Arenavirus: The only genus in the family ARENAVIRIDAE. It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution.Arenaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ARENAVIRIDAE.Arenaviridae: A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.Arenaviruses, New World: One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Junin virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.Arenaviruses, Old World: One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the Old World complex. It includes LASSA VIRUS and LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS, although the latter has worldwide distribution now.Pichinde virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, one of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing a fatal infection in the cricetine rodent Oryzomys albigularis. Asymptomatic laboratory infection in humans has been reported.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Hemorrhagic Fever, American: Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral: A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.Lassa Fever: An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.Murinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis: A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Virus Release: Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.RING Finger Domains: A zinc-binding domain defined by the sequence Cysteine-X2-Cysteine-X(9-39)-Cysteine-X(l-3)-His-X(2-3)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine -X(4-48)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine, where X is any amino acid. The RING finger motif binds two atoms of zinc, with each zinc atom ligated tetrahedrally by either four cysteines or three cysteines and a histidine. The motif also forms into a unitary structure with a central cross-brace region and is found in many proteins that are involved in protein-protein interactions. The acronym RING stands for Really Interesting New Gene.Dystroglycans: Dystrophin-associated proteins that play role in the formation of a transmembrane link between laminin-2 and DYSTROPHIN. Both the alpha and the beta subtypes of dystroglycan originate via POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of a single precursor protein.Proprotein Convertases: Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hemostatic Disorders: Pathological processes involving the integrity of blood circulation. Hemostasis depends on the integrity of BLOOD VESSELS, blood fluidity, and BLOOD COAGULATION. Majority of the hemostatic disorders are caused by disruption of the normal interaction between the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM, the plasma proteins (including BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS), and PLATELETS.HELLP Syndrome: A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo: A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean: A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Hantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Arizona

Natural rodent host associations of Guanarito and pirital viruses (Family Arenaviridae) in central Venezuela. (1/92)

The objective of this study was to elucidate the natural rodent host relationships of Guanarito and Pirital viruses (family Arenaviridae) in the plains of central Venezuela. Ninety-two arenavirus isolates from 607 animals, representing 10 different rodent species, were characterized to the level of serotype. The 92 isolates comprised 19 Guanarito virus strains and 73 Pirital virus strains. The 19 Guanarito virus isolates were from Zygodontomys brevicauda; 72 (98.6%) of the 73 Pirital virus isolates were from Sigmodon alstoni. These results indicate that the natural rodent associations of these 2 sympatric arenaviruses are highly specific and that Z brevicauda and S. alstoni are the principal rodent hosts of Guanarito and Pirital viruses, respectively.  (+info)

Fatal illnesses associated with a new world arenavirus--California, 1999-2000. (2/92)

The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) recently identified evidence of infection with an arenavirus in three patients hospitalized with similar fatal illnesses. This report summarizes the investigation of these cases.  (+info)

The viral transmembrane superfamily: possible divergence of Arenavirus and Filovirus glycoproteins from a common RNA virus ancestor. (3/92)

BACKGROUND: Recent studies of viral entry proteins from influenza, measles, human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), and Ebola virus have shown, first with molecular modeling, and then X-ray crystallographic or other biophysical studies, that these disparate viruses share a coiled-coil type of entry protein. RESULTS: Structural models of the transmembrane glycoproteins (GP-2) of the Arenaviruses, lymphochoriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa fever virus, are presented, based on consistent structural propensities despite variation in the amino acid sequence. The principal features of the model, a hydrophobic amino terminus, and two antiparallel helices separated by a glycosylated, antigenic apex, are common to a number of otherwise disparate families of enveloped RNA viruses. Within the first amphipathic helix, demonstrable by circular dichroism of a peptide fragment, there is a highly conserved heptad repeat pattern proposed to mediate multimerization by coiled-coil interactions. The amino terminal 18 amino acids are 28% identical and 50% highly similar to the corresponding region of Ebola, a member of the Filovirus family. Within the second, charged helix just prior to membrane insertion there is also high similarity over the central 18 amino acids in corresponding regions of Lassa and Ebola, which may be further related to the similar region of HIV-1 defining a potent antiviral peptide analogue. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a common pattern of structure and function among viral transmembrane fusion proteins from a number of virus families. Such a pattern may define a viral transmembrane superfamily that evolved from a common precursor eons ago.  (+info)

Arenavirus antibody in rodents indigenous to coastal southern California. (4/92)

The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge on the geographic and natural rodent host ranges of New World arenaviruses in California. Sera from 1,094 sigmodontine and 112 murine rodents were tested for antibody against Whitewater Arroyo and Amapari viruses. Antibody was found in 55 (4.6%) of the 1,206 rodents: 4 from northwestern San Diego County, 3 from Los Angeles County, and 48 from Orange County. The antibody-positive rodents included 8 (7.8%) of 103 Neotoma fuscipes, 1 (0.6%) of 180 Neotoma lepida, 1 (3.1%) of 32 Peromyscus boylii, 8 (11.0%) of 73 Peromyscus californicus, 1 (1.2%) of 85 Peromyscus eremicus, 30 (8.5%) of 353 Peromyscus maniculatus, and 6 (2.2%) of 268 Reithrodontomys megalotis. This study provides the first evidence that New World arenaviruses occur in Los Angeles and Orange counties and northwestern San Diego County, and the first evidence that Peromyscus and Reithrodontomys species are naturally infected with New World arenaviruses.  (+info)

Allpahuayo virus: a newly recognized arenavirus (arenaviridae) from arboreal rice rats (oecomys bicolor and oecomys paricola) in northeastern peru. (5/92)

Allpahuayo virus was initially isolated from arboreal rice rats (Oecomys bicolor and Oecomys paricola) collected during 1997 at the Allpahuayo Biological Station in northeastern Peru. Serological and genetic studies identified the virus as a new member of the Tacaribe complex of the genus Arenavirus. The small (S) segment of the Allpahuayo virus prototype strain CLHP-2098 (Accession No. AY012686) was sequenced, as well as that of sympatric isolate CLHP-2472 (Accession No. AY012687), from the same rodent species. The S segment was 3382 bases in length and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Allpahuayo is a sister virus to Pichinde in clade A. Two ambisense, nonoverlapping reading frames were identified, which result in two predicted gene products, a glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and a nucleocapsid protein (NP). A predicted stable single hairpin secondary structure was identified in the intergenic region between GPC and NP. Details of the genetic organization of Allpahuayo virus are discussed.  (+info)

Transmission of an arenavirus in white-throated woodrats (Neotoma albigula), southeastern Colorado, 1995-1999. (6/92)

From 1995 to 1999, we conducted longitudinal studies of white- throated woodrats (Neotoma albigula) in southeastern Colorado. Forty-five (42.9%) of 105 female and 15 (26.8%) of 56 male N. albigula had antibodies against Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV). Sixteen female and three male N. albigula seroconverted during the study period, most of them during July-November, when population densities are highest. Analyses of longevity data, minimum numbers alive and infected, movements, and weight data suggest that the dominant mode of WWAV transmission among white-throated woodrats in Colorado is direct contact. WWAV was recently reported to cause fatal infection in humans. Our findings will lead to better assessment of the public health threat posed by infected woodrats and may be useful in predicting periods of increased risk for human infection.  (+info)

