An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. Members contain ARECOLINE and CATECHIN. The leaves and nuts have been used as masticatories, stimulants, and astringents in traditional medicine. The common name of betel is also used for PIPER BETLE. The common name of catechu is sometimes used for ACACIA CATECHU.
2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.
Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.
ISOQUINOLINES with a benzyl substituent.
An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the second stage of cysteine biosynthesis it catalyzes the reaction of homocysteine with serine to form cystathionine with the elimination of water. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA and HOMOCYSTINURIA. EC 4.2.1.22.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A plant species of the family CLUSIACEAE. It is a source of hydroxycitric acid.
A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. It is the source of the mangosteen fruit.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.

A common muscarinic pathway for diapause recovery in the distantly related nematode species Caenorhabditis elegans and Ancylostoma caninum. (1/85)

Converging TGF-beta and insulin-like neuroendocrine signaling pathways regulate whether Caenorhabditis elegans develops reproductively or arrests at the dauer larval stage. We examined whether neurotransmitters act in the dauer entry or recovery pathways. Muscarinic agonists promote recovery from dauer arrest induced by pheromone as well as by mutations in the TGF-beta pathway. Dauer recovery in these animals is inhibited by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. Muscarinic agonists do not induce dauer recovery of either daf-2 or age-1 mutant animals, which have defects in the insulin-like signaling pathway. These data suggest that a metabotropic acetylcholine signaling pathway activates an insulin-like signal during C. elegans dauer recovery. Analogous and perhaps homologous cholinergic regulation of mammalian insulin release by the autonomic nervous system has been noted. In the parasitic nematode Ancylostoma caninum, the dauer larval stage is the infective stage, and recovery to the reproductive stage normally is induced by host factors. Muscarinic agonists also induce and atropine potently inhibits in vitro recovery of A. caninum dauer arrest. We suggest that host or parasite insulin-like signals may regulate recovery of A. caninum and could be potential targets for antihelminthic drugs.  (+info)

Heart rate responses to a muscarinic agonist in rats with experimentally induced acute and subacute chagasic myocarditis. (2/85)

We administered arecoline to rats, with experimentally induced chagasic myocarditis, in order to study the sinus node sensitivity to a muscarinic agonist. Sixteen month old rats were inoculated with 200,000 T. cruzi parasites ("Y" strain). Between days 18 and 21 (acute stage), 8 infected rats and 8 age-matched controls received intravenous arecoline as a bolus injection at the following doses: 5. 0, 10.0, 20.0, 40.0, and 80.0 microg/kg. Heart rate was recorded before, during and after each dose of arecoline. The remaining 8 infected animals and 8 controls were subjected to the same experimental procedure during the subacute stage, i.e., days 60 to 70 after inoculation. The baseline heart rate, of the animals studied during the acute stage (349 +/- 68 bpm, mean +/- SD), was higher than that of the controls (250 +/- 50 bpm, p < 0.005). The heart rate changes were expressed as percentage changes over baseline values. A dose-response curve was constructed for each group of animals. Log scales were used to plot the systematically doubled doses of arecoline and the induced-heart rate changes. The slope of the regression line for the acutely infected animals (r = - 0.99, b =1.78) was not different from that for the control animals (r = - 0.97, b = 1.61). The infected animals studied during the subacute stage (r = - 0.99, b = 1.81) were also not different from the age-matched controls (r = - 0.99, b = 1.26, NS). Consequently, our results show no pharmacological evidence of postjunctional hypersensitivity to the muscarinic agonist arecoline. Therefore, these results indirectly suggest that the postganglionic parasympathetic innervation, of the sinus node of rats with autopsy proved chagasic myocarditis, is not irreversibly damaged by Trypanosoma cruzi.  (+info)

Effects of chewing betel nut (Areca catechu) on the symptoms of people with schizophrenia in Palau, Micronesia. (3/85)

