with the palm-nut vulture, Egyptian vulture and bearded vulture separate from the others.[1] Most authorities refer to two major clades: Gypaetinae and Aegypiinae (Aegypius, Gyps, Sarcogyps, Torgos, Trigonoceps and possibly Necrosyrtes). The former seem to be nested with Perninae hawks, while the latter are closely related and possibly even synonymous with Aquilinae.[2] Within Aegypiinae, Torgos, Aegypius, Sarcogyps and Trigonoceps are particularly closely related and possibly within the same genus.[3][4]. Both Old World and New World vultures are scavenging birds, feeding ...
To determine whether Lassa virus was circulating in southern Mali, we tested samples from small mammals from 3 villages, including Soromba, where in 2009 a British citizen probably contracted a lethal Lassa virus infection. We report the isolation and genetic characterization of Lassa virus from an area previously unknown for Lassa fever.
I identify as a fan of the New World of Darkness line. I love Changeling: the Lost with a rabid passion, and have a soft spot for the other games as well. Recently, I picked up a few books from the Old World of Darkness line. They are kind of thick and intimidating, and before diving in, I would like to know a bit about what to expect. What is the Old World of Darkness like? How is it different from its successor?
Find album reviews, stream songs, credits and award information for Blood Oranges - Brave Old World on AllMusic - 1999 - On Blood Oranges, Brave Old World combines the…
Highly Nourishing Food meant for Pregnant together with Lactating Mums Essay Example of this The report «Highly Wholesome Food just for Pregnant together with Lactating Mothers» is an excellent sort of an essay on the field of biology. In many areas of the world, several edible mad or domesticated plants are exploited on a daily basis as abundant sources of food and nutrition towards populations surviving in these ecosystems (Aberoumand Nutritive Aspects 2020). These house plants contain varied nutritional as well as medicinal worth, and hence the feeling of their elements is for immense importance. The present paper utilizes a few different place ingredients to generate a recipe that might provide a increased nutritional value that will pregnant and also lactating mother. Research is consistent that this band of the population usually requires high degrees of potassium (1200 mg/day) in addition to calcium (2000 mg/day). Furthermore, it requires salt (500 ...
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Please Note, The ebooks are not always PDF format, you might receive epub/kindle formats after purchase. This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-3
Greg, you are amazingly spot on! I will however also agree with the commenter that there is some good English Cheddar. I prefer ours but finding a good cheddar in Holland is pretty tough. I think water refills and what I perceived as a lack of service especially when it came to drinks where what i noticed to be most different. I do believe that Europeans in general dont drink as much water as we do, just culturally we are always told to stay hydrated. Agreed wholeheartedly on the heat in the train but no complaints here from the transport in Holland except Queens(Now Kings) Day. ...
Emmentaler is German for cheese. Americans have come to call Swiss Cheese. European-made Emmentaler is known for its Bold, Nutty Flavor.
La premiación se llevará a cabo el 31 de marzo en Almeda Mall con jueces que decidirán quien es la "Mujer Extraordinaria" de Houston. Hay $1,500 en premios para la ganadora, incluyendo un tratameinto de lujo de spa; para consentir a las mujeres de nuestra vida ...
Marcell Ozuna sigue su noche de lujo y dispara sencillo al medio para remolcar una más y poner el marcador para los Bravos 10-2 en el 8vo
Revista online de lujo, especializada en moda, belleza, arte, diseño y viajes basándose en una fotografía y creatividad única
Revista online de lujo, especializada en moda, belleza, arte, diseño y viajes basándose en una fotografía y creatividad única
A new, relatively expensive wine like this with a story to tell needs to be either hand-sold or have a pleasingly, appropriately classy label. So a much-needed redesign was finally arranged and the colour-coded quadrant layout replaced with a clean, fresh herald with a touch of gold, on a white background. Eye-catching but with a nod to tradition, it looks fresh but evokes Old World heritage and, more importantly, stands out well on a quick scan of shelves ...
Romaneira with their wild Douro aromas, their exuberant fruit, allied with their old world subtlety and finesse, are among the most thrilling discoveries that a wine lover can make today. We encourage you to discover them!
Abstract The objectives of this study were to extend our knowledge of the geographic distribution and rodent host range of arenaviruses in North America. Sera from wild rodents collected from the southern and western United States were tested for antibody against Tamiami, Pichinde, Junin, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses, using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Antibody to at least one arenavirus was found in 220 (3.1%) of 7,106 rodents tested. The antibody-positive animals included Mus musculus from Florida and Texas; Neotoma albigula from Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico; N. fuscipes and N. lepida from California: N. mexicana from Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah; N. stephensi from Arizona and New Mexico; and Oryzomys palustris and Sigmodon hispidus from Florida. Sigmodon hispidus seropositive for Tamiami virus were found only in Florida (156 [27.0%] of 578 tested), although 463 hispid cotton rats from outside that state were examined. High-titered antibodies to Tamiami virus were present
Arenaviruses are enveloped, bipartite negative single-stranded RNA viruses that can cause a wide spectrum of disease in humans and experimental animals including hemorrhagic fever. The majority of these viruses are rodent-borne and the arenavirus family can be divided into two groups: the Lassa-Lymphocytic choriomeningitis serocomplex and the Tacaribe serocomplex. Arenavirus-induced disease may include characteristic symptoms ranging from fever, malaise, body aches, petechiae, dehydration, hemorrhage, organ failure, shock, and in severe cases death. Currently, there are few prophylactic and therapeutic treatments available for arenavirus-induced symptoms. Supportive care and ribavirin remain the predominant strategies for treating most of the arenavirus-induced diseases. Therefore, efficacy testing of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies in relevant animal models is necessary. Because of the potential for person-to-person spread, the ability to cause lethal or debilitating disease in humans,
The structure reveals how the virus evades its hosts immune system, and how it hijacks infected cells vital machinery in a process scientists call cap-stealing. Details of the structure could guide future efforts to develop an effective anti-viral drug and vaccine.. The findings are published in this weeks issue of Nature.. Lassa virus represents a family of viruses - arenaviruses - whose natural hosts are rodents and which cause hemorrhagic fevers in Africa and South America. New varieties of arenavirus continue to emerge, such as the deadly Lujo virus identified recently in Zambia and South Africa.. Lassa virus infects between 100,000 and 300,000 people every year in West Africa, with an estimated 5,000 deaths according to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Most people infected experience a mild illness, but about 20 per cent suffer a severe multisystem disease with internal bleeding and immune suppression. Around one per cent of all infections are fatal. A common ...