Geographic distribution and genetic diversity of Whitewater Arroyo virus in the southwestern United States. (7/92)

The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge of the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of the arenavirus(es) associated with Neotoma species (woodrats) in the southwestern United States. Infectious arenavirus was recovered from 14 (3.3%) of 425 woodrats. The virus-positive species included N. albigula in New Mexico and Oklahoma, N. cinerea in Utah, N. mexicana in New Mexico and Utah, and N. micropus in Texas. Analyses of viral nucleocapsid protein gene sequence data indicated that all the isolates were strains of the Whitewater Arroyo virus, an arenavirus previously known only from northwestern New Mexico. Analyses of the sequence data also indicated that there can be substantial genetic diversity among strains of Whitewater Arroyo virus from conspecific woodrats collected from different localities and substantial genetic diversity among strains from different woodrat species collected from the same locality.  (+info)

Common antiviral cytotoxic t-lymphocyte epitope for diverse arenaviruses. (8/92)

Members of the Arenaviridae family have been isolated from mammalian hosts in disparate geographic locations, leading to their grouping as Old World types (i.e., lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV], Lassa fever virus [LFV], Mopeia virus, and Mobala virus) and New World types (i.e., Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, and Sabia viruses) (C. J. Peters, M. J. Buchmeier, P. E. Rollin, and T. G. Ksiazek, p. 1521-1551, in B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley [ed.], Fields virology, 3rd ed., 1996; P. J. Southern, p. 1505-1519, in B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley [ed.], Fields virology, 3rd ed., 1996). Several types in both groups-LFV, Junin, Machupo, and Sabia viruses-cause severe and often lethal human diseases. By sequence comparison, we noted that eight Old World and New World arenaviruses share several amino acids with the nucleoprotein (NP) that consists of amino acids (aa) 118 to 126 (NP 118-126) (RPQASGVYM) of LCMV that comprise the immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope for H-2(d) mice (32). This L(d)-restricted epitope constituted >97% of the total bulk CTLs produced in the specific antiviral or clonal responses of H-2(d) BALB mice. NP 118-126 of the Old World arenaviruses LFV, Mopeia virus, and LCMV and the New World arenavirus Sabia virus bound at high affinity to L(d). The primary H-2(d) CTL anti-LCMV response as well as that of a CTL clone responsive to LCMV NP 118-126 recognized target cells coated with NP 118-126 peptides derived from LCMV, LFV, and Mopeia virus but not Sabia virus, indicating that a common functional NP epitope exists among Old World arenaviruses. Use of site-specific amino acid exchanges in the NP CTL epitope among these arenaviruses identified amino acids involved in major histocompatibility complex binding and CTL recognition.  (+info)

