One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.
One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the Old World complex. It includes LASSA VIRUS and LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS, although the latter has worldwide distribution now.
The only genus in the family ARENAVIRIDAE. It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution.
Virus diseases caused by the ARENAVIRIDAE.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.
A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.
An infraorder of New World monkeys, comprised of the families AOTIDAE; ATELIDAE; CEBIDAE; and PITHECIIDAE. They are found exclusively in the Americas.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.
Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).
A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI, consisting of nine subfamilies: ALOUATTINAE; AOTINAE; Atelinae; Callicebinae; CALLIMICONINAE; CALLITRICHINAE; CEBINAE; Pithecinae; and SAIMIRINAE. They inhabit the forests of South and Central America, comprising the largest family of South American monkeys.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, one of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing a fatal infection in the cricetine rodent Oryzomys albigularis. Asymptomatic laboratory infection in humans has been reported.
Biological activities of viruses and their interactions with the cells they infect.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.
Dystrophin-associated proteins that play role in the formation of a transmembrane link between laminin-2 and DYSTROPHIN. Both the alpha and the beta subtypes of dystroglycan originate via POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of a single precursor protein.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A group of iron-binding proteins that tightly bind two ferrate ions along with two carbonate ions. They are found in the bodily fluids of vertebrates where they act as transport and storage molecules for iron.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
A family of RNA viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, containing filamentous virions. Although they resemble RHABDOVIRIDAE in possessing helical nucleocapsids, Filoviridae differ in the length and degree of branching in their virions. There are two genera: EBOLAVIRUS and MARBURGVIRUS.
An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
A genus in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE consisting of 12 species and found in Panama as well as South America. Species seen most frequently in the literature are S. oedipus (cotton-top marmoset), S. nigricollis, and S. fusicollis.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).
A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE, subfamily CEBINAE, consisting of four species which are divided into two groups, the tufted and untufted. C. apella has tufts of hair over the eyes and sides of the head. The remaining species are without tufts - C. capucinus, C. nigrivultatus, and C. albifrons. Cebus inhabits the forests of Central and South America.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
'Primates' is a taxonomic order comprising various species of mammals, including humans, apes, monkeys, and others, distinguished by distinct anatomical and behavioral characteristics such as forward-facing eyes, grasping hands, and complex social structures.
While there isn't a specific medical definition for "North America," I can provide a geographical definition that is often used in public health and medical contexts: North America is the third largest continent by area, encompassing 23 independent states, including the United States, Canada, and Mexico, which are home to diverse populations, cultures, and ecosystems, and share common health-related challenges such as obesity, diabetes, and healthcare access disparities.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
A species in the family AOTIDAE, inhabiting the forested regions of Central and South America (from Panama to the Amazon). Vocalizations occur primarily at night when they are active, thus they are also known as Northern night monkeys.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A subfamily in the family ATELIDAE, comprising three genera: woolly monkeys (Lagothrix), spider monkeys (Ateles), and woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles).
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a misunderstanding as "South America" is not a medical term and cannot have a medical definition. It is a geographical term referring to the southern portion of the American continent, consisting of twelve independent countries and three territories of other nations.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A subfamily in the family CEBIDAE that consists of four genera: CALLITHRIX (marmosets), CALLIMICO (Goeldi's monkey), LEONTOPITHECUS (lion tamarins), and SAGUINUS (long-tusked tamarins). The members of this family inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.
A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI consisting of two subfamilies: Callicebinae and Pitheciinae.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.
Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).
A disease characterized by the chronic, progressive spread of lesions from New World cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by species of the L. braziliensis complex to the nasal, pharyngeal, and buccal mucosa some time after the appearance of the initial cutaneous lesion. Nasal obstruction and epistaxis are frequent presenting symptoms.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ecuador" is a country in South America and not a medical term. The term you might be looking for is "ecdysone," which is a hormone found in arthropods that controls their molting process.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
Central America is not a medical term, but a geographical region consisting of seven countries (Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama) that connect North America to South America, which may be relevant in medical contexts such as discussions of regional disease patterns, public health initiatives, or tropical medicine.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The wood fern plant family of the order Polypodiales, class Filicopsida, division Pteridophyta.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A monocot plant family of the Liliopsida class. It is classified by some in the Liliales order and some in the Asparagales order.
An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.
A species of SPUMAVIRUS causing non-pathogenic infections in chimpanzees and humans.
A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.
Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.

Experimental infection of the cane mouse Zygodontomys brevicauda (family Muridae) with guanarito virus (Arenaviridae), the etiologic agent of Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever. (1/127)

Chronic infections in specific rodents appear to be crucial to the long-term persistence of arenaviruses in nature. The cane mouse, Zygodontomys brevicauda, is a natural host of Guanarito virus (family Arenaviridae), the etiologic agent of Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the natural history of Guanarito virus infection in Z. brevicauda. Thirty-nine laboratory-reared cane mice each were inoculated subcutaneously with 3.0 log10 plaque-forming units of the Guanarito virus prototype strain INH-95551. No lethality was associated with infection in any animal, regardless of age at inoculation. The 13 newborn, 14 weanling, and 8 of the 12 adult animals developed chronic viremic infections characterized by persistent shedding of infectious virus in oropharyngeal secretions and urine. These findings indicate that Guanarito virus infection in Z. brevicauda can be chronic and thus support the concept that this rodent species is the natural reservoir of Guanarito virus.  (+info)

Guanarito virus (Arenaviridae) isolates from endemic and outlying localities in Venezuela: sequence comparisons among and within strains isolated from Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever patients and rodents. (2/127)

Despite intensive surveillance, Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever (VHF), caused by Guanarito (GTO) virus, has been detected in only a small region of western Venezuela. To determine whether VHF is associated with a particular regional GTO virus strain(s), 29 isolates from rodents and humans throughout the surrounding regions were analyzed by partial sequencing of the nucleocapsid protein gene. Phylogenetic trees delineated nine distinct GTO genotypes that differ by 4-17% in nucleotides and up to 9% in amino acid sequences; most appeared to be restricted to discrete geographic regions, although a few genotypes were isolated in several locations. Each genotype included at least one strain recovered from a rodent, but only two genotypes were isolated from VHF cases. The presence outside of the endemic/epidemic region of two genotypes isolated also from VHF cases suggests that human pathogenic viruses occur outside of the endemic zone, but do not frequently infect people and/or cause apparent disease there. VHF does not appear to be associated with a GTO virus genotype that is restricted to a certain rodent species. When quasispecies diversity was examined, rodent isolates had higher sequence variation than human isolates. One rodent isolate included a mixture of two phylogenetically distinct genotypes, suggesting a dual infection.  (+info)

Homologous and heterologous glycoproteins induce protection against Junin virus challenge in guinea pigs. (3/127)

Tacaribe virus (TACV) is an arenavirus that is genetically and antigenically closely related to Junin virus (JUNV), the aetiological agent of Argentine haemorrhagic fever (AHF). It is well established that TACV protects experimental animals fully against an otherwise lethal challenge with JUNV. To gain information on the nature of the antigens involved in cross-protection, recombinant vaccinia viruses were constructed that express the glycoprotein precursor (VV-GTac) or the nucleocapsid protein (VV-N) of TACV. TACV proteins expressed by vaccinia virus were indistinguishable from authentic virus proteins by gel electrophoresis. Guinea pigs inoculated with VV-GTac or VV-N elicited antibodies that immunoprecipitated authentic TACV proteins. Antibodies generated by VV-GTac neutralized TACV infectivity. Levels of antibodies after priming and boosting with recombinant vaccinia virus were comparable to those elicited in TACV infection. To evaluate the ability of recombinant vaccinia virus to protect against experimental AHF, guinea pigs were challenged with lethal doses of JUNV. Fifty per cent of the animals immunized with VV-GTac survived, whereas all animals inoculated with VV-N or vaccinia virus died. Having established that the heterologous glycoprotein protects against JUNV challenge, a recombinant vaccinia virus was constructed that expresses JUNV glycoprotein precursor (VV-GJun). The size and reactivity to monoclonal antibodies of the vaccinia virus-expressed and authentic JUNV glycoproteins were indistinguishable. Seventy-two per cent of the animals inoculated with two doses of VV-GJun survived lethal JUNV challenge. Protection with either VV-GJun or VV-GTac occurred in the presence of low or undetectable levels of neutralizing antibodies to JUNV.  (+info)

The Whitewater Arroyo virus: natural evidence for genetic recombination among Tacaribe serocomplex viruses (family Arenaviridae). (4/127)

The Tacaribe serocomplex (family Arenaviridae) comprises three phylogenetic lineages, designated A, B, and C. The sequence of a 3278-nt fragment of the small genomic segment of the Whitewater Arroyo (WWA) virus was determined to extend our knowledge on the phylogenetic relationship of this newly discovered North American Tacaribe complex virus to other arenaviruses. Independent analyses of full-length nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein precursor (GPC) amino acid sequences indicated that the WWA virus N and GPC genes are descended from a lineage A virus and lineage B virus, respectively. The different phylogenetic histories of the N and GPC genes indicate that the WWA virus genome is a product of recombination between two Tacaribe complex viruses.  (+info)

Pirital virus (Arenaviridae) infection in the syrian golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: a new animal model for arenaviral hemorrhagic fever. (5/127)

Adult Syrian golden hamsters inoculated intraperitoneally with Pirital virus, a recently discovered member of the Tacaribe complex of New World arenaviruses, developed a progressively severe, fatal illness with many of the pathologic features observed in fatal human cases of Lassa fever and other arenaviral hemorrhagic fevers. Most of the animals became moribund by Day 5 and were dead by Day 7 after inoculation. The most consistent histopathologic changes included interstitial pneumonitis, splenic lymphoid depletion and necrosis, and multifocal hepatic necrosis without significant inflammatory cell infiltration. The liver changes ranged from single cell death by apoptosis to coagulative necrosis of clusters of hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical studies of the liver demonstrated the presence and accumulation ot Pirital virus antigen within hepatocytes as well as Kupffer cells. An in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay showed progressively increasing apoptotic activity in the liver of infected hamsters. A human hepatoblastoma cell line (Hep G2/C3A) inoculated with Pirital virus also developed progressive cell destruction and accumulation of viral antigen, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Results of this pilot study suggest that the Pirital virus-hamster model is a very promising new small animal model for studying the pathogenesis of arenavirus infections, particularly, the mechanism of direct virus-induced hepatic injury. It may also be useful for testingantiviral agents for treatment of arenaviral hemorrhagic fevers.  (+info)

Protection against simian immunodeficiency virus vaginal challenge by using Sabin poliovirus vectors. (6/127)

Here we provide the first report of protection against a vaginal challenge with a highly virulent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) by using a vaccine vector. New poliovirus vectors based on Sabin 1 and 2 vaccine strain viruses were constructed, and these vectors were used to generate a series of new viruses containing SIV gag, pol, env, nef, and tat in overlapping fragments. Two cocktails of 20 transgenic polioviruses (SabRV1-SIV and SabRV2-SIV) were inoculated into seven cynomolgus macaques. All monkeys produced substantial anti-SIV serum and mucosal antibody responses. SIV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses were detected in three of seven monkeys after vaccination. All 7 vaccinated macaques, as well as 12 control macaques, were challenged vaginally with pathogenic SIVmac251. Strikingly, four of the seven vaccinated animals exhibited substantial protection against the vaginal SIV challenge. All 12 control monkeys became SIV positive. In two of the seven SabRV-SIV-vaccinated monkeys we found no virological evidence of infection following challenge, indicating that these two monkeys were completely protected. Two additional SabRV-SIV-vaccinated monkeys exhibited a pronounced reduction in postacute viremia to <10(3) copies/ml, suggesting that the vaccine elicited an effective cellular immune response. Three of six control animals developed clinical AIDS by 48 weeks postchallenge. In contrast, all seven vaccinated monkeys remained healthy as judged by all clinical parameters. These results demonstrate the efficacy of SabRV as a potential human vaccine vector, and they show that the use of a vaccine vector cocktail expressing an array of defined antigenic sequences can be an effective vaccination strategy in an outbred population.  (+info)