BACKGROUND: Although millions of people with schizophrenia live in betel chewing regions, the effects of betel chewing on their symptoms are unknown. Betel nut alkaloids include potent muscarinic cholinomimetics: recent research suggests that these agents may be therapeutic in schizophrenia. AIMS: To compare the primary and extrapyramidal symptom profiles and substance-using habits of betel chewing v. non-chewing people with schizophrenia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 70 people with schizophrenia. Symptom ratings measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS), and demographic and substance-use data, were compared for 40 chewers and 30 non-chewers of betel nut. RESULTS: Betel chewers with schizophrenia scored significantly lower on the positive (P = 0.001) and negative (P = 0.002) sub-scales of the PANSS than did non-chewers. There were no significant differences in extrapyramidal symptoms or tardive dyskinesia. CONCLUSIONS: Betel chewing is associated with milder symptomatology and avoidance of more harmful recreational drugs. These initial results indicate that longitudinal research is merited.  (+info)

Gene-experience interaction alters the cholinergic septohippocampal pathway of mice. (4/85)

Spatial learning requires the septohippocampal pathway. The interaction of learning experience with gene products to modulate the function of a pathway may underlie use-dependent plasticity. The regulated release of nerve growth factor (NGF) from hippocampal cultures and hippocampus, as well as its actions on cholinergic septal neurons, suggest it as a candidate protein to interact with a learning experience. A method was used to evaluate NGF gene-experience interaction on the septohippocampal neural circuitry in mice. The method permits brain region-specific expression of a new gene by using a two-component approach: a virus vector directing expression of cre recombinase; and transgenic mice carrying genomic recombination substrates rendered transcriptionally inactive by a "floxed" stop cassette. Cre recombinase vector delivery into transgenic mouse hippocampus resulted in recombination in 30% of infected cells and the expression of a new gene in those cells. To examine the interaction of the NGF gene and experience, adult mice carrying a NGF transgene with a floxed stop cassette (NGFXAT) received a cre recombinase vector to produce localized unilateral hippocampal NGF gene expression, so-called "activated" mice. Activated and control nonactivated NGFXAT mice were subjected to different experiences: repeated spatial learning, repeated rote performance, or standard vivarium housing. Latency, the time to complete the learning task, declined in the repeated spatial learning groups. The measurement of interaction between NGF gene expression and experience on the septohippocampal circuitry was assessed by counting retrogradely labeled basal forebrain cholinergic neurons projecting to the hippocampal site of NGF gene activation. Comparison of all NGF activated groups revealed a graded effect of experience on the septohippocampal pathway, with the largest change occurring in activated mice provided with repeated learning experience. These data demonstrate that plasticity of the adult spatial learning circuitry can be robustly modulated by experience-dependent interactions with a specific hippocampal gene product.  (+info)

A rapid method for measuring miotic activity of drugs in the intact mouse eye. (5/85)

A rapid and precise method for evaluating the miotic activity of cholinergic drugs has been developed based on Long's method for measuring the rate of mydriasis. The rate of reversal of mydriasis developed previously in the intact mouse eye by a mild mydriatic (phenycyclidine) is used to evaluate the miotic activity. The method provides a useful tool for measuring and comparing the miotic activity of acetylcholine agonists and cholinesterase inhibitors.  (+info)

A pertussis toxin-sensitive 8-lipoxygenase pathway is activated by a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in aplysia neurons. (6/85)

Acetylcholine (ACh) activates two types of chloride conductances in Aplysia neurons that can be distinguished by their kinetics and pharmacology. One is a rapidly desensitizing current that is blocked by alpha-conotoxin-ImI and the other is a sustained current that is insensitive to the toxin. These currents are differentially expressed in Aplysia neurons. We report here that neurons that respond to ACh with a sustained chloride conductance also generate 8-lipoxygenase metabolites. The sustained chloride conductance and the activation of 8-lipoxygenase have similar pharmacological profiles. Both are stimulated by suberyldicholine and nicotine, and both are inhibited by alpha-bungarotoxin. Like the sustained chloride conductance, the activation of 8-lipoxygenase is not blocked by alpha-conotoxin-ImI. In spite of the similarities between the metabolic and electrophysiological responses, the generation of 8-lipoxygenase metabolites does not appear to depend on the ion current since an influx of chloride ions is neither necessary nor sufficient for the formation of the lipid metabolites. In addition, the application of pertussis toxin blocked the ACh-activated release of arachidonic acid and the subsequent production of 8-lipoxygenase metabolites, yet the ACh-induced activation of the chloride conductance is not dependent on a G protein. Our results are consistent with the idea that the nicotinic ACh receptor that activates the sustained chloride conductance can, independent of the chloride ion influx, initiate lipid messenger synthesis.  (+info)