Los síndromes infecciosos asociados a arenavirus en América del sur son cuatro: síndrome febril de origen viral; fiebres hemorrágicas con o sin compromiso neurológico; meningitis asépticas y meningo-encefalitis. Entre los Arenavirus del nuevo mundo, está el complejo Tacaribe donde se encuentran los virus: Junín (Argentina), Guanarito (Venezuela), Machupo (Bolivia) y Sabiá (Brasil), que se caracterizan por causar fiebres hemorrágicas. En Colombia fue aislado el arenavirus Pichindé en 1965, del roedor Oryzomys albigularis, en el valle de Pichindé (Valle del Cauca). Este arenavirus produce una infección persistente en su hospedero y no es patógeno para el hombre. Hay evidencias de la circulación del virus Guanarito en roedores de Córdoba, pero no existen casos diagnosticados en humanos; en Sincelejo (Colombia) se detectó el genoma del virus coriomeningitis linfocítica en cerebros de roedores Mus musculus. El diagnóstico se basa en el conocimiento de la epidemiología local y la sospecha
American Whitewater Expeditions American River. California. Eagle Rafting Two day program on the Kern River. California. W.E.T. River Trips Six day program combines Whitewater badge with 50-miler Award. Also offers the opportunity for Climbing, Kayak, and Bird Study. California. Echo Canyon River Adventures One day program on the Royal Gorge or Arkansas Rivers. Colorado. Wilderness Aware Online training, and customizable trips from an Eagle Scout owned outfitter. Colorado. Kentucky Whitewater ASM-led one day program, including Kayak BSA award. Kentucky. New England Outdoor Center One and two night canoeing and whitewater programs. Maine. NOCs Boy Scout program page One, two, and three day programs for whitewater, canoeing, and flyfishing. North Carolina. Laurel Highlands River Tours One or two day merit badge programs on the Youghiogheny River. Pennsylvania. Wilderness Voyageurs Registered MBCs offer whitewater and climbing badges. Pennsylvania. Ace Funyaks One day program on the Ocoee River. ...
Local resource for horse veterinarians in Whitewater. Includes detailed information on local clinics that provide access to horse veterinarians, as well as advice and content on horseback care, animal healthcare, and horse grooming.
About the WWA. The WWA Wakeboard National Championships and the WWA Wakeboard World Championships are the solely owned property of the World Wakeboard Association (WWA). The WWA also owns and operates the WWA Wakeboard World Series, WWA Wake Park World Series, WWA Wake Park Triple Crown, WWA Wake Park National Championships, and WWA Wake Park World Championships. With 27 affiliate countries worldwide, the WWA is the global leader in the sport of wake. The WWA is a rider-formed organization dedicated to promoting and growing wake sports worldwide. It is the leading source for riders, event organizers and competitive standards. For more information on the WWA and its events, check out www.thewwa.com.. About Extremity Games. Extremity Games, organized by Athletes with Disabilities Network, is an extreme sports event including competitions, instructional clinics and exhibitions for individuals living with limb loss or limb difference. Organized to raise awareness of the abilities of athletes with ...
Three patients who received visceral-organ transplants from a single donor on the same day died of a febrile illness 4 to 6 weeks after transplantation. Culture, polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and serologic assays, and oligonucleotide microarray analysis for a wide range of infectious agents were not informative.,We evaluated RNA obtained from the liver and kidney transplant recipients. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing was used to identify microbial sequences not found by means of other methods. The specificity of sequences for a new candidate pathogen was confirmed by means of culture and by means of PCR, immunohistochemical, and serologic analyses.,High-throughput sequencing yielded 103,632 sequences, of which 14 represented an Old World arenavirus. Additional sequence analysis showed that this new arenavirus was related to lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses. Specific PCR assays based on a unique sequence confirmed the presence of the virus in the kidneys, liver, blood, and cerebrospinal ...
Arenaviruses are enveloped, bipartite negative single-stranded RNA viruses that can cause a wide spectrum of disease in humans and experimental animals including hemorrhagic fever. The majority of these viruses are rodent-borne and the arenavirus family can be divided into two groups: the Lassa-Lymphocytic choriomeningitis serocomplex and the Tacaribe serocomplex. Arenavirus-induced disease may include characteristic symptoms ranging from fever, malaise, body aches, petechiae, dehydration, hemorrhage, organ failure, shock, and in severe cases death. Currently, there are few prophylactic and therapeutic treatments available for arenavirus-induced symptoms. Supportive care and ribavirin remain the predominant strategies for treating most of the arenavirus-induced diseases. Therefore, efficacy testing of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies in relevant animal models is necessary. Because of the potential for person-to-person spread, the ability to cause lethal or debilitating disease in humans,
Definition of arenavirus - any of a group of RNA viruses (including that causing Lassa fever) that appear under an electron microscope to contain granules th
The 2010 United States Census[7] reported that Whitewater had a population of 859. The population density was 87.0 people per square mile (33.6/km²). The racial makeup of Whitewater was 636 (74%) White, 37 (4%) African American, 31 (4%) Native American, 21 (2%) Asian, 0 (0%) Pacific Islander, 97 (11%) from other races, and 37 (4%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 267 persons (31%). The Census reported that 859 people (100% of the population) lived in households, 0 (0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 (0%) were institutionalized. There were 312 households, out of which 111 (36%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 116 (37%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 49 (16%) had a female householder with no husband present, 32 (10%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 35 (11%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 11 (4%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 82 households (26%) were made up of ...
American Whitewater is the primary advocate for the preservation and protection of whitewater rivers throughout the United States and connects the interests of human-powered recreational river users with ecological and science-based data to achieve goals within our mission.
American Whitewater is the primary advocate for the preservation and protection of whitewater rivers throughout the United States and connects the interests of human-powered recreational river users with ecological and science-based data to achieve goals within our mission.
Many families take vacations to areas where tour guides lazily prompt visitors through boring points of interest. On a whitewater excursion, a guide is an active member of a raft who helps each person paddle their way through a series of challenging natural obstacles.. A whitewater tour guide brings any family face-to-face with the roaring power of natures most imposing force. River rapids challenge anyone in a raft to race down natures highways. With the help of an experienced river guide, any family can experience a vivid ride through areas that are never seen by people taking normal vacations.. On a whitewater vacation, families can become part of interesting terrains, see amazing wildlife, and test their physical skills. The range of river choices is endless for people wanting to experience a whitewater adventure. Class I and II whitewater areas offer places to break new visitors into life on the water. Class III and IV streams present wild dangers and obstacles. Class V whitewater streams ...
Participate in a whitewater trip using either a canoe or kayak on a Class I or Class II river. Help to prepare a written plan, specifying the route, schedule, equipment, safety precautions, and emergency procedures. Determine local rules and obtain permission from landowners and land managers in advance. Explain what steps you have taken to comply with BSA Safety Afloat and the American Whitewater safety guidelines. Execute the plan with others ...
Everything you need to know-detailed itinerary, packing list, pre- & post-trip lodging, and more-for California Whitewater Guide School with OARS.
A Ohio woman who went whitewater rafting in North Carolina has died of an infection after being exposed to an amoeba that is naturally present in warm, fresh water.
Find information about Whitewater WI nursing education. There are accredited healthcare certificate programs that can help launch your career, performing a variety of medical services within a hospital setting.
