The only genus in the family ARENAVIRIDAE. It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution.
Virus diseases caused by the ARENAVIRIDAE.
A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.
One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.
One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the Old World complex. It includes LASSA VIRUS and LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS, although the latter has worldwide distribution now.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, one of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing a fatal infection in the cricetine rodent Oryzomys albigularis. Asymptomatic laboratory infection in humans has been reported.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).
A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.
An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
A zinc-binding domain defined by the sequence Cysteine-X2-Cysteine-X(9-39)-Cysteine-X(l-3)-His-X(2-3)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine -X(4-48)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine, where X is any amino acid. The RING finger motif binds two atoms of zinc, with each zinc atom ligated tetrahedrally by either four cysteines or three cysteines and a histidine. The motif also forms into a unitary structure with a central cross-brace region and is found in many proteins that are involved in protein-protein interactions. The acronym RING stands for Really Interesting New Gene.
Dystrophin-associated proteins that play role in the formation of a transmembrane link between laminin-2 and DYSTROPHIN. Both the alpha and the beta subtypes of dystroglycan originate via POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of a single precursor protein.
Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Pathological processes involving the integrity of blood circulation. Hemostasis depends on the integrity of BLOOD VESSELS, blood fluidity, and BLOOD COAGULATION. Majority of the hemostatic disorders are caused by disruption of the normal interaction between the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM, the plasma proteins (including BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS), and PLATELETS.
A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.
A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.

Natural rodent host associations of Guanarito and pirital viruses (Family Arenaviridae) in central Venezuela. (1/92)

The objective of this study was to elucidate the natural rodent host relationships of Guanarito and Pirital viruses (family Arenaviridae) in the plains of central Venezuela. Ninety-two arenavirus isolates from 607 animals, representing 10 different rodent species, were characterized to the level of serotype. The 92 isolates comprised 19 Guanarito virus strains and 73 Pirital virus strains. The 19 Guanarito virus isolates were from Zygodontomys brevicauda; 72 (98.6%) of the 73 Pirital virus isolates were from Sigmodon alstoni. These results indicate that the natural rodent associations of these 2 sympatric arenaviruses are highly specific and that Z brevicauda and S. alstoni are the principal rodent hosts of Guanarito and Pirital viruses, respectively.  (+info)

Fatal illnesses associated with a new world arenavirus--California, 1999-2000. (2/92)

The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) recently identified evidence of infection with an arenavirus in three patients hospitalized with similar fatal illnesses. This report summarizes the investigation of these cases.  (+info)

The viral transmembrane superfamily: possible divergence of Arenavirus and Filovirus glycoproteins from a common RNA virus ancestor. (3/92)

BACKGROUND: Recent studies of viral entry proteins from influenza, measles, human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), and Ebola virus have shown, first with molecular modeling, and then X-ray crystallographic or other biophysical studies, that these disparate viruses share a coiled-coil type of entry protein. RESULTS: Structural models of the transmembrane glycoproteins (GP-2) of the Arenaviruses, lymphochoriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa fever virus, are presented, based on consistent structural propensities despite variation in the amino acid sequence. The principal features of the model, a hydrophobic amino terminus, and two antiparallel helices separated by a glycosylated, antigenic apex, are common to a number of otherwise disparate families of enveloped RNA viruses. Within the first amphipathic helix, demonstrable by circular dichroism of a peptide fragment, there is a highly conserved heptad repeat pattern proposed to mediate multimerization by coiled-coil interactions. The amino terminal 18 amino acids are 28% identical and 50% highly similar to the corresponding region of Ebola, a member of the Filovirus family. Within the second, charged helix just prior to membrane insertion there is also high similarity over the central 18 amino acids in corresponding regions of Lassa and Ebola, which may be further related to the similar region of HIV-1 defining a potent antiviral peptide analogue. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a common pattern of structure and function among viral transmembrane fusion proteins from a number of virus families. Such a pattern may define a viral transmembrane superfamily that evolved from a common precursor eons ago.  (+info)

Arenavirus antibody in rodents indigenous to coastal southern California. (4/92)

The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge on the geographic and natural rodent host ranges of New World arenaviruses in California. Sera from 1,094 sigmodontine and 112 murine rodents were tested for antibody against Whitewater Arroyo and Amapari viruses. Antibody was found in 55 (4.6%) of the 1,206 rodents: 4 from northwestern San Diego County, 3 from Los Angeles County, and 48 from Orange County. The antibody-positive rodents included 8 (7.8%) of 103 Neotoma fuscipes, 1 (0.6%) of 180 Neotoma lepida, 1 (3.1%) of 32 Peromyscus boylii, 8 (11.0%) of 73 Peromyscus californicus, 1 (1.2%) of 85 Peromyscus eremicus, 30 (8.5%) of 353 Peromyscus maniculatus, and 6 (2.2%) of 268 Reithrodontomys megalotis. This study provides the first evidence that New World arenaviruses occur in Los Angeles and Orange counties and northwestern San Diego County, and the first evidence that Peromyscus and Reithrodontomys species are naturally infected with New World arenaviruses.  (+info)

Allpahuayo virus: a newly recognized arenavirus (arenaviridae) from arboreal rice rats (oecomys bicolor and oecomys paricola) in northeastern peru. (5/92)

Allpahuayo virus was initially isolated from arboreal rice rats (Oecomys bicolor and Oecomys paricola) collected during 1997 at the Allpahuayo Biological Station in northeastern Peru. Serological and genetic studies identified the virus as a new member of the Tacaribe complex of the genus Arenavirus. The small (S) segment of the Allpahuayo virus prototype strain CLHP-2098 (Accession No. AY012686) was sequenced, as well as that of sympatric isolate CLHP-2472 (Accession No. AY012687), from the same rodent species. The S segment was 3382 bases in length and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Allpahuayo is a sister virus to Pichinde in clade A. Two ambisense, nonoverlapping reading frames were identified, which result in two predicted gene products, a glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and a nucleocapsid protein (NP). A predicted stable single hairpin secondary structure was identified in the intergenic region between GPC and NP. Details of the genetic organization of Allpahuayo virus are discussed.  (+info)

Transmission of an arenavirus in white-throated woodrats (Neotoma albigula), southeastern Colorado, 1995-1999. (6/92)

From 1995 to 1999, we conducted longitudinal studies of white- throated woodrats (Neotoma albigula) in southeastern Colorado. Forty-five (42.9%) of 105 female and 15 (26.8%) of 56 male N. albigula had antibodies against Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV). Sixteen female and three male N. albigula seroconverted during the study period, most of them during July-November, when population densities are highest. Analyses of longevity data, minimum numbers alive and infected, movements, and weight data suggest that the dominant mode of WWAV transmission among white-throated woodrats in Colorado is direct contact. WWAV was recently reported to cause fatal infection in humans. Our findings will lead to better assessment of the public health threat posed by infected woodrats and may be useful in predicting periods of increased risk for human infection.  (+info)

Geographic distribution and genetic diversity of Whitewater Arroyo virus in the southwestern United States. (7/92)

The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge of the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of the arenavirus(es) associated with Neotoma species (woodrats) in the southwestern United States. Infectious arenavirus was recovered from 14 (3.3%) of 425 woodrats. The virus-positive species included N. albigula in New Mexico and Oklahoma, N. cinerea in Utah, N. mexicana in New Mexico and Utah, and N. micropus in Texas. Analyses of viral nucleocapsid protein gene sequence data indicated that all the isolates were strains of the Whitewater Arroyo virus, an arenavirus previously known only from northwestern New Mexico. Analyses of the sequence data also indicated that there can be substantial genetic diversity among strains of Whitewater Arroyo virus from conspecific woodrats collected from different localities and substantial genetic diversity among strains from different woodrat species collected from the same locality.  (+info)

Common antiviral cytotoxic t-lymphocyte epitope for diverse arenaviruses. (8/92)

Members of the Arenaviridae family have been isolated from mammalian hosts in disparate geographic locations, leading to their grouping as Old World types (i.e., lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV], Lassa fever virus [LFV], Mopeia virus, and Mobala virus) and New World types (i.e., Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, and Sabia viruses) (C. J. Peters, M. J. Buchmeier, P. E. Rollin, and T. G. Ksiazek, p. 1521-1551, in B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley [ed.], Fields virology, 3rd ed., 1996; P. J. Southern, p. 1505-1519, in B. N. Fields, D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley [ed.], Fields virology, 3rd ed., 1996). Several types in both groups-LFV, Junin, Machupo, and Sabia viruses-cause severe and often lethal human diseases. By sequence comparison, we noted that eight Old World and New World arenaviruses share several amino acids with the nucleoprotein (NP) that consists of amino acids (aa) 118 to 126 (NP 118-126) (RPQASGVYM) of LCMV that comprise the immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope for H-2(d) mice (32). This L(d)-restricted epitope constituted >97% of the total bulk CTLs produced in the specific antiviral or clonal responses of H-2(d) BALB mice. NP 118-126 of the Old World arenaviruses LFV, Mopeia virus, and LCMV and the New World arenavirus Sabia virus bound at high affinity to L(d). The primary H-2(d) CTL anti-LCMV response as well as that of a CTL clone responsive to LCMV NP 118-126 recognized target cells coated with NP 118-126 peptides derived from LCMV, LFV, and Mopeia virus but not Sabia virus, indicating that a common functional NP epitope exists among Old World arenaviruses. Use of site-specific amino acid exchanges in the NP CTL epitope among these arenaviruses identified amino acids involved in major histocompatibility complex binding and CTL recognition.  (+info)