Oral submucous fibrosis in a 11-year-old Bangladeshi girl living in the United Kingdom. (7/85)

A case of oral submucous fibrosis occurring in a 11-year-old Bangladeshi girl is presented. This paper reviews the aetiology, clinical presentation and treatment modalities of oral submucous fibrosis. This case highlights the link between oral submucous fibrosis and the regular use of areca-nut (paan) and the newer transcultural oral tobacco products. This association has been reported among children resident in the Indian sub-continent but is unrecorded for United Kingdom residents. The case report underlines the danger that children face with products which are clearly targeted at them by the tobacco industry.  (+info)

Areca nut extract and arecoline induced the cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis of cultured oral KB epithelial cells: association of glutathione, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential. (8/85)

There are 600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers in the world. BQ chewing is a major etiologic factor of oral cancer. Areca nut (AN) and arecoline may inhibit the growth of oral mucosal fibroblasts (OMF) and keratinocytes. In this study, AN extract (100-800 microg/ml) and arecoline (20-120 microM) inhibited the growth of oral KB cells by 36-90 and 15-75%, respectively. Exposure to arecoline (> 0.2 mM) for 24 h induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest of OMF and KB cells. Areca nut extract (> 400 microg/ml) also induced G(2)/M arrest of KB cells, being preceded by S-phase arrest at 7-h of exposure. No evident sub-G(0)/G(1) peak was noted. Marked retraction and intracellular vacuoles formation of OMF and KB cells were observed. Glutathione (GSH) level, mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltabetam) and H(2)O(2) production of KB cells were measured by flow cytometry. GSH level [indicated by 5-chloromethyl-fluorescein (CMF) fluorescence] was depleted by 24-h exposure of KB cells to arecoline (0.4-1.2 mM) and AN extract (800-1200 microg/ml), with increasing the percentage of cells in low CMF fluorescence. By contrast, arecoline (0.1-1.2 mM) and AN extract (800-1200 microg/ml) induced decreasing and increasing H(2)O(2) production (by 2',7'-dichloro- fluorescein fluorescence), respectively. Hyperpolarization of Deltabetam (increasing of rhodamine uptake) was noted by 24-h exposure of KB cells to arecoline (0.4-1.2 mM) and AN extract (800-1200 microg/ml). AN extract (100- 1200 microg/ml) and arecoline (0.1-1.2 mM) induced little DNA fragmentation on KB cells within 24 h. These results indicate that AN ingredients are crucial in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and oral cancer by differentially inducing the dysregulation of cell cycle control, Deltabetam, GSH level and intracellular H(2)O(2) production, these events being not coupled with cellular apoptosis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Areca nut extract and arecoline induced the cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis of cultured oral KB epithelial cells. T2 - Association of glutathione, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential. AU - Chang, M. C.. AU - Ho, Y. S.. AU - Lee, P. H.. AU - Chan, C. P.. AU - Lee, J. J.. AU - Hahn, L. J.. AU - Wang, Y. J.. AU - Jeng, J. H.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - There are 600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers in the world. BQ chewing is a major etiologic factor of oral cancer. Areca nut (AN) and arecoline may inhibit the growth of oral mucosal fibroblasts (OMF) and keratinocytes. In this study, AN extract (100-800 μg/ml) and arecoline (20-120 μM) inhibited the growth of oral KB cells by 36-90 and 15-75%, respectively. Exposure to arecoline (,0.2 mM) for 24 h induced G 2/M cell cycle arrest of OMF and KB cells. Areca nut extract (,400 μg/ml) also induced G 2/M arrest of KB cells, being preceded by S-phase arrest at 7-h of exposure. No evident sub-G 0/G 1 peak was ...
Arecoline is a major alkaloid of areca nut and has been effect on central nervous system. Although arecoline-induced neurotoxicity has been reported, the possible underlying neurotoxic mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Increasing evidences have shown that both excessive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and disturbance of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production are involved in the pathophysiology of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Here, the purpose of present study was to verify whether ER stress and the disturbance of endogenous H2S generation are also involved in arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. We found that treatment of PC12 cells with arecoline induced the down-regulation of cells viability and up-regulation of apoptosis and the activity of caspase-3, indicating the neurotoxic role of arecoline to PC12 cells. In addition, arecoline also increased the expression of Bax (pro-apoptotic protein) and attenuated the expression of Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic protein) in PC12 cells. Simultaneously,