Transcription and RNA replication of tacaribe virus genome and antigenome analogs require N and L proteins: Z protein is an inhibitor of these processes. (7/127)

Tacaribe virus (TV), the prototype of the New World group of arenaviruses, comprises a single phylogenetic lineage together with four South American pathogenic producers of hemorrhagic disease. The TV genome consists of two single-stranded RNA segments called S and L. A reconstituted transcription-replication system based on plasmid-supplied TV-like RNAs and TV proteins was established. Plasmid expression was driven by T7 RNA polymerase supplied by a recombinant vaccinia virus. Plasmids were constructed to produce TV S segment analogs containing the negative-sense copy of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) flanked at the 5' and 3' termini by sequences corresponding to those of the 5' and 3' noncoding regions of the S genome (minigenome) or the S antigenome (miniantigenome). In cells expressing N and L proteins, input minigenome or miniantigenome produced, respectively, encapsidated miniantigenome or minigenome which in turn produced progeny minigenome or progeny miniantigenome. Both minigenome and miniantigenome in the presence of N and L mediated transcription, which was analyzed as CAT expression. Coexpression of the small RING finger Z (p11) protein was highly inhibitory to both transcription and replication mediated by the minigenome or the miniantigenome. The effect depended on synthesis of Z protein rather than on plasmid or the RNA and was not ascribed to decreased amounts of plasmid-supplied template or proteins (N or L). N and L proteins were sufficient to support full-cycle RNA replication of a plasmid-supplied S genome analog in which CAT replaced the N gene. Replication of this RNA was also inhibited by Z expression.  (+info)

New World arenavirus clade C, but not clade A and B viruses, utilizes alpha-dystroglycan as its major receptor. (8/127)

Alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG) has been identified as a major receptor for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa virus, two Old World arenaviruses. The situation with New World arenaviruses is less clear: previous studies demonstrated that Oliveros virus also exhibited high-affinity binding to alpha-DG but that Guanarito virus did not. To extend these initial studies, several additional Old and New World arenaviruses were screened for entry into mouse embryonic stem cells possessing or lacking alpha-DG. In addition, representative viruses were further analyzed for direct binding to alpha-DG by means of a virus overlay protein blot assay technique. These studies indicate that Old World arenaviruses use alpha-DG as a major receptor, whereas, of the New World arenaviruses, only clade C viruses (i.e., Oliveros and Latino viruses) use alpha-DG as a major receptor. New World clade A and B arenaviruses, which include the highly pathogenic Machupo, Guanarito, Junin, and Sabia viruses, appear to use a different receptor or coreceptor for binding. Previous studies with LCMV have suggested the need for a small aliphatic amino acid at LCMV GP1 glycoprotein amino acid position 260 to allow high-affinity binding to alpha-DG. As reported herein, this requirement appears to be broadly applicable to the arenaviruses as determined by more extensive analysis of alpha-DG receptor usage and GP1 sequences of Old and New World arenaviruses. In addition, GP1 amino acid position 259 also appears to be important, since all arenaviruses showing high-affinity alpha-DG binding possess a bulky aromatic amino acid (tyrosine or phenylalanine) at this position.  (+info)

Arenaviruses, New World, are a group of viruses in the Arenaviridae family that primarily infect rodents and can cause disease in humans. They are named after the Latin word "arena" which means "sand" because of the sandy-like appearance of their virions when viewed under an electron microscope.

New World arenaviruses include several different species, such as Junín virus, Machupo virus, Guanarito virus, and Sabia virus, among others. These viruses are endemic to certain regions in the Americas, particularly in South America. They are transmitted to humans through close contact with infected rodents or their excreta, and can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with high fatality rates if left untreated.

Some New World arenaviruses, such as Junín virus and Machupo virus, have been associated with outbreaks of human disease in the past, while others, like Guanarito virus and Sabia virus, have caused sporadic cases of illness. There are currently no vaccines available for most New World arenaviruses, although research is ongoing to develop effective countermeasures against these viruses.

Arenaviruses, Old World, are a group of viruses within the Arenaviridae family that primarily cause disease in humans and animals in Africa and Europe. These viruses are enveloped and have a bi-segmented single-stranded RNA genome. The name "Old World" is used to distinguish them from the New World arenaviruses, which are found in the Americas.

Some of the most well-known Old World arenaviruses include Lassa fever virus, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and Lujo virus. These viruses can cause a range of symptoms in humans, from mild febrile illness to severe hemorrhagic fever.

Lassa fever virus is endemic in West Africa and can cause a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever. LCMV is found worldwide and typically causes a mild illness in humans, although it can lead to more severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. Lujo virus was first identified in 2008 in South Africa and has caused a small number of severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever cases.

Old World arenaviruses are primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta, although human-to-human transmission can also occur through close contact with an infected person's blood or bodily fluids. Prevention and control measures include avoiding contact with rodents, practicing good hygiene, and using personal protective equipment when caring for sick individuals.

Arenavirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Arenaviridae. These viruses are enveloped and have a single-stranded, bi-segmented RNA genome. They are named after the Latin word "arena" which means "sand" because their virions contain ribosomes which resemble sand granules when viewed under an electron microscope.

Arenaviruses are primarily associated with rodents and can cause chronic infection in their natural hosts. Some arenaviruses can also infect humans and other animals, causing severe hemorrhagic fevers. Examples of human diseases caused by arenaviruses include Lassa fever, Argentine hemorrhagic fever, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever.

These viruses are typically transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta, but some can also be spread from person to person through close contact with an infected individual's blood or other bodily fluids. There are currently no vaccines available for most arenaviruses, and treatment is primarily supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and complications.

Arenaviridae infections are viral illnesses caused by members of the Arenaviridae family of viruses, which include several Old World and New World arenaviruses. These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta.

Old World arenaviruses include Lassa fever virus, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and Lujo virus, among others. They are endemic in Africa and can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates.

New World arenaviruses, found mainly in the Americas, include Junin virus, Machupo virus, Guanarito virus, and Sabia virus. These viruses can cause hemorrhagic fever as well, although their severity varies.

In general, Arenaviridae infections can present with a wide range of symptoms, from mild flu-like illness to severe hemorrhagic fever, depending on the specific virus and the individual's immune status. Treatment typically involves supportive care, while some viruses have specific antiviral therapies available. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents and their excreta, as well as implementing public health interventions to control rodent populations in endemic areas.

Lassa virus is an arenavirus that causes Lassa fever, a type of hemorrhagic fever. It is primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their urine and droppings. The virus can also be spread through person-to-person transmission via direct contact with the blood, urine, feces, or other bodily fluids of an infected person.

The virus was first discovered in 1969 in the town of Lassa in Nigeria, hence its name. It is endemic to West Africa and is a significant public health concern in countries such as Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, and Nigeria. The symptoms of Lassa fever can range from mild to severe and may include fever, sore throat, muscle pain, chest pain, and vomiting. In severe cases, the virus can cause bleeding, organ failure, and death.

Prevention measures for Lassa fever include avoiding contact with rodents, storing food in rodent-proof containers, and practicing good hygiene. There is no vaccine available to prevent Lassa fever, but ribavirin, an antiviral drug, has been shown to be effective in treating the disease if administered early in the course of illness.

Arenaviridae is a family of viruses that includes several species known to cause disease in humans and animals. The name "Arenaviridae" comes from the Latin word "arena," meaning "sand," due to the sandy appearance of these viruses when viewed under an electron microscope.

The virions (complete virus particles) of Arenaviridae are typically enveloped, spherical or pleomorphic in shape, and measure between 50-300 nanometers in diameter. The genome of Arenaviridae viruses is composed of two single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments called the L (large) segment and the S (small) segment. These segments encode for several viral proteins, including the glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP), and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L).

Arenaviridae viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta. Some of the most well-known human pathogens in this family include Lassa fever virus, Junín virus, Machupo virus, and Guanarito virus, which can cause severe hemorrhagic fevers. Other Arenaviridae viruses, such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), can cause milder illnesses in humans, including fever, rash, and meningitis.

Prevention and control of Arenaviridae infections typically involve reducing exposure to infected rodents and their excreta, as well as the development of vaccines and antiviral therapies for specific viruses in this family.

**Hemorrhagic fevers, viral** are a group of severe, potentially fatal illnesses caused by viruses that affect the body's ability to regulate its blood vessels and clotting abilities. These viruses belong to several different families including *Filoviridae* (e.g., Ebola, Marburg), *Arenaviridae* (e.g., Lassa, Machupo), *Bunyaviridae* (e.g., Hantavirus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and *Flaviviridae* (e.g., Dengue, Yellow Fever).

The initial symptoms are non-specific and include sudden onset of fever, fatigue, muscle aches, joint pains, headache, and vomiting. As the disease progresses, it may lead to capillary leakage, internal and external bleeding, and multi-organ failure resulting in shock and death in severe cases.

The transmission of these viruses can occur through various means depending on the specific virus. For example, some are transmitted via contact with infected animals or their urine/feces (e.g., Hantavirus), others through insect vectors like ticks (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever) or mosquitoes (Dengue, Yellow Fever), and yet others through direct contact with infected body fluids (Ebola, Marburg).

There are no specific treatments for most viral hemorrhagic fevers. However, some experimental antiviral drugs have shown promise in treating certain types of the disease. Supportive care, such as maintaining blood pressure, replacing lost fluids and electrolytes, and managing pain, is critical to improving outcomes. Prevention measures include avoiding areas where the viruses are common, using personal protective equipment when caring for infected individuals or handling potentially contaminated materials, and controlling insect vectors.

Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), World Health Organization (WHO).

Platyrrhini is a biological term that refers to a New World monkey group, primarily characterized by their wide, flattened noses. The name "Platyrrhini" comes from the Greek words "platys," meaning flat or broad, and "rhinos," meaning nose.

This paraphyletic group includes five families: Cebidae (capuchin monkeys, squirrel monkeys, and titi monkeys), Aotidae (night monkeys), Pitheciidae (tamarins, marmosets, sakis, and uakaris), Atelidae (spider monkeys, howler monkeys, woolly monkeys, and muriquis), and Callitrichidae (marmosets and tamarins).

Platyrrhini monkeys are native to Central and South America. They have a diverse range of physical characteristics, diets, and behaviors. Some notable differences between Platyrrhini and Old World monkeys include their opposable thumbs, claws instead of nails on some digits, and a unique digestive system that allows them to metabolize various plant materials efficiently.

Junin virus is a type of arenavirus that causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever, a severe and often fatal disease endemic to Argentina. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through contact with the excreta of infected rodents, particularly the dryland vole (Microtus parvulus).

The Junin virus has a lipid envelope and a single-stranded RNA genome that encodes for four structural proteins and several nonstructural proteins. The viral glycoproteins are responsible for receptor binding, membrane fusion, and host immune response evasion.

Argentine hemorrhagic fever caused by Junin virus is characterized by fever, muscle pain, headache, and gastrointestinal symptoms, which can progress to severe bleeding, shock, and multi-organ failure in severe cases. The virus has a high case fatality rate if left untreated, but antiviral therapy with ribavirin and immune plasma from convalescent patients has significantly improved survival rates.

Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents, using personal protective equipment during high-risk activities, and implementing rodent control programs in endemic areas. Vaccination with the Candid #1 vaccine has also been shown to be effective in preventing Argentine hemorrhagic fever caused by Junin virus.