Los síndromes infecciosos asociados a arenavirus en América del sur son cuatro: síndrome febril de origen viral; fiebres hemorrágicas con o sin compromiso neurológico; meningitis asépticas y meningo-encefalitis. Entre los Arenavirus del nuevo mundo, está el complejo Tacaribe donde se encuentran los virus: Junín (Argentina), Guanarito (Venezuela), Machupo (Bolivia) y Sabiá (Brasil), que se caracterizan por causar fiebres hemorrágicas. En Colombia fue aislado el arenavirus Pichindé en 1965, del roedor Oryzomys albigularis, en el valle de Pichindé (Valle del Cauca). Este arenavirus produce una infección persistente en su hospedero y no es patógeno para el hombre. Hay evidencias de la circulación del virus Guanarito en roedores de Córdoba, pero no existen casos diagnosticados en humanos; en Sincelejo (Colombia) se detectó el genoma del virus coriomeningitis linfocítica en cerebros de roedores Mus musculus. El diagnóstico se basa en el conocimiento de la epidemiología local y la sospecha
American Whitewater Expeditions American River. California. Eagle Rafting Two day program on the Kern River. California. W.E.T. River Trips Six day program combines Whitewater badge with 50-miler Award. Also offers the opportunity for Climbing, Kayak, and Bird Study. California. Echo Canyon River Adventures One day program on the Royal Gorge or Arkansas Rivers. Colorado. Wilderness Aware Online training, and customizable trips from an Eagle Scout owned outfitter. Colorado. Kentucky Whitewater ASM-led one day program, including Kayak BSA award. Kentucky. New England Outdoor Center One and two night canoeing and whitewater programs. Maine. NOCs Boy Scout program page One, two, and three day programs for whitewater, canoeing, and flyfishing. North Carolina. Laurel Highlands River Tours One or two day merit badge programs on the Youghiogheny River. Pennsylvania. Wilderness Voyageurs Registered MBCs offer whitewater and climbing badges. Pennsylvania. Ace Funyaks One day program on the Ocoee River. ...
Local resource for horse veterinarians in Whitewater. Includes detailed information on local clinics that provide access to horse veterinarians, as well as advice and content on horseback care, animal healthcare, and horse grooming.
About the WWA. The WWA Wakeboard National Championships and the WWA Wakeboard World Championships are the solely owned property of the World Wakeboard Association (WWA). The WWA also owns and operates the WWA Wakeboard World Series, WWA Wake Park World Series, WWA Wake Park Triple Crown, WWA Wake Park National Championships, and WWA Wake Park World Championships. With 27 affiliate countries worldwide, the WWA is the global leader in the sport of wake. The WWA is a rider-formed organization dedicated to promoting and growing wake sports worldwide. It is the leading source for riders, event organizers and competitive standards. For more information on the WWA and its events, check out www.thewwa.com.. About Extremity Games. Extremity Games, organized by Athletes with Disabilities Network, is an extreme sports event including competitions, instructional clinics and exhibitions for individuals living with limb loss or limb difference. Organized to raise awareness of the abilities of athletes with ...
Three patients who received visceral-organ transplants from a single donor on the same day died of a febrile illness 4 to 6 weeks after transplantation. Culture, polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and serologic assays, and oligonucleotide microarray analysis for a wide range of infectious agents were not informative.,We evaluated RNA obtained from the liver and kidney transplant recipients. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing was used to identify microbial sequences not found by means of other methods. The specificity of sequences for a new candidate pathogen was confirmed by means of culture and by means of PCR, immunohistochemical, and serologic analyses.,High-throughput sequencing yielded 103,632 sequences, of which 14 represented an Old World arenavirus. Additional sequence analysis showed that this new arenavirus was related to lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses. Specific PCR assays based on a unique sequence confirmed the presence of the virus in the kidneys, liver, blood, and cerebrospinal ...
Arenaviruses are enveloped, bipartite negative single-stranded RNA viruses that can cause a wide spectrum of disease in humans and experimental animals including hemorrhagic fever. The majority of these viruses are rodent-borne and the arenavirus family can be divided into two groups: the Lassa-Lymphocytic choriomeningitis serocomplex and the Tacaribe serocomplex. Arenavirus-induced disease may include characteristic symptoms ranging from fever, malaise, body aches, petechiae, dehydration, hemorrhage, organ failure, shock, and in severe cases death. Currently, there are few prophylactic and therapeutic treatments available for arenavirus-induced symptoms. Supportive care and ribavirin remain the predominant strategies for treating most of the arenavirus-induced diseases. Therefore, efficacy testing of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies in relevant animal models is necessary. Because of the potential for person-to-person spread, the ability to cause lethal or debilitating disease in humans,
Definition of arenavirus - any of a group of RNA viruses (including that causing Lassa fever) that appear under an electron microscope to contain granules th
Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2020 Elsevier B.V We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. ...
Purchase Price is your bid x 1. Offering a limited volume of semen on the $280,000, HCC Whitewater 9010 for immediate delivery. The ownership group is offering a limited amount of semen for Spring breeding season as the owners require several thousand units for in herd use. They anticipate regular sales to commence in September as the bulls is producing well. Semen FOB Nichols Cryo Genetics, Maxwell, IA. Ankony (706.754.6000). Photos:. 1. Whitewater. 2. Whitewater. 3. Partners ...
Emerging RNA viruses present recurring challenges to human, livestock, and plant healthcare efforts worldwide. With compact genomes copied by an inherently error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), RNA viruses are remarkably adept at exploring the functional sequence space of their genomic capacity and navigating diverse cellular landscapes. Viruses with negative-strand RNA genomes (NSVs) are some of the most medically, socially, and economically important pathogens throughout human history, including influenza, measles, Ebola, rabies, and Lassa virus. The large (L) NSV polymerase uniquely harbors all enzymatic machinery necessary for viral genome replication and gene expression and is an essential component of mature virion particles. The central functions of NSV L proteins in the virus infection cycle highlight these enzymes as key druggable targets for antiviral intervention strategies. Here, we study the functional regulation of the L protein of the arenavirus Machupo virus (MACV), ...
The N-terminal domain of the arenavirus L protein is an RNA endonuclease essential in mRNA transcription. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Sep 16; 6(9):e1001038 ...
The 2010 United States Census[7] reported that Whitewater had a population of 859. The population density was 87.0 people per square mile (33.6/km²). The racial makeup of Whitewater was 636 (74%) White, 37 (4%) African American, 31 (4%) Native American, 21 (2%) Asian, 0 (0%) Pacific Islander, 97 (11%) from other races, and 37 (4%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 267 persons (31%). The Census reported that 859 people (100% of the population) lived in households, 0 (0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 (0%) were institutionalized. There were 312 households, out of which 111 (36%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 116 (37%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 49 (16%) had a female householder with no husband present, 32 (10%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 35 (11%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 11 (4%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 82 households (26%) were made up of ...
American Whitewater is the primary advocate for the preservation and protection of whitewater rivers throughout the United States and connects the interests of human-powered recreational river users with ecological and science-based data to achieve goals within our mission.
American Whitewater is the primary advocate for the preservation and protection of whitewater rivers throughout the United States and connects the interests of human-powered recreational river users with ecological and science-based data to achieve goals within our mission.
Many families take vacations to areas where tour guides lazily prompt visitors through boring points of interest. On a whitewater excursion, a guide is an active member of a raft who helps each person paddle their way through a series of challenging natural obstacles.. A whitewater tour guide brings any family face-to-face with the roaring power of natures most imposing force. River rapids challenge anyone in a raft to race down natures highways. With the help of an experienced river guide, any family can experience a vivid ride through areas that are never seen by people taking normal vacations.. On a whitewater vacation, families can become part of interesting terrains, see amazing wildlife, and test their physical skills. The range of river choices is endless for people wanting to experience a whitewater adventure. Class I and II whitewater areas offer places to break new visitors into life on the water. Class III and IV streams present wild dangers and obstacles. Class V whitewater streams ...
Participate in a whitewater trip using either a canoe or kayak on a Class I or Class II river. Help to prepare a written plan, specifying the route, schedule, equipment, safety precautions, and emergency procedures. Determine local rules and obtain permission from landowners and land managers in advance. Explain what steps you have taken to comply with BSA Safety Afloat and the American Whitewater safety guidelines. Execute the plan with others ...
Everything you need to know-detailed itinerary, packing list, pre- & post-trip lodging, and more-for California Whitewater Guide School with OARS.
A Ohio woman who went whitewater rafting in North Carolina has died of an infection after being exposed to an amoeba that is naturally present in warm, fresh water.
Following the June 19 death of an Ohio teen who contracted a brain-eating amoeba after visiting the U.S. National Whitewater Center in Charlotte, Health Officials said Friday the facility will be shut down as a precaution to the public.
Find information about Whitewater WI nursing education. There are accredited healthcare certificate programs that can help launch your career, performing a variety of medical services within a hospital setting.
Go rafting on your vacation! Experience the thrill of a lifetime on our whitewater rafting tours. If you are looking for excitement take our rafting trips th...
Walmart Pharmacy at 1362 W Main St Whitewater WI. Get pharmacy hours, services, contact information and prescription savings with GoodRx!
Legendary Cataract Canyon lies buried in the heart of Utahs Canyonlands National Park. Our whitewater rafts offer fun and exciting transportation to side ...
Water at the U.S. National Whitewater Center in CHarlotte, NC have tested positive for a brain-eating amoeba responsible for the death of an 18-year-old Ohio girl, according to Mecklenburg County Commissioners.
Shop the latest Immersion Research Whitewater Kayaking at Backcountry.com. Find great deals on premium clothing and gear from Immersion Research.
Photographed by David Lawrence, Whitewater Falls - Autumn wall mural from Murals Your Way will add a distinctive touch to any room. Choose a pre-set size, or customize to your wall.
Everything you need to know-detailed itinerary, packing list, pre- & post-trip lodging, and more-for the Cataract Canyon Whitewater Rafting trip with OARS.
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
In article ,199512030002.SAA24798 at borcim.wustl.edu,, brett ,brett at BORCIM.WUSTL.EDU, wrote: ,, (on low sequence variation generated by passage of RNA viruses in nature and in cell culture) , ,Again, I have to state that retrospective analysis on field isolates ,biases the study towards LIVE VIRUSES. Thus, the range of sequence space ,youll examine does correlate with replication fidelity, but also has to ,do with a very complex virus:host relationship. Therefore, it would be ,foolish to surmise that the replicase didnt produce mutants just because ,you didnt see them. Id argue that they were just selected against. ,I see two concepts that are getting intertwined presumptously: ,replication fidelity, and selection. The ideal way to study the former is Well said. This is a recurrent misunderstanding. While there are experimental systems suitable for studying replication fidelity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRP), comparison of host-associated virus sequences in nature and tissue ...
SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE MOROGORO JOB OPPORTUNITIES Applications are invited from suitably qualified Tanzanians to fill in the following vacant positions. A HAND WRITTEN application
What do you say about a journey that has changed your life? I was touched by the speech from a woman at a basket weaving center near Bolgatanga. She passionately told us that because Rotary located a well near the basket weaving center in 2009, 600 girls have the opportunity to go to school. The mothers use the income from the basket weaving to fund their daughters to go to school. I never understood that clean water could lead to a better education for girls. The womans speech will remain in my heart for a very long time ...
The USNWC in North Carolina has shut down its rafting activities after Lauren Seitz contracted an extremely rare infection and died
RN [1] RM PMID:20862324 RT The N-terminal domain of the arenavirus L protein is an RNA endonuclease essential in mRNA transcription. RA Morin B, Coutard B, Lelke M, Ferron F, Kerber R, Jamal S, Frangeul A, Baronti C, Charrel R, de Lamballerie X, Vonrhein C, Lescar J, Bricogne G, Gunther S, Canard B RL PLoS Pathog. 2010 Sep 16;6(9):e1001038 ...
Wanna live where the action is? The goal: Trails out the back door, a serious Saturday-morning peloton, whitewater just up the road, and neighbors eager to join in. Our source: The best adventure athletes in America, who tell us where they live and why. The result: 20 places where locals work, train, and play hard. Start packing now.
I do a bit of whitewater stuff and hike, ski and drive during the wet. I like getting stuck into the deep bush wherever possible (occasionally find something new to climb). Its the same feeling as being 1/2way up a good, long multi-pitch: isolation, but still being immersed in the world ...