The main reservoir of LCMV, which belongs to the arenaviruses, is the house mouse. Cells infected with LCMV express antigens and are recognised by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This lymphocyte activity also makes the blood-brain barrier permeable resulting in meninges and neurons being damaged. Infection of adult mice leads to choriomeningitis. In contrast, an intrauterine or neonatal infection generally causes an asymptomatic chronic carrier state in mice, with such animals forming immune complexes in the course of their lifetime that lead to glomerulonephritis. In guinea pigs and hamsters, LCMV infections often progress subclinically, however, conjunctivitis, blepharitis, respiratory symptoms, tremor, seizures and paralysis have been described. LCMV is transmitted diaplacentally and with all secretions and excretions. In humans, LCMV rarely leads to choriomeningitis; the infection is usually asymptomatic or shows mild, flu-like symptoms. An infection in the second part of pregnancy can cause severe ...
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) caused by arenaviruses are acute diseases characterized by fever, headache, general malaise, impaired cellular immunity, eventual neurologic involvement, and hemostatic alterations that may ultimately lead to shock and death. The causes of the bleeding are still poorly understood. However, it is generally accepted that these causes are associated to some degree with impaired hemostasis, endothelial cell dysfunction and low platelet counts or function. In this article, we present the current knowledge about the hematological alterations present in VHF induced by arenaviruses, including new aspects on the underlying pathogenic mechanisms.
There are 170 calories in 1 serving, 1/2 pizza (3.6 oz) of AC LaRocco Old World Veggie Ultra Thin Sprouted Grain Pizza, frozen. Youd need to walk 44 minutes to burn 170 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
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This weeks high/low weekend is a comparison of the new world and old world styles of wine. Australia is representing the new world with a Riesling from Edna Valley. I bet a few of you didnt even know that Australia made Rieslings (you are not alone). But, they certainly do and if you enjoy Riesling with petrol characteristics, then you should really try Australia. The old world is being represented by Spain with a traditional, … Read more. ...
Verandah is a beautiful boutique gallery located in Kolkata. It has an old world charm where the art-lovers can browse through the art over a cup of coffee
Fr linear-oblong, slightly flattened laterally, tipped by the slender stylopodia, the ribs low and obtuse; oil-tubes 1-4 in the intervals, 2 on the commissure; carpophore bifid to the base; umbels compound, the rays ±unequal; invol none or of a single small bract; umbellets few-fld, the 0-3 bractlets minute, the pedicels very unequal; sep minute or obsolete; pet white; branching, glabrous herbs with trifoliolate lvs and numerous loose, irregular umbels arising terminally and from the upper axils. 4, the others Old World ...
Of all Swedens cities, none manage to blend Old World influences with modern-day charm half as well as Gothenburg. Situat... ...
International adventure with a fast-track family (& dogs) of Old World values, adopting the Russian-Italian-American good life on the go…!
It is a member of Clade A of the Tacaribe (or "New World") serocomplex of the family Arenaviridae. Laboratory workers infected ... Zuckerman 2014, p. 10 "Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused by Arenaviruses" (PDF). The Center for Food Security and Public Health. ... Zuckerman, Ben (2014). Howard, C R (ed.). Arenaviruses. Elsevier. p. 7. ISBN 9780080877372. ... an arenavirus with a mammalian host. It was first found in semiaquatic rodents of the genus Oryzomys in tropical forest in the ...
The New World and Old World species diverged less than 45,000 years ago. The New World species evolved between 41,400 and 3,300 ... virus is the only arenavirus to exist in both areas but is classified as an Old World virus. Old and New World area viruses ... termini of the virion RNA species of New World and Old World arenaviruses". Virology. 121 (1): 200-3. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(82) ... The Old World Mammarenaviruses originated ~23.1-1.88 thousand years ago, most likely in Southern Africa while the New World ...
... all three being New World arenaviruses. The virus is named after Bear Canyon, the area it was originally discovered in. Cajimat ... An Arenavirus Naturally Associated with the California Mouse (Peromyscus californicus)". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (7): ... "Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses". Virology. 367 (2): 235-243. doi: ...