Photographed by David Lawrence, Whitewater Falls - Autumn wall mural from Murals Your Way will add a distinctive touch to any room. Choose a pre-set size, or customize to your wall.
Shop the latest Immersion Research Whitewater Kayaking at Backcountry.com. Find great deals on premium clothing and gear from Immersion Research.
Go rafting on your vacation! Experience the thrill of a lifetime on our whitewater rafting tours. If you are looking for excitement take our rafting trips th...
Go rafting on your vacation! Experience the thrill of a lifetime on our whitewater rafting tours. If you are looking for excitement take our rafting trips th...
Walmart Pharmacy at 1362 W Main St Whitewater WI. Get pharmacy hours, services, contact information and prescription savings with GoodRx!
Water at the U.S. National Whitewater Center in CHarlotte, NC have tested positive for a brain-eating amoeba responsible for the death of an 18-year-old Ohio girl, according to Mecklenburg County Commissioners.
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
In article ,199512030002.SAA24798 at borcim.wustl.edu,, brett ,brett at BORCIM.WUSTL.EDU, wrote: ,, (on low sequence variation generated by passage of RNA viruses in nature and in cell culture) , ,Again, I have to state that retrospective analysis on field isolates ,biases the study towards LIVE VIRUSES. Thus, the range of sequence space ,youll examine does correlate with replication fidelity, but also has to ,do with a very complex virus:host relationship. Therefore, it would be ,foolish to surmise that the replicase didnt produce mutants just because ,you didnt see them. Id argue that they were just selected against. ,I see two concepts that are getting intertwined presumptously: ,replication fidelity, and selection. The ideal way to study the former is Well said. This is a recurrent misunderstanding. While there are experimental systems suitable for studying replication fidelity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRP), comparison of host-associated virus sequences in nature and tissue ...
SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE MOROGORO JOB OPPORTUNITIES Applications are invited from suitably qualified Tanzanians to fill in the following vacant positions. A HAND WRITTEN application
What do you say about a journey that has changed your life? I was touched by the speech from a woman at a basket weaving center near Bolgatanga. She passionately told us that because Rotary located a well near the basket weaving center in 2009, 600 girls have the opportunity to go to school. The mothers use the income from the basket weaving to fund their daughters to go to school. I never understood that clean water could lead to a better education for girls. The womans speech will remain in my heart for a very long time ...
The USNWC in North Carolina has shut down its rafting activities after Lauren Seitz contracted an extremely rare infection and died
RN [1] RM PMID:20862324 RT The N-terminal domain of the arenavirus L protein is an RNA endonuclease essential in mRNA transcription. RA Morin B, Coutard B, Lelke M, Ferron F, Kerber R, Jamal S, Frangeul A, Baronti C, Charrel R, de Lamballerie X, Vonrhein C, Lescar J, Bricogne G, Gunther S, Canard B RL PLoS Pathog. 2010 Sep 16;6(9):e1001038 ...
Wanna live where the action is? The goal: Trails out the back door, a serious Saturday-morning peloton, whitewater just up the road, and neighbors eager to join in. Our source: The best adventure athletes in America, who tell us where they live and why. The result: 20 places where locals work, train, and play hard. Start packing now.
I do a bit of whitewater stuff and hike, ski and drive during the wet. I like getting stuck into the deep bush wherever possible (occasionally find something new to climb). Its the same feeling as being 1/2way up a good, long multi-pitch: isolation, but still being immersed in the world ...
Those new to paddling canoes will need to learn about the basic components and design factors used by the craft. Effective communication with other paddlers will depend on knowing this common terminology. Canoes vary in construction and design. Craft can be built of birch bark or carbon fiber. A boat used in whitewater will be much different from a canoe suitable for hauling freight. Four key design factors for a canoe performance are length, width, hull shape and rocker.. ...
Please Note- Participation may vary by location or physician. Participating Doctors: Elise L. Beatty, O.D., Timothy J. Beatty, O.D., Michael S. Bloom, M.D., B. Christopher Hainline, M.D., Emilie J. Jennings, O.D., Jessica L. Lambert, O.D., H.B. Harold Lee, M.D., Judy D. Risch, O.D., Kevin T. Scripture, M.D., Whitewater Surgery Center, LLC. ...
Answer 1 of 16: Hi. We are travelling to the Arenal area, and will be staying at a few different hotels over our week-long trip there. (Tree Houses Hotel, AOL, and The Springs). We have not pre-booked any actitivies but plan on doing zip-lining and whitewater...
As I said, grey is one thing but old is another. If you produce a uniform grey appearance, the piece just looks grey, not old. The effects of age also include wear, and staining. Sanding down edges in areas where high use would be expected, and staining inside corners and around fittings helps to make the piece look like its been around the block a few times ...
The G2 fusion subunit of the Junin virus envelope glycoprotein GP-C contains two hydrophobic heptad-repeat regions that are postulated to form a six-helix bundle structure required for the membrane fusion activity of Class I viral fusion proteins. We have investigated the role of these heptad-repeat regions and, specifically, the importance of the putative interhelical a and d position sidechains by using alanine-scanning mutagenesis. All the mutant glycoproteins were expressed and transported to the cell surface. Proteolytic maturation at the subtilisin kexin isozyme-1/site-1-protease (SKI-1/S1P) cleavage site was observed in all but two of the mutants. Among the adequately cleaved mutant glycoproteins, four positions in the N-terminal region (I333, L336, L347 and L350) and two positions in the C-terminal region (R392 and W395) were shown to be important determinants of cell-cell fusion. Taken together, our results indicate that {alpha}-helical coiled-coil structures are likely critical in ...
Arenaviruses are feared as agents that cause viral hemorrhagic fevers. We report the identification, isolation, and genetic characterization of 2 novel arenaviruses from Namaqua rock mice in Namibia. These findings extend knowledge of the distribution and diversity of arenaviruses in Africa.
Whitewater Veterinary Hospital - Veterinary Clinic in Whitewater, WI Walworth, Jefferson, Rock counties. Janesville, Fort Atkinson, East Troy, Palmyra, Milton, Eagle, Edgerton, Lake Mills, Elkhorn, Richmond, Lima Center, Jefferson, Helenville, Sullivan, Rome, Hebron
Whitewater Veterinary Hospital - Veterinary Clinic in Whitewater, WI Walworth, Jefferson, Rock counties. Janesville, Fort Atkinson, East Troy, Palmyra, Milton, Eagle, Edgerton, Lake Mills, Elkhorn, Richmond, Lima Center, Jefferson, Helenville, Sullivan, Rome, Hebron
Classical microparasite evolution theory predicts a trade-off between virulence and transmission [1-3]. This trade-off balances virulence and within-host reproduction so that transmission is maximized over the lifetime of infection. Microparasites expressing intermediate levels of virulence are favoured under those conditions, as seen in several empirical examples of viruses with high transmission success (e.g. infections of myxoma virus in rabbits, HIV in humans, and cauliflower mosaic virus in Brassica rapa) [4-6]. However, not all studies found evidence for evolution towards intermediate virulence, but instead suggested evolution towards high or low virulence [7, 8].. Host population density is a key factor in determining whether low or high virulence will be optimal [9-11]. This mechanism can be understood in the framework of a trade-off between a microparasites competitive ability and its persistence. When transmission rates are lower at low host densities, a strain that can maintain a ...
A herpesvirus was isolated from captive cranes involved in a 1978 die-off. Neutralizing antibody to this virus was detected in this captive population as early as 1975 and consistently thereafter through 1979. Exposure to the virus evidently occurred at least 2 1/2 years before the die-off, without causing any mortality diagnosed as being caused by inclusion body disease of cranes (IBDC). Overcrowding and environmental conditions in 1978 may have contributed to the deaths of certain species of cranes in one area and not in another. Mortality ratios and serological data suggest that crane species vary in their response to IBDC virus....
Herpetologist Frank Indiviglio discusses recent research involving Inclusion Body Disease (IBD) also known as Stargazing in reptiles and the possibility of vaccines for the disease on that reptile blog.
Information about Whitewater WI cellular biology. Qualifications for healthcare programs vary widely. Learn about the various medical specializations available within technical training programs.