Title:Arecoline Increases the Production of Nitric Oxide and Post-Translational S-Nitrosoproteome in Endothelial Cells. VOLUME: 17 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Chien-Yi Wu, Wun-Rong Lin, Cherng-Jye Jeng, Chien-Hsing Wu and Bin Huang*. Affiliation:Department of Pediatrics, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung 82445, Department of Urology, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 10449, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, College of Life Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708. Keywords:Arecoline, nitric oxide, S-nitrosylation, iTRAQ, proteomics, endothelial cells.. Abstract:. Background: Arecoline is known as a carcinogenic toxicant. The refreshment effect of arecoline is mainly due to the increase in vasodilation and blood flow. ...
Listing your company for Arecoline hydrobromide allows buyers to find your information through our directory pages which appear in the top positions when a search is conducted in Google, Yahoo!, MSN etc ...
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) recognize ligands of widely different efficacies, from inverse to partial and full agonists, which transduce cellular signals at differentiated levels. However, the mechanism of such graded activation remains unclear. Using the Gaussian accelerated molecular dynamics (GaMD) method that enables both unconstrained enhanced sampling and free energy calculation, we have performed extensive GaMD simulations (∼19 μs in total) to investigate structural dynamics of the M2 muscarinic GPCR that is bound by the full agonist iperoxo (IXO), the partial agonist arecoline (ARC), and the inverse agonist 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB), in the presence or absence of the G-protein mimetic nanobody. In the receptor-nanobody complex, IXO binding leads to higher fluctuations in the protein-coupling interface than ARC, especially in the receptor transmembrane helix 5 (TM5), TM6, and TM7 intracellular domains that are essential elements for GPCR activation, but less flexibility ...
Following an intravenous benzodiazepine generally suffices. Note these situations once the alteration has occurred. Maintains consistency of environment, which facilitates a healthy pregnancy p. 27), try to sleep through the gi tract, placenta, and fetus. Central nervous system (fig. As you do find a change in gaba-receptorplex characteristics. Lithium has effects on pregnancy fears about the cause and action gastroenteritis (inflammation of the eye, is a structural analog of ghb, gbl was substituted for bal in chronic illness. Arecoline may cause increased potential for infection. Provide the client with i statements using references related to the environment. Consult your doctor. [note the plan of care with focus onponents to determine environmental conditions that would contribute to the emergency department setting, questions concerning the teratogenic effects were delayed for a patient weight of the skeletal system is thus protected from external events or circumstances, your personal ...
Agonists: 77-LH-28-1 • AC-42 • AC-260,584 • Aceclidine • Acetylcholine • AF30 • AF150(S) • AF267B • AFDX-384 • Alvameline • AQRA-741 • Arecoline • Bethanechol • Butyrylcholine • Carbachol • CDD-0034 • CDD-0078 • CDD-0097 • CDD-0098 • CDD-0102 • Cevimeline • cis-Dioxolane • Ethoxysebacylcholine • LY-593,039 • L-689,660 • LY-2,033,298 • McNA343 • Methacholine • Milameline • Muscarine • NGX-267 • Ocvimeline • Oxotremorine • PD-151,832 • Pilocarpine • RS86 • Sabcomeline • SDZ 210-086 • Sebacylcholine • Suberylcholine • Talsaclidine • Thiopilocarpine • Vedaclidine • VU-0029767 • VU-0090157 • VU-0152099 • VU-0152100 • VU-0238429 • WAY-132,983 • Xanomeline • YM- ...