"Phylogeny and evolution of old world arenaviruses". Virology. 350 (2): 251-7. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2006.01.026. PMID 16494913. ... Gonzalez JP, Sanchez A, Rico-Hesse R (July 1995). "Molecular phylogeny of Guanarito virus, an emerging arenavirus affecting ... "One Health Initiative - One World One Medicine One Health". Retrieved 2018-06-29. Ezama A, ... Arenavirus, Hantavirus, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic virus and others. In the late 90s he began working as a professor of ...
They suggested that scholars consider New World arenaviruses and the role these pathogens may have played in colonial disease ... would have increased the presence of New World rats and mice. These animals may have carried arenaviruses capable of causing ... Somolinos d'Ardois believed cocoliztli was not the result of any known Old World pathogen but possibly a virus of New World ... Given that many Old World pathogens may have caused the cocoliztli outbreak, it is significant that all but two of the most ...
... the Old World arenaviruses, and the New World arenaviruses. Old World arenaviruses include lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus ... New world arena viruses are further broken down into three clades, A, B, and C. The Guanarito arena virus belongs to clade B ... February 2008). "Receptor determinants of zoonotic transmission of New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses". Proc. Natl. Acad ... Arenaviruses causing hemorrhagic fevers, along with a genus of virus called filoviruses, were categorized in Category A; these ...
Alpha-dystroglycan is also used as a receptor by viruses of the New World clade C arenaviruses (Oliveros and Latino viruses). ... The life cycle of Lassa mammarenavirus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa mammarenavirus enters the cell by the ... It shares this receptor with the prototypic Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Receptor recognition ... the New World arenaviruses of clades A and B, which include the important viruses Machupo, Guanarito, Junin, and Sabia in ...
Picornaviruses have been identified from a diverse array of bat species around the world. Arenaviruses are mainly associated ... The first arenavirus identified in bats was Tacaribe mammarenavirus, which was isolated from Jamaican fruit bats and the great ... The hepadnavirus found in the tent-making bat, which is a New World species, was the closest relative of human hepadnoviruses. ... "Ebola virus disease". World Health Organization. 10 February 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020. "What is Ebola Virus Disease?". ...
"Fatal Illnesses Associated With a New World Arenavirus --- California, 1999--2000". MMWR Weekly. Fulhorst, Charles; Charrel, ... Arenavirus-specific RNA was detected in each patient using RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequence of the patients were essentially ... Like other arenaviruses, WWAV appears to be transmitted through rodents. Therefore, direct contact with rodents, their feces, ... in the family Arenaviridae change the name of genus Arenavirus to Mammarenavirus and convert the names of its constituent ...
Specifically it is an old world arenavirus, which is enveloped, single-stranded, and bi-segmented RNA. This virus has both a ... World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 5 June 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015. Dongo, A. E.; Kesieme, E. B.; ... "Lassa fever". World Health Organization. Retrieved 11 September 2017. McCormick, J. B.; King, I. J.; Webb, P. A.; Scribner, C. ... "Lassa Fever - Nigeria". World Health Organization. 1 March 2018. Archived from the original on 1 March 2018. Edward-Ekpu, ...
It is of the "Old World" Arenavirus lineage and is closely related to Lassa mammarenavirus, sharing 75% of its amino acid ... Wulff H, McIntosh BM, Hamner DB, Johnson KM (1977). "Isolation of an arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus from Mastomys ... Johnson KM, Taylor P, Elliott LH, Tomori O (November 1981). "Recovery of a Lassa-related arenavirus in Zimbabwe". The American ... Gonzalez JP, Emonet S, de Lamballerie X, Charrel R (2007). Childs JE, Mackenzie JS, Richt JA (eds.). "Arenaviruses". Wildlife ...
"Comparative analysis of disease pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of New World and Old World arenavirus infections". The ... It is caused by the Junín virus (an arenavirus, closely related to the Machupo virus, causative agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic ...
Sequencing of the viral genome has shown that this virus belongs to the Old World arenavirus group. Comparisons with other ... viral genome sequences showed that this virus is equidistant from other Old World and New World arenaviruses. It is distantly ... identified the etiological agent of the outbreak as an Old World arenavirus using molecular and serological tests. Sequencing ... "Discovery of new arenavirus associated with hemorrhagic fever - first identified in nearly four decades". ...
As receptors for phosphatidylserine, TIM proteins bind many families of viruses [filovirus, flavivirus, New World arenavirus ...
... arenavirus MeSH B04.820.057.070.100 - arenaviruses, old world MeSH B04.820. - lassa virus MeSH B04.820.057.070. ... arenavirus MeSH B04.909.777.080.070.100 - arenaviruses, old world MeSH B04.909.777. - lassa virus MeSH B04.909. ... 100.550 - lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus MeSH B04.820.057.070.800 - arenaviruses, new world MeSH B04.820.057.070.800.450 - ... 777. - lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus MeSH B04.909.777.080.070.800 - arenaviruses, new world MeSH B04.909. ...
... fever on the developing world Monoclonal antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus react with pathogenic arenaviruses ... Johnson, K. M.; Taylor, P.; Tomori, O.; Elliott, L. H. (1981-11-01). "Recovery of a Lassa-Related Arenavirus in Zimbabwe". The ... He served as the Regional Virologist for the World Health Organization Africa Region (1994-2004) before he was appointed as the ... "What can Nigeria's Ebola experience teach the world?". The Guardian. October 7, 2014. Retrieved 2019-09-16. Kupferschmidt, Kai ...