Whitewater rafting, river trips, stand up paddleboard, SUP, gourmet river trips, wine, south fork american river, eel river trinity river.
WHITEWATER, Wis. (Blugolds.com) - In a game that featured five field goals, the UW-Eau Claire football team hung right with UW-Whitewater but came up short 19-10 at Perkins Stadium today.. In the first quarter, the Warhawks took the initial lead after kicking a 28-yard field goal but the Blugolds tied it up with a 33-yard field goal by Josh Albrecht (Sr.-Eau Claire, Wis./North) with 44 seconds left in the quarter.. Whitewater kicked another field goal, this one from 24 yards, early in the second quarter to take a 6-3 advantage.. The two teams finally found the end zones before halftime. Whitewater scored a two-yard rushing touchdown to take a 13-3 lead but the Blugolds answered with less than a minute remaining in the half to make the halftime score 13-10. Austin Neu (Sr.-Iron Ridge, Minn./Hustisford) capped off an 11-play, 78-yard drive with a 23-yard touchdown pass to Cody Gerver (So.-Mahtomedi, Minn.).. In the second half, the Blugolds were held scoreless while Whitewater kicked two more ...
Find information about Whitewater, WI nuclear engineering options. Check with each engineering school below for assistance with nuclear power plant operations certificate program prerequisites, degree requirements, and class registration. Given the breadth of engineering specializations, you are likely to find your niche, and be able to design a rewarding career.
The latest trends and statistics to help you find the top accredited small business programs in Whitewater, Wisconsin. Insight on students, faculty and small business professional salaries.
An 18-year-old Ohio girl died after contracting a brain-eating amoeba called naegleria fowleri on a church trip to the U.S. Whitewater Center
University Of Wisconsin-Whitewater in Whitewater, WI: Info about University Of Wisconsin-Whitewater, including student body, fields of study, tuition, contact info, admission requirements, and more.
Diana Schunn got into nursing at the beginning of a paradigm shift, and shes continued to push for progress.Schunn, of Whitewater, is the recipient of Bethel Colleges 2019 Distinguished Achievement Award, which acknowledges character and citizenship, achievement in a chosen profession or vocation, and work of benefit to humanity. She will receive the award at the colleges annual Alumni Banquet, June 8 during Alumni Heritage Weekend on campus. Schunn received her
Other Water Sports in Cañon City: Check out 333 reviews and photos of Viators Bighorn Sheep Canyon Half Day Whitewater Experience
Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a viral disease of boid snakes believed to be caused by reptarenavirus belonging to the family Arenaviridae. Unlike most mammalian arenaviruses, the reservoir host for reptarenavirus is still unknown. In this study, the pathological responses were evaluated in a mouse model for a period of 28 days. Blood and tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney and brain) were collected for evaluation of hematology, biochemistry, histopathology and oxidative enzyme levels at six time points (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days), after viral infection (2 ...
A situational analysis of POPs in the Morogoro Hotspot Area was conducted by Tanzania Association of Public Occupational and Environmental Health Experts (TAPOHE) in 2011. Participatory survey methods including desk review, in-depth interviews with key informants, focused group discussions and participants observations were used to collect data. Additionally, soil and biota samples (plants) were collected for pesticide chemical analysis. Findings from the situational analysis confirmed that Morogoro is one of the most DDT (and other obsolete pesticides)- contaminated sites in the country. Based on these findings, TAPOHE recommended specific actions for stakeholders, which include continued monitoring and security to the site, public awareness, and a careful plan of decontamination.. ...
New Acropol Hotel: Favorite Place in Morogoro! - See 62 traveler reviews, 54 candid photos, and great deals for New Acropol Hotel at TripAdvisor.
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites: they must enter a cell to reproduce. To gain access to the cell interior, a virus must first bind to one or more specific receptor molecules on the cell surface. Cell receptors for viruses do not exist only to serve viruses: they also have cellular functions. An example is the transferrin receptor, which regulates iron uptake and assists in the entry of viruses from three different families. It might appear that such dual-use proteins cannot evolve to block virus entry because their cellular function would then be compromised. A study of two viruses that bind to the same cell surface receptor protein reveals how a cellular protein can change to prevent infection without affecting its role in the cell.. The virus-cell receptor interaction is one of the many arenas where the evolution of host-virus conflict can be studied. Because the virus-receptor interaction is essential for viral replication, host cells with a mutation in the receptor gene that ...
In ICF whitewater slalom paddlers negotiate their way down a 300 m (980 ft) of whitewater rapids, through a series of up to 25 gates (pairs of hanging poles.) The colour of the poles indicates the direction in which the paddlers must pass through; time penalties are assessed for striking poles or missing gates. Categories are C1 (solo) and C2 (tandem), the latter for two men, and C2M (mixed) for one woman and one man.[39] C1 boats must have a minimum weight and width of 10 kg (22 lb) and 0.65 m (2 ft 2 in) and be not more than 3.5 m (11 ft) long. C2s must have a minimum weight and width of 15 kg (33 lb) and 0.75 m (2 ft 6 in), and be not more that 4.1 m (13 ft). Rudders are prohibited. Canoes are decked and propelled by single-bladed paddles, and the competitor must kneel.[40]. In ICF wildwater canoeing athletes paddle a course of class III to IV whitewater (using the international scale of river difficulty), passing over waves, holes and rocks of a natural riverbed in events lasting either ...
Nucleic Acid: Plasmid for expression of the LCMV S-segment with heterologous arenavirus GP - Machupo (Expression plasmid, Diagnostic reagent, Derived product, Nucleic Acid, Cloned nucleic acid)
as disappointed as i was by clintons behavior the republican witchhunt to destroy him eventually, in my eyes, became more of a betrayal than any of clintons misdeeds. impeachment, whitewater investigation etc. (52 MILLION for the whitewater investigation--how many of the homeless would that have fed? how many shelters would that have built? you get my drift) it wasnt about doing right for the american people, it was furthering individual political careers by trying to destroy the presidency of someone they didnt like. a marital affrair is a family issue...the only people whos opinions matter on this are clintons and his familys. the rest of us need to mind our ps and qs ...
The first acquisition in the Bicentennial Legacy Conservation Area utilizing Bicentennial Signature Project funds. 175 acres in southern Wayne County featuring native hardwood forest covering several small ravines and a small creek. The 1795 Greenville Treaty Line slices through the tract. ...
Thigh straps are an important part of whitewater kayaking, securing you in the kayak whilst paddling, but allowing you to quickly exit the kayak when necessary. Thigh straps come with the Attack Whitewater inflatable kayak and do not need to be ordered separately. You may wish to purchase these thigh…
Join us at the Campground Playground in Loop B of the Campground to discover some amazing facts about Indiana mammals. We will discuss where they live, what they eat and what you can do to help protect them.
What students involved in the Institute learn. The UW-Whitewater College of Business and Economics offers undergraduate and graduate programs both online and on campus - Yes, Really.
SIXMILE CREEK (AP) - Driven back once again by a chest-high wall of water, Tod Williams thoughts were on the awe-inspiring power of gravity-driven water.
Maine Vacations - White Water Rafting, Moose Safaris, ATV Tours & Rentals, Snowmobile Tours & Rentals, Kayaking, Hiking, Biking, Riverside Cabins & Camping,...
Clinical Chiropractic of Whitewater, S.C. focuses on correcting muscular imbalances and joint restrictions due to anatomical abnormalities, injury, surgery, and other stressors with physical medicine, functional rehabilitaion, and nutrition counseling. We are located at 884 S. Janesville Street Suite C, Whitewater WI 53190