The G2 fusion subunit of the Junin virus envelope glycoprotein GP-C contains two hydrophobic heptad-repeat regions that are postulated to form a six-helix bundle structure required for the membrane fusion activity of Class I viral fusion proteins. We have investigated the role of these heptad-repeat regions and, specifically, the importance of the putative interhelical a and d position sidechains by using alanine-scanning mutagenesis. All the mutant glycoproteins were expressed and transported to the cell surface. Proteolytic maturation at the subtilisin kexin isozyme-1/site-1-protease (SKI-1/S1P) cleavage site was observed in all but two of the mutants. Among the adequately cleaved mutant glycoproteins, four positions in the N-terminal region (I333, L336, L347 and L350) and two positions in the C-terminal region (R392 and W395) were shown to be important determinants of cell-cell fusion. Taken together, our results indicate that {alpha}-helical coiled-coil structures are likely critical in ...
Arenaviruses are feared as agents that cause viral hemorrhagic fevers. We report the identification, isolation, and genetic characterization of 2 novel arenaviruses from Namaqua rock mice in Namibia. These findings extend knowledge of the distribution and diversity of arenaviruses in Africa.
Whitewater Veterinary Hospital - Veterinary Clinic in Whitewater, WI Walworth, Jefferson, Rock counties. Janesville, Fort Atkinson, East Troy, Palmyra, Milton, Eagle, Edgerton, Lake Mills, Elkhorn, Richmond, Lima Center, Jefferson, Helenville, Sullivan, Rome, Hebron
Whitewater Veterinary Hospital - Veterinary Clinic in Whitewater, WI Walworth, Jefferson, Rock counties. Janesville, Fort Atkinson, East Troy, Palmyra, Milton, Eagle, Edgerton, Lake Mills, Elkhorn, Richmond, Lima Center, Jefferson, Helenville, Sullivan, Rome, Hebron
Classical microparasite evolution theory predicts a trade-off between virulence and transmission [1-3]. This trade-off balances virulence and within-host reproduction so that transmission is maximized over the lifetime of infection. Microparasites expressing intermediate levels of virulence are favoured under those conditions, as seen in several empirical examples of viruses with high transmission success (e.g. infections of myxoma virus in rabbits, HIV in humans, and cauliflower mosaic virus in Brassica rapa) [4-6]. However, not all studies found evidence for evolution towards intermediate virulence, but instead suggested evolution towards high or low virulence [7, 8].. Host population density is a key factor in determining whether low or high virulence will be optimal [9-11]. This mechanism can be understood in the framework of a trade-off between a microparasites competitive ability and its persistence. When transmission rates are lower at low host densities, a strain that can maintain a ...
A herpesvirus was isolated from captive cranes involved in a 1978 die-off. Neutralizing antibody to this virus was detected in this captive population as early as 1975 and consistently thereafter through 1979. Exposure to the virus evidently occurred at least 2 1/2 years before the die-off, without causing any mortality diagnosed as being caused by inclusion body disease of cranes (IBDC). Overcrowding and environmental conditions in 1978 may have contributed to the deaths of certain species of cranes in one area and not in another. Mortality ratios and serological data suggest that crane species vary in their response to IBDC virus....
Herpetologist Frank Indiviglio discusses recent research involving Inclusion Body Disease (IBD) also known as Stargazing in reptiles and the possibility of vaccines for the disease on that reptile blog.
Information about Whitewater WI cellular biology. Qualifications for healthcare programs vary widely. Learn about the various medical specializations available within technical training programs.
Whitewater rafting, river trips, stand up paddleboard, SUP, gourmet river trips, wine, south fork american river, eel river trinity river.
WHITEWATER, Wis. (Blugolds.com) - In a game that featured five field goals, the UW-Eau Claire football team hung right with UW-Whitewater but came up short 19-10 at Perkins Stadium today.. In the first quarter, the Warhawks took the initial lead after kicking a 28-yard field goal but the Blugolds tied it up with a 33-yard field goal by Josh Albrecht (Sr.-Eau Claire, Wis./North) with 44 seconds left in the quarter.. Whitewater kicked another field goal, this one from 24 yards, early in the second quarter to take a 6-3 advantage.. The two teams finally found the end zones before halftime. Whitewater scored a two-yard rushing touchdown to take a 13-3 lead but the Blugolds answered with less than a minute remaining in the half to make the halftime score 13-10. Austin Neu (Sr.-Iron Ridge, Minn./Hustisford) capped off an 11-play, 78-yard drive with a 23-yard touchdown pass to Cody Gerver (So.-Mahtomedi, Minn.).. In the second half, the Blugolds were held scoreless while Whitewater kicked two more ...
Find information about Whitewater, WI nuclear engineering options. Check with each engineering school below for assistance with nuclear power plant operations certificate program prerequisites, degree requirements, and class registration. Given the breadth of engineering specializations, you are likely to find your niche, and be able to design a rewarding career.
The latest trends and statistics to help you find the top accredited small business programs in Whitewater, Wisconsin. Insight on students, faculty and small business professional salaries.
An 18-year-old Ohio girl died after contracting a brain-eating amoeba called naegleria fowleri on a church trip to the U.S. Whitewater Center
Diana Schunn got into nursing at the beginning of a paradigm shift, and shes continued to push for progress.Schunn, of Whitewater, is the recipient of Bethel Colleges 2019 Distinguished Achievement Award, which acknowledges character and citizenship, achievement in a chosen profession or vocation, and work of benefit to humanity. She will receive the award at the colleges annual Alumni Banquet, June 8 during Alumni Heritage Weekend on campus. Schunn received her
Other Water Sports in Cañon City: Check out 333 reviews and photos of Viators Bighorn Sheep Canyon Half Day Whitewater Experience
University Of Wisconsin-Whitewater in Whitewater, WI: Info about University Of Wisconsin-Whitewater, including student body, fields of study, tuition, contact info, admission requirements, and more.
Our selection of WRSI kayaking, rafting, and whitewater helmets and knee / elbow pads help you safely pursue your passions in watersports.
Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a viral disease of boid snakes believed to be caused by reptarenavirus belonging to the family Arenaviridae. Unlike most mammalian arenaviruses, the reservoir host for reptarenavirus is still unknown. In this study, the pathological responses were evaluated in a mouse model for a period of 28 days. Blood and tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney and brain) were collected for evaluation of hematology, biochemistry, histopathology and oxidative enzyme levels at six time points (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days), after viral infection (2 ...
A situational analysis of POPs in the Morogoro Hotspot Area was conducted by Tanzania Association of Public Occupational and Environmental Health Experts (TAPOHE) in 2011. Participatory survey methods including desk review, in-depth interviews with key informants, focused group discussions and participants observations were used to collect data. Additionally, soil and biota samples (plants) were collected for pesticide chemical analysis. Findings from the situational analysis confirmed that Morogoro is one of the most DDT (and other obsolete pesticides)- contaminated sites in the country. Based on these findings, TAPOHE recommended specific actions for stakeholders, which include continued monitoring and security to the site, public awareness, and a careful plan of decontamination.. ...
New Acropol Hotel: Favorite Place in Morogoro! - See 62 traveler reviews, 54 candid photos, and great deals for New Acropol Hotel at TripAdvisor.
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites: they must enter a cell to reproduce. To gain access to the cell interior, a virus must first bind to one or more specific receptor molecules on the cell surface. Cell receptors for viruses do not exist only to serve viruses: they also have cellular functions. An example is the transferrin receptor, which regulates iron uptake and assists in the entry of viruses from three different families. It might appear that such dual-use proteins cannot evolve to block virus entry because their cellular function would then be compromised. A study of two viruses that bind to the same cell surface receptor protein reveals how a cellular protein can change to prevent infection without affecting its role in the cell.. The virus-cell receptor interaction is one of the many arenas where the evolution of host-virus conflict can be studied. Because the virus-receptor interaction is essential for viral replication, host cells with a mutation in the receptor gene that ...
In ICF whitewater slalom paddlers negotiate their way down a 300 m (980 ft) of whitewater rapids, through a series of up to 25 gates (pairs of hanging poles.) The colour of the poles indicates the direction in which the paddlers must pass through; time penalties are assessed for striking poles or missing gates. Categories are C1 (solo) and C2 (tandem), the latter for two men, and C2M (mixed) for one woman and one man.[39] C1 boats must have a minimum weight and width of 10 kg (22 lb) and 0.65 m (2 ft 2 in) and be not more than 3.5 m (11 ft) long. C2s must have a minimum weight and width of 15 kg (33 lb) and 0.75 m (2 ft 6 in), and be not more that 4.1 m (13 ft). Rudders are prohibited. Canoes are decked and propelled by single-bladed paddles, and the competitor must kneel.[40]. In ICF wildwater canoeing athletes paddle a course of class III to IV whitewater (using the international scale of river difficulty), passing over waves, holes and rocks of a natural riverbed in events lasting either ...
Nucleic Acid: Plasmid for expression of the LCMV S-segment with heterologous arenavirus GP - Machupo (Expression plasmid, Diagnostic reagent, Derived product, Nucleic Acid, Cloned nucleic acid)
as disappointed as i was by clintons behavior the republican witchhunt to destroy him eventually, in my eyes, became more of a betrayal than any of clintons misdeeds. impeachment, whitewater investigation etc. (52 MILLION for the whitewater investigation--how many of the homeless would that have fed? how many shelters would that have built? you get my drift) it wasnt about doing right for the american people, it was furthering individual political careers by trying to destroy the presidency of someone they didnt like. a marital affrair is a family issue...the only people whos opinions matter on this are clintons and his familys. the rest of us need to mind our ps and qs ...
The first acquisition in the Bicentennial Legacy Conservation Area utilizing Bicentennial Signature Project funds. 175 acres in southern Wayne County featuring native hardwood forest covering several small ravines and a small creek. The 1795 Greenville Treaty Line slices through the tract. ...
Join us at the Campground Playground in Loop B of the Campground to discover some amazing facts about Indiana mammals. We will discuss where they live, what they eat and what you can do to help protect them.
Fifty-six locks were built to accommodate a fall of nearly 500 feet. After the state went bankrupt in the 1840s, the canal was completed by private owners. In 1862, the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Railroad purchased the canal, laying its tracks on the canal towpath. After the canal fell into disuse, it was used as a source of water power for many grist mills. The Metamora Grist Mill, now a state park, is an example. The state took over a 14-mile section of the canal in 1946 and operates a horse-drawn canal boat (the Ben Franklin III) and the mill at Metamora. Preserved at Metamora is the Duck Creek Aqueduct, a covered bridge that carries the canal 16 feet over Duck Creek. It is believed to be the only structure of its kind in the nation ...
Maine Vacations - White Water Rafting, Moose Safaris, ATV Tours & Rentals, Snowmobile Tours & Rentals, Kayaking, Hiking, Biking, Riverside Cabins & Camping,...
SIXMILE CREEK (AP) - Driven back once again by a chest-high wall of water, Tod Williams thoughts were on the awe-inspiring power of gravity-driven water.
Clinical Chiropractic of Whitewater, S.C. focuses on correcting muscular imbalances and joint restrictions due to anatomical abnormalities, injury, surgery, and other stressors with physical medicine, functional rehabilitaion, and nutrition counseling. We are located at 884 S. Janesville Street Suite C, Whitewater WI 53190
Thigh straps are an important part of whitewater kayaking, securing you in the kayak whilst paddling, but allowing you to quickly exit the kayak when necessary. Thigh straps come with the Attack Whitewater inflatable kayak and do not need to be ordered separately. You may wish to purchase these thigh…
What students involved in the Institute learn. The UW-Whitewater College of Business and Economics offers undergraduate and graduate programs both online and on campus - Yes, Really.
How many on WWA have jumped on this bandwagon? I really became a fan of Chris ideas when he was editor of Popular Woodworking and have followed his blog(s), attended his seminar, bought all his books and am, currently, making some of his designs in my shop. I met him and had lunch plus a few set down chats with him 2 years ago when he came to San Diego for our Fall Seminar. He has many ideas and idiosyncrasies that either stimulate or deflate folks interest which (IMHO) keeps him in the arena with contemporary woodworking communities. I am wondering if there are others here who share my growing interest with this ANARCHIST. Im so enthused that Ive started trading some of my projects for services ...
A host of disease-causing viruses called arenaviruses lurk in animal populations in various parts of the world, sometimes crossing over into humans. When they do cross over, they can be lethal, and few treatments exist.. Now researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science have devised a clever decoy for these viruses that may keep them from spreading in the body.. Two disease-causing arenaviruses, known as Junín and Machupo, circulate through rodent populations, mainly in South America, and they can infect humans when people come in contact with affected rodents. Similar to Ebola, these diseases can cause the body to bleed out, and the only treatments, to date, are risky and complex, as they are taken from the blood of survivors.. The study, reported in Nature Communications, arose from an earlier research question in the group of Dr Ron Diskin of the Weizmann Institutes Structural Biology Department: how are certain arenaviruses able to move from rodents or other animals into ...
Dear Lloyd,Not a question, just wanted you to know how well my husband E.J. is doing since he started taking your supplements (I think its been 4 yrs now. His viral count has dropped to 11,114 from close to 16,000 a yr ago and before that it was even higher. Just cant remember the numbers. He takes the VEP II plus the the Thymus in the capsule, also your Super Vit B. His weight is low but (117-125) but he is feeling very good these days. We lost our Cabin in SW New Mexico this summer in the WhiteWater Baldy Complex in which 300,000 acres burned plus 12 cabins (ours being one of them) in the upper canyon of the Willow Creek Ranch ...