The Maiztegui National Human Viral Disease Institute has performed research for the World Health Organization since 1985 and ... currently specializes in four areas: Arenaviruses Arboviruses Hantavirus Production of biological specimens ANLIS (in Spanish) ...
He is a member of the World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases. He is also director for biodefense ... His arenavirus research concentrates on the effects of infection on cellular function, particularly those molecular ... Peters, C. J. and Mark Olshaker (1998), Virus Hunter: Thirty Years of Battling Hot Viruses Around the World, Random House. ... of viral diseases including more than 70 publications on Rift Valley fever virus and more than 60 publications on arenaviruses ...
In July 2019, the World Health Organization declared the Congo Ebola outbreak a world health emergency. The length of time ... arenaviruses, and flaviviruses" (PDF). Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 October ... Health topics: Ebola virus disease - World Health Organization. Videos: Ebola outbreak response - World Health Organization. " ... Urging the world to offer aid to the affected regions, its Director-General said, "Countries affected to date simply do not ...
Guanarito virus New World arenavirus - Junin virus New World arenavirus - Machupo virus New World arenavirus - Sabia virus ... hemorrhagic fever Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Ebola virus Lassa virus Lujo virus Marburg virus New World arenavirus ...
The two RNA segments are denoted Small (S) and Large (L). It belongs to the New World Clade B lineage of mammarenaviruses and ... in the family Arenaviridae change the name of genus Arenavirus to Mammarenavirus and convert the names of its constituent ... Like other members of the Arenavirus family, the specific zoonotic reservoir and primary transmission vector is suspected to be ... a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia". PLOS Pathog. 4 (4): e1000047. doi: ...
"Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers". World Health Organization (WHO). United Nations (UN). Archived from the original on August 23, 2004 ... Post-exposure prophylactic (preventive) ribavirin may be effective for some bunyavirus and arenavirus infections. VHF isolation ... 2004). Return of the Black Death: The World's Greatest Serial Killer West Sussex; John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-470-09000-6. ... and HFRS due to Old World Hantavirus infection) and can be used only under an experimental protocol as IND approved by the U.S ...
... is an East African arenavirus infecting the multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis). The virus is genetically ... Bull World Health Organ. 52 (4-6): 493-499. PMC 2366657. PMID 182399. (Articles with 'species' microformats, Taxonbars without ... as this has been suggested for other arenaviruses. Günther S, Hoofd G, Charrel R, Röser C, Becker-Ziaja B, Lloyd G, Sabuni C, ... an African arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus, in its natural reservoir host Mastomys natalensis". Sci Rep. 5: 10445. ...
"Hepatitis B". World Health Organization. Retrieved 5 October 2021."Hepatitis C". World Health Organization. Retrieved 5 October ... Other viruses than can cause hepatitis include: Adenoviruses Arenaviruses: Guanarito virus, Junín virus, Lassa fever virus, ... This occurs primarily in third world countries. Strict personal hygiene and the avoidance of raw and unpeeled foods can help ...
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are productively infected and activated through TLR-7 early after arenavirus infection. Cell Host ... featuring the top immunologists from around the world. In order to make the talks available longitudinally, the recorded talks ... DDX3 suppresses type I interferons and favors viral replication during Arenavirus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2018 Jul 12;14(7): ... "Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are productively infected and activated through TLR-7 early after arenavirus infection". Cell Host ...
"A brief history of vaccines and how they changed the world". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2020-04-30. "Creating a world in ... category A arenavirus) Chlamydia psittaci (category B) Naegleria fowleri (category B) Balamuthia mandrillaris (category B) St. ... CEPI promotes the idea that a proactive approach is required to "create a world in which epidemics are no longer a threat to ... In 2014, the Western African Ebola virus epidemic demonstrated how ill-prepared the world was to handle such an epidemic. In ...
The mortality rate varies significantly depending on the form, being up to 50% in New World hantaviruses (the Americas), up to ... With the exception of Hantaviruses and Arenaviruses, all viruses in the Bunyavirales order are transmitted by arthropods ( ... 15% in Old World hantaviruses (Asia and Europe), and as little as 0.1% in Puumala virus (mostly Scandinavia). The antibody ...
The island of Vir in Croatia is one of the biggest described endemic places of origin of LCMV in the world, with IFA testing ... The first arenavirus, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus (LCMV), was isolated in 1933 by Charles Armstrong during a ... World Health Organ. 55 (5): 599-603. PMC 2366689. PMID 338190. ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, version 4. [2] Centers for ... LCMV has been shown to cause illness in New World primates such as macaques, marmosets and tamarins. Infections have also been ...
First identified in 1958, Argentine hemorrhagic fever is a rodent-borne illness caused by the arenavirus Junin that is endemic ... An online petition was launched on April 27, 2022, asking the World Health Organization to revise its guidelines issued in ... or one-third of the world's population, became infected with this virus. The Spanish influenza pandemic was the first pandemic ...
Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M.D. (2005). "Superfamily Muroidea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: ... "Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses". Virology. 367 (2): 235-243. doi: ...
Walt Disney World), multi-purpose arena at Walt Disney World in Florida Arena (1953 film), a 3-D Western starring Gig Young The ... an Australian film production company Arenavirus, an RNA virus that mostly affects rodents Arenas (disambiguation) Larena ( ...
World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013. "CDC Media Statement on Newly ... Louis encephalitis, West Nile virus), bunyavirus (La Crosse strain), arenavirus (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus), reovirus ... World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013. "Japanese encephalitis". ... encephalitis Cerebritis La Crosse encephalitis Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis Wernicke's encephalopathy World Encephalitis ...