Fifty-six locks were built to accommodate a fall of nearly 500 feet. After the state went bankrupt in the 1840s, the canal was completed by private owners. In 1862, the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Railroad purchased the canal, laying its tracks on the canal towpath. After the canal fell into disuse, it was used as a source of water power for many grist mills. The Metamora Grist Mill, now a state park, is an example. The state took over a 14-mile section of the canal in 1946 and operates a horse-drawn canal boat (the Ben Franklin III) and the mill at Metamora. Preserved at Metamora is the Duck Creek Aqueduct, a covered bridge that carries the canal 16 feet over Duck Creek. It is believed to be the only structure of its kind in the nation ...
How many on WWA have jumped on this bandwagon? I really became a fan of Chris ideas when he was editor of Popular Woodworking and have followed his blog(s), attended his seminar, bought all his books and am, currently, making some of his designs in my shop. I met him and had lunch plus a few set down chats with him 2 years ago when he came to San Diego for our Fall Seminar. He has many ideas and idiosyncrasies that either stimulate or deflate folks interest which (IMHO) keeps him in the arena with contemporary woodworking communities. I am wondering if there are others here who share my growing interest with this ANARCHIST. Im so enthused that Ive started trading some of my projects for services ...
Dear Lloyd,Not a question, just wanted you to know how well my husband E.J. is doing since he started taking your supplements (I think its been 4 yrs now. His viral count has dropped to 11,114 from close to 16,000 a yr ago and before that it was even higher. Just cant remember the numbers. He takes the VEP II plus the the Thymus in the capsule, also your Super Vit B. His weight is low but (117-125) but he is feeling very good these days. We lost our Cabin in SW New Mexico this summer in the WhiteWater Baldy Complex in which 300,000 acres burned plus 12 cabins (ours being one of them) in the upper canyon of the Willow Creek Ranch ...
Those new to paddling canoes will need to learn about the basic components and design factors used by the craft. Effective communication with other paddlers will depend on knowing this common terminology. Canoes vary in construction and design. Craft can be built of birch bark or carbon fiber. A boat used in whitewater will be much different from a canoe suitable for hauling freight. Four key design factors for a canoe performance are length, width, hull shape and rocker.. ...
Touched By A Paw No Kill Cat Shelter Whitewater WI. This is a no kill shelter with a fabulous Vintage Clothes Shop in the front of the shelter. If you buy yourself a velvet cape, embroidered kimono, rayon dress from the 40s, or any of the outfits and accessories. you help the kittens and mamas in their lovely hammocks ...
Its perfectly clear that right-wing media has been doing this and has been appallingly successful.. But where is your evidence that the left has done, or attempted to do, the same? We didnt create Rush Limbaugh, The Washington Times, or any of the Scaife-funded magazines that were responsible for promoting the web of lies that were aimed at smearing the Clintons.. David Brock has detailed how this was a deliberate project - to spread any claim, no matter how unfounded, to undermine the Clintons in particular, Democrats, and liberals in general. Where is your evidence of ANYTHING similar on the left?. Instead, we demanded the facts from you, and didnt get them. When we saw that the major mainstream media was allowing a libel of Bill Clinton to be turned into a "fact", we objected. There was no evidence that Bill or Hillary Clinton had been involved in committing a crime in Whitewater, but Big Media allowed this non-story to snowball into a demand for a Special Prosecutor. Why? What facts was ...
Our condolences to the families of the deceased. This list is not guaranteed to be accurate. The information is found from web searches and news dispatches. If you have a source for information on any fatality please leave a comment. Whitewater fatalities are light blue Medical fatalities are light red This is up to date…
... (LASV) is an arenavirus that causes Lassa hemorrhagic fever,[1] a type of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), in humans ... Arenaviruses use a cap snatching strategy to gain the cap structures from the cellular mRNAs, and it is mediated by the ... Rojek JM, Kunz S (April 2008). "Cell Entry by Human Pathogenic Arenaviruses". Cell Microbiol. 10 (4): 828-35. doi:10.1111/j. ... The life cycle of Lassa virus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa virus enters the cell by the receptor-mediated ...
Arenaviruses. Intervirol. 4, 207-213. Gernot H. Bergold (1911-2003) (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www. ...
The Junin virus or Junín virus is an arenavirus that causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). The virus takes its name from ... A member of the genus Arenavirus, Junin virus characteristically causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). AHF leads to severe ... Peters CJ; Buchmeir M; Rollin Pierre E; Ksiazek Thomas G (1996). Arenaviruses. Field's Virology Third Edition. Maiztegui JI; et ...
Arenaviruses. Elsevier. p. 7. ISBN 9780080877372. Zuckerman 2014, p. 10 "Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused by Arenaviruses" (PDF ... an arenavirus with a mammalian host. It was first found in semiaquatic rodents of the genus Oryzomys in tropical forest in the ...
Arenavirus: Guanarito virus,[2] Junín virus,[2] Lassa fever virus,[2] Lujo virus,[3] Machupo virus[2] ve Sabiá virus[2] ... "Genetic detection and characterization of Lujo virus, a new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from southern Africa" ...
Arenavirus Viral hemorrhagic fever Barry, M.; Russi, M.; Armstrong, L.; Geller, D.; Tesh, R.; Dembry, L.; Gonzalez, J. P.; Khan ... Brazilian hemorrhagic fever (BzHF) is an infectious disease caused by the Sabiá virus, an Arenavirus. The Sabiá virus is one of ... Ribavirin is thought to be effective in treating the illness, similar to other arenaviruses. Compared to the patients who did ...
Genus Mammarenavirus (früher Arenavirus), mit Species Lassa-Virus. *Genus Reptarenavirus, mit Species Universität-Gießen-Virus ...
"Discovery of new arenavirus associated with hemorrhagic fever - first identified in nearly four decades". News-Medical.net. ... The identification of this virus was the first new arenavirus discovered in over 40 years. The first case was a female travel ... The distribution of this newly described arenavirus is uncertain. To date this virus has only been reported from a patient from ... Sequencing of the viral genome has shown that this virus belongs to the Old World arenavirus group. Comparisons with other ...
Arenavirus-specific RNA was detected in each patient using RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequence of the patients were essentially ... Like other arenaviruses, WWAV appears to be transmitted through rodents. Therefore, direct contact with rodents, their feces, ... Although it is unclear if WWAV can be transmitted nosocomially, other arenaviruses have been transmitted through contact with ... Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV) is a zoonotic Arenavirus associated with hemorrhagic fever with liver failure. Family: ...
Simultaneously to the MCV discovery, this approach was used to implicate a novel arenavirus as cause of fatality in a case ... "A new arenavirus in a cluster of fatal transplant-associated diseases". N Engl J Med. 10. 358: 991-998. doi:10.1056/ ...
"Properties of Replication-Competent Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors Expressing Glycoproteins of Filoviruses and Arenaviruses ...
The first arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), was isolated in 1933 by Charles Armstrong during a study of an ... Nucleoside analog ribavirin is used in some cases due to the inhibitory effect the agent has in vitro on arenaviruses. However ... LCM is known as the prototype arenavirus, and has been instrumental in our[who?] understanding of the major pathogenetic ... mechanisms of all arenaviruses. The field of viral immunology will continue to be uncovered by the model system of LCMV. ...
The 3739 virus is a strain of Pichinde virus in the genus Arenavirus. Mahy, Brian W J (2001). A dictionary of virology (3. ed ...
"Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses". Virology. Elsevier. 367 (2): 235-243 ...
Lassa virus is a member of the Arenavirida family of viruses.[7] Specifically it is an old world arenavirus, which is enveloped ...
... causes hemorrhagic fever and is a member of the arenavirus family of viruses. It causes Chapare hemorrhagic fever ... External link in ,work= (help) "Chapare Virus, a Newly Discovered Arenavirus Isolated from a Fatal Hemorrhagic Fever Case in ... in keeping with other members of the arenavirus family, which includes the Lassa virus. In December 2003, an outbreak of a ...
Prevalence of antibodies to arenaviruses in rodents from the southern and western United States: evidence for an arenavirus ... An arenavirus normally associated with woodrats (Neotoma) has also been found in Florida marsh rice rats. Antibodies against ...