Hemorrhagic fever, American is a group of viral diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected ticks, mosquitoes or rodents. The most common types of American hemorrhagic fevers include:

1. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS): It is caused by Sin Nombre virus and is transmitted to humans through inhalation of aerosolized urine, droppings or saliva of infected rodents.
2. Colorado Tick Fever (CTF): It is caused by a Coltivirus and is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick.
3. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE): It is caused by an Alphavirus and is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito.
4. Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) and Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE): They are also caused by Alphaviruses and are transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito.

These diseases are called hemorrhagic fevers because they are characterized by bleeding disorders, high fever, muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue. In severe cases, they can lead to shock, organ failure, and death. There are no specific treatments for these diseases, but early detection and supportive care can improve outcomes. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents, using insect repellent, and wearing protective clothing in areas where the diseases are common.

Cebidae is a family of primates that includes monkeys and capuchins found in the tropical rainforests and woodlands of Central and South America. This family is divided into two subfamilies: Cebinae (capuchin monkeys) and Saimiriinae (squirrel monkeys). These animals are known for their adaptability, complex social structures, and diverse behaviors. They have a varied diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. Some notable members of this family include the white-faced capuchin, the black-capped squirrel monkey, and the golden lion tamarin.

Pichinde virus (PICV) is an enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Arenaviridae. It is primarily found in rodents, specifically the Pichinde deer mouse (Oligoryzomys fulvescens), which are endemic to South America, particularly Colombia.

PICV is not known to cause disease in humans and is often used as a model organism for studying arenaviral pathogenesis and immunity. However, accidental laboratory infections have been reported, resulting in mild febrile illness or seroconversion without symptoms. Therefore, it is recommended that appropriate biosafety measures be taken when handling this virus.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Virus Physiological Processes" is not a widely recognized or established medical term or concept. Physiological processes typically refer to the functions and activities that occur within living organisms, like cells or organ systems. Viruses, however, are not considered alive in the traditional sense; they are obligate parasites that require host cells to replicate. Therefore, it's not typical to speak of physiological processes in relation to viruses.

If you have a more specific context or term related to virology or virus biology, I would be happy to help interpret or define that!

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is an Old World arenavirus that primarily infects rodents, particularly the house mouse (Mus musculus). The virus is harbored in these mice without causing any apparent disease, but they can shed the virus in their urine, droppings, and saliva.

Humans can contract LCMV through close contact with infected rodents or their excreta, inhalation of aerosolized virus, or ingestion of contaminated food or water. In humans, LCMV infection can cause a mild to severe illness called lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), which primarily affects the meninges (the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and, less frequently, the brain and spinal cord itself.

The incubation period for LCMV infection is typically 1-2 weeks, after which symptoms may appear. Initial symptoms include fever, malaise, headache, muscle aches, and nausea. In some cases, the illness may progress to involve the meninges (meningitis), resulting in neck stiffness, light sensitivity, and altered mental status. In rare instances, LCMV infection can lead to encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or myelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord), causing more severe neurological symptoms such as seizures, paralysis, or long-term neurological damage.

Most individuals who contract LCMV recover completely within a few weeks to months; however, immunocompromised individuals are at risk for developing severe and potentially fatal complications from the infection. Pregnant women infected with LCMV may also face an increased risk of miscarriage or fetal abnormalities.

Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents, especially house mice, and their excreta, maintaining good hygiene, and using appropriate personal protective equipment when handling potentially contaminated materials. There is no specific treatment for LCMV infection; management typically involves supportive care to alleviate symptoms and address complications as they arise.

Cercopithecidae is a family of Old World primates, which includes monkeys such as baboons, macaques, and langurs. These primates are characterized by their adaptations for arboreal or terrestrial living, and they have complex social structures. The family Cercopithecidae is divided into two subfamilies: Cercopithecinae (guenons, macaques, and langurs) and Colobinae (leaf monkeys and colobus monkeys). These primates are found in Africa and Asia, and they play important ecological roles in their environments.

Dystroglycans are a type of protein that play a crucial role in the structure and function of the muscle membrane (sarcolemma). They are an essential component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, which helps maintain the stability and integrity of the sarcolemma during muscle contraction and relaxation.

Dystroglycans consist of two subunits: alpha-dystroglycan and beta-dystroglycan. Alpha-dystroglycan is a large, heavily glycosylated protein that extends from the intracellular space to the extracellular matrix, where it interacts with various extracellular matrix proteins such as laminin and agrin. Beta-dystroglycan, on the other hand, spans the muscle membrane and binds to dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein that helps maintain the structural integrity of the sarcolemma.

Mutations in genes encoding for proteins involved in the glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan can lead to a group of genetic disorders known as congenital muscular dystrophies, which are characterized by muscle weakness, hypotonia, and developmental delays. These disorders include Walker-Warburg syndrome, Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, and Muscle-Eye-Brain disease, among others.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Transferrins are a type of protein found in the plasma component of blood that bind and transport iron ions (Fe3+) from digestion of food or recycling of red blood cells to the cells where they are needed for various metabolic processes, such as the production of hemoglobin. They play a crucial role in maintaining iron homeostasis in the body by preventing the accumulation of free iron, which can be toxic and contribute to the development of oxidative stress and diseases. Transferrins have a high affinity for iron and are capable of binding two ferric ions per molecule. The transferrin-iron complex is then recognized and internalized by specific transferrin receptors on the surface of cells, where the iron is released and utilized.

Callithrix is a genus of New World monkeys, also known as marmosets. They are small, active primates found in the forests of South and Central America. The term "Callithrix" itself is derived from the Greek words "kallis" meaning beautiful and "thrix" meaning hair, referring to their thick, vibrantly colored fur.

Marmosets in the genus Callithrix are characterized by their slender bodies, long, bushy tails, and specialized dental structures that allow them to gouge tree bark to extract sap and exudates, which form a significant part of their diet. They also consume fruits, insects, and small vertebrates.

Some well-known species in this genus include the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), the white-headed marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi), and the buffy-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix aurita). Marmosets are popular subjects of research due to their small size, short gestation period, and ease of breeding in captivity.

Filoviridae is a family of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that includes three genera: Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and Cuevavirus. These viruses are known to cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, with high fatality rates. The most well-known members of this family are Ebola virus and Marburg virus.

The virions of Filoviridae are filamentous, often having a "U," "6," or "hook" shape, and can be up to 14,000 nanometers in length. The genome of these viruses is non-segmented and contains seven genes that encode for structural proteins and enzymes necessary for replication.

Transmission of Filoviridae occurs through direct contact with infected bodily fluids or contaminated surfaces, and infection can result in a range of symptoms including fever, severe headache, muscle pain, weakness, fatigue, and hemorrhage. There are currently no approved vaccines or antiviral treatments for Filoviridae infections, although several are in development.

Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus. It is primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta, and it can also spread from person to person via bodily fluids. The symptoms of Lassa fever typically include fever, sore throat, muscle pain, chest pain, headache, and vomiting. In severe cases, the disease can cause bleeding from the mouth and nose, as well as complications such as deafness and encephalitis. Lassa fever is endemic to West Africa, particularly in Nigeria, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

The "Americas" is a term used to refer to the combined landmasses of North America and South America, which are separated by the Isthmus of Panama. The Americas also include numerous islands in the Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. This region is home to a diverse range of cultures, ecosystems, and historical sites. It is named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci, who was one of the first Europeans to explore and map parts of South America in the late 15th century.

"Saguinus" is a genus of small, New World monkeys that are commonly known as tamarins. They are native to the forests of Central and South America. Tamarins have a slender body with long limbs, a specialized claw-like nail on their second digit of the foot, and a distinct coat coloration that varies between species. They primarily feed on fruits, insects, and exudates from trees. Tamarins are also known for their social structure, typically living in family groups consisting of a mated pair and their offspring.

"Saimiri" is the genus name for the group of primates known as squirrel monkeys. These small, agile New World monkeys are native to Central and South America and are characterized by their slim bodies, long limbs, and distinctive hairless faces with large eyes. They are omnivorous and known for their active, quick-moving behavior in the trees. There are several species of squirrel monkey, including the Central American squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii) and the much more widespread common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

Virus internalization, also known as viral entry, is the process by which a virus enters a host cell to infect it and replicate its genetic material. This process typically involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The viral envelope proteins bind to specific receptors on the surface of the host cell.
2. Entry: The virus then enters the host cell through endocytosis or membrane fusion, depending on the type of virus.
3. Uncoating: Once inside the host cell, the viral capsid is removed, releasing the viral genome into the cytoplasm.
4. Replication: The viral genome then uses the host cell's machinery to replicate itself and produce new viral particles.

It's important to note that the specific mechanisms of virus internalization can vary widely between different types of viruses, and are an active area of research in virology and infectious disease.

Aotidae is a family of nocturnal primates also known as lorises or slow lorises. They are native to Southeast Asia and are characterized by their small size, round head, large eyes, and a wet-nosed face. Slow lorises have a toxic bite, which they use to defend themselves against predators. They are currently listed as vulnerable or endangered due to habitat loss and hunting.

Boidae is a family of snakes, also known as boas. This family includes many different species of large, non-venomous snakes found in various parts of the world, particularly in Central and South America, Africa, and Asia. Boas are known for their strong bodies and muscular tails, which they use to constrict their prey before swallowing it whole. Some well-known members of this family include the anaconda, the python, and the boa constrictor.

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

"Cebus" is a genus of New World monkeys, also known as capuchin monkeys. They are small to medium-sized primates that are native to Central and South America. Capuchin monkeys are named after the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, because of their similarity in color to the robes worn by the friars.

Capuchin monkeys are highly intelligent and social animals, living in groups of up to 30 individuals. They have a diverse diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. Capuchin monkeys are known for their problem-solving abilities and have been observed using tools in the wild.

There are several species of capuchin monkeys, including the white-fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons), the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella), and the weeper capuchin (Cebus olivaceus). They vary in size, coloration, and behavior, but all share the characteristic cap of hair on their heads that gives them their name.

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "snakes" is not a medical term. It refers to a group of legless reptiles that can be found on every continent except Antarctica. If you have any questions about snakes in a different context, please provide more information and I'll do my best to help!

Rodent-borne diseases are infectious diseases transmitted to humans (and other animals) by rodents, their parasites or by contact with rodent urine, feces, or saliva. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Some examples of rodent-borne diseases include Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Leptospirosis, Salmonellosis, Rat-bite fever, and Plague. It's important to note that rodents can also cause allergic reactions in some people through their dander, urine, or saliva. Proper sanitation, rodent control measures, and protective equipment when handling rodents can help prevent the spread of these diseases.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

"Rodentia" is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in biology. It refers to the largest order of mammals, comprising over 40% of all mammal species. Commonly known as rodents, this group includes mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, guinea pigs, squirrels, prairie dogs, capybaras, beavers, and many others.

While "Rodentia" itself is not a medical term, certain conditions or issues related to rodents can have medical implications. For instance, rodents are known to carry and transmit various diseases that can affect humans, such as hantavirus, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV). Therefore, understanding the biology and behavior of rodents is important in the context of public health and preventive medicine.

Nucleoproteins are complexes formed by the association of proteins with nucleic acids (DNA or RNA). These complexes play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as packaging and protecting genetic material, regulating gene expression, and replication and repair of DNA. In these complexes, proteins interact with nucleic acids through electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and other non-covalent interactions, leading to the formation of stable structures that help maintain the integrity and function of the genetic material. Some well-known examples of nucleoproteins include histones, which are involved in DNA packaging in eukaryotic cells, and reverse transcriptase, an enzyme found in retroviruses that transcribes RNA into DNA.

In a medical or scientific context, "Primates" is a biological order that includes various species of mammals, such as humans, apes, monkeys, and prosimians (like lemurs and lorises). This group is characterized by several distinct features, including:

1. A forward-facing eye position, which provides stereoscopic vision and depth perception.
2. Nails instead of claws on most digits, except for the big toe in some species.
3. A rotating shoulder joint that allows for a wide range of motion in the arms.
4. A complex brain with a well-developed cortex, which is associated with higher cognitive functions like problem-solving and learning.
5. Social structures and behaviors, such as living in groups and exhibiting various forms of communication.