There are only two centres in the world authorised by the WHO to keep stocks of smallpox virus: the State Research Center of ... Examples include geminiviruses, which are ssDNA plant viruses and arenaviruses, which are ssRNA viruses of animals. Genome size ... The evidence for an ancestral world of RNA cells and computer analysis of viral and host DNA sequences are giving a better ... The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that AIDS has killed ...
ISBN 978-0-387-05199-4. Garrett, Laurie (1994). The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World Out of Balance. New York ... "Properties of Replication-Competent Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors Expressing Glycoproteins of Filoviruses and Arenaviruses ... This isolation strongly suggests that Old World fruit bats are involved in the natural maintenance of marburgviruses and that ... Marburgviruses are World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogens, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment, ...
World Health Organization (2021). Therapeutics and COVID-19: living guideline, 6 July 2021 (Report). World Health Organization ... and one which covered both arenaviruses and coronaviruses. In October 2015, the United States Army Medical Research Institute ... Boseley S (30 June 2020). "US buys up world stock of key Covid-19 drug". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 June ... In November 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) updated its guideline on therapeutics for COVID‑19 to include a ...
Prevalence of antibodies to arenaviruses in rodents from the southern and western United States: evidence for an arenavirus ... eds.). Orders and families of Recent mammals of the world. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 686 pp. Carleton, M.D. and Musser, G. ... An arenavirus normally associated with woodrats (Neotoma) has also been found in Florida marsh rice rats. Antibodies against ... 894-1531 in Wilson, D.E. and Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd ed. ...
It has particular importance to farmers in certain regions of the world where it infects cattle. This is because its clinical ... "Properties of replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus vectors expressing glycoproteins of filoviruses and arenaviruses ... Disease card on World Organisation for Animal Health (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ...
Several arenaviruses cause viral hemorrhagic fever syndromes in Africa and South America. The Old World arenaviruses include ... The South American hemorrhagic fever viruses belong to the Tacaribe complex or New World arenaviruses (e.g., Guanarito, Junin, ... Fatal Illnesses Associated With a New World Arenavirus --- California, 1999--2000. The California Department of Health Services ... Prevalence of antibodies to arenaviruses in rodents from the southern and western United States: evidence for an arenavirus ...
Old World arenaviruses. New World arenaviruses. Dandedong. Ippy. Kodoko. Mobala. Mopeia. Morogoro. Lassa. LCMV. Lujo. Lemn. ... compared with Old World and 2 New World arenaviruses*. Virus sequence†. ... Nucleotide and amino acid p-distances of 2 arenaviruses in blood of Mus minutoides and Lemniscomys rosalia mice in Morogoro, ... Sympatric Occurrence of 3 Arenaviruses, Tanzania Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq. , Benny Borremans, Abdul Katakweba, Rhodes Makundi, ...
Access New World Arenavirus - Guanarito Virus case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health ... New World arenavirus - Junin virus 2010 Current New World arenavirus - Machupo virus ... New World arenavirus - Chapare virus 2010 Current New World arenavirus - Guanarito virus ...
Isolation of an arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus from Mastomys natalensis in south-east Africa. ... Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 55 (‎4)‎, 441 - 444. ... Wulff, Herta, McIntosh, Bruce M., Hamner, Dale B. & Johnson, Karl M. (‎1977)‎. Isolation of an arenavirus closely related to ...
Arenaviruses (Arenaviridae) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (World Health ... VHFs are found around the world. Specific diseases are usually limited to areas where the animals that carry them live. For ...
Categories: Arenaviruses, New World Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Novel Arenavirus Causes Mystery Illness in Zambia and South Africa. An active, young Zambian safari guide fell ill last month ... Mosquitoes: The Worlds Deadliest Animals. The area surrounding Antananarivo, Madagascar, was not predicted to be a high risk ...
Relationships among Old World arenaviruses by the neutralization test (log neutralization index determined by reduction of ...
World Bank, UNDP, World Health Organization, unpublished data). These areas will have the population density to support ... Coimbra TLM, Nassar ES, Burattini NM, A new arenavirus isolated from a fatal case of haemorrhagic fever in Brazil. Lancet. 1994 ... World Health Organization. Cholera in the Americas. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 1992;67:33-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Two examples are B virus from primates (45) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome from rodents (46).9. The world trade and ...
Irwin NR, Bayerlová M, Missa O, Martínková N (2012). Complex patterns of host switching in New World arenaviruses. Molecular ... Michaela Bayerlová: Evolution of protein structure in calcium channels (Mgr.práce), Co-evolution of arenaviruses and their ...
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in ...
The phylogeny of New World (Tacaribe complex) arenaviruses. Virology 219:285-290. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 11. Cao, W., M. D. ... The prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis computer virus (LCMV) is one of the most widely used model systems to ... The genome from the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) includes. The genome from the prototypic ... arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) includes two negative-sense, single-strand RNA sections specified S and L ...
... and protected mice against challenge with rVACVs expressing either Old or New World arenavirus glycoproteins. In conclusion, ... and protected mice against challenge with rVACVs expressing either Old or New World arenavirus glycoproteins. In conclusion, ... and protected mice against challenge with rVACVs expressing either Old or New World arenavirus glycoproteins. In conclusion, ... and protected mice against challenge with rVACVs expressing either Old or New World arenavirus glycoproteins. In conclusion, ...