Alzheimers disease (Advertisement) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting the central nervous program, which can be connected with progressive lack of memory space and cognition. arecoline derivatives about the structural requirements for powerful AChE inhibitors, some Suzuki coupling through the use of commercially obtainable 3-bromopyridine as beginning materials. The synthesis requires Mouse monoclonal to CD4.CD4 is a co-receptor involved in immune response (co-receptor activity in binding to MHC class II molecules) and HIV infection (CD4 is primary receptor for HIV-1 surface glycoprotein gp120). CD4 regulates T-cell activation, T/B-cell adhesion, T-cell diferentiation, T-cell selection and signal transduction three methods; the first rung on the ladder requires the Suzuki coupling, where combination of 3-bromopyridine and substituted aryl boronic acids in toluene: H2O (1: 1) was refluxed over night using bis(triphenylphosphine) palladium (II) dichloride like a catalyst in the current ...
The scope of work on this project is to extend the ​OMF (cOntrol and Management Framework) to design and implement a prototype of a GENI-compliant resource management, experiment control, and measurement framework, so that it can support experiments across heterogeneous testbed resources, with a specific focus on mobile testbeds. GENI control framework functions will be added to the OMF as they become defined. Support for mobile testbeds will include the handling of disconnection, and providing temporal and spatial control. Reference implementations of your GENI-compliant resource management, experiment control, and measurement framework will be provided to another wireless project, and its testbed will be integrated into your OMF environment as a federated testbed. Both testbeds will be connected to a GENI backbone network. ...
This book reviews the current status of P. mume research, highlighting how the new data coming from the release of the P. mume genomes can advance science and help to solve a number of problems facing
INTRODUCTION: Areca nuts are the seeds of Areca catechu L, a feather palm 15-17m high which is cultivated in Sri Lanka, the Malay states, South China, East of India, Philippines islands and parts of East Africa, including Zanzibar and Tanzania 1. Areca nuts find its chief use as a masticator. Chewing the nuts is a popular habit enjoyed by nearly one tenth of the human population 2.. Arecanut extracts reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species and release of myeloperoxidase by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes 3. While oral cancer had been a major health problem in the past 4, changes in habit patterns with betel chewing during the last decades have prompted a change in frequency of oral cancer in some countries 5. This study suggested that Areca catechu may have considerable therapeutic potential in the treatment of gastric diseases. The present study also provides biochemical evidence for the antiulcerogenic property of Areca catechu extract. Drug Preparation: Raw Areca nut extract ...
Areca catechu L. (areca nut) is a family of Arecaceae that can reach 15-20 m height with upright stem in 15 cm diameter. The fruit germinate after 1,5 months and 4 months again has the crested little leaves that not yet open. The new stem forming happen after 2 years and fruiting on 5-8 years old depend in the ground situation. This plant flowering at the beginning and end of the rain season and has lifetime around 25-30 years. The seeds of fruit are brownish until reddish brown, lithe curvy with the younger color. In the seed sliced field appear that perisperm is dark brown with irregular crease pierce the whitish endosperm (Depkes RI, 1989). 4. Chemical Ingredients. Areca nut seed contain alkaloid, like arekoline (C8 H13 NO2), arekolidine, arekain, guvakolin, guvasine and isoguvasine, tannin condensed, hydrolyzed tannin, flavan, phenolic compound, gallic acid, latex, lignin, evaporates oil and non evaporates oil, also salt (Wang et al., 1996). Nonaka (1989) states that areca nut seed contain ...
miRNAs have been implicated in inflammation, fibrosis, EMT and various types of cancers, such as oral cancer. Some miRNA families have gained attention for their clear function in tissue fibrosis. miR-30c has been reported to be a tumor suppressor in endometrial cancer (14) and to act as an independent predictor for the clinical benefit of tamoxifen therapy in patients with advanced breast cancer (15). A previous study showed that miR-206 overexpression inhibited estrogen receptor-α-dependent proliferation, impaired invasiveness and induced cell cycle arrest of estrogen receptor-α-positive endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell lines (16). miR-203 has previously been shown to play an important role in epithelial cell biology (17). miR-203 was differentially regulated in gingival epithelial cells in the presence of P. gingivalis. Silencing of miR-203 diminished the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), suggesting that alterations in miRNAs modulate ...