Understanding primates is essential for medical and biological research since many human traits, diseases, and behaviors have their origins within this group.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "North America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the third largest continent in the world, which includes countries such as the United States, Canada, and Mexico, among others. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health topics, I'd be happy to help with those!

Transferrin receptors are membrane-bound proteins found on the surface of many cell types, including red and white blood cells, as well as various tissues such as the liver, brain, and placenta. These receptors play a crucial role in iron homeostasis by regulating the uptake of transferrin, an iron-binding protein, into the cells.

Transferrin binds to two ferric ions (Fe3+) in the bloodstream, forming a complex known as holo-transferrin. This complex then interacts with the transferrin receptors on the cell surface, leading to endocytosis of the transferrin-receptor complex into the cell. Once inside the cell, the acidic environment within the endosome causes the release of iron ions from the transferrin molecule, which can then be transported into the cytoplasm for use in various metabolic processes.

After releasing the iron, the apo-transferrin (iron-free transferrin) is recycled back to the cell surface and released back into the bloodstream, where it can bind to more ferric ions and repeat the cycle. This process helps maintain appropriate iron levels within the body and ensures that cells have access to the iron they need for essential functions such as DNA synthesis, energy production, and oxygen transport.

In summary, transferrin receptors are membrane-bound proteins responsible for recognizing and facilitating the uptake of transferrin-bound iron into cells, playing a critical role in maintaining iron homeostasis within the body.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

"Alouatta" is a genus of species that are commonly known as howler monkeys. They are native to the forests of Central and South America. These monkeys are recognized for their loud howls, which can be heard miles away in the forest. The howls are used to communicate with other members of their group and establish territory. Howler monkeys have a strong grip and spend most of their time in the trees. They are primarily herbivores, eating mostly leaves, fruits, and buds.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

A viral attachment, in the context of virology, refers to the initial step in the infection process of a host cell by a virus. This involves the binding or adsorption of the viral particle to specific receptors on the surface of the host cell. The viral attachment proteins, often located on the viral envelope or capsid, recognize and interact with these receptors, leading to a close association between the virus and the host cell. This interaction is highly specific, as different viruses may target various cell types based on their unique receptor-binding preferences. Following attachment, the virus can enter the host cell and initiate the replication cycle, ultimately leading to the production of new viral particles and potential disease manifestations.

"Peromyscus" is not a medical term, but a genus of rodents commonly known as "deer mice." They are small mammals that belong to the family Cricetidae and are found in various parts of North America. Peromyscus mice can carry and transmit diseases, such as Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), although they are not typically referred to in a medical context unless discussing potential zoonotic risks.

Nucleocapsid proteins are structural proteins that are associated with the viral genome in many viruses. They play a crucial role in the formation and stability of the viral particle, also known as the virion. In particular, nucleocapsid proteins bind to the viral RNA or DNA genome and help to protect it from degradation by host cell enzymes. They also participate in the assembly and disassembly of the virion during the viral replication cycle.

In some viruses, such as coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid protein is also involved in regulating the transcription and replication of the viral genome. The nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2, for example, has been shown to interact with host cell proteins that are involved in the regulation of gene expression, which may contribute to the virus's ability to manipulate the host cell environment and evade the immune response.

Overall, nucleocapsid proteins are important components of many viruses and are often targeted by antiviral therapies due to their essential role in the viral replication cycle.

'Aotus trivirgatus' is a species of New World monkey, also known as the owl monkey or the white-bellied night monkey. It is native to South America, particularly in countries like Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil. This nocturnal primate is notable for being one of the few monogamous species of monkeys, and it has a diet that mainly consists of fruits, flowers, and insects.

The medical community may study 'Aotus trivirgatus' due to its use as a model organism in biomedical research. Its genetic similarity to humans makes it a valuable subject for studies on various diseases and biological processes, including infectious diseases, reproductive biology, and aging. However, the use of this species in research has been controversial due to ethical concerns regarding animal welfare.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Inclusion bodies, viral are typically described as intracellular inclusions that appear as a result of viral infections. These inclusion bodies consist of aggregates of virus-specific proteins, viral particles, or both, which accumulate inside the host cell's cytoplasm or nucleus during the replication cycle of certain viruses.

The presence of inclusion bodies can sometimes be observed through histological or cytological examination using various staining techniques. Different types of viruses may exhibit distinct morphologies and locations of these inclusion bodies, which can aid in the identification and diagnosis of specific viral infections. However, it is important to note that not all viral infections result in the formation of inclusion bodies, and their presence does not necessarily indicate active viral replication or infection.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

'Atelinae' is a biological classification category, specifically a tribe, that includes several genera of New World monkeys. These monkeys are characterized by their lack of a tail-grasping reflex and the presence of ischial callosities, which are thickened areas of skin on their buttocks that they use for sitting.

The tribe Atelinae includes the following genera:

* Ateles (spider monkeys)
* Brachyteles (muriquis or woolly spider monkeys)
* Lagothrix (woolly monkeys)
* Oreonax (the yellow-tailed woolly monkey)

These monkeys are native to Central and South America, where they inhabit a variety of forest habitats. They are generally arboreal, spending most of their time in trees, and have a varied diet that includes fruits, leaves, flowers, and insects. Many species of Atelinae are endangered due to habitat loss and hunting.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

I'm not a medical professional, but the term "History, Ancient" is not a medical term per se. However, in a broader context, it could refer to the study of ancient medical practices, theories, and beliefs that existed in civilizations prior to the Middle Ages or Classical Antiquity. This might include the examination of ancient texts, artifacts, and archaeological evidence to understand how illnesses were treated and viewed in these historical periods. It forms an essential part of the evolution of medical knowledge and practices over time.

Electron microscope tomography (EMT) is a 3D imaging technique used in electron microscopy. It involves collecting a series of images of a sample at different tilt angles, and then using computational algorithms to reconstruct the 3D structure of the sample from these images.

In EMT, a sample is prepared and placed in an electron microscope, where it is exposed to a beam of electrons. The electrons interact with the atoms in the sample, producing contrast that allows the features of the sample to be visualized. By tilting the sample and collecting images at multiple angles, a range of perspectives can be obtained, which are then used to create a 3D reconstruction of the sample.

EMT is a powerful tool for studying the ultrastructure of cells and tissues, as it allows researchers to visualize structures that may not be visible using other imaging techniques. It has been used to study a wide range of biological systems, including viruses, bacteria, organelles, and cells.

EMT is a complex technique that requires specialized equipment and expertise to perform. However, it can provide valuable insights into the structure and function of biological systems, making it an important tool in the field of biology and medicine.

Host-pathogen interactions refer to the complex and dynamic relationship between a living organism (the host) and a disease-causing agent (the pathogen). This interaction can involve various molecular, cellular, and physiological processes that occur between the two entities. The outcome of this interaction can determine whether the host will develop an infection or not, as well as the severity and duration of the illness.

During host-pathogen interactions, the pathogen may release virulence factors that allow it to evade the host's immune system, colonize tissues, and obtain nutrients for its survival and replication. The host, in turn, may mount an immune response to recognize and eliminate the pathogen, which can involve various mechanisms such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and the production of antimicrobial agents.

Understanding the intricacies of host-pathogen interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases. This knowledge can help identify new targets for therapeutic interventions, inform vaccine design, and guide public health policies to control the spread of infectious agents.

Proprotein convertases (PCs) are a group of calcium-dependent serine proteases that play a crucial role in the post-translational modification of proteins. They are responsible for cleaving proproteins into their active forms by removing the propeptide or inhibitory sequences, thereby regulating various biological processes such as protein maturation, activation, and trafficking.

There are nine known human proprotein convertases, including PC1/3, PC2, PC4, PACE4, PC5/6, PC7, Furin, Subtilisin/Kexin type 1 Protease (SKI-1/S1P), and Neuropsin. These enzymes are characterized by their conserved catalytic domain and a distinct prodomain that regulates their activity.

Proprotein convertases have been implicated in several physiological processes, including blood coagulation, neuroendocrine signaling, immune response, and cell differentiation. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been associated with various diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of proprotein convertases is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the southern portion of the Americas, which is a continent in the Western Hemisphere. South America is generally defined as including the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela, as well as the overseas departments and territories of French Guiana (France), and the Falkland Islands (UK).

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

Strepsirhini is a term used in primatology and physical anthropology to refer to a parvorder of primates that includes lemurs, lorises, and galagos (bushbabies). This group is characterized by several features, including a wet nose, a grooming claw on the second digit of the hind foot, and a toothcomb - a set of lower incisors and canines specialized for grooming.

The term Strepsirhini comes from the Greek words "streptos" meaning twisted and "rhinos" meaning nose, referring to the wet, rhinarium (naked, moist snout) found in these primates. This is one of the two major divisions within the infraorder Lemuriformes, the other being Haplorhini, which includes tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is not a medical condition or term, but rather a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. Here's a brief description:

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as the global authority on public health issues. Established in 1948, WHO's primary role is to coordinate and collaborate with its member states to promote health, prevent diseases, and ensure universal access to healthcare services. WHO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and has regional offices around the world. It plays a crucial role in setting global health standards, monitoring disease outbreaks, and providing guidance on various public health concerns, including infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, mental health, environmental health, and maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

New World camelids are a family of mammals (Camelidae) that are native to South America. The family includes four species: the llama (Lama glama), the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), the guanaco (Lama guanicoe), and the vicuña (Vicugna vicugna). These animals are characterized by their long necks, long legs, and a pad on their chest instead of a true knee joint. They are known for their ability to survive in harsh environments with limited water and food resources.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

'Virus release' in a medical context typically refers to the point at which a virus that has infected a host cell causes that cell to rupture or disintegrate, releasing new viruses into the surrounding tissue or bodily fluids. This is a key step in the replication cycle of many viruses and can lead to the spread of infection throughout the body.

The process of virus release often follows a phase of viral replication inside the host cell, where the virus uses the cell's machinery to produce multiple copies of its genetic material and proteins. Once enough new viruses have been produced, they can cause the host cell membrane to break down, allowing the viruses to exit and infect other cells.

It is important to note that not all viruses follow this pattern of replication, and some may use alternative mechanisms such as budding or exocytosis to release new viruses from infected cells.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

"World Health" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in the context of global health, which can be defined as:

"The area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It emphasizes trans-national health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and engages stakeholders from across sectors and societies." (World Health Organization)

Therefore, "world health" could refer to the overall health status and health challenges faced by populations around the world. It encompasses a broad range of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities, including social, economic, environmental, and political determinants. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in monitoring and promoting global health, setting international standards and guidelines, and coordinating responses to global health emergencies.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA viruses replicate by using an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate their RNA genome.

There are several different groups of RNA viruses, including:

1. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that is complementary to the mRNA and must undergo transcription to produce mRNA before translation can occur. Examples include influenza virus, measles virus, and rabies virus.
2. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that can serve as mRNA and can be directly translated into protein after entry into the host cell. Examples include poliovirus, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses.
3. Double-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome consisting of double-stranded RNA and use a complex replication strategy involving both transcription and reverse transcription. Examples include rotaviruses and reoviruses.

RNA viruses are known to cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as hepatitis C, polio, and COVID-19. Due to their high mutation rates and ability to adapt quickly to new environments, RNA viruses can be difficult to control and treat with antiviral drugs or vaccines.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Callitrichinae is a subfamily of New World monkeys that includes marmosets and tamarins. These small primates are known for their claw-like nails (called "tegulae"), which they use for grooming and climbing, as well as their small size and social behavior. They are native to the forests of Central and South America. Some notable species in this subfamily include the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pitheciidae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category used in biology, specifically in the classification of primates. Pitheciidae is the family that includes titis, sakis, and uakaris - small to medium-sized New World monkeys found in Central and South America. If you have any questions about biological terms or concepts, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. A "medical definition" refers to the explanation of a medical term or concept. On the other hand, "15th century" is a historical time period and does not have a medical definition per se. However, I can provide you with some context regarding the medical advancements and practices during the 15th century.