Those new to paddling canoes will need to learn about the basic components and design factors used by the craft. Effective communication with other paddlers will depend on knowing this common terminology. Canoes vary in construction and design. Craft can be built of birch bark or carbon fiber. A boat used in whitewater will be much different from a canoe suitable for hauling freight. Four key design factors for a canoe performance are length, width, hull shape and rocker.. ...
View all of our how to choose articles, videos and checklists for apparel, rafting, whitewater kayaking, kayak touring, SUP and camping.
Its perfectly clear that right-wing media has been doing this and has been appallingly successful.. But where is your evidence that the left has done, or attempted to do, the same? We didnt create Rush Limbaugh, The Washington Times, or any of the Scaife-funded magazines that were responsible for promoting the web of lies that were aimed at smearing the Clintons.. David Brock has detailed how this was a deliberate project - to spread any claim, no matter how unfounded, to undermine the Clintons in particular, Democrats, and liberals in general. Where is your evidence of ANYTHING similar on the left?. Instead, we demanded the facts from you, and didnt get them. When we saw that the major mainstream media was allowing a libel of Bill Clinton to be turned into a fact, we objected. There was no evidence that Bill or Hillary Clinton had been involved in committing a crime in Whitewater, but Big Media allowed this non-story to snowball into a demand for a Special Prosecutor. Why? What facts was ...
Our condolences to the families of the deceased. This list is not guaranteed to be accurate. The information is found from web searches and news dispatches. If you have a source for information on any fatality please leave a comment. Whitewater fatalities are light blue Medical fatalities are light red This is up to date…
Dagger produces the highest quality and performance whitewater, recreational, and touring kayaks in the industry at a great value. Wherever theres water.
Touched By A Paw No Kill Cat Shelter Whitewater WI. This is a no kill shelter with a fabulous Vintage Clothes Shop in the front of the shelter. If you buy yourself a velvet cape, embroidered kimono, rayon dress from the 40s, or any of the outfits and accessories. you help the kittens and mamas in their lovely hammocks ...
theres the rub. Perfect joinery of an outstanding design and surface preparation is exceptional. Now comes the finish and that should be exceptional also. Heres the rub ...
... , better known as the Junin virus or Junín virus (JUNV), is an arenavirus in the Mammarenavirus genus ... Enria, D. A.; Oro, J. G. Barrera (2002). "Junin Virus Vaccines". Arenaviruses II. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology ... Peters CJ; Buchmeir M; Rollin Pierre E; Ksiazek Thomas G (1996). Arenaviruses. Field's Virology Third Edition. Maiztegui JI; et ...
Zuckerman 2014, p. 10 "Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Caused by Arenaviruses" (PDF). The Center for Food Security and Public Health. ... Zuckerman, Ben (2014). Howard, C R (ed.). Arenaviruses. Elsevier. p. 7. ISBN 9780080877372. ... an arenavirus with a mammalian host. It was first found in semiaquatic rodents of the genus Oryzomys in tropical forest in the ...
Wulff, Herta; Lange, James V.; Webb, Patricia A. (1978). "Interrelationships Among Arenaviruses Measured by Indirect ...
... (LASV) is an arenavirus that causes Lassa hemorrhagic fever,[1] a type of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), in humans ... Arenaviruses use a cap snatching strategy to gain the cap structures from the cellular mRNAs, and it is mediated by the ... Rojek JM, Kunz S (April 2008). "Cell Entry by Human Pathogenic Arenaviruses". Cell Microbiol. 10 (4): 828-35. doi:10.1111/j. ... The life cycle of Lassa virus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa virus enters the cell by the receptor-mediated ...
Johnson, K. M.; Taylor, P.; Tomori, O.; Elliott, L. H. (1981-11-01). "Recovery of a Lassa-Related Arenavirus in Zimbabwe". The ... 1987 The global virome project Recovery of a Lassa-related arenavirus in Zimbabwe Toward a common secure future: four global ... and cross-reactivity with other arenaviruses Yellow fever: the recurring plague Randomised controlled trials for Ebola: ... and cross-reactivity with other arenaviruses". Virology. 113 (1): 73-85. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(81)90137-9. PMID 6267791. Tomori ...
"Discovery of new arenavirus associated with hemorrhagic fever - first identified in nearly four decades". News-Medical.net. ... The identification of this virus was the first new arenavirus discovered in over 40 years. The first case was a female travel ... The distribution of this newly described arenavirus is uncertain. To date this virus has only been reported from a patient from ... Sequencing of the viral genome has shown that this virus belongs to the Old World arenavirus group. Comparisons with other ...
... all three being New World arenaviruses. The virus is named after Bear Canyon, the area it was originally discovered in. Cajimat ... An Arenavirus Naturally Associated with the California Mouse (Peromyscus californicus)". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (7): ... "Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses". Virology. 367 (2): 235-243. doi: ...
Arenaviruses use a cap snatching strategy to gain the cap structures from the cellular mRNAs, and it is mediated by the ... Alpha-dystroglycan is also used as a receptor by viruses of the New World clade C arenaviruses (Oliveros and Latino viruses). ... The life cycle of Lassa mammarenavirus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa mammarenavirus enters the cell by the ... In addition, GP1 amino acid position 259 also appears to be important, since all arenaviruses showing high-affinity alpha-DG ...
Gonzalez JP, Sanchez A, Rico-Hesse R (July 1995). "Molecular phylogeny of Guanarito virus, an emerging arenavirus affecting ... Arenavirus, Hantavirus, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic virus and others. In the late 90s he began working as a professor of ... "Phylogeny and evolution of old world arenaviruses". Virology. 350 (2): 251-7. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2006.01.026. PMID 16494913. ...
The first arenavirus, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus (LCMV), was isolated in 1933 by Charles Armstrong during a ... Nucleoside analog ribavirin is used in some cases due to the inhibitory effect the agent has in vitro on arenaviruses. However ... LCM is the archetypal arenavirus, and was instrumental in research which uncovered the major pathogenetic mechanisms of all ... "A New Arenavirus in a Cluster of Fatal Transplant-Associated Diseases". The New England Journal of Medicine. 358 (10): 991-998 ...
Arenavirus-specific RNA was detected in each patient using RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequence of the patients were essentially ... Like other arenaviruses, WWAV appears to be transmitted through rodents. Therefore, direct contact with rodents, their feces, ... in the family Arenaviridae change the name of genus Arenavirus to Mammarenavirus and convert the names of its constituent ... Although it is unclear if WWAV can be transmitted nosocomially, other arenaviruses have been transmitted through contact with ...
Simultaneously to the MCV discovery, this approach was used to implicate a novel arenavirus as cause of fatality in a case ... "A new arenavirus in a cluster of fatal transplant-associated diseases". N Engl J Med. 10. 358 (10): 991-998. CiteSeerX 10.1. ...
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are productively infected and activated through TLR-7 early after arenavirus infection. Cell Host ... DDX3 suppresses type I interferons and favors viral replication during Arenavirus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2018 Jul 12;14(7): ... "Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are productively infected and activated through TLR-7 early after arenavirus infection". Cell Host ... "DDX3 suppresses type I interferons and favors viral replication during Arenavirus infection". PLOS Pathogens. 14 (7): e1007125 ...
Arenavirus: Guanarito virus,[2] Junín virus,[2] Lassa fever virus,[2] Lujo virus,[3] Machupo virus[2] ve Sabiá virus[2] ... "Genetic detection and characterization of Lujo virus, a new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from southern Africa" ...
... is an East African arenavirus infecting the multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis). The virus is genetically ... as this has been suggested for other arenaviruses. (Günther et al. 2009) (Günther et al. 2009) (Borremans et al. 2011) ( ...
... the Old World arenaviruses, and the New World arenaviruses. Old World arenaviruses include lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus ... New world arena viruses are further broken down into three clades, A, B, and C. The Guanarito arena virus belongs to clade B ... Arenaviruses causing hemorrhagic fevers, along with a genus of virus called filoviruses, were categorized in Category A; these ... VHF has many similarities to Lassa fever and to the arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers that occur in Argentina and Bolivia. It ...
Arenavirus comes from the Latin arena (sand) for the sandy appearance of the virions. The following species are recognized: ... The name is a portmanteau of mammal and the former name Arenavirus, and differentiates it from the reptile-associated ... in the family Arenaviridae change the name of genus Arenavirus to Mammarenavirus and convert the names of its constituent ...
Ribavirin is thought to be effective in treating the illness, similar to other arenaviruses. Compared to the patients who did ... Brazilian mammarenavirus is one of the arenaviruses from South America to cause hemorrhagic fever. It shares a common ... Brazilian hemorrhagic fever (BzHF) is an infectious disease caused by Brazilian mammarenavirus, an arenavirus. ...
"Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses". Virology. 367 (2): 235-243. doi: ...
in the family Arenaviridae change the name of genus Arenavirus to Mammarenavirus and convert the names of its constituent ... a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia". PLoS Pathog. 4 (4): e1000047. doi: ... a Newly Discovered Arenavirus Isolated from a Fatal Hemorrhagic Fever Case in Bolivia". PLOS Pathogens. Public Library of ... in keeping with other members of the arenavirus family, which includes Lassa mammarenavirus. In December 2003, an outbreak of ...
Genus Mammarenavirus (früher Arenavirus), mit Species Lassa-Virus. *Genus Reptarenavirus, mit Species Universität-Gießen-Virus ...
Specifically it is an old world arenavirus, which is enveloped, single-stranded, and bi-segmented RNA. This virus has both a ...
Prophylactic (preventive) ribavirin may be effective for some bunyavirus and arenavirus infections (available only as an ... and the South American hemorrhagic fevers caused by arenaviruses, but only in a small minority of patients with dengue or Rift ... a New Hemorrhagic Fever-Associated Arenavirus from Southern Africa". PLOS Pathog. 5 (5): e1000455. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat. ...
Prevalence of antibodies to arenaviruses in rodents from the southern and western United States: evidence for an arenavirus ... An arenavirus normally associated with woodrats (Neotoma) has also been found in Florida marsh rice rats. Antibodies against ...
The virus particle contains around ten ribosome-like granules, a feature of arenaviruses. It bears surface projections ... Zeller and colleagues suggested that they should be classified as arenaviruses, but this was not accepted by the International ...
... arenaviruses and murine leukaemia virus infection. Potential mechanisms. IFITM proteins inhibit viral membrane and cellular ...
Arenaviruses are mainly associated with rodents, though some can cause illness in humans. The first arenavirus identified in ...
"The N-terminal domain of the arenavirus L protein is an RNA endonuclease essential in mRNA transcription". PLoS Pathogens. 6 (9 ...
... anti-arenavirus drug for hemorrhagic fever classified as Category A agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; ... to develop an antiviral drug for treating and preventing Lassa fever and others of arenavirus origin. In the same year, the ... ". "SIGA Awarded a $7.7 Million Grant for the Development of Antiviral Drugs for Arenaviruses". Abbott, C. C. (2018-05-03). " ...
"Properties of Replication-Competent Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors Expressing Glycoproteins of Filoviruses and Arenaviruses ...
At least eight arenaviruses are known to cause human disease. The diseases derived from arenaviruses range in severity. Aseptic ... The life cycle of the arenavirus is restricted to the cell cytoplasm. Arenaviruses have a segmented RNA genome that consists of ... Within the family Arenaviridae, arenaviruses were formerly all placed in the genus Arenavirus, but in 2014 were divided into ... Most of the Arenaviruses caught by humans are within their own homes when these rodents seek shelter. The virus can be caught ...
New World arenavirus - Junin virus 2010. Current. New World arenavirus - Machupo virus(https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/ ... New World arenavirus - Guanarito virus(https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/new-world-arenavirus-guanarito-virus/) ... New World arenavirus - Sabia virus(https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/new-world-arenavirus-sabia-virus/) ... Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) , 2011 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/new-world-arenavirus-junin-virus/ ...
Arenaviruses are unusually interesting in that they occupy both categories. Arenaviruses cause several human diseases known ... In addition to these hemor- rhagic fever viruses, the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can infect humans ... worldwide, although the illness is most often less disabling and severe than those elicited by the other arenaviruses. Yet, ...
Since then, new arenaviruses have been discovered regularly.. How viruses in the Arenavirus family spread. While rodent hosts ... Discovery of Arenaviruses. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was the first arenavirus identified. It was isolated in ... Old World/New World Arenaviruses. Arenaviruses are divided into two groups - New World and Old World viruses - based on genetic ... LCMV, classified as an Old World arenavirus, is the only arenavirus found in both the Western and Eastern Hemisphere. ...
... il nuovo arenavirus di Chapare produce i sintomi emorragici clinici simili a quelli connessi con altri Nuovi arenavirus del ... "Dobbiamo imparare più circa questo virus: come è collegato con gli altri arenavirus, come causa la malattia, dove vive in ... un arenavirus precedentemente non riconosciuto, scoperto nei campioni del siero da un paziente in Bolivia rurale che finalmente ... di Sequenza dei segmenti specifici del virus più successivamente lo ha confermato come membro unico di Nuovi Arenavirus del ...