Background: There are 200-600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers in the world. BQ increases oral cancer risk. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is responsible for matrix degradation, cancer invasion and metastasis. Whether areca nut extract (ANE), a BQ component, stimulates MMP-9 secretion, and the related signaling pathways awaits investigation.Results: ANE (but not arecoline) stimulated MMP-9 production of gingival keratinocytes and SAS cancer epithelial cells. ANE stimulated TGF-β1, p-Smad2, and p-TAK1 protein expression. ANE-induced MMP-9 production/expression in SAS cells can be attenuated by SB431542 (ALK5/Smad2 inhibitor), 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol (TAK1 inhibitor), catalase, PD153035 (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor), AG490 (JAK inhibitor), U0126 (MEK/ERK inhibitor), LY294002 (PI3K/Akt inhibitor), betel leaf (PBL) extract, and hydroxychavicol (HC, a PBL component), and melatonin, but not by aspirin.Conclusions: AN components contribute to oral carcinogenesis by stimulating MMP-9 secretion, thus
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phenol removal from wastewater using arecanut husk (Areca catechu) as adsorbent. AU - Girish, C. R.. AU - George, Geoju M.. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - In this present research, the possibility of Arecanut husk an agricultural waste as an adsorbent for removing phenol from wastewater was explored. The adsorbent was chemically treated with phosphoric acid with an impregnation ratio of 1:4. The treated adsorbent was showing the surface area of 678.78 m2/g. The variation of experimental conditions like adsorbent dosage, concentration, pH, temperature and agitation speed were studied with response surface methodology (RSM). The equilibrium data were examined using various isotherm models and were found to follow Langmuir Isotherm. The kinetic data followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. The adsorption capacity was obtained as 25.746 mg/g showing that arecanut husk is a promising adsorbent.. AB - In this present research, the possibility of Arecanut husk an agricultural ...
Click here for Areca pictures! You can also find pictures of areca nut, areca palm tree, areca palma, areca catechu, areca palm care.
The relationship between muscarinic receptor-mediated inositol lipid hydrolysis and the generation of Ca2+ signals has been examined in human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. The resting cytoplasmic calcium concentration [( Ca2+]i) as determined by fura-2 fluorescence measurements was 59 +/- 2 nM. Upon the addition of oxotremorine-M, there was a 4-fold increase in [Ca2+]i (293 +/- 18 nM), with half-maximal stimulation obtained at an agonist concentration of 8 microM, a value similar to that previously observed for the enhancement of phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Addition of partial muscarinic agonists for phosphoinositide turnover (bethanechol, oxo-2, and arecoline) elicited correspondingly smaller increases in [Ca2+]i than did oxotremorine-M. Inclusion of EGTA lowered the basal [Ca2+]i within 2 min and markedly reduced (greater than 60%) the magnitude of the agonist-induced rise in [Ca2+]i. Addition of muscarinic agonists to SK-N-SH cells that had been prelabeled with [3H]inositol led to the rapid ...
Word Scramble - English word ARECAS: words that start with arecas, words that end with arecas, anagrams of arecas, how to spell arecas!, Words with Friends, Scrabble
Betel nut-actually a seed-is a stimulant produced by the Areca catechu tree. It is traditionally chewed in combination with betel leaf and...
Areca also have the 1320 range of non-RAID controllers which would seem particularly suited to ZFS use and have a Solaris x86 driver...do these controllers work with Illumos at the moment(not in HCL explicitly)? Can the Areca Sol driver be used to replace the arcmsr driver? Anyone any experiences? ...
65311 - Areca ARC-1226-8I. Unterstützte Speicherlaufwerk-Schnittstellen: SAS, SATA, Hostschnittstelle: PCI Express. RAID Level: 0, 1, 1E, 3, 5, 6, 10,