The virus particle contains around ten ribosome-like granules, a feature of arenaviruses. It bears surface projections ... Zeller and colleagues suggested that they should be classified as arenaviruses, but this was not accepted by the International ...
... arenaviruses and murine leukaemia virus infection. Potential mechanisms.IFITM proteins inhibit viral membrane and cellular ...
... anti-arenavirus drug for hemorrhagic fever classified as Category A agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; ... to develop an antiviral drug for treating and preventing Lassa fever and others of Arenavirus origin. In 2011, SIGA was ordered ... ". "SIGA Awarded a $7.7 Million Grant for the Development of Antiviral Drugs for Arenaviruses". "Smallpox Drug Maker Siga to ...
... is an East African arenavirus of which the multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir host is. ... as this has been suggested for other arenaviruses. (Günther et al. 2009) (Günther et al. 2009) (Borremans et al. 2011) ( ...
Examples include geminiviruses, which are ssDNA plant viruses and arenaviruses, which are ssRNA viruses of animals. Genome size ...
His arenavirus research concentrates on the effects of infection on cellular function, particularly those molecular ... of viral diseases including more than 70 publications on Rift Valley fever virus and more than 60 publications on arenaviruses ...
It is caused by the Junín virus (an arenavirus, closely related to the Machupo virus, causative agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic ...
... of Amino Acid Residues Critical for the Anti-Interferon Activity of the Nucleoprotein of the Prototypic Arenavirus Lymphocytic ...
Title: Genetic analysis of heptad-repeat regions in the G2 fusion subunit of the Junin arenavirus envelope glycoprotein ... These findings support the inclusion of the arenavirus GP-C among the Class I viral fusion proteins and suggest pharmacologic ... Journal Article: Genetic analysis of heptad-repeat regions in the G2 fusion subunit of the Junin arenavirus envelope ... Taken together, our results indicate that {alpha}-helical coiled-coil structures are likely critical in promoting arenavirus ...
New World arenavirus - Junin virus 2010. Current. New World arenavirus - Machupo virus(https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/ ... New World arenavirus - Guanarito virus(https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/new-world-arenavirus-guanarito-virus/) ... New World arenavirus - Sabia virus(https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/new-world-arenavirus-sabia-virus/) ... Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) , 2011 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/new-world-arenavirus-junin-virus/ ...
Arenaviruses are unusually interesting in that they occupy both categories. Arenaviruses cause several human diseases known ... In addition to these hemor- rhagic fever viruses, the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can infect humans ... worldwide, although the illness is most often less disabling and severe than those elicited by the other arenaviruses. Yet, ...
... il nuovo arenavirus di Chapare produce i sintomi emorragici clinici simili a quelli connessi con altri Nuovi arenavirus del ... "Dobbiamo imparare più circa questo virus: come è collegato con gli altri arenavirus, come causa la malattia, dove vive in ... un arenavirus precedentemente non riconosciuto, scoperto nei campioni del siero da un paziente in Bolivia rurale che finalmente ... di Sequenza dei segmenti specifici del virus più successivamente lo ha confermato come membro unico di Nuovi Arenavirus del ...
Arenaviruses are unusually interesting in that they occupy both of these categories. Arenaviruses cause severe human diseases ... although the illness is most often less disabling than those elicited by other arenaviruses. Yet LCMV is likely of greater ...
Breaking down arenavirus cell entry. From 2015-10-01 to 2017-09-30 , BRACE Website ... Focusing on arenaviruses, these genome-wide surveys will reveal host factors indicative of virus entry tactics never observed ... examine in detail the virus-host interplay with these factors and will identify promising new antiviral targets for arenavirus ...
The arenaviruses are a large family of emerging negative-stranded RNA viruses that include several severe human pathogens ... Old World arenaviruses New World arenaviruses Lassa virus Machupo virus Junin virus Glycoprotein Proprotein convertases ... Arenavirus reverse genetics: new approaches for the investigation of arenavirus biology and development of antiviral strategies ... A new arenavirus in a cluster of fatal transplant-associated diseases. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:991-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
The genus Arenavirus includes 22 viral species and 9 additional arenaviruses that have been recently discovered, for which ... Arenaviruses are single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that cause chronic infections in rodents and zoonotically ... encoded search term (Arenaviruses) and Arenaviruses What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * ... Arenaviruses Clinical Presentation. Updated: Oct 05, 2015 * Author: Sandra G Gompf, MD, FACP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi ...
In rodents, arenavirus infection is typically asymptomatic. When arenaviruses infect humans, severe disease can result, such as ... The arenavirus glycoprotein, GP, is known to bind to TfR1. Ten GP amino acids were identified that are under positive selection ... Whether these novel arenaviruses actually cause snake IBD is not proven by this work. This question is underscored by the ... Three of these amino acids are located on the part of TfR1 that binds arenaviruses, and three are at the binding site for the ...
Old World Arenaviruses. Virus, date isolated. Natural host. Geographic distribution. Naturally occurring human disease. Human ... New World Arenaviruses. Virus, date isolated. Natural host. Geographic distribution. Naturally occurring human disease. Human ... Amapari, a new arenavirus of the Tacaribe group from rodents and mites of Amapa territory, Brazil. Proceeding of the Society ... Novel arenavirus sequences in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys) setulosus from Cote dIvoire: implications for evolution of ...
At least eight arenaviruses are known to cause human disease. The diseases derived from arenaviruses range in severity. Aseptic ... The life cycle of the arenavirus is restricted to the cell cytoplasm. Within the family Arenaviridae, arenaviruses were ... Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Arenaviridae Arenaviruses "Arenavirus". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 11618. ... Most of the Arenaviruses caught by humans are within their own homes when these rodents seek shelter. The virus can be caught ...
Arenaviruses are comprised of two RNA genome segments and four proteins, the polymerase L, the envelope glycoprotein GP, the ... In a first part of our review, we cover basic aspects and newer developments in the biosynthesis of arenavirus GP and its ... A second part will then highlight the potential of SKI-1/S1P-mediated processing of arenavirus GPC as a novel target for ... A crucial step in the arenavirus life-cycle is the biosynthesis and maturation of the GP precursor (GPC) by cellular signal ...
Lassa fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic illness caused by Lassa virus, a member of the arenavirus family of viruses. The ... The systematic collection will allow to corroborate the possible association between arenaviruses infection and pathogenesis of ... Arenavirus as a potential etiological agent of odontogenic tumours in humans. *Marco de Feo1,2. , ... de Feo, M., De Leo, C., Romeo, U. et al. Arenavirus as a potential etiological agent of odontogenic tumours in humans. J Exp ...
To investigate the mechanisms underlying arenavirus nAb evasion we engineered several arenavirus envelope-chimeric viruses and ... Arenavirus Glycan Shield Promotes Neutralizing Antibody Evasion and Protracted Infection.. Sommerstein R1,2, Flatz L1, Remy MM1 ... Arenaviruses such as Lassa virus (LASV) can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. As a major impediment to vaccine ... Thus, arenavirus envelope glycosylation impairs the protective efficacy rather than the induction of nAbs, and thereby prevents ...
The majority of these viruses are rodent-borne and the arenavirus family can be divided into two groups: the Lassa-Lymphocytic ... Arenavirus-induced disease may include characteristic symptoms ranging from fever, malaise, body aches, petechiae, dehydration ... Supportive care and ribavirin remain the predominant strategies for treating most of the arenavirus-induced diseases. Therefore ... This article reviews the current arenavirus animal models and prophylactic and therapeutic strategies under development to ...