Arenaviruses are unusually interesting in that they occupy both of these categories. Arenaviruses cause severe human diseases ... although the illness is most often less disabling than those elicited by other arenaviruses. Yet LCMV is likely of greater ...
Breaking down arenavirus cell entry. From 2015-10-01 to 2017-09-30 , BRACE Website ... Focusing on arenaviruses, these genome-wide surveys will reveal host factors indicative of virus entry tactics never observed ... examine in detail the virus-host interplay with these factors and will identify promising new antiviral targets for arenavirus ...
Murphy, Frederick A. & Whitfield, Sylvia G. (‎1975)‎. Morphology and morphogenesis of arenaviruses*. Bulletin of the World ...
The genus Arenavirus includes 22 viral species and 9 additional arenaviruses that have been recently discovered, for which ... Arenaviruses are single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that cause chronic infections in rodents and zoonotically ... encoded search term (Arenaviruses) and Arenaviruses What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * ... Arenaviruses Clinical Presentation. Updated: Oct 05, 2015 * Author: Sandra G Gompf, MD, FACP, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi ...
In rodents, arenavirus infection is typically asymptomatic. When arenaviruses infect humans, severe disease can result, such as ... The arenavirus glycoprotein, GP, is known to bind to TfR1. Ten GP amino acids were identified that are under positive selection ... Whether these novel arenaviruses actually cause snake IBD is not proven by this work. This question is underscored by the ... Three of these amino acids are located on the part of TfR1 that binds arenaviruses, and three are at the binding site for the ...
Old World Arenaviruses. Virus, date isolated. Natural host. Geographic distribution. Naturally occurring human disease. Human ... New World Arenaviruses. Virus, date isolated. Natural host. Geographic distribution. Naturally occurring human disease. Human ... Amapari, a new arenavirus of the Tacaribe group from rodents and mites of Amapa territory, Brazil. Proceeding of the Society ... Novel arenavirus sequences in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys) setulosus from Cote dIvoire: implications for evolution of ...
Arenaviruses are comprised of two RNA genome segments and four proteins, the polymerase L, the envelope glycoprotein GP, the ... In a first part of our review, we cover basic aspects and newer developments in the biosynthesis of arenavirus GP and its ... A second part will then highlight the potential of SKI-1/S1P-mediated processing of arenavirus GPC as a novel target for ... A crucial step in the arenavirus life-cycle is the biosynthesis and maturation of the GP precursor (GPC) by cellular signal ...
To investigate the mechanisms underlying arenavirus nAb evasion we engineered several arenavirus envelope-chimeric viruses and ... Arenavirus Glycan Shield Promotes Neutralizing Antibody Evasion and Protracted Infection.. Sommerstein R1,2, Flatz L1, Remy MM1 ... Arenaviruses such as Lassa virus (LASV) can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. As a major impediment to vaccine ... Thus, arenavirus envelope glycosylation impairs the protective efficacy rather than the induction of nAbs, and thereby prevents ...
The majority of these viruses are rodent-borne and the arenavirus family can be divided into two groups: the Lassa-Lymphocytic ... Arenavirus-induced disease may include characteristic symptoms ranging from fever, malaise, body aches, petechiae, dehydration ... Supportive care and ribavirin remain the predominant strategies for treating most of the arenavirus-induced diseases. Therefore ... This article reviews the current arenavirus animal models and prophylactic and therapeutic strategies under development to ...
2002) Arenaviruses I: The epidemiology molecular and cell biology of arenaviruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 262:V-XII.. ... 2002) Arenaviruses II: The molecular pathogenesis of arenavirus infections. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 263:V-XII.. ... Rodents of the Muridae family are the natural hosts of most arenaviruses, and the geographic distribution of each arenavirus is ... Arenavirus) composed of at least 24 viruses (2, 3). Based on their antigenic properties, arenaviruses have been classified into ...
Here, we study the functional regulation of the L protein of the arenavirus Machupo virus (MACV), the cause of Bolivian ... Functional regulation of an arenavirus polymerase complex. Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University Graduate School of Arts ... we explored natural and synthetic inhibitors of the RdRP catalytic site for biochemically capturing an inactive arenavirus L ... strand genomic RNA segments and provide a framework for high-throughput development of antiviral compounds targeting arenavirus ...
In this article, we present the current knowledge about the hematological alterations present in VHF induced by arenaviruses, ... caused by arenaviruses are acute diseases characterized by fever, headache, general malaise, impaired cellular immunity, ... In the rodent, arenaviruses usually establish a persistent chronic infection with few symptoms [1]. However, arenaviruses may ... Rodas, J.D.; Salvato, M.S. Tales of mice and men: Natural history of arenaviruses. Rev. Col. Cienc. Pec. 2006, 19, 382-400. [ ...
Find out information about arenavirus. A family of ribonucleic acid animal viruses consisting of a single genus, Arenavirus, ... having an enveloped, spherical pleomorphic form Explanation of arenavirus ... redirected from arenavirus). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.. Related to arenavirus: bunyavirus ... Human infection with an arenavirus is likely to be very uncommon.. Arenavirus Infection Linked to Deaths in California ...
However, these arenaviruses are classified as BSL-4 pathogens, thus making it difficult to develop diagnostic techniques for ... We recently developed arenavirus neutralization assays using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based pseudotypes bearing ... arenavirus recombinant glycoproteins. The goal of this article is to review the recent advances in developing laboratory ... is of great importance to detect these pathogens rapidly and specifically in order to minimize the risk and scale of arenavirus ...
The arenaviruses (family Arenaviridae, genus Arenavirus) known to occur in North America include Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV ... Delgado S, Erickson BR, Agudo R, Blair PJ, Vallejo E, Albariño CG, Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a ... Fulhorst CF, Milazzo ML, Armstrong LR, Childs JE, Rollin PE, Khabbaz R, Hantavirus and arenavirus antibodies in persons with ... Human infection with arenaviruses in the Americas. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;262:65-74.PubMed ...
A novel arenavirus was identified. The source of the first patients infection remains undetermined. ... Palacios G, Druce J, Du L, Tran T, Birch C, Briese T, A new arenavirus in a cluster of fatal transplant-associated diseases. N ... known Old World arenaviruses (5). The novel arenavirus was isolated in culture from the blood and liver samples of patients 2 ... Nosocomial Outbreak of Novel Arenavirus Infection, Southern Africa On This Page The Outbreak Diagnosis and Contact Tracing ...
This study provides the first evidence that New World arenaviruses occur in Los Angeles and Orange counties and northwestern ... and the first evidence that Peromyscus and Reithrodontomys species are naturally infected with New World arenaviruses. ... purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge on the geographic and natural rodent host ranges of New World arenaviruses in ... f Arenavirus antibody in rodents indigenous to coastal southern California. * S G Bennett, M L Milazzo, J P Webb Jr, C F ...
It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships ... "Arenavirus" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Arenavirus" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Arenavirus" by people in Profiles. ...
Title: Genetic analysis of heptad-repeat regions in the G2 fusion subunit of the Junin arenavirus envelope glycoprotein ... These findings support the inclusion of the arenavirus GP-C among the Class I viral fusion proteins and suggest pharmacologic ... Journal Article: Genetic analysis of heptad-repeat regions in the G2 fusion subunit of the Junin arenavirus envelope ... Taken together, our results indicate that {alpha}-helical coiled-coil structures are likely critical in promoting arenavirus ...
... arenavirus,discovered,as,cause,of,hemorrhagic,fever,outbreak,in,South,Africa,and,Zambia,medicine,medical news today,latest ... The previously unknown arenavirus, which was identified using genetic extracts of blood and liver from the victims and through ... A detailed genetic analysis of this novel arenavirus, named Lujo virus, after the sites of the outbreak (Lusaka, Zambia, and ... New arenavirus discovered as cause of hemorrhagic fever outbreak in South Africa and Zambia ...
Therefore, the hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses remain an urgent public health concern.. Arenaviruses are enveloped viruses, with ... New World arenavirus clade C, but not clade A and B viruses, utilizes α-dystroglycan as its major receptor. J. Virol. 76:5140- ... Arenavirus Z-GP association requires Z myristoylation but not functional RING or L domains. J. Virol. 81:9451-9460. ... Assembly of Arenavirus Envelope Glycoprotein GPC in Detergent-Soluble Membrane Microdomains. Sudhakar S. Agnihothram, Brooke ...
Pichinde virus is an arenavirus which causes severe illness similar to Lassa fever in strain 13 guinea pigs, but does not cause ... We used this infection to evaluate the effect of arenavirus on liver morphology and function. When guinea pigs were infected ... The Effect of an Arenavirus Infection on Liver Morphology and Function * Helen L. Lucia, Dorian H. Coppenhaver, Robert L. ... Pichinde virus is an arenavirus which causes severe illness similar to Lassa fever in strain 13 guinea pigs, but does not cause ...
  • An arenavirus is a bisegmented ambisense RNA virus that is a member of the family Arenaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the family Arenaviridae, arenaviruses were formerly all placed in the genus Arenavirus, but in 2014 were divided into the genera Mammarenavirus for those with mammalian hosts and Reptarenavirus for those infecting snakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The family Arenaviridae consists of a single genus ( Arenavirus ) composed of at least 24 viruses ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The family Arenaviridae , genus Arenavirus, consists of two phylogenetically independent groups: Old World (OW) and New World (NW) complexes. (mdpi.com)
  • The arenaviruses (family Arenaviridae , genus Arenavirus ) known to occur in North America include Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV), 7 other members of the Tacaribe serocomplex ( Table 1 ), and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV, the prototypic member of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis-Lassa serocomplex). (cdc.gov)
  • Serology reagents intended to detect immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to Arenavirus, a genus of enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses of the family Arenaviridae. (ophthalmologymanagement.com)
  • Pathogenic arenaviruses in humans belong to the Mammarenavirus genus ( Arenaviridae family), which is divided into two groups according to geographic distribution and antigenic characteristics: Lymphocytic choriomeningitis-Lassa and the Tacaribe complex. (rsbmt.org.br)
  • Although they are categorized as negative-sense viruses, arenaviruses are ambisense. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to these hemor- rhagic fever viruses, the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can infect humans worldwide, although the illness is most often less disabling and severe than those elicited by the other arenaviruses. (springer.com)
  • Arenaviruses are divided into two groups - New World and Old World viruses - based on genetic differences as well as where the viruses are geographically distributed. (cdc.gov)
  • To investigate the mechanisms underlying arenavirus nAb evasion we engineered several arenavirus envelope-chimeric viruses and glycan-deficient variants thereof. (nih.gov)
  • B-C) We infected C57BL/6 mice i.v. with 2x10 5 PFU of the indicated recombinant LCM viruses carrying a range of clade B arenavirus GPs. (nih.gov)
  • Arenaviruses are enveloped, bipartite negative single-stranded RNA viruses that can cause a wide spectrum of disease in humans and experimental animals including hemorrhagic fever. (mdpi.com)
  • The majority of these viruses are rodent-borne and the arenavirus family can be divided into two groups: the Lassa-Lymphocytic choriomeningitis serocomplex and the Tacaribe serocomplex. (mdpi.com)
  • Our data show that these New World arenaviruses are specifically adapted to the TfR1 orthologs of their respective rodent hosts and identify key commonalities between these orthologs and human TfR1 necessary for efficient transmission of these viruses to humans. (pnas.org)
  • Arenaviruses are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented RNA viruses with ambisense genomes ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The phylogenetic diversity of arenaviruses is likely the result of long-term coevolution of the viruses and their corresponding hosts ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • These findings uncover new conserved mechanisms of polymerase activation for viruses with multiple negative-strand genomic RNA segments and provide a framework for high-throughput development of antiviral compounds targeting arenavirus L in the context of its RNP template. (harvard.edu)
  • The arenaviruses are essentially rodent-borne viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • In contrast, the other arenaviruses infect different types of rodents with circumscribed geographical distribution patterns that relate to the distribution of the associated viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • A family of ribonucleic acid animal viruses consisting of a single genus, Arenavirus, having an enveloped, spherical pleomorphic form. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The genetic diversity of arenaviruses in their respective rodent hosts provides a vast reservoir for the continual emergence of new viruses ( 1 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Arenaviruses are enveloped viruses, with a bisegmented RNA genome that encodes the ambisense expression of four proteins. (asm.org)
  • The Old World arenaviruses, such as LASV and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), as well as several nonpathogenic New World viruses, use the cellular α-dystroglycan protein for uptake into the endosome ( 15 , 64 ). (asm.org)