It is a demanding and thought involving process to acquire and design a landscape for corporate offices and malls. It taxes great amount of energy to design and sustain the landscapes and interior with natural plants and trees. This is where the role of artificial plants and landscaping products to mitigate the maintenance costs associated with landscaping becomes important. These live products are fitting options to beautify your office interiors and exterior landscapes. Artificial Areca Palms could enrich your interior with their top notch features and can give a Beautiful makeover to your offices.
ARCMSR(4) FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual ARCMSR(4) NAME arcmsr -- Areca RAID Controller driver SYNOPSIS To compile this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your kernel configuration file: device pci device scbus device da device arcmsr Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the following line in loader.conf(5): arcmsr_load=YES DESCRIPTION The arcmsr driver provides support for the Areca ARC-11xx, ARC-12xx, ARC-13xx, ARC-16xx and ARC-18xx series of SAS and SATA RAID controllers. These controllers feature RAID-0, 1, 3, 5, 6, and 10 and JBOD accelera- tion for up to 16 SATA drives. RAID level and stripe level migration, online capacity expansion, hot insertion/removal, automatic failover and rebuild, and SMART are also supported. Access to the arrays is provided via the SCSI CAM /dev/da? device nodes. A management interface is also present via the /dev/arcmsr? device node. Management tools for i386 and amd64 are available from Areca. HARDWARE The ...
With nearly 150 years of dynamic and passionate ministry in East Asia, we have knowledge, stories and inspiration to share! Browse our media and visit our bookstore, dig deeper to learn about the people and places where we serve and find unique ways you can be a part of what God is doing. ...
當內地會走過150個年頭,我們再次尋求神,幫助我們覺察到今日仍未竟的使命。經過調查、評估和禱告,我們深盼下列群體能經歷屬靈新突破: ...
Areca nut specific alkaloids arecoline, arecaidine, guvacoline, and guvacine have been implicated in both the abuse liability and the carcinogenicity of the areca nut. Betelquid and arecanut chewing betelquid and arecanut. Areca nut is the seed of the areca palm, which grows in the tropical pacific, asia, and parts of africa. Import data and price of arecanut under hs code 0802 zauba. Nevertheless, it is recommended that they all be considered as part of. Economics of areca nut cultivation in karnataka, a case study of shivamogga district. Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. China areca nut, china areca nut suppliers and manufacturers directory source a large selection of areca nut products at areca nut plates,dried whole betel nutsareca nuts,areca plates from china. Nonetheless, available data derive largely from surveys which require retrospective reports rather than from direct administration of areca nut to users ...
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Oral Submucous Fibrosis by people in this website by year, and whether Oral Submucous Fibrosis was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impairment of thymocyte function via induction of apoptosis by areca nut extract. AU - Lee, Chin Cheng. AU - Lin, Ying Chi. AU - Liu, Hsingjin Eugene. AU - Jan, Tong Rong. AU - Wang, Chia Chi. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Areca quid (AQ) chewing is a popular oral habit, especially in Southeast Asia cultures, in which children may be engaged in the addictive habit early in their lives. Extracts of areca nuts, the main component of AQ, have been shown to affect the functionality of T-cells. However, the potential influence of ANE on the development of T-cells is unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the impact of areca nut extracts (ANE) on thymocytes and the potential mechanisms of action. Mice administered intraperitoneally with ANE at 1, 5, or 25mg/kg daily for 5 days showed significant dose-dependent reductions in thymocyte viability. A marked decrease in the total number of thymocytes and the proportion of thymic CD4+CD8+ cells was observed in the 25mg ANE/kg-treated ...
Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of human papilloma viruses (HPV) in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and the etiologic implication of this finding warrants further studies. Objective: The prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and OSMF is high in India, and the diseases are partly attributed to high consumption of betel quid containing areca nut and tobacco. This study investigated the prevalence of HPV, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in two groups of patients using betel quid with tobacco, those with OSMF (n = 12) and those with OSCC (n = 62). Methods: DNA was extracted from all the samples and viral genome was examined by PCR/DNA sequencing. HPV-positive samples were analyzed separately for the high-risk types HPV 16 and 18. Results: HPV DNA, HSV DNA, and EBV DNA were detected in 11 (91%), 1 (8%), and 3 (25%) of the 12 samples from patients with OSMF compared with 15 (24%), 3 (5%), and 18 (29%), respectively, from 62 patients with OSCC. HPV 16 and ...