Old World arenaviruses. New World arenaviruses. Dandedong. Ippy. Kodoko. Mobala. Mopeia. Morogoro. Lassa. LCMV. Lujo. Lemn. ... compared with Old World and 2 New World arenaviruses*. Virus sequence†. ... Nucleotide and amino acid p-distances of 2 arenaviruses in blood of Mus minutoides and Lemniscomys rosalia mice in Morogoro, ... Sympatric Occurrence of 3 Arenaviruses, Tanzania Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq. , Benny Borremans, Abdul Katakweba, Rhodes Makundi, ...
... including New World arenaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, hantaviruses, other Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, ... arenaviruses and Ebola virus. Reported by: F Mu]oz, MD, C Jarquin, MD, A Gonzalez, MD, J Amador, MD, J de los Reyes, MD, R ...
The arenaviruses are divided into two groups: the New World or Tacaribe complex and the Old World or LCM/Lassa complex. Viruses ... How are arenaviruses spread?. The rodent hosts of arenaviruses are chronically infected with the viruses; however, the viruses ... Some Old World arenaviruses appear to be passed from mother rodents to their offspring during pregnancy, and thus remain in the ... Some New World arenaviruses are transmitted among adult rodents, likely via fighting and inflicting bites. Only a portion of ...
New World Arenaviruses Medicine & Life Sciences 82% * Viruses Medicine & Life Sciences 42% ... An infectious arenavirus was isolated from 5 of 27 California mice but none of the 7 other rodents. Analyses of viral ... An infectious arenavirus was isolated from 5 of 27 California mice but none of the 7 other rodents. Analyses of viral ... An infectious arenavirus was isolated from 5 of 27 California mice but none of the 7 other rodents. Analyses of viral ...
Arenavirus B4.909.777.80.70 Arenaviruses, New World B4.909.777.80.70.800 Arenaviruses, Old World B4.909.777.80.70.100 Aromatase ... World War I I1.880.735.950.250.968 World War II I1.880.735.950.250.984 Xipapillomavirus B4.280.535.950 B4.280.210.655.950 ...
Keystone Title: An Analysis of Mechanisms of the Spread for New World Arenaviruses: Biological Mechanisms of Infection, Social ... It is concluded that research efforts regarding human-pathogenic arenaviruses should maintain a balance between understanding ...
... arenaviruses, and new world hantaviruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82(5):954-60. ... World Health Organization. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Guinea - update. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014. Available from ... World Health Organization. Essential medicines and health products: diagnostics. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. ... World Health Organization. World malaria report Geneva; 2018. Available from: ...
It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships ... "Arenavirus" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Arenavirus" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Arenavirus" by people in Profiles. ...
In honor of World AIDS Day 2017, Dr Andrew Lever discusses the possibilities and complexities of a cure for HIV in this BMC On ... including arenaviruses like Junin virus. I must admit that I learnt more about Susans back story through an interesting read ... December 1st 2017 is the 30th anniversary of World AIDS Day. This years theme is "Increasing Impact through Transparency, ... We all know Susan as a world renowned retrovirologist with strong interest in both mouse retroviruses and other rodent viruses ...
Arenaviruses, and New World Hantaviruses. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 82, 954-960. ...
Arenaviruses, New World - Preferred Concept UI. M0010166. Scope note. One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and ... Arenaviruses, New World Entry term(s). American Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses, American New World ... One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; ... New World Arenaviruses. Pirital virus. Pirital viruses. Sabia virus. Tacaribe Complex Viruses. Tacaribe virus. Tacaribe viruses ...
  • The Old World arenaviruses include the agents of Lassa fever and lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM). (
  • The most familiar of the arenaviruses include lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and hemorrhagic fevers caused by Lassa virus, Machupo virus, and Junin virus. (
  • This article divides the discussion of these viruses by clinical relevance and manifestations: Old World (Lassa virus, LCMV) and New World (South American hemorrhagic fevers). (
  • The main hypothesis we tested in the present study was whether it is possible to design a universal vaccine strategy capable of inducing simultaneous HLA-restricted CD8 + T cell responses against 7 pathogenic arenaviruses (including the lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Lassa, Guanarito, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Whitewater Arroyo viruses), either through the identification of widely conserved epitopes, or by the identification of a collection of epitopes derived from multiple arenavirus species. (
  • The arenaviruses are divided into two groups: the New World or Tacaribe complex and the Old World or LCM/Lassa complex. (
  • The LCM/Lassa complex viruses are associated with the Old World rats and mice (family Muridae, subfamily Murinae). (
  • Lassa fever, which is caused by an arenavirus, can affect multiple organs and cause bleeding in late stages. (
  • Lassa virus is an Old World arenavirus endemic to West Africa that causes severe hemorrhagic fever. (
  • Combined, our data provide a structure-based blueprint for understanding how glycans render the glycoprotein spikes of Lassa virus and other Old World arenaviruses immunologically resistant targets. (
  • Old world viruses include the Lassa virus (LASV) and Lujo fever in Africa, while New World viruses include several viral hemorrhagic fevers (Junin, Machupo, Guanarito, Sabia, Chapare) found in South America. (
  • Another virus found in Africa that causes hemorrhagic fever is Lassa virus, which is an Arenavirus and is native to West Africa. (
  • There is currently no vaccine for the Lassa arenavirus, which causes Lassa fever. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has included Lassa fever in its R&D Blueprint list of epidemic threats needing urgent R&D action. (
  • To gain insights into arenavirus fusion, we examined cell-cell fusion induced by the Old World Lassa virus (LASV) GPC complex. (