  • In the light of recent knowledge on a complex of diseases caused by a new group of viruses, arenaviruses, virological studies largely directed toward small field mammals were undertaken during 1973-1974 aiming at etiological clarification of Korean hemorrhagic nephrosonephritis (KHNN). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Assessment of our sequence data in the context of the sequences of Tacaribe and lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses suggests that the mechanism of initiation of arenavirus transcription is fundamentally different from that of members of the families Orthomyxoviridae and Bunyaviridae. (asm.org)
  • Arenavirus is a group or family of viruses whose members are generally associated with conditions transmitted by jungle rodents of the genus "calomys" in humans. (flutrackers.com)
  • Viruses-new arenaviruses of uncertain pathogenicity isolated from animals and human. (oxfordmedicine.com)
  • Arenaviruses are zoonotic RNA viruses that are distributed worldwide and are adapted to various rodent genera. (oxfordmedicine.com)
  • Arenaviruses include multiple human pathogens ranging from the low-risk lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) to highly virulent hemorrhagic fever (HF) causing viruses such as Lassa (LASV), Junin (JUNV), Machupo (MACV), Lujo (LUJV), Sabia (SABV), Guanarito (GTOV), and Chapare (CHPV), for which there are limited preventative and therapeutic measures. (nih.gov)
  • Additional sequence analysis showed that this new arenavirus was related to lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses. (notifylibrary.org)
  • Arenaviruses are enveloped viruses with a bisegmented negative-strand RNA genome. (probechem.com)
  • Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans and pose important public health problems in regions where these viruses are endemic. (probechem.com)
  • The morphology of arenaviruses is distinctive in thin-section electron microscopy and was the basis for first associating lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus with Machupo virus and ultimately associating these viruses with all the viruses in the present family. (asmscience.org)
  • Human infection with arenaviruses is incidental to the natural cycle of the viruses and occurs when an individual comes into contact with the excretions or materials contaminated with the excretions of an infected rodent, such as ingestion of contaminated food, or by direct contact of abraded or broken skin with rodent excrement. (unt.edu)
  • Arbovirus, arenavirus, and filovirus are viruses that are spread from animals to people and, with some viruses, from people to people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • [21] Alpha-dystroglycan is also used as a receptor by viruses of the New World clade C arenaviruses (Oliveros and Latino viruses). (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the New World arenaviruses of clades A and B, which include the important viruses Machupo , Guanarito , Junin , and Sabia in addition to the non pathogenic Amapari virus, use the transferrin receptor 1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • When University of Vermont College of Medicine graduate student Benjamin King travels to France supported by a prestigious Chateaubriand Fellowship, he'll be bringing along important questions about how the Arenavirus - a family of viruses endemic in rodents that has led to human disease outbreaks in Nigeria, Argentina and other countries - hijacks normal cell function. (uvm.edu)
  • [ 2 ] Arenaviruses are divided into two groups: the Old World and the New World viruses. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Full-genome sequences of the viruses suggested that they were new strains similar to Lassa virus-related arenaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • The investigation of antiviral strategies to combat HF arenaviruses is hampered by the requirement of biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) facilities to work with these viruses. (scripps.edu)
  • The research group led by Professor Daniel Pinschewer of the University of Basel had already discovered in previous studies that viruses from the arenavirus family are highly suitable as vehicles for triggering a strong immune response. (bionity.com)
  • Viral haemorrhagic fevers are a group of illnesses caused by several distinct families of viruses: arenaviruses, filoviruses, bunyaviruses and flaviviruses. (www.gov.uk)
  • The receptor for several arenaviruses, alpha-dystroglycan, was identified, the replication strategy of these viruses was decoded, and application of a reverse genetics system for studying viral gene function and viral biology is well underway. (worldcat.org)
  • Epidemiological surveillance of hemorrhagic viruses in Colombia has focused primarily on Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya, even though the geography and abundant biodiversity suggest that other zoonotic agents such as hantavirus and arenavirus could be important in terms of public health, especially in rural areas. (rsbmt.org.br)
  • Arenaviruses are enveloped viruses with a bisegmented negative-strand (NS) RNA genome ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Arenaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses , and eight members in this family are known to cause human hemorrhagic fever . (bvsalud.org)
  • The rodent hosts of arenaviruses are chronically infected with the viruses but the viruses donot seem to cause any illness to the rodents. (kenyon.edu)
  • Because of the epidemiological association with rodents, some arenaviruses and bunyaviruses are designated as roboviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The types of rodents that spread arenaviruses are located across much of the world, including Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. (cdc.gov)
  • Most infections spread among adult rodents through scratches and bites, although for certain arenaviruses, the virus passes from mother to offspring during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • In some instances, arenaviruses can spread to people when consuming infected rodents as a food source. (cdc.gov)
  • Rodents of the Muridae family are the natural hosts of most arenaviruses, and the geographic distribution of each arenavirus is determined by the range of its corresponding host. (pnas.org)
  • In this regard, arenaviruses are etiologic agents of emerging diseases as a result of environmental modifications by humans, through the creation of new ecological environments either for agricultural production or for places to live that favor contact with wild rodents [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is an arenavirus carried by rodents, most notably domestic house mice (Mus musculus), but also laboratory and pet rodents (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Arenaviruses associated with rodents are known to cause fatal hemorrhagic fevers in humans in South America and West Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • Arenavirus antibody in rodents indigenous to coastal southern California. (ajtmh.org)
  • Arenaviruses cause chronic infections of rodents with a worldwide distribution ( 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The spatial and temporal distribution of hantavirus and arenavirus antibody-positive wild rodents in Trentino, Italy, was studied using immunofluorescence assays (IFA) in two long-term sites trapped in 2000-2003, and six other sites trapped in 2002. (elsevier.com)
  • Henttonen, H. / Hantavirus and arenavirus antibody prevalence in rodents and humans in Trentino, Northern Italy . (elsevier.com)
  • Some Old World arenaviruses appear to be passed from mother rodents to their offspring during pregnancy, and thus remain in the rodent population generation after generation. (unt.edu)
  • Some New World arenaviruses are transmitted among adult rodents, likely via fighting and inflicting bites. (unt.edu)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b (900 nt) of arenaviruses from Mastomys natalensis rodents caught in the 8 localities in Nigeria, compared to those already described in Benin and in Cameroun. (cdc.gov)
  • Arenaviruses are spread by rodents. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Arenavirus is a genus of virus that infects rodents and occasionally humans. (omicsgroup.org)
  • To investigate arenavirus in Zambia, we characterized virus from the kidneys of 5 arenavirus RNA-positive rodents ( Mastomys natalensis ) among 263 captured. (cdc.gov)
  • Analyzing samples from additional rodents and other species can elucidate epizootiologic aspects of arenaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • The natural reservoir of arenavirus in Africa is rodents of the family Muridae, especially Mastomys natalensis, and nonpathogenic arenaviruses have been found in areas surrounding Zambia ( 2 - 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To further the epizootiologic understanding of arenaviruses, we investigated their prevalence and genetic background among M. natalensis rodents in Zambia during May 22-August 28, 2009. (cdc.gov)
  • Reverse transcription (RT) PCR results indicated that 4 (17%) of the 23 rodents captured in Lusaka and 1 (4%) of the 24 captured in Namwala were positive for arenavirus, but none of the 143 rodents captured in Mfuwe were positive. (cdc.gov)
  • Overall, 5 (3%) of the 190 M. natalensis rodents trapped in Zambia were positive for arenavirus. (cdc.gov)
  • Abstract Rodents are the principal hosts of Sin Nombre virus, 4 other hantaviruses known to cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America, and the 3 North American arenaviruses. (xuebalib.com)
  • These results suggest that risk for infection with hantaviruses or arenaviruses usually is low in persons whose occupations entail close physical contact with neotomine or sigmodontine rodents in North America. (xuebalib.com)
  • The transmission of hantaviruses and arenaviruses through wild Cricetidae rodents suggests that people in rural areas, such as the indigenous inhabitants in the Caribbean area of Colombia, could be at risk of infection. (rsbmt.org.br)
  • Humans can get infected with the arenaviruses when an individual comes into contact with the excretions or materials contaminated with the excretions of infected rodents. (kenyon.edu)
  • In some areas of the world, arenavirus infections in people are relatively common and can cause severe disease. (cdc.gov)
  • So far, no FDA approved vaccines are available against arenavirus infections, and therapeutic options are limited, making the identification of novel drug targets for the development of efficacious therapeutics an urgent need. (mdpi.com)
  • 2007) In vitro and in vivo activities of T-705 against arenavirus and bunyavirus infections. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, these arenaviruses are classified as BSL-4 pathogens, thus making it difficult to develop diagnostic techniques for these virus infections in institutes without BSL-4 facilities. (mdpi.com)
  • She had visited a tourist camp on the Zambezi River on July 30 and 31, 2008, and participated in a polocrosse tournament on August 1 and 2 (but neither event occurred within the known incubation period of arenavirus infections from the date of onset of her illness). (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, compelling evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance ( 23 , 32 ) and poses a special threat to immunocompromised individuals, as illustrated by cases of transplant-associated infections by LCMV with fatal outcomes ( 10 , 36 , 40 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Why some arenaviruses can cause virulent human infections while others cannot, even though they are isolated from the same rodent hosts, is an enigma. (nih.gov)
  • 1. McLay L, Liang Y, Hinh L. Comparative analysis of disease pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of new world and old world arenavirus infections. (unicordoba.edu.co)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy techniques also work well for diagnosis of arenavirus infections, although the morphology of the virions is less striking for arenaviruses than filoviruses. (asmscience.org)
  • In our original research contract proposal C3013 entitled Synthetic Peptide Vaccines for the Control of Arenavirus Infections, we proposed to develop synthetic peptide based approaches. (dtic.mil)
  • Taken together, our data identify and characterize an important virus-host cell interaction of the prototypic, non-pathogenic arenavirus TCRV, which provides important insight into the growing field of arenavirus research aimed at better understanding the diversity in responses to different arenavirus infections and their functional consequences. (umn.edu)
  • Arenaviruses merit significant interest both as tractable experimental model systems to study acute and persistent viral infections and as clinically important human pathogens ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The primary goal of the study is to get insights in to the immunosuppressive CDX4 phenotype of pathogenic OW 35825-57-1 arenaviruses, evaluating infections with different pathogenic potentials for human beings (LASV versus MOPV) as well as for non-human primates (LCMV-WE versus LCMV-Arm), in the framework from the TLR2-MyD88-mediated signaling lately explained for LCMV (65). (saracatinib.info)
  • There are some arenaviruses - both New and Old World - that have been identified in host animals, but no human infection has been reported yet. (cdc.gov)
  • Banerjee C, Allen LJ, Salazar-Bravo J. Models for an arenavirus infection in a rodent population: consequences of horizontal, vertical and sexual transmission. (medscape.com)
  • Arenavirus Glycan Shield Promotes Neutralizing Antibody Evasion and Protracted Infection. (nih.gov)
  • This article reviews the current arenavirus animal models and prophylactic and therapeutic strategies under development to treat arenavirus infection. (mdpi.com)
  • In the rodent, arenaviruses usually establish a persistent chronic infection with few symptoms [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Human infection with an arenavirus is likely to be very uncommon. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We describe a nosocomial outbreak of infection with a novel arenavirus involving 5 patients, 4 of whom died, which occurred in South Africa in September-October 2008. (cdc.gov)
  • These findings support the inclusion of the arenavirus GP-C among the Class I viral fusion proteins and suggest pharmacologic and immunologic strategies for targeting arenavirus infection and hemorrhagic fever. (osti.gov)
  • At present, there are no licensed vaccines to prevent arenavirus infection and no effective therapies. (asm.org)
  • We used this infection to evaluate the effect of arenavirus on liver morphology and function. (ajtmh.org)
  • Failure to prove arenavirus infection among the small mammals from an endemic area of Korean hemorrhagic nephrosonephritis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The Minister of Health, Gabriela Monta o, said today that no new suspected case of Arenavirus was reported , rather it was discharged to two people with signs of infection. (flutrackers.com)