The 15th century was marked by significant developments in medicine, particularly in Europe, as it transitioned from medieval to early modern medicine. Some key aspects of 15th-century medicine include:

1. Universities and medical education: Universities became more prominent centers for medical education, with institutions like the University of Bologna, Padua, Montpellier, and Salamanca playing crucial roles in shaping medical thought. Medical faculties taught subjects such as anatomy, physiology, pathology, surgery, and pharmacology based on ancient Greek and Roman texts, mainly Galen and Hippocrates.

2. Anatomical studies: The 15th century saw the beginning of a more accurate understanding of human anatomy. Italian anatomist and physician Mondino de Luzzi (c. 1270–1326) is known for his influential anatomy textbook, "Anathomia," which was widely used during this period. Later in the century, Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564), often regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy, began his groundbreaking work on detailed dissections and accurate representations of the human body.

3. Renaissance of medical illustrations: The 15th century marked a revival in medical illustrations, with artists like Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) creating highly accurate anatomical drawings based on dissections. These detailed images helped physicians better understand the human body and its functions.

4. Development of hospitals: Hospitals during this time became more organized and specialized, focusing on specific medical conditions or patient populations. For example, mental health institutions, known as "madhouses" or "asylums," were established to treat individuals with mental illnesses.

5. Plague and public health: The ongoing threat of the bubonic plague (Black Death) led to increased efforts in public health, including improved sanitation practices and the establishment of quarantine measures for infected individuals.

6. Humoral theory: Although challenged by some during this period, the ancient Greek humoral theory—which posited that the balance of four bodily fluids or "humors" (blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile) determined a person's health—remained influential in medical practice.

7. Surgery: Barber-surgeons continued to perform various surgical procedures, including bloodletting, tooth extraction, and amputations. However, anesthesia was still not widely used, and pain management relied on opium or alcohol-based preparations.

8. Pharmacology: The use of herbal remedies and other natural substances to treat illnesses remained popular during the 15th century. Physicians like Nicholas Culpeper (1616–1654) compiled extensive lists of medicinal plants and their uses, contributing to the development of modern pharmacology.

9. Astrology and medicine: Despite growing skepticism among some scholars, astrological beliefs continued to influence medical practice in the 15th century. Physicians often consulted astrological charts when diagnosing and treating patients.

10. Medical education: Universities across Europe offered formal medical education, with students studying anatomy, physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. However, many practitioners still learned their trade through apprenticeships or self-study.

Viral envelope proteins are structural proteins found in the envelope that surrounds many types of viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the virus's life cycle, including attachment to host cells, fusion with the cell membrane, and entry into the host cell. They are typically made up of glycoproteins and are often responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host organism. The exact structure and function of viral envelope proteins vary between different types of viruses.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) is a viral infectious disease caused by the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The infection primarily affects the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges), as well as the cerebrospinal fluid, brain, and spinal cord tissue. It is transmitted to humans through close contact with infected rodents, particularly the house mouse (Mus musculus) or its urine, feces, saliva, or nesting materials.

The symptoms of LCM can vary widely but often include fever, severe headache, stiff neck, sensitivity to light, and sometimes vomiting. In some cases, it may also cause muscle aches, joint pain, and rash. A more severe form of the disease can affect the brain and spinal cord, causing confusion, seizures, or even long-term neurological damage.

LCM is typically diagnosed based on symptoms, laboratory tests, and detection of LCMV in cerebrospinal fluid or blood. Treatment usually involves supportive care to manage symptoms, as there is no specific antiviral therapy available for this infection. Most people with LCM recover completely within a few weeks, but severe cases may require hospitalization and intensive care support.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with rodents, especially their urine, feces, and saliva, and maintaining good hygiene practices such as washing hands thoroughly after handling animals or being in areas where rodents might be present.

I believe you are asking for a description or explanation of the indigenous peoples of South America, rather than a "medical definition." A medical definition would typically apply to a condition or disease. Here is some information about the indigenous peoples of South America:

The indigenous peoples of South America are the original inhabitants of the continent and its islands, who lived there before the European colonization. They include a wide variety of ethnic groups, languages, and cultures, with distinct histories and traditions. Many indigenous communities in South America have faced significant challenges, including displacement from their lands, marginalization, and discrimination.

According to estimates by the United Nations, there are approximately 45 million indigenous people in Latin America, of which about 30 million live in South America. They represent around 7% of the total population of South America. Indigenous peoples in South America can be found in all countries, with the largest populations in Bolivia (62%), Guatemala (41%), and Peru (25%).

Indigenous peoples in South America have a rich cultural heritage, including unique languages, arts, and spiritual practices. Many of these cultures are under threat due to globalization, urbanization, and the loss of traditional lands and resources. In recent years, there has been increased recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples in international law, including the right to self-determination, cultural heritage, and free, prior, and informed consent for projects that affect their territories. However, significant challenges remain, and many indigenous communities continue to face violence, discrimination, and poverty.

There is no single medical definition for "Monkey Diseases." However, monkeys can carry and be infected with various diseases that are zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted from animals to humans. Some examples include:

1. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV): A virus similar to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes AIDS in monkeys. It is not typically harmful to monkeys but can cause AIDS in humans if transmitted, which is rare.
2. Herpes B Virus: Also known as Macacine herpesvirus 1 or Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, it is a virus that commonly infects macaque monkeys. It can be transmitted to humans through direct contact with an infected monkey's saliva, eye fluid, or cerebrospinal fluid, causing a severe and potentially fatal illness called B encephalitis.
3. Tuberculosis (TB): Monkeys can contract and transmit tuberculosis to humans, although it is not common.
4. Simian Retrovirus (SRV): A virus that can infect both monkeys and great apes, causing immunodeficiency similar to HIV/AIDS in humans. It is not known to infect or cause disease in humans.
5. Various parasitic diseases: Monkeys can carry and transmit several parasites, including malaria-causing Plasmodium species, intestinal worms, and other parasites that can affect human health.

It's important to note that while monkeys can carry and transmit these diseases, the risk of transmission is generally low, and most cases occur in individuals who have close contact with monkeys, such as primatologists, zookeepers, or laboratory workers. Always follow safety guidelines when interacting with animals, including monkeys, to minimize the risk of disease transmission.

Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (MCL) is a chronic, granulomatous disease caused by an infection with Leishmania species, primarily L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis. It affects both the mucous membranes (such as those of the nose, mouth, and throat) and the skin.

The initial infection often occurs through the bite of an infected female sandfly, which transmits the parasitic protozoa into the host's skin. After a variable incubation period, the disease can manifest in different clinical forms, including localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

MCL is characterized by progressive destruction of the mucous membranes, leading to deformities and functional impairments. The infection typically starts as a cutaneous lesion at the site of the sandfly bite, which heals spontaneously within several months. However, in some cases, the parasites disseminate to the mucous membranes, causing severe inflammation, ulceration, and tissue necrosis.

Symptoms of MCL include:

1. Destruction of nasal septum, leading to a saddle-nose deformity
2. Perforation of the palate or septum
3. Hoarseness or loss of voice due to laryngeal involvement
4. Difficulty swallowing and speaking
5. Chronic rhinitis, sinusitis, or otitis media
6. Severe disfigurement and functional impairments in advanced cases

Diagnosis is usually made by identifying the parasites in tissue samples (such as biopsies) using microscopy, culture, or PCR-based methods. Treatment typically involves systemic antiparasitic drugs, such as pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, miltefosine, or combination therapies, along with surgical interventions to reconstruct damaged tissues in advanced cases.

Hominidae, also known as the "great apes," is a family of primates that includes humans (Homo sapiens), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). This family is characterized by their upright walking ability, although not all members exhibit this trait. Hominidae species are known for their high intelligence, complex social structures, and expressive facial features. They share a common ancestor with the Old World monkeys, and fossil records suggest that this split occurred around 25 million years ago.

Leishmania is a genus of protozoan parasites that are the causative agents of Leishmaniasis, a group of diseases with various clinical manifestations. These parasites are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. The disease has a wide geographic distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of Asia, Africa, South America, and Southern Europe.

The Leishmania species have a complex life cycle that involves two main stages: the promastigote stage, which is found in the sandfly vector, and the amastigote stage, which infects mammalian hosts, including humans. The clinical manifestations of Leishmaniasis depend on the specific Leishmania species and the host's immune response to the infection.

The three main forms of Leishmaniasis are:

1. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL): This form is characterized by skin lesions, such as ulcers or nodules, that can take several months to heal and may leave scars. CL is caused by various Leishmania species, including L. major, L. tropica, and L. aethiopica.

2. Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL): Also known as kala-azar, VL affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Symptoms include fever, weight loss, anemia, and enlarged liver and spleen. VL is caused by L. donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi species.

3. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (MCL): This form affects the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, and throat, causing destruction of tissues and severe disfigurement. MCL is caused by L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis species.

Prevention and control measures for Leishmaniasis include vector control, early diagnosis and treatment, and protection against sandfly bites through the use of insect repellents and bed nets.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Siberia" is not a medical term. It's a geographical region in Russia, known for its harsh, cold climate and vast wilderness. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those!

Hantavirus is an etiologic agent for several clinical syndromes, including hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). It's a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthohantavirus.

These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans by inhalation of aerosolized excreta from infected rodents. The symptoms can range from flu-like illness to severe respiratory distress and renal failure, depending upon the specific hantavirus species. There are no known treatments for HFRS, but early recognition and supportive care can significantly improve outcomes. Ribavirin has been used in some cases of HPS with apparent benefit, although its general efficacy is not well-established

(References: CDC, NIH, WHO)

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Ecuador" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in South America, officially known as the "República del Ecuador." If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. A "history" in medical terms usually refers to the detailed account of a patient's symptoms, illnesses, and treatments over time. It is a crucial part of the medical record and helps healthcare professionals understand the patient's health status and inform their care plans.

On the other hand, "16th century" refers to a specific period in history, spanning from 1501 to 1600 AD.

There isn't a direct medical definition for 'History, 16th Century.' However, if you are interested in learning about the medical advancements and practices during that time, I would be happy to provide some information. The 16th century was marked by significant developments in anatomy, surgery, and pharmacology, thanks to pioneers like Andreas Vesalius, Ambroise Paré, and William Shakespeare, who incorporated medical themes into his plays.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Asia" is not a medical term. It is the largest continent in the world, comprising about 30% of the Earth's total land area and containing around 60% of the world's current human population. It is divided into several regions, including Northern Asia (Siberia), Eastern Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Taiwan), Southern Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives), Southeastern Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Brunei), and Western Asia (Middle East).

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help.

Central America is a geographical region that connects North America and South America. It is made up of seven countries: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. The eastern coast of Central America is bordered by the Caribbean Sea, while the western coast is bordered by the Pacific Ocean.

The region is characterized by its diverse geography, which includes lowland rainforests, volcanic mountain ranges, and coastal plains. It is also home to a wide range of plant and animal species, many of which are found nowhere else in the world.

Culturally, Central America is a melting pot of indigenous, African, and European influences. The region has a rich history of Mayan civilization, as well as Spanish colonialism. Today, the countries of Central America have diverse economies, with agriculture, manufacturing, and tourism being major industries.