2002) Arenaviruses I: The epidemiology molecular and cell biology of arenaviruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 262:V-XII.. ... 2002) Arenaviruses II: The molecular pathogenesis of arenavirus infections. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 263:V-XII.. ... Rodents of the Muridae family are the natural hosts of most arenaviruses, and the geographic distribution of each arenavirus is ... Arenavirus) composed of at least 24 viruses (2, 3). Based on their antigenic properties, arenaviruses have been classified into ...
In this article, we present the current knowledge about the hematological alterations present in VHF induced by arenaviruses, ... caused by arenaviruses are acute diseases characterized by fever, headache, general malaise, impaired cellular immunity, ... In the rodent, arenaviruses usually establish a persistent chronic infection with few symptoms [1]. However, arenaviruses may ... Rodas, J.D.; Salvato, M.S. Tales of mice and men: Natural history of arenaviruses. Rev. Col. Cienc. Pec. 2006, 19, 382-400. [ ...
Find out information about arenavirus. A family of ribonucleic acid animal viruses consisting of a single genus, Arenavirus, ... having an enveloped, spherical pleomorphic form Explanation of arenavirus ... redirected from arenavirus). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.. Related to arenavirus: bunyavirus ... Human infection with an arenavirus is likely to be very uncommon.. Arenavirus Infection Linked to Deaths in California ...
However, these arenaviruses are classified as BSL-4 pathogens, thus making it difficult to develop diagnostic techniques for ... We recently developed arenavirus neutralization assays using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based pseudotypes bearing ... arenavirus recombinant glycoproteins. The goal of this article is to review the recent advances in developing laboratory ... is of great importance to detect these pathogens rapidly and specifically in order to minimize the risk and scale of arenavirus ...
The arenaviruses (family Arenaviridae, genus Arenavirus) known to occur in North America include Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV ... Delgado S, Erickson BR, Agudo R, Blair PJ, Vallejo E, Albariño CG, Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a ... Fulhorst CF, Milazzo ML, Armstrong LR, Childs JE, Rollin PE, Khabbaz R, Hantavirus and arenavirus antibodies in persons with ... Human infection with arenaviruses in the Americas. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;262:65-74.PubMed ...
A novel arenavirus was identified. The source of the first patients infection remains undetermined. ... Palacios G, Druce J, Du L, Tran T, Birch C, Briese T, A new arenavirus in a cluster of fatal transplant-associated diseases. N ... known Old World arenaviruses (5). The novel arenavirus was isolated in culture from the blood and liver samples of patients 2 ... Nosocomial Outbreak of Novel Arenavirus Infection, Southern Africa On This Page The Outbreak Diagnosis and Contact Tracing ...
Novel Arenavirus Causes Mystery Illness in Zambia and South Africa - Sharing our stories on preparing for and responding to ... Novel Arenavirus Causes Mystery Illness in Zambia and South Africa. Posted on October 17, 2008. by Ali S. Khan ... 2 comments on "Novel Arenavirus Causes Mystery Illness in Zambia and South Africa" Comments listed below are posted by ... a member of the arenavirus family, which is spread from infected Muridae rodents to humans when we ingest, inhale, or bring ...
This study provides the first evidence that New World arenaviruses occur in Los Angeles and Orange counties and northwestern ... and the first evidence that Peromyscus and Reithrodontomys species are naturally infected with New World arenaviruses. ... purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge on the geographic and natural rodent host ranges of New World arenaviruses in ... f Arenavirus antibody in rodents indigenous to coastal southern California. * S G Bennett, M L Milazzo, J P Webb Jr, C F ...
  • Thus, arenavirus envelope glycosylation impairs the protective efficacy rather than the induction of nAbs, and thereby prevents efficient antibody-mediated virus control. (nih.gov)
  • Arenavirus antibody in rodents indigenous to coastal southern California. (ajtmh.org)
  • Antibody to at least one arenavirus was found in 220 (3.1%) of 7,106 rodents tested. (ajtmh.org)
  • The GPC of arenaviruses is the only antigen correlated with antibody-mediated neutralization, but despite strong cross-reactivity of convalescent antisera between related species, weak or no cross-neutralization occurs. (uiowa.edu)
  • The spatial and temporal distribution of hantavirus and arenavirus antibody-positive wild rodents in Trentino, Italy, was studied using immunofluorescence assays (IFA) in two long-term sites trapped in 2000-2003, and six other sites trapped in 2002. (elsevier.com)
  • Arenaviruses include lethal human pathogens which pose serious public health threats. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, it is of great importance to detect these pathogens rapidly and specifically in order to minimize the risk and scale of arenavirus outbreaks. (mdpi.com)
  • Genetic diversity among arenavirus species in their respective rodent hosts supports the continued emergence of new pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Arenaviruses are one of the most neglected tropical pathogens. (emory.edu)
  • The Special Pathogens Unit of the NICD-NHLS together with colleagues from the Special Pathogens Unit of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identified the etiological agent of the outbreak as an Old World arenavirus using molecular and serological tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6%, which would fall very close to the proposed cut off between species and strains for other arenavirus genotypes (Garcia et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study provides the first evidence that New World arenaviruses occur in Los Angeles and Orange counties and northwestern San Diego County, and the first evidence that Peromyscus and Reithrodontomys species are naturally infected with New World arenaviruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • Most arenaviruses seem to be restricted to a single rodent species or even sub-species [ 14 , 15 ] suggesting adaptation to those specific hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results show a widespread distribution but low prevalence of DOBV in Trentino, and demonstrate that the arenavirus antibodies are a common finding in several other rodent species besides the house mouse. (elsevier.com)
  • Analyzing samples from additional rodents and other species can elucidate epizootiologic aspects of arenaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Rodents of the Muridae family are the natural hosts of most arenaviruses, and the geographic distribution of each arenavirus is determined by the range of its corresponding host. (pnas.org)
  • The diseases derived from arenaviruses range in severity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supportive care and ribavirin remain the predominant strategies for treating most of the arenavirus-induced diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • CDC's unexplained death and severe illness group has supported the Ministry of Health and South African scientists of the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) to identify a novel arenavirus as the cause of this medical mystery. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent studies have revealed several potential pathogenic mechanisms of arenaviruses, including factors that increase viral replication capacity and suppress host innate immunity, which leads to high viremia and generalized immune suppression as the hallmarks of severe and lethal arenaviral HF diseases. (nih.gov)
  • A new arenavirus in a cluster of fatal transplant-associated diseases. (notifylibrary.org)
  • En: Guerrant R, Walker D, Weller P. Tropical Infectious Diseases. (unicordoba.edu.co)
  • To further the epizootiologic understanding of arenaviruses, we investigated their prevalence and genetic background among M. natalensis rodents in Zambia during May 22-August 28, 2009. (cdc.gov)
  • Un gruppo dei servizi sanitari Boliviani, degli esperti in salubrità della Marina di Stati Uniti basati a Lima, del Perù e del Centri Per Il Controllo E La Prevenzione Delle Malattie degli Stati Uniti ha caratterizzato "l'arenavirus di Chapare,„ un arenavirus precedentemente non riconosciuto, scoperto nei campioni del siero da un paziente in Bolivia rurale che finalmente è morto dell'infezione. (news-medical.net)
  • The use of this method during an outbreak of disease facilitated the identification of a new arenavirus transmitted through solid-organ transplantation. (notifylibrary.org)
  • In addition to the recognized arenavirus hosts, other Texas rodent genera (Onychomys, Baiomys, Peromyscus, Dipodomys, and Chaetodipus) have tested positive for arenavirus antibodies (Milazzo et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Specific members of the order Rodentia are the principal hosts of the arenaviruses, for which natural host relationships have been well characterized. (cdc.gov)