  • The new AG129 mouse TCRV infection model provides a safe and cost-effective means to conduct early-stage pre-clinical evaluations of candidate antiviral therapies that target clade B arenaviruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Presently, there are no clade B arenavirus infection models outside of newborn mice suitable for early stage antiviral drug development and proof-of-concept studies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A related arenavirus, Pichinde virus (PICV), is capable of causing a disease in guinea pigs that mimics LASV infection in humans. (emory.edu)
  • In addition, we proposed to investigate the potential of immune reagents, particularly monoclonal antibodies to control and modify the course of ongoing disease in animals using lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection as a safe and accurate paradigm for the pathogenic human arenaviruses. (dtic.mil)
  • In rare cases in health care and family settings, some arenaviruses are associated with secondary person-to-person infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here we show that infection with Tacaribe virus (TCRV), which is widely considered the prototype for non-pathogenic arenaviruses, leads to stronger induction of apoptosis than does infection with its human-pathogenic relative Junı´n virus. (umn.edu)
  • The South American Arenaviruses are very rare causes of infection in travellers. (www.gov.uk)
  • We have identified the first flavone, tangeretin, with broad-spectrum inhibitory activities on VHF- arenaviruses infection by blocking viral entry . (bvsalud.org)
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was the first arenavirus identified. (cdc.gov)
  • LCMV, classified as an Old World arenavirus, is the only arenavirus found in both the Western and Eastern Hemisphere. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can infect humans worldwide, although the illness is most often less disabling than those elicited by other arenaviruses. (springer.com)
  • LCMV infects Mus musculus , the common mouse, which explains why this virus is the only arenavirus with a worldwide distribution. (mdpi.com)
  • The previously unknown arenavirus, which was identified using genetic extracts of blood and liver from the victims and through unbiased high-throughput sequencing, is distantly related to Lassa virus and Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Moreover, mounting evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. (probechem.com)
  • A fifth arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is found throughout the world and it is particularly troublesome for immunocompromised individuals. (technologypublisher.com)
  • The first arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) , was isolated in 1933 during a study of an epidemic of St. Louis encephalitis. (unt.edu)
  • Finally, the sequences of the LCMV and other arenaviruses have been aligned and compared and common structural features of each determined in order to define regions of functional andor immunological homology. (dtic.mil)
  • However, the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) has proven to be a Rosetta stone for the investigation of virus-host interactions. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) has proven to be a superb workhorse in the field of virology and immunology ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Reverse genetics systems have been now developed for LCMV ( 11 ), LASV ( 12 ), and Tacaribe virus ( 13 ), which are allowing investigators to examine the cis -acting sequences and trans -acting factors that control arenavirus replication and gene expression, as well as assembly and budding ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), the prototype arenavirus, and Lassa virus (LASV), the causative agent of Lassa fever (LF), have considerable strain diversity and significant variations in pathogenicity for human beings and experimental pets. (saracatinib.info)
  • Arenaviruses such as Lassa virus (LASV) can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Several arenaviruses, chiefly Lassa virus (LASV), cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and represent a serious public health problem in their areas of endemicity ( 3 , 31 , 39 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The three arenaviruses studied in this thesis, Machupo virus (MACV), Junín virus (JUNV), and Lassa virus (LASV), are causative agents of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Argentine hemorrhagic fever, and Lassa fever, respectively. (uiowa.edu)
  • Lassa virus ( LASV ) is an arenavirus that causes Lassa hemorrhagic fever , [1] a type of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), in humans and other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several arenaviruses, chiefly Lassa virus (LASV) and Junin virus in West Africa and Argentina, respectively, cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans that is associated with high morbidity and significant mortality. (scripps.edu)
  • The Old World arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) poses the highest public health concern among HF arenaviruses. (pnas.org)
  • Recent studies have identified small molecule inhibitors of Tacaribe virus ( 7 ) and LASV ( 8 ) cell entry, but their antiviral activity in animal models of HF arenaviruses has not been examined. (pnas.org)
  • Arenaviruses cause several human diseases known primarily as the hemorrhagic fevers occurring in South and Latin America (Bolivia: Machupo, Argentine, Junin virus, and Brazil: Sabia virus) and in Africa (Lassa fever virus). (springer.com)
  • Nominato dopo il Fiume di Chapare nelle colline pedemontana orientali delle Ande, il nuovo arenavirus di Chapare produce i sintomi emorragici clinici simili a quelli connessi con altri Nuovi arenavirus del Mondo, quali i virus di Junin, di Machupo, di Guanarito e di Sabia. (news-medical.net)
  • Arenaviruses cause severe human diseases known primarily as the hemor- rhagic fevers occurring in South and Latin America (Bolivia: Machupo virus and Argentina: Junin virus) and in Africa (Lassa virus). (springer.com)
  • Transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) is a cellular receptor for the New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses Machupo (MACV), Junín (JUNV), and Guanarito (GTOV). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we study the functional regulation of the L protein of the arenavirus Machupo virus (MACV), the cause of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever in humans. (harvard.edu)
  • Other examples include Junín, Machupo, Guanarito and Sabia arenaviruses that cause sporadic outbreaks of haemorrhagic fevers in South America. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Entre los Arenavirus del nuevo mundo, está el complejo Tacaribe donde se encuentran los virus: Junín (Argentina), Guanarito (Venezuela), Machupo (Bolivia) y Sabiá (Brasil), que se caracterizan por causar fiebres hemorrágicas. (unicordoba.edu.co)
  • A comparison of this 782-nucleotide segment was done with the known homologous gene sequences of live other arenaviruses: Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, Pichinde, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM). (uthscsa.edu)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the N gene open reading frame showed that Guanarito virus is genetically distinct from other members of the Arenavirus family, with 32% nucleotide sequence divergence from Junin, 30% from Machupo, 32% from Tacaribe, 41% from Pichinde, and 45% from LCM. (uthscsa.edu)
  • A non-cytopathic virus was isolated from two of the patient serum samples, and identified as an arenavirus by IFA staining with a rabbit polyvalent antiserum raised against South American arenaviruses known to be associated with HF (Guanarito, Machupo, and Sabiá). (utmb.edu)
  • In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia. (utmb.edu)
  • Argentinian mammarenavirus, better known as the Junin virus or Junín virus (JUNV), is an arenavirus in the Mammarenavirus genus that causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). (wikipedia.org)
  • We performed a sero-epidemiological study in indigenous populations of Wayuü, Kankuamos, and Tuchin communities using Maciel hantavirus and Junin arenavirus antigens for IgG detection by ELISA. (rsbmt.org.br)
  • Likewise, several New World arenaviruses, chiefly Junin virus, cause viral HF disease ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Tacaribe virus (TCRV) is a nonpathogenic member of clade B that is closely related to the VHF arenaviruses at the amino acid level. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Virion RNA species of the arenaviruses Pichinde, Tacaribe, and. (mysciencework.com)
  • Similar RNA species have been identified in RNA extracted from Tacaribe and Tamiami arenavirus preparations. (mysciencework.com)
  • Since Tacaribe virus was found in 1956, new arenaviruses have been discovered on the average of every one to three years. (unt.edu)
  • The arenaviruses are divided into two groups: the New World or Tacaribe complex and the Old World or LCM/Lassa complex. (unt.edu)
  • Amapari (AMAV) and Tacaribe (TCRV), two nonpathogenic NW clade B arenaviruses that do not use human TfR1, are closely related to the NW arenaviruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. (scripps.edu)
  • In 2008, an LF-like outbreak in South Africa uncovered a book extremely pathogenic OW arenavirus, Lujo pathogen (12), bearing some top features of " NEW WORLD " arenaviruses (Tacaribe serocomplex) circulating in South and THE UNITED STATES (52). (saracatinib.info)
  • However, arenaviruses may occasionally be transmitted to humans through material contaminated with an infected rodent's excreta. (mdpi.com)
  • Arenavirus typically is associated with wild wood rats and believed to be transmitted to humans in dust carrying an infected rodent's urine, feces or saliva, a health expert said Friday. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some arenaviruses can also infect humans, potentially causing severe disease or death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each type of Arenavirus is usually associated with a specific rodent species by which the virus is transmitted to humans. (ophthalmologymanagement.com)
  • The Arenavirus is first transmitted to humans through contact with the excretions or materials contaminated with the excrement of an infected rodent. (uvm.edu)
  • Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans for which no licensed vaccines are available and current therapeutic intervention is limited to the off-label use of the wide-spectrum antiviral ribavirin. (pnas.org)
  • However, several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans, associated with high morbidity and mortality ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Arenaviruses are generally associated with rodent-transmitted diseases in humans. (kenyon.edu)
  • In addition to the recognized arenavirus hosts, other Texas rodent genera (Onychomys, Baiomys, Peromyscus, Dipodomys, and Chaetodipus) have tested positive for arenavirus antibodies (Milazzo et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sandwich antigen-capture (Ag-capture) ELISAs using these mAbs as capture antibodies were developed and confirmed to be sensitive and specific for detecting the respective arenavirus NPs. (mdpi.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies specific for these arenavirus proteins also reacted with the three CHV antigens. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results show a widespread distribution but low prevalence of DOBV in Trentino, and demonstrate that the arenavirus antibodies are a common finding in several other rodent species besides the house mouse. (elsevier.com)
  • Western blotting is feasible for demonstrating antibodies to arenaviruses and filoviruses. (asmscience.org)
  • Serology reagents intended to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Lassa fever virus, an enveloped RNA virus of the old world group of Arenaviruses (i.e. (medicalproductguide.com)
  • Hantavirus and arenavirus antibodies in persons with occupational rodent exposure. (xuebalib.com)
  • Here, we describe efforts to produce cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies that bind to both New and Old World arenaviruses. (omictools.com)
  • IgG antibodies to hantavirus and arenavirus were found in 5/506 (1%) and 2/506 (0.4%) serum samples, respectively. (rsbmt.org.br)
  • We performed a cross-sectional study from August 2012 to May 2013 to find IgG antibodies against arenavirus and hantavirus in patients that attended a routine, voluntary examination at the health medical center. (rsbmt.org.br)
  • Genomic sense RNA packaged into the arenavirus virion is designated negative-sense RNA, and must first be copied into a positive-sense mRNA in order to produce viral protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) caused by arenaviruses are acute diseases characterized by fever, headache, general malaise, impaired cellular immunity, eventual neurologic involvement, and hemostatic alterations that may ultimately lead to shock and death. (mdpi.com)
  • The goal of this article is to review the recent advances in developing laboratory diagnostic assays based on recombinant viral proteins for the diagnosis of VHFs and epidemiological studies on the VHFs caused by arenaviruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Fukushi S, Tani H, Yoshikawa T, Saijo M, Morikawa S. Serological Assays Based on Recombinant Viral Proteins for the Diagnosis of Arenavirus Hemorrhagic Fevers. (mdpi.com)
  • A growing number of arenaviruses can cause a devastating viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) syndrome. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recent studies have revealed several potential pathogenic mechanisms of arenaviruses, including factors that increase viral replication capacity and suppress host innate immunity, which leads to high viremia and generalized immune suppression as the hallmarks of severe and lethal arenaviral HF diseases. (nih.gov)
  • This review summarizes current knowledge of the roles of each of the four viral proteins and some known cellular factors in the pathogenesis of arenaviral HF as well as of some human primary cell-culture and animal models that lend themselves to studying arenavirus-induced HF disease pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Arenavirus glycoproteins (GPCs) are considered class I viral fusion proteins, but in multiple regards, they are quite unusual for viral envelope proteins. (uiowa.edu)
  • Three amino acid changes in the C terminus of L are required for increased virulence of the P18 strain by increasing the rate of viral genome replication, indicating that the rate of viral genome replication is an important factor in arenavirus pathogenesis. (emory.edu)
  • El aislamiento viral en periodo febril es el gold standart, pero implica el contacto con el virus que es altamente infectante, lo que representa un problema de salud pública. (unicordoba.edu.co)
  • Arenavirus, a bisegmented ambisense single-stranded RNA virus, is 1 of the viral pathogens responsible for hemorrhagic fever in Africa and South America. (cdc.gov)