A virion is the complete, infectious form of a virus outside its host cell. It consists of the viral genome (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat called the capsid, which is often surrounded by a lipid membrane called the envelope. The envelope may contain viral proteins and glycoproteins that aid in attachment to and entry into host cells during infection. The term "virion" emphasizes the infectious nature of the virus particle, as opposed to non-infectious components like individual capsid proteins or naked viral genome.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Dryopteridaceae is a family of ferns in the order Polypodiales, also known as the "wood fern" family. It includes several genera of terrestrial and epiphytic ferns, characterized by having typically large, divided fronds with sori (spore cases) protected by an indusium on the underside of the leaf. Examples of genera in this family include Dryopteris, Polystichum, and Athyrium. These ferns are found in a variety of habitats around the world, including temperate and tropical forests.

Haplorhini is a term used in the field of primatology and physical anthropology to refer to a parvorder of simian primates, which includes humans, apes (both great and small), and Old World monkeys. The name "Haplorhini" comes from the Greek words "haploos," meaning single or simple, and "rhinos," meaning nose.

The defining characteristic of Haplorhini is the presence of a simple, dry nose, as opposed to the wet, fleshy noses found in other primates, such as New World monkeys and strepsirrhines (which include lemurs and lorises). The nostrils of haplorhines are located close together at the tip of the snout, and they lack the rhinarium or "wet nose" that is present in other primates.

Haplorhini is further divided into two infraorders: Simiiformes (which includes apes and Old World monkeys) and Tarsioidea (which includes tarsiers). These groups are distinguished by various anatomical and behavioral differences, such as the presence or absence of a tail, the structure of the hand and foot, and the degree of sociality.

Overall, Haplorhini is a group of primates that share a number of distinctive features related to their sensory systems, locomotion, and social behavior. Understanding the evolutionary history and diversity of this group is an important area of research in anthropology, biology, and psychology.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the genetic material present in the mitochondria, which are specialized structures within cells that generate energy. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is present in the cell nucleus and inherited from both parents, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother.

MtDNA is a circular molecule that contains 37 genes, including 13 genes that encode for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, a process that generates energy in the form of ATP. The remaining genes encode for rRNAs and tRNAs, which are necessary for protein synthesis within the mitochondria.

Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including mitochondrial diseases, which can affect any organ system in the body. These mutations can also be used in forensic science to identify individuals and establish biological relationships.

Cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) is a type of electron microscopy where the sample is studied at cryogenic temperatures, typically liquid nitrogen temperatures. This technique is used to investigate the structure and shape of biological molecules and complexes, viruses, and other nanoscale particles.

In Cryo-EM, the sample is rapidly frozen to preserve its natural structure and then imaged using a beam of electrons. The images are collected at different angles and then computationally combined to generate a 3D reconstruction of the sample. This technique allows researchers to visualize biological structures in their native environment with near-atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their function and behavior.

Cryo-EM has become an increasingly popular tool in structural biology due to its ability to image large and complex structures that are difficult or impossible to crystallize for X-ray crystallography. It has been used to determine the structures of many important biological molecules, including membrane proteins, ribosomes, viruses, and protein complexes involved in various cellular processes.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Iridaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category in botany. It refers to the family of plants known as the Iris family, which includes over 2,000 species distributed across 66 genera. These plants are characterized by their distinctive flowers, which typically have six petal-like structures (three outer and three inner) and a tubular or cup-shaped structure called the perianth tube.

While Iridaceae is not a medical term, some of its member species do have medicinal uses. For example, the roots of certain iris species, such as Iris germanica and Iris versicolor, contain compounds with medicinal properties. These compounds have been used in traditional medicine to treat various conditions, including digestive disorders, skin problems, and respiratory ailments. However, it is important to note that the use of these plants for medicinal purposes should be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as they can also contain toxic compounds that can cause adverse effects if used improperly.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with Leishmania parasites, which are transmitted through the bite of infected female sandflies. The disease primarily affects the skin and mucous membranes, causing lesions that can be disfiguring and stigmatizing. There are several clinical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis, including localized, disseminated, and mucocutaneous.

Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of the disease, characterized by the development of one or more nodular or ulcerative lesions at the site of the sandfly bite, typically appearing within a few weeks to several months after exposure. The lesions may vary in size and appearance, ranging from small papules to large plaques or ulcers, and can be painful or pruritic (itchy).

Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis is a more severe form of the disease, characterized by the widespread dissemination of lesions across the body. This form of the disease typically affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those receiving immunosuppressive therapy.

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is a rare but severe form of the disease, characterized by the spread of infection from the skin to the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, and throat. This can result in extensive tissue destruction, disfigurement, and functional impairment.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, epidemiological data, and laboratory tests such as parasite detection using microscopy or molecular techniques, or serological tests to detect antibodies against the Leishmania parasites. Treatment options for cutaneous leishmaniasis include systemic or topical medications, such as antimonial drugs, miltefosine, or pentamidine, as well as physical treatments such as cryotherapy or thermotherapy. The choice of treatment depends on various factors, including the species of Leishmania involved, the clinical form of the disease, and the patient's overall health status.

Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) is a type of retrovirus, specifically a member of the Spumavirus genus. It's also known as SFV or foamy virus because of the distinctive 'foamy' appearance of the infected cells in cell culture.

SFV is widespread among non-human primates, and it's believed to be non-pathogenic, meaning it doesn't cause disease in its natural hosts. However, it can infect other mammalian species, including humans, through close contact with bodily fluids such as saliva or blood.

In humans, SFV infection is usually asymptomatic and does not lead to any known diseases. Once a human is infected, the virus remains in the body for life, but it's believed to pose no significant health risk. It's primarily a research interest due to its use as a model retrovirus and its potential implications for understanding retroviral evolution and pathogenesis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Lemur" is not typically used in medical definitions. It is a common name that refers to primates belonging to the infraorder Lemuriformes. They are native to Madagascar and are divided into five families: Cheirogaleidae (dwarf lemurs), Daubentoniidae (aye-aye), Indriidae (indris, sifakas, and avahis), Lepilemuridae (sportive lemurs), and Lemuridae (true lemurs). If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to help!

I believe you may have made a typo in your question. "Archaeology" is the scientific study of past human cultures and societies through the recovery, examination, and analysis of material remains such as artifacts, buildings, biofacts (e.g., bones, shells), and cultural landscapes. It is not typically associated with medical definitions. If you intended to ask for a different term related to medicine or healthcare, please let me know so I can provide the correct information.

For more information about archaeology, you may be interested in visiting the World Archaeological Congress () or the Society for American Archaeology () websites to learn more about this fascinating field of study.

Phylogeography is not a medical term, but rather a subfield of biogeography and phylogenetics that investigates the spatial distribution of genealogical lineages and the historical processes that have shaped them. It uses genetic data to infer the geographic origins, dispersal routes, and demographic history of organisms, including pathogens and vectors that can affect human health.

In medical and public health contexts, phylogeography is often used to study the spread of infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, influenza, or tuberculosis, by analyzing the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of pathogen isolates. This information can help researchers understand how diseases emerge, evolve, and move across populations and landscapes, which can inform disease surveillance, control, and prevention strategies.

I must clarify that there is no medical definition for "World War II." World War II (1939-1945) was a major global conflict involving many of the world's nations, including all of the great powers, organized into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was marked by significant events, such as the Holocaust, and had profound social, economic, and political consequences. The medical field did play a crucial role during this time, with advancements in battlefield medicine, military medicine, and the treatment of injuries and diseases on a large scale. However, there is no specific medical definition or concept associated with World War II itself.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Indians, Central American" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals or populations that originate from Central America and self-identify as indigenous or native to the region. In a medical context, it's more common to see specific references to individual ethnic groups or populations, such as Maya, Garifuna, or Miskitu, among others. These groups may have unique genetic characteristics, health risks, or cultural practices that are relevant to medical care and research. However, it's important to note that any discussion of medical issues should be sensitive to the individual's self-identified ethnicity and personal preferences.

CD (cluster of differentiation) antigens are cell-surface proteins that are expressed on leukocytes (white blood cells) and can be used to identify and distinguish different subsets of these cells. They are important markers in the field of immunology and hematology, and are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

CD antigens are designated by numbers, such as CD4, CD8, CD19, etc., which refer to specific proteins found on the surface of different types of leukocytes. For example, CD4 is a protein found on the surface of helper T cells, while CD8 is found on cytotoxic T cells.

CD antigens can be used as targets for immunotherapy, such as monoclonal antibody therapy, in which antibodies are designed to bind to specific CD antigens and trigger an immune response against cancer cells or infected cells. They can also be used as markers to monitor the effectiveness of treatments and to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment.

It's important to note that not all CD antigens are exclusive to leukocytes, some can be found on other cell types as well, and their expression can vary depending on the activation state or differentiation stage of the cells.

"Pongo pygmaeus" is the scientific name for the Bornean orangutan, a great ape species native to the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. They are one of the two species of orangutans, with the other being "Pongo abelii," the Sumatran orangutan. Bornean orangutans are highly intelligent and exhibit advanced tool use, social behaviors, and emotional expressions. They have a reddish-brown fur coat, long arms, and a distinctively shaped face. Unfortunately, they are critically endangered due to habitat loss and hunting.