Background: Areca nut included Palmae plants that are almost in all parts of Indonesia. Areca husks have not been scientifically tested as a drug, not like a leaf and areca seeds. Pectin and flavonoids contained in the areca husks can be used as antidiarrheal medication. Objective: The objective of this research was to know the characteristics and chemical compounds of simplex powder and ethanol extract of areca husk, and antidiarrheal activity of ethanol extract of areca husk compared with loperamide HCl. Methods: The ethanol extract of areca husk was extracted by maceration with 80% ethanol. Filtrate was concentrated by rotary evaporator and dried by freeze dryer. Simplex powder and extracts were characterized and phytochemical screened, then antidiarrheal activity of extracts was tested using rats that had been induced with oleum ricini. Rats were divided into six group, each consisting of five rats, each rat was given doses of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg bw compared with loperamide HCl dose of ...
In 1952, Schwartz coined the term atrophica idiopathica mucosa oris to describe an oral fibrosing disease he discovered in 5 Indian women from Kenya. Joshi subsequently coined the termed oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) for the condition in 1953.
Cap Locking Bolts For Cone Crusher. cap screws tap bolts washers nuts from omnicone crusher parts threaded bar.The betel nut also known as the Areca nut is a seed of the Areca catechu tree which is a species of palm tree that grows in parts of the tropical Pacific Islands Asia and Africa Commonly known as the betel nut tree it can grow to a Get Price ...
NIH Rare Diseases : 50 the following summary is from orphanet, a european reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.orpha number: 357154disease definitionoral submucous fibrosis (osmf) is a chronic, progressive disease that alters the fibroelasticity of the oral submucosa, prevalent in india and southeast asia but rare elsewhere, and characterized by burning and pain in the oral cavity, loss of gustatory sensation, the presence of blanched fibrous bands and stiffening of the oral mucosa and oro-pharynx (leading to trismus and a progressive reduction in mouth opening) and an increased risk of developing oral squamous cellcancer (3-19%). it is usually associated with the chewing of the areca nut (an ingredient in betel quid) but the exact etiology is unknown and there is currently no effective treatment.visit the orphanet disease page for more resources. last updated: 7/16/2013 ...
Trabecular meshwork is known to be the most important pathway for the outflow of aqueous humor. Pathology changes of TM in glaucoma lead to increased outflow resistance of aqueous humor and IOP elevation [4,7-10]. Our results showed for the first time that elevated hydrostatic pressure could decrease the expression of ZO-1, disrupt the well organized ZO-1, cytoskeleton, and focal adhesions in TM cells. Oxidative stress, hypoxia and D-mannitol (high osmotic solution), nicotine and arecoline could also disrupt or influence the formation or arrangement of TJ protein (ZO-1) in many different kinds of cells [20-24]. Evidence indicates that oxidative stress may trigger degeneration in human TM, which affects the cytoskeleton and the adhesive properties in TM cells, subsequently leading to an increased IOP [25]. Instead, we found that elevated pressure in turn can also affect the cytoskeleton and the adhesive properties in TM cells. Tight conjunction can control ion selectivity and permeability of the ...
Herbal medicines are respected for its medicinal values through generations. Areca catechu is commonly called as betel nut belonging to the family Are..
Acacia catechu (Black Catechu) is also commonly known as Khadira. Here we are explaining its Uses, Benefits, Dosage and Properties.
La nuez de betel o nuez de areca es una semilla de la palmetra de betel (areca catechu), una de las plantas m s polulares del mundo. Diversos pueblos asi ticos, por influencias culturales, tienen la costumbre de masticar la semilla de esta especie vegetal. Entre sus principios activos, la arecaina y la arecolina, son alcaloides comparables a la nicotina en los efectos nerviosos estimulantes. La sustancia activadora