  • The arenavirus nucleoprotein (NP) is the main protein component of viral nucleocapsids and is strictly required for viral genome replication mediated by the L polymerase. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Treatments for the viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) by arenaviruses are very limited. (bvsalud.org)
  • Arenaviruses are comprised of two RNA genome segments and four proteins, the polymerase L, the envelope glycoprotein GP, the matrix protein Z, and the nucleoprotein NP. (mdpi.com)
  • Pasquato, A. Envelope Glycoprotein of Arenaviruses. (mdpi.com)
  • An unusual feature in the arenavirus envelope glycoprotein complex (GP-C) is the presence of a myristoylated stable signal peptide (SSP) in addition to the receptor binding subunit G1 and the transmembrane fusion subunit G2. (umt.edu)
  • Pichinde virus is an arenavirus which causes severe illness similar to Lassa fever in strain 13 guinea pigs, but does not cause severe illness in man. (ajtmh.org)
  • 5' termini of Pichinde arenavirus S RNAs and mRNAs contain nontemplated nucleotides. (asm.org)
  • Primer extension of Pichinde arenavirus purified virion RNA suggests that genomes have at least a single nontemplated base at the 5' end which is a G in all cDNA clones having one such single base. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, in a hamster model of arenaviral hemorrhagic fever based on challenge with clade A Pichinde arenavirus, MY-24 did not offer significant protection against mortality. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, arenavirus envelope glycosylation impairs the protective efficacy rather than the induction of nAbs, and thereby prevents efficient antibody-mediated virus control. (nih.gov)
  • The GPC of arenaviruses is the only antigen correlated with antibody-mediated neutralization, but despite strong cross-reactivity of convalescent antisera between related species, weak or no cross-neutralization occurs. (uiowa.edu)
  • In the absence of available vaccines or therapeutic agents, the hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses remain a serious public health and biodefense concern. (asm.org)
  • A novel strategy for developing live-attenuated arenavirus vaccines. (technologypublisher.com)
  • Safe and effective arenavirus vaccines have remained elusive and none are currently available. (technologypublisher.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Rochester are developing a codon deoptimization (CD) -based approach as a novel strategy for live-attenuated arenavirus vaccines. (technologypublisher.com)
  • Development of live-attenuated arenavirus vaccines based on codon deoptimization," J Virol . (technologypublisher.com)
  • Public health concerns posed by human pathogenic arenaviruses are aggravated by the lack of licensed vaccines and current therapy being limited to the use of the nucleoside analog ribavirin (Rib) that can cause significant side effects and requires an early and i.v. administration for optimal efficacy ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, it is important to develop novel effective antiarenaviral drugs and vaccines, tasks that would be facilitated by a detailed understanding of the arenavirus molecular and cell biology. (pnas.org)
  • More recently, new arenaviruses have been associated with HF, such as Chapare virus in Bolivia [ 2 ] or Lujo virus (LUJV) in Southern Africa [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • It is the first new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from Africa identified in nearly four decades. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A detailed genetic analysis of this novel arenavirus, named Lujo virus, after the sites of the outbreak (Lusaka, Zambia, and Johannesburg, South Africa) is published online in PLoS Pathogens ( http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000455 ). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Until 2007, Lassa virus was the only known arenavirus to cause hemorrhagic fever in Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • However, during September-October 2008, 5 hemorrhagic fever cases caused by a novel arenavirus named Lujo virus occurred in South Africa ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Lujo Virus is the first new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from Africa identified in nearly four decades. (news-medical.net)
  • In 2008, a highly fatal outbreak of HF in Johannesburg was attributed to a previously unknown arenavirus , dubbed the Lujo virus (i. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Intensive laboratory investigation attributed the outbreak to a novel arenavirus , dubbed 'Lujo' (i. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Four New World clade B arenaviruses (MACV, JUNV, GTOV, and SABV) use transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) as a cellular receptor ( 28 ). (pnas.org)
  • The pathogenic New World arenaviruses, such as JUNV, bind the host cell transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) through the G1 receptor-binding subunit of GPC ( 1 , 54 ), whereupon the virus is endocytosed. (asm.org)
  • Two closely related arenaviruses, MACV and JUNV, have near identical overall GPC architecture and share a host receptor, transferrin receptor 1. (uiowa.edu)
  • Arenavirus and hantavirus circulate in indigenous populations from the Colombian Caribbean region, and the results indicate that the indigenous populations are exposed to these zoonotic agents, with unknown consequences on their health, despite low seroprevalence. (rsbmt.org.br)
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of arenavirus and hantavirus in three indigenous communities located in the Colombia Caribbean region. (rsbmt.org.br)
  • In addition to other chapters in this volume, many reviews have been published in recent years about arenaviruses and their pathogenesis [ 1 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Human hemorrhagic Fever causing arenaviruses: molecular mechanisms contributing to virus virulence and disease pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • If all highlights created not, you'll see the three threads this read arenaviruses ii the molecular pathogenesis works. (higuerafontelo.com.ar)
  • Un gruppo dei servizi sanitari Boliviani, degli esperti in salubrità della Marina di Stati Uniti basati a Lima, del Perù e del Centri Per Il Controllo E La Prevenzione Delle Malattie degli Stati Uniti ha caratterizzato "l'arenavirus di Chapare,„ un arenavirus precedentemente non riconosciuto, scoperto nei campioni del siero da un paziente in Bolivia rurale che finalmente è morto dell'infezione. (news-medical.net)
  • Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia. (unicordoba.edu.co)
  • The group now reports in the journal Cell Reports Medicine that the combination of two different arenaviruses produced promising results in animal experiments. (bionity.com)
  • Arenaviruses have a segmented RNA genome that consists of two single-stranded ambisense RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Focusing on arenaviruses, these genome-wide surveys will reveal host factors indicative of virus entry tactics never observed before. (europa.eu)
  • [ 5 ] The organisation of the genome is typical of arenaviruses but their glycoproteins resemble those of filoviruses . (omicsgroup.org)
  • Arenaviruses have a bisegmented negative-strand RNA genome. (pnas.org)
  • The diseases derived from arenaviruses range in severity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supportive care and ribavirin remain the predominant strategies for treating most of the arenavirus-induced diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • When symptomatic, they generally begin with a minor nonspecific flu-like illness that may evolve to one of a few syndromes (see table Arbovirus, Arenavirus, and Filovirus Diseases ). (merckmanuals.com)
  • A new arenavirus in a cluster of fatal transplant-associated diseases. (notifylibrary.org)
  • En: Guerrant R, Walker D, Weller P. Tropical Infectious Diseases. (unicordoba.edu.co)
  • It shares this receptor with the prototypic Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus is the only Arenavirus to exist in both areas but is classified as an Old World virus. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus (LSMV) was the first arenavirus to be isolated in 1933 during a study of an epidemic of St. Louis Encephalitis. (kenyon.edu)
  • All of the highly pathogenic New World arenaviruses (NWA) phylogenetically segregate into clade B and require maximum biosafety containment facilities for their study. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • L'analisi di Sequenza dei segmenti specifici del virus più successivamente lo ha confermato come membro unico di Nuovi Arenavirus del Mondo di Clade B. (news-medical.net)
  • Dobbiamo imparare più circa questo virus: come è collegato con gli altri arenavirus, come causa la malattia, dove vive in natura,„ dice Ksiazek. (news-medical.net)
  • I will use biochemistry, microscopy, and cell biological assays to examine in detail the virus-host interplay with these factors and will identify promising new antiviral targets for arenavirus family members that cause human disease. (europa.eu)
  • Lassa virus, a member of the Arenavirus family, is very different from Ebolavirus (a filovirus), but both are zoonotic pathogens that may cause hemorrhagic fever. (virology.ws)
  • We recently developed arenavirus neutralization assays using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based pseudotypes bearing arenavirus recombinant glycoproteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Last Wednesday, the Minister of Health, Gabriela Monta o, reported that the virus that caused the death of two people and left in critical condition two doctors is the arenavirus. (flutrackers.com)
  • 2. Virus uptake into cells is mediated by endocytosis (OW arenaviruses: clathrin-independent, NW: clathrin-dependent). (nih.gov)
  • The life cycle of arenaviruses starts with virus attachment and entry into cells (Figure 3). (nih.gov)
  • en Sincelejo (Colombia) se detectó el genoma del virus coriomeningitis linfocítica en cerebros de roedores Mus musculus. (unicordoba.edu.co)
  • Los nuevos escenarios de transmisión de la fiebre hemorrágica Argentina desde la introducción de la vacuna a virus Junín vivo atenuado (candid#1): una experiencia en trabajadores golondrinas. (unicordoba.edu.co)
  • RT-PCR assay for detection of Lassa virus and related Old World arenaviruses targeting the L gene. (cdc.gov)
  • Los genes clonados de las proteínas de nucleocápside , N, de los arenavirus Junín y LCM (choriomeningitis linfocitaria) se insertaron en el vector de expresión pKG4 regulado por el promotor tardío del virus SV40 . (bvsalud.org)
  • RT-PCR analysis and subsequent analysis of the complete virus S and L RNA segment sequences identified the virus as a member of the New World Clade B arenaviruses, which includes all the pathogenic South American arenaviruses. (utmb.edu)
  • Arenaviruses include lethal human pathogens which pose serious public health threats. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, it is of great importance to detect these pathogens rapidly and specifically in order to minimize the risk and scale of arenavirus outbreaks. (mdpi.com)
  • Genetic diversity among arenavirus species in their respective rodent hosts supports the continued emergence of new pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Arenaviruses are one of the most neglected tropical pathogens. (emory.edu)
  • Our data support an in vivo role for TfR1 in the replication of most, if not all, NW clade B arenaviruses, and suggest that with modest changes in their GPs the nonpathogenic arenaviruses could use human TfR1 and emerge as human pathogens. (scripps.edu)
  • Relying on his pedigree as a scientist and the Institut Pasteur's expertise in computational modeling, King's research goal is to gain a better understanding of how the Arenavirus takes over a host cell, knowledge that could lay the groundwork for eventual development of an antiviral treatment. (uvm.edu)
  • Using GP-pseudotyped rLCMVΔGP/GFP, we have also obtained evidence supporting the feasibility of this approach to identify and evaluate candidate antiviral drugs against HF arenaviruses without the need of BSL-4 laboratories. (scripps.edu)
  • Since the subject of arenaviruses was visited by Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 14 years ago, enormous advances have been made in this area. (worldcat.org)
  • A class of novel, highly divergent arenaviruses, properly known as reptarenaviruses, have also been discovered which infect snakes to produce inclusion body disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • New World arenaviruses are found in the murid subfamily Sigmodontinae in specialized ecologic niches in South and North America ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • α-Dystroglycan is a cellular receptor for New World clade C and Old World arenaviruses ( 25 - 27 ). (pnas.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge on the geographic and natural rodent host ranges of New World arenaviruses in California. (ajtmh.org)
  • This study provides the first evidence that New World arenaviruses occur in Los Angeles and Orange counties and northwestern San Diego County, and the first evidence that Peromyscus and Reithrodontomys species are naturally infected with New World arenaviruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution. (umassmed.edu)
  • High-throughput sequencing yielded 103,632 sequences, of which 14 represented an Old World arenavirus. (notifylibrary.org)
  • The ability of a New World (NW) clade B arenavirus to enter cells using human transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) strictly correlates with its ability to cause hemorrhagic fever. (scripps.edu)
  • As opposed to filovirus VHF (23), in LF sufferers, the profound surprise, vascular harm, and hemorrhage in late-stage victims of Aged World arenaviruses aren't connected with a cytokine surprise. (saracatinib.info)
  • Once in the cell, arenavirus makes nucleoprotein and more transcriptase. (kenyon.edu)
  • Generation of recombinant arenavirus for vaccine development in FDA-approved Vero cells," J Vis Exp . (technologypublisher.com)
  • These biosafety hurdles could be overcome by the use of recombinant single-cycle infectious arenaviruses. (scripps.edu)
  • The OW and NW clade C arenaviruses use α-dystroglycan (αDG) as their primary receptor [29,30]. (nih.gov)
  • 6%, which would fall very close to the proposed cut off between species and strains for other arenavirus genotypes (Garcia et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most arenaviruses seem to be restricted to a single rodent species or even sub-species [ 14 , 15 ] suggesting adaptation to those specific hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arenavirus steals cap from cellular RNA and replication occurs. (kenyon.edu)
  • Entry of arenaviruses into their target cells is facilitated by the two noncovalently linked surface glycoproteins GP1 and GP2. (pnas.org)
  • The conserved 5' and 3' RNA termini sequences are complementary and allows each RNA segment to adopt a double-stranded RNA panhandle structure that maintains the termini in close proximity and results in a circular appearance to purified arenavirus genomic templates visualized by electron microscopy. (wikipedia.org)