It is a member of Clade A of the Tacaribe (or "New World") serocomplex of the family Arenaviridae. Laboratory workers infected ... Zuckerman 2014, p. 10 "Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused by Arenaviruses" (PDF). The Center for Food Security and Public Health. ... Zuckerman, Ben (2014). Howard, C R (ed.). Arenaviruses. Elsevier. p. 7. ISBN 9780080877372. ... an arenavirus with a mammalian host. It was first found in semiaquatic rodents of the genus Oryzomys in tropical forest in the ...
... all three being New World arenaviruses. The virus is named after Bear Canyon, the area it was originally discovered in. Cajimat ... An Arenavirus Naturally Associated with the California Mouse (Peromyscus californicus)". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (7): ... "Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses". Virology. 367 (2): 235-243. doi: ...
"Phylogeny and evolution of old world arenaviruses". Virology. 350 (2): 251-7. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2006.01.026. PMID 16494913. ... Gonzalez JP, Sanchez A, Rico-Hesse R (July 1995). "Molecular phylogeny of Guanarito virus, an emerging arenavirus affecting ... "One Health Initiative - One World One Medicine One Health". www.onehealthinitiative.com. Retrieved 2018-06-29. Ezama A, ... Arenavirus, Hantavirus, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic virus and others. In the late 90s he began working as a professor of ...
They suggested that scholars consider New World arenaviruses and the role these pathogens may have played in colonial disease ... would have increased the presence of New World rats and mice. These animals may have carried arenaviruses capable of causing ... Somolinos d'Ardois believed cocoliztli was not the result of any known Old World pathogen but possibly a virus of New World ... Given that many Old World pathogens may have caused the cocoliztli outbreak, it is significant that all but two of the most ...
... the Old World arenaviruses, and the New World arenaviruses. Old World arenaviruses include lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus ... New world arena viruses are further broken down into three clades, A, B, and C. The Guanarito arena virus belongs to clade B ... February 2008). "Receptor determinants of zoonotic transmission of New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses". Proc. Natl. Acad ... Arenaviruses causing hemorrhagic fevers, along with a genus of virus called filoviruses, were categorized in Category A; these ...
Picornaviruses have been identified from a diverse array of bat species around the world. Arenaviruses are mainly associated ... The first arenavirus identified in bats was Tacaribe mammarenavirus, which was isolated from Jamaican fruit bats and the great ... The hepadnavirus found in the tent-making bat, which is a New World species, was the closest relative of human hepadnaviruses. ... "Ebola virus disease". World Health Organization. 10 February 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020. "What is Ebola Virus Disease?". ...
"Fatal Illnesses Associated With a New World Arenavirus --- California, 1999--2000". MMWR Weekly. Fulhorst, Charles; Charrel, ... Arenavirus-specific RNA was detected in each patient using RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequence of the patients were essentially ... Like other arenaviruses, WWAV appears to be transmitted through rodents. Therefore, direct contact with rodents, their feces, ... in the family Arenaviridae change the name of genus Arenavirus to Mammarenavirus and convert the names of its constituent ...
Alpha-dystroglycan is also used as a receptor by viruses of the New World clade C arenaviruses (Oliveros and Latino viruses). ... It shares this receptor with the prototypic Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Receptor recognition ... the New World arenaviruses of clades A and B, which include the important viruses Machupo, Guanarito, Junin, and Sabia in ... The life cycle of Lassa mammarenavirus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa mammarenavirus enters the cell by the ...
Specifically it is an old world arenavirus, which is enveloped, single-stranded, and bi-segmented RNA. This virus has both a ... World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 5 June 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015. Dongo, A. E.; Kesieme, E. B.; ... "Lassa fever". World Health Organization. Retrieved 11 September 2017. McCormick, J. B.; King, I. J.; Webb, P. A.; Scribner, C. ... "Lassa Fever - Nigeria". World Health Organization. 1 March 2018. Archived from the original on 1 March 2018. Edward-Ekpu, ...
It is of the "Old World" Arenavirus lineage and is closely related to Lassa mammarenavirus, sharing 75% of its amino acid ... Johnson KM, Taylor P, Elliott LH, Tomori O (November 1981). "Recovery of a Lassa-related arenavirus in Zimbabwe". The American ... Retrieved 8 May 2022.[dead link] Wulff H, McIntosh BM, Hamner DB, Johnson KM (1977). "Isolation of an arenavirus closely ... Gonzalez JP, Emonet S, de Lamballerie X, Charrel R (2007). Childs JE, Mackenzie JS, Richt JA (eds.). "Arenaviruses". Wildlife ...
"Comparative analysis of disease pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of New World and Old World arenavirus infections". The ... It is caused by the Junín virus (an arenavirus, closely related to the Machupo virus, causative agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic ...
Sequencing of the viral genome has shown that this virus belongs to the Old World arenavirus group. Comparisons with other ... viral genome sequences showed that this virus is equidistant from other Old World and New World arenaviruses. It is distantly ... identified the etiological agent of the outbreak as an Old World arenavirus using molecular and serological tests. Sequencing ... "Discovery of new arenavirus associated with hemorrhagic fever - first identified in nearly four decades". News-Medical.net. ...
The New World and Old World species diverged less than 45,000 years ago. The New World species evolved between 41,400 and 3,300 ... termini of the virion RNA species of New World and Old World arenaviruses". Virology. 121 (1): 200-3. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(82) ... Old and New World area viruses appear to have diverged ~45,000 years ago. The Old World Mammarenaviruses originated ~23.1-1.88 ... At least eight arenaviruses are known to cause human disease. The diseases derived from arenaviruses range in severity. Aseptic ...
As receptors for phosphatidylserine, TIM proteins bind many families of viruses [filovirus, flavivirus, New World arenavirus ...
... arenavirus MeSH B04.820.057.070.100 - arenaviruses, old world MeSH B04.820.057.070.100.500 - lassa virus MeSH B04.820.057.070. ... arenavirus MeSH B04.909.777.080.070.100 - arenaviruses, old world MeSH B04.909.777.080.070.100.500 - lassa virus MeSH B04.909. ... 100.550 - lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus MeSH B04.820.057.070.800 - arenaviruses, new world MeSH B04.820.057.070.800.450 - ... 777.080.070.100.550 - lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus MeSH B04.909.777.080.070.800 - arenaviruses, new world MeSH B04.909. ...
... fever on the developing world Monoclonal antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus react with pathogenic arenaviruses ... Johnson, K. M.; Taylor, P.; Tomori, O.; Elliott, L. H. (1981-11-01). "Recovery of a Lassa-Related Arenavirus in Zimbabwe". The ... He served as the Regional Virologist for the World Health Organization Africa Region (1994-2004) before he was appointed as the ... "What can Nigeria's Ebola experience teach the world?". The Guardian. October 7, 2014. Retrieved 2019-09-16. Kupferschmidt, Kai ...
The Maiztegui National Human Viral Disease Institute has performed research for the World Health Organization since 1985 and ... currently specializes in four areas: Arenaviruses Arboviruses Hantavirus Production of biological specimens ANLIS (in Spanish) ...
He is a member of the World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases. He is also director for biodefense ... His arenavirus research concentrates on the effects of infection on cellular function, particularly those molecular ... Peters, C. J. and Mark Olshaker (1998), Virus Hunter: Thirty Years of Battling Hot Viruses Around the World, Random House. ... of viral diseases including more than 70 publications on Rift Valley fever virus and more than 60 publications on arenaviruses ...
Guanarito virus New World arenavirus - Junin virus New World arenavirus - Machupo virus New World arenavirus - Sabia virus ... hemorrhagic fever Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Ebola virus Lassa virus Lujo virus Marburg virus New World arenavirus ...
The two RNA segments are denoted Small (S) and Large (L). It belongs to the New World Clade B lineage of mammarenaviruses and ... in the family Arenaviridae change the name of genus Arenavirus to Mammarenavirus and convert the names of its constituent ... Like other members of the Arenavirus family, the specific zoonotic reservoir and primary transmission vector is suspected to be ... a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia". PLOS Pathog. 4 (4): e1000047. doi: ...
"Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers". World Health Organization (WHO). United Nations (UN). Archived from the original on August 23, 2004 ... Post-exposure prophylactic (preventive) ribavirin may be effective for some bunyavirus and arenavirus infections. VHF isolation ... 2004). Return of the Black Death: The World's Greatest Serial Killer West Sussex; John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-470-09000-6. ... and HFRS due to Old World Hantavirus infection) and can be used only under an experimental protocol as IND approved by the U.S ...
In July 2019, the World Health Organization declared the Congo Ebola outbreak a world health emergency. The length of time ... arenaviruses, and flaviviruses" (PDF). Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 October ... Health topics: Ebola virus disease - World Health Organization. Videos: Ebola outbreak response - World Health Organization. " ... Urging the world to offer aid to the affected regions, its Director-General said, "Countries affected to date simply do not ...
... is an East African arenavirus infecting the multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis). The virus is genetically ... Bull World Health Organ. 52 (4-6): 493-499. PMC 2366657. PMID 182399. (Articles with 'species' microformats, Taxonbars without ... as this has been suggested for other arenaviruses. Günther S, Hoofd G, Charrel R, Röser C, Becker-Ziaja B, Lloyd G, Sabuni C, ... an African arenavirus closely related to Lassa virus, in its natural reservoir host Mastomys natalensis". Sci Rep. 5: 10445. ...
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are productively infected and activated through TLR-7 early after arenavirus infection. Cell Host ... featuring the top immunologists from around the world. In order to make the talks available longitudinally, the recorded talks ... DDX3 suppresses type I interferons and favors viral replication during Arenavirus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2018 Jul 12;14(7): ... "Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are productively infected and activated through TLR-7 early after arenavirus infection". Cell Host ...
"A brief history of vaccines and how they changed the world". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2020-04-30. "Creating a world in ... category A arenavirus) Chlamydia psittaci (category B) Naegleria fowleri (category B) Balamuthia mandrillaris (category B) St. ... CEPI promotes the idea that a proactive approach is required to "create a world in which epidemics are no longer a threat to ... In 2014, the Western African Ebola virus epidemic demonstrated how ill-prepared the world was to handle such an epidemic. In ...
The mortality rate varies significantly depending on the form, being up to 50% in New World hantaviruses (the Americas), up to ... With the exception of Hantaviruses and Arenaviruses, all viruses in the Bunyavirales order are transmitted by arthropods ( ... 15% in Old World hantaviruses (Asia and Europe), and as little as 0.1% in Puumala virus (mostly Scandinavia). The antibody ...
"Hepatitis B". World Health Organization. Retrieved 5 October 2021."Hepatitis C". World Health Organization. Retrieved 5 October ... Other viruses than can cause hepatitis include: Adenoviruses Arenaviruses: Guanarito virus, Junín virus, Lassa fever virus, ... This occurs primarily in third world countries. Strict personal hygiene and the avoidance of raw and unpeeled foods can help ...
First identified in 1958, Argentine hemorrhagic fever is a rodent-borne illness caused by the arenavirus Junin that is endemic ... An online petition was launched on April 27, 2022, asking the World Health Organization to revise its guidelines issued in ... or one-third of the world's population, became infected with this virus. The Spanish influenza pandemic was the first pandemic ...
The island of Vir in Croatia is one of the biggest described endemic places of origin of LCMV in the world, with IFA testing ... The first arenavirus, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus (LCMV), was isolated in 1933 by Charles Armstrong during a ... World Health Organ. 55 (5): 599-603. PMC 2366689. PMID 338190. ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, version 4. [2] Centers for ... LCMV has been shown to cause illness in New World primates such as macaques, marmosets and tamarins. Infections have also been ...
Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M.D. (2005). "Superfamily Muroidea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: ... "Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses". Virology. 367 (2): 235-243. doi: ...
Old World/New World Arenaviruses. Arenaviruses are divided into two groups - New World and Old World viruses - based on genetic ... LCMV, classified as an Old World arenavirus, is the only arenavirus found in both the Western and Eastern Hemisphere. ... There are some arenaviruses - both New and Old World - that have been identified in host animals, but no human infection has ... The types of rodents that spread arenaviruses are located across much of the world, including Europe, Asia, Africa, and the ...
Old World arenaviruses. New World arenaviruses. Dandedong. Ippy. Kodoko. Mobala. Mopeia. Morogoro. Lassa. LCMV. Lujo. Lemn. ... compared with Old World and 2 New World arenaviruses*. Virus sequence†. ... Nucleotide and amino acid p-distances of 2 arenaviruses in blood of Mus minutoides and Lemniscomys rosalia mice in Morogoro, ... Sympatric Occurrence of 3 Arenaviruses, Tanzania Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq. , Benny Borremans, Abdul Katakweba, Rhodes Makundi, ...
The genus Arenavirus includes 22 viral species and 9 additional arenaviruses that have been recently discovered, for which ... Arenaviruses are single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that cause chronic infections in rodents and zoonotically ... The New World arenaviruses are further divided into 3 lineages designated clades: A, B, C. LCMV is the only arenavirus to exist ... New World Arenavirus Biology. Annu Rev Virol. 2017 Sep 29. 4 (1):141-158. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full Text]. ...
Access New World Arenavirus - Guanarito Virus case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health ... New World arenavirus - Junin virus 2010 Current New World arenavirus - Machupo virus ... New World arenavirus - Chapare virus 2010 Current New World arenavirus - Guanarito virus ...
It is a member of Clade A of the Tacaribe (or "New World") serocomplex of the family Arenaviridae. Laboratory workers infected ... Zuckerman 2014, p. 10 "Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused by Arenaviruses" (PDF). The Center for Food Security and Public Health. ... Zuckerman, Ben (2014). Howard, C R (ed.). Arenaviruses. Elsevier. p. 7. ISBN 9780080877372. ... an arenavirus with a mammalian host. It was first found in semiaquatic rodents of the genus Oryzomys in tropical forest in the ...