  • Brian Sullivan] Lassa fever is a disease that's caused by the arenavirus, Lassa virus. (
  • Members of the Arenaviridae family are divided based on geographic distribution and genetic similarities as either Old World (Eastern hemisphere) or New World (Western hemisphere) arenavirdiae. (
  • This lipid also specifically promotes cell fusion mediated by Junin virus GPC, an unrelated New World arenavirus. (
  • Two disease-causing arenaviruses, known as Junín and Machupo, circulate through rodent populations, mainly in South America, and they can infect humans when people come in contact with affected rodents. (
  • Preventive measures for arenavirus infections include control and exclusion of rodents in and around human dwellings. (
  • The arenaviruses are a large group of viruses that typically affect rodents. (
  • Arenaviruses are single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that cause chronic asymptomatic infections in rodents and zoonotically acquired disease in humans through rodent excreta, especially urine. (
  • Arenaviruses have been divided into 2 groups based on whether the virus is found to infect Old World (ie, Eastern Hemisphere) rodents (family Muridae, subfamily Murinae) or New World (ie, Western Hemisphere) rodents (family Muridae, subfamily Sigmodontinae). (
  • Some Old World arenaviruses appear to be passed from mother rodents to their offspring during pregnancy, and thus remain in the rodent population generation after generation. (
  • Some New World arenaviruses are transmitted among adult rodents, likely via fighting and inflicting bites. (
  • Thirty-four rodents captured in southern California were studied to increase our knowledge of the arenaviruses indigenous to the western United States. (
  • An infectious arenavirus was isolated from 5 of 27 California mice but none of the 7 other rodents. (
  • Arenaviruses are transmitted by rodents. (
  • The study, reported in Nature Communications , arose from an earlier research question in the group of Dr Ron Diskin of the Weizmann Institute's Structural Biology Department: how are certain arenaviruses able to move from rodents or other animals into humans? (
  • The virus is an arenavirus, one that can infect rodents and then be transferred to humans. (
  • Arenaviruses and Hantavirus (a Bunyavirus) are primarily rodent-borne, whereas flaviviruses, as well as nairoviruses and phleboviruses (both bunyaviruses), are arthropod-borne. (
  • Ebola is one of several members of the Filovirus family of viruses that can cause hemorrhagic fevers, and there are at least three other families of viruses that also cause hemorrhagic fevers, including Bunyaviruses , Flavaviruses and Arenaviruses, Schmaljohn said. (
  • VHFs are caused by viruses of four distinct families: arenaviruses, filoviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses. (
  • Guanarito virus is one of the diseases derived from the family Arenaviruses, which can vary in severity in subgroups of Old World and New World viruses. (
  • The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) recently identified evidence of infection with an arenavirus in three patients hospitalized with similar fatal illnesses. (
  • Standard precautions should be used during treatment of patients with suspected arenavirus infection and standard precautions plus contact/droplet/aerosol-specific precautions should be used for patients with severe clinical manifestations ( 6,7 ). (
  • In 1934, the prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), was first isolated during serial monkey passage of human material that was obtained from a fatal infection in the first documented epidemic of St. Louis encephalitis, a totally unrelated virus. (
  • Other arenaviruses from South America and Africa are classic causes of viral hemorrhagic fever syndrome, whereas others have been identified but not found to cause disease or even infection in humans. (
  • The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. (
  • Human infection with arenaviruses is incidental to the natural cycle of the viruses and occurs when an individual comes into contact with the excretions or materials contaminated with the excretions of an infected rodent, such as ingestion of contaminated food, or by direct contact of abraded or broken skin with rodent excrement. (
  • It is concluded that research efforts regarding human-pathogenic arenaviruses should maintain a balance between understanding both the macro-factors that may influence epidemic dynamics as well as the micro-scale factors that form the fundamental basis of infection. (
  • These findings can also be useful in international scenarios where the world is looking for innovative measures to curb COVID-19 infection. (
  • The samples were screened at the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) for evidence of infection with known agents of the viral hemorrhagic fevers of Africa by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for presence of viral nucleic acid, including 2 procedures with primers designed to detect all known Old World arenaviruses. (
  • Dengue fever, an increasingly common mosquito-borne infection in many parts of the world, including northern Australia, can act like a VHF if a previously infected patient is exposed to a different dengue subtype. (
  • Human-pathogenic Arena viruses are the trigger of haemorrhagic fever diseases, which are endemic in various countries and continents (old world viruses and new world viruses). (
  • Several arenaviruses cause viral hemorrhagic fever syndromes in Africa and South America. (
  • The South American hemorrhagic fever viruses belong to the Tacaribe complex or New World arenaviruses (e.g. (
  • Since Tacaribe virus was found in 1956, new arenaviruses have been discovered on the average of every one to three years. (
  • Tacaribe complex viruses are generally associated with the New World rats and mice (family Muridae, subfamily Sigmodontinae). (
  • Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 55 (‎4)‎, 441 - 444. (
  • During the 2014/15 outbreak, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized the need for a simple, point-of-care (POC) Ebola diagnostic and published target product profiles (TPPs) to encourage test development [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • For example, the strain of Ebola causing the current outbreak, Ebola Zaire, is believed to have been transferred to humans by fruit bats belonging to the Pteropodidae family, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). (
  • World Health Organization. (
  • In 1980, the year I started my clinical studies, the World Health Organization announced that smallpox, one of the most dread infections in human history, had been eradicated. (
  • Communicable Surveillance & Response (CSR), World Health Organization. (
  • 11. World Health Organization. (
  • The emergence of SARS-CoV, in particular, demonstrated the considerable economic, political and psychological effects-in addition to the impact on public health-of an unexpected epidemic of a highly infectious, previously unknown agent in a highly connected and interdependent world. (
  • The new antibiotics and vaccines developed in the decades following the second world war had gone some way towards neutralising community fear of infectious diseases, and the success of the smallpox campaign reinforced the growing belief that the Age of Infections was coming to an end. (
  • Comparing these viruses with members of the arenavirus family, not infectious to humans, the researchers noted that the non-infectious viruses did not completely fit a particular receptor - a protein complex on the cell membrane - that serves as a viral entry point into human cells. (
  • however, human cases have been documented only in the Americans and Europe, thus it is the only Old World arenavirus found in both the Eastern and Western Hemisphere. (
  • Sequences of arenaviruses in L. rosalia and M. minutoides mice have been deposited in GenBank under accession nos. (
  • By inoculating HLA transgenic mice with a panel of recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVACVs) expressing the different arenavirus proteins, we identified 10 HLA-A02 and 10 HLA-A03-restricted epitopes that are naturally processed in human antigen-presenting cells. (
  • Importantly, we showed that immunization of HLA transgenic mice with an epitope cocktail generated simultaneous CD8 + T cell responses against all 7 arenaviruses, and protected mice against challenge with rVACVs expressing either Old or New World arenavirus glycoproteins. (
  • The first arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) , was isolated in 1933 during a study of an epidemic of St. Louis encephalitis. (
  • The New World arenaviruses are further divided into 3 lineages designated clades: A, B, C. LCMV is the only arenavirus to exist in both areas but is classified as an Old World virus. (
  • The genus Arenavirus includes 22 viral species and 9 additional arenaviruses that have been recently discovered, for which taxonomic status remains pending. (
  • One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. (
  • Readers are then given a detailed assessment of the potential usefulness of synthetic antigens in the diagnosis of viral infections, including those caused by influenza virus, paramyxoviruses, arenaviruses, hepatitis B virus, poliovirus, hepatitis A virus, and herpesviruses. (
  • Arenavirus infections are relatively common in humans in some areas of the world and can cause severe illnesses. (
  • She had visited a tourist camp on the Zambezi River on July 30 and 31, 2008, and participated in a polocrosse tournament on August 1 and 2 (but neither event occurred within the known incubation period of arenavirus infections from the date of onset of her illness). (
  • The genetics, ecology, physical structure and effects of the viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers in different parts of the world are quite diverse, he added. (
  • SNV is the prototypical New World Hantavirus and is the cause of the vast majority of cases of HCPS in the United States. (
  • Immunohistochemical tests of these tissues with polyclonal antibodies were negative for dengue virus, yellow fever virus, hantaviruses, arenaviruses and Ebola virus. (
  • Five of the "New World" Hantaviruses cause HCPS in North America, while a few others cause disease in Central America and South America. (
  • Arenaviruses are the causative pathogens of severe hemorrhagic fever and aseptic meningitis in humans, for which no licensed vaccines are currently available. (
  • The nucleotide sequence of the PCR products amplified from the patients essentially were identical and shared 87% identity with the Whitewater Arroyo (WWA) virus prototype strain (an arenavirus recovered from a Neotoma albigula [white-throated woodrat]) from New Mexico in the early 1990s). (
  • LCM virus, associated with the house mouse ( Mus musculus ), is the only Old World arenavirus that occurs in the Americas. (
  • Uno de los dos grupos de virus del género ARENAVIRUS y considerado parte del complejo del Nuevo Mundo. (
  • Her research focuses on host-virus interactions, particularly oncogenic murine retroviruses and the new world hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses. (
  • For some of these epitopes we were able to demonstrate crossreactive CD8 + T cell responses, further increasing the coverage afforded by the epitope set against each different arenavirus species. (
  • Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image depicting an arenavirus. (
  • In the world of public health, a lot of the media attention is focusing on the Zika outbreak in Latin America, but that's not the only disease on the rise. (
  • Although the viruses are distributed all over the world, they have a higher occurrence in tropical areas, such as South America, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. (
  • A host of disease-causing viruses called 'arenaviruses' lurk in animal populations in various parts of the world, sometimes crossing over into humans. (
  • Arenavirus entry into host cells occurs through a low pH-dependent fusion with late endosomes that is mediated by the viral glycoprotein complex (GPC). (
  • Morales issued the statement: "I want to denounce before the Bolivian people and the world that there's a coup d'état in the making. (
  • A number of arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic disease. (
  • Since its first discovery in Wuhan, China in late December, it has now become a pandemic disease claiming more than nine hundred forty-five thousand deaths world-wide so far. (
  • Pathogenesis of arenavirus disease. (
  • It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution. (
  • Organisms that survive primarily or entirely in the human host and are spread through sexual contact, droplet nuclei, and close physical contact can be readily carried to any part of the world. (
  • Computational and functional analysis of the GP1-TfR1 interface reveals host range trade-offs in New-World arenaviruses. (