Arenaviruses (Arenaviridae) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (World Health ... VHFs are found around the world. Specific diseases are usually limited to areas where the animals that carry them live. For ...
Categories: Arenaviruses, New World Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Novel Arenavirus Causes Mystery Illness in Zambia and South Africa. An active, young Zambian safari guide fell ill last month ... Mosquitoes: The Worlds Deadliest Animals. The area surrounding Antananarivo, Madagascar, was not predicted to be a high risk ...
Contrasting Modes of New World Arenavirus Neutralization by Immunization-Elicited Monoclonal Antibodies. Ng, W. M., Sahin, M., ...
Relationships among Old World arenaviruses by the neutralization test (log neutralization index determined by reduction of ...
The genus Arenavirus includes 22 viral species and 9 additional arenaviruses that have been recently discovered, for which ... Arenaviruses are single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that cause chronic infections in rodents and zoonotically ... Fatal illnesses associated with a new world arenavirus--California, 1999-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000 Aug 11. 49(31): ... Transferrin receptor 1 is a cellular receptor for New World haemorrhagic fever arenaviruses. Nature. 2007 Mar 1. 446(7131):92-6 ...
... including New World arenaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, hantaviruses, other Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, ... arenaviruses and Ebola virus. Reported by: F Mu]oz, MD, C Jarquin, MD, A Gonzalez, MD, J Amador, MD, J de los Reyes, MD, R ...
Arenavirus, and Filovirus Infections - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Arenavirus infections are relatively common in people in some areas of the world and can cause severe disease. ... Arenaviruses Arenaviruses are spread by rodents. Infections caused by these viruses include lymphocytic choriomeningitis ... Arbovirus, arenavirus, and filovirus are viruses that are spread from animals to people and, with some viruses, from people to ...
Animals, Arenaviridae Infections, Arenaviruses, Old World, Cell Line, Cytoskeletal Proteins, Dystroglycans, Humans, Membrane ...
... presence of antibodies to New World Arenaviruses, (ii) presence of New World Arenavirus RNA by RT-PCR, and (iii) isolation of ... For diagnosis of New World Arenavirus infection to be confirmed, one or more of the following diagnostic markers must be ... Symptomatic and travel to New World Arenavirus endemic areas or contact to travellers from these areas. ...
Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is ... A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: ...
ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD. LEUKEMIA VIRUSES, MURINE. LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE. MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUSES, MOUSE. MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, ...
ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD. LEUKEMIA VIRUSES, MURINE. LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE. MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUSES, MOUSE. MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, ...
ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD. LEUKEMIA VIRUSES, MURINE. LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE. MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUSES, MOUSE. MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, ...
new world Arenavirus. Sequence. Code System Concept Details Code System Concept Name. Genus Arenavirus (organism) ...
Arenaviruses, New World. *Receptors, Transferrin. *Virion. *Complement C5a. *Receptors, Neurokinin-1. *Receptors, Chemokine ...
... of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, ... Arenavirus do Novo Mundo/isolamento & purificação Febre Hemorrágica Americana/virologia Adulto Arenavirus do Novo Mundo/ ... and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses ... Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia.. Delgado, Simon; Erickson ...
Chapare virus (CHAV) and Machupo virus (MACV), two New World arenaviruses, cause hemorrhagic fevers with case fatality rates of ... Arenaviruses are highly pathogenic viruses that pose a serious public health threat. ... reverse genetics system described here will facilitate future therapeutic studies for these two life-threatening arenaviruses. ...
Small trials have shown that ribavirin may reduce mortality after infection with Lassa fever and select New World arenaviruses ... the end of an era or the end of the world as we know it and the transition into a world of awakening and awareness but people ... who are in a fraternity with government officials and world leaders, that a health crisis was about to occur and that there is ... Its just like the World Trade Center situation. They werent going to tell people the exact date and time that the towers were ...
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in ... A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. ... A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. ...
Examples of the latter include West Nile virus that unexpectedly jumped from the Old World to emerge in the New World in 1999, ... A new arenavirus in a cluster of fatal transplant-associated diseases. The New England Journal of Medicine, 2008, 358:991-998. ... Arenaviruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 2007, 315:253-288. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-70962-6_11 pmid:17848068 ... One World - One Health and the global challenge of epidemic diseases of viral aetiology. Veterinaria Italiana, 2009, 45:35-44 ...
22] J.M.Rojek,S. Kunz, Cell entry by human pathogenic arenaviruses, Cell Microbol, 10(4)(2008) 828-835.. [23] I.B. Sule, I.B. ... 7] Central Intelligence Agency, World fact book for the year 2014, Retrieved on 20 February 2016 from http: // www. cia/ ...
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), an Old World arenavirus, family Arenaviridae, is a zoonotic virus maintained in the ... and Old World arenavirus antigens subsequently were identified by immunohistochemical testing (IHC). Reverse transcription PCR ...
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was the first arenavirus identified. (cdc.gov)
  • The most familiar of the arenaviruses include lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and hemorrhagic fevers caused by Lassa virus, Machupo virus, and Junin virus. (medscape.com)
  • In 1934, the prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), was first isolated during serial monkey passage of human material that was obtained from a fatal infection in the first documented epidemic of St. Louis encephalitis, a totally unrelated virus. (medscape.com)
  • al ( 2011 ) reported the crystal structure of the recombinant GP2 ectodomain of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, the arenavirus type species, at 1.8-Å resolution. (tcdb.org)
  • It is a member of Clade A of the Tacaribe (or "New World") serocomplex of the family Arenaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá). (bvsalud.org)
  • In conclusion, two different arenaviruses , Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia . (bvsalud.org)
  • Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia. (bvsalud.org)
  • This article divides the discussion of these viruses by clinical relevance and manifestations: Old World (Lassa virus, LCMV) and New World (South American hemorrhagic fevers). (medscape.com)
  • According to the World Health Organisation, Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic illness caused by the Lassa virus, a member of the arenavirus family of viruses. (speedup9ja.com)
  • The program's effort will specifically focus on the clinical development of therapeutic candidates identified by the VIC for Ebola and other related filoviruses, arenaviruses, such as Lassa virus as well as a third major global threat, alphaviruses, which infect millions of people across the world. (lji.org)
  • Arenaviruses are important agents of zoonotic disease worldwide. (tcdb.org)
  • LCMV, classified as an Old World arenavirus, is the only arenavirus found in both the Western and Eastern Hemisphere. (cdc.gov)
  • The New World arenaviruses are further divided into 3 lineages designated clades: A, B, C. LCMV is the only arenavirus to exist in both areas but is classified as an Old World virus. (medscape.com)
  • Isolation of the New World Arenaviruses (NWA): Guanarito virus. (canada.ca)
  • Zuckerman 2014, p. 10 "Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused by Arenaviruses" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses , which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses . (bvsalud.org)
  • Arenaviruses are highly pathogenic viruses that pose a serious public health threat. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunohistochemical tests of these tissues with polyclonal antibodies were negative for dengue virus, yellow fever virus, hantaviruses, arenaviruses and Ebola virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Under this CRADA in support of Maxwell's Screening Program, USAMRIID will initially test four different Claromers against six different biodefense pathogens, including Orthopoxviruses, Filoviruses (including Ebola Viral Disease), Arenaviruses, Paramyxoviruses, Bunyaviruses, and Alphaviruses to determine which, if any of the compounds, will progress to animal testing models. (burlingame.com)
  • Arenaviruses are divided into two groups - New World and Old World viruses - based on genetic differences as well as where the viruses are geographically distributed. (cdc.gov)
  • New World viruses are found in the Western Hemisphere - North and South America. (cdc.gov)
  • Old World viruses occur in the Eastern Hemisphere - Africa, Europe, and Asia. (cdc.gov)
  • The arenaviruses are a large group of viruses that typically affect rodents. (medscape.com)
  • Arenaviruses are single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that cause chronic asymptomatic infections in rodents and zoonotically acquired disease in humans through rodent excreta, especially urine. (medscape.com)
  • Arbovirus, arenavirus, and filovirus are viruses that are spread from animals to people and, with some viruses, from people to people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). (umassmed.edu)
  • In addition to basic research that aides understanding about transmission and pathogenesis of emerging viruses, GNL scientists are developing medical countermeasures for disease threats, including Select Agents, which are high priority for study because of their high mortality rates, limited treatments and potential to be used as weapons around the world. (utmb.edu)
  • The genus Arenavirus includes 22 viral species and 9 additional arenaviruses that have been recently discovered, for which taxonomic status remains pending. (medscape.com)
  • Flexal mammarenavirus (also known as the Flexal virus or FLEV, and previously known by the laboratory code BeAn 293022) is a mammarenavirus: an arenavirus with a mammalian host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arenavirus , Filoviridae , Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus . (who.int)
  • Arenaviruses have been divided into 2 groups based on whether the virus is found to infect Old World (ie, Eastern Hemisphere) rodents (family Muridae, subfamily Murinae) or New World (ie, Western Hemisphere) rodents (family Muridae, subfamily Sigmodontinae). (medscape.com)
  • There are some arenaviruses - both New and Old World - that have been identified in host animals, but no human infection has been reported yet. (cdc.gov)
  • Other arenaviruses from South America and Africa are classic causes of viral hemorrhagic fever syndrome, whereas others have been identified but not found to cause disease or even infection in humans. (medscape.com)
  • For diagnosis of New World Arenavirus infection to be confirmed, one or more of the following diagnostic markers must be positive: (i) presence of antibodies to New World Arenaviruses, (ii) presence of New World Arenavirus RNA by RT-PCR, and (iii) isolation of New World Arenavirus. (canada.ca)
  • The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. (edu.au)
  • The types of rodents that spread arenaviruses are located across much of the world, including Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. (cdc.gov)
  • Most infections spread among adult rodents through scratches and bites, although for certain arenaviruses, the virus passes from mother to offspring during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • In some instances, arenaviruses can spread to people when consuming infected rodents as a food source. (cdc.gov)
  • In some areas of the world, arenavirus infections in people are relatively common and can cause severe disease. (cdc.gov)
  • A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. (edu.au)
  • LA JOLLA-La Jolla Institute Professor Erica Ollmann Saphire, Ph.D., will lead a five-year global effort totaling up to $35 million that brings together experts from around the world to streamline and accelerate the development of immunotherapeutics against emerging and re-emerging viral threats. (lji.org)
  • While rodent hosts are chronically infected with an arenavirus, they do not appear to become ill. (cdc.gov)
  • Arenaviruses are shed into the environment in the urine, saliva, or droppings of infected rodent hosts. (cdc.gov)
  • Receptor structure, binding, and cell entry of arenaviruses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The mature arenavirus envelope glycoprotein complex (GPC) is a tripartite complex comprising a stable signal peptide (SSP) in addition to the receptor-binding (G1) and transmembrane fusion (G2) subunits. (tcdb.org)
  • If they made a movie about the World Health Organisation, one of the themes might take a leaf out of the movie Ghost Busters. (selwynfoundation.org.nz)
  • Answer: It is literally anyone's guess but one organisation with more clues than most is the World Health Organisation. (selwynfoundation.org.nz)
  • Arenaviruses / by Colin R. Howard. (who.int)
  • The new reverse genetics system described here will facilitate future therapeutic studies for these two life-threatening arenaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified AHF as an emerging disease, warranting immediate research to design antiviral agents and vaccine targeting the virus components. (springeropen.com)
  • Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image depicting an arenavirus. (medscape.com)
  • Symptomatic and travel to New World Arenavirus endemic areas or contact to travellers from these areas. (canada.ca)
  • Sequences of arenaviruses in L. rosalia and M. minutoides mice have been deposited in GenBank under accession nos. (cdc.gov)
  • Many arboviruses that were once present in only a few parts of the world are now spreading. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We influence millions of Online news readers in both Nigeria and other parts of the world, SpeedUp9ja Provides Latest Nigeria News, Entertainment News, Health, Music streams, lifestyle and Sports. (speedup9ja.com)
  • There are international standards and measures to assess the health status of a nation, regions of the world and the world collectively. (selwynfoundation.org.nz)
  • The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) provides funding for the BSL4 laboratories and operations at the GNL, and the lab's top priority is research to develop diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines to combat emerging and re-emerging diseases that threaten public health, not only in our country, but around the world. (utmb.edu)
  • 2011). X-ray structure of the arenavirus glycoprotein GP2 in its postfusion hairpin conformation. (tcdb.org)
  • The emergence of SARS-CoV, in particular, demonstrated the considerable economic, political and psychological effects-in addition to the impact on public health-of an unexpected epidemic of a highly infectious, previously unknown agent in a highly connected and interdependent world. (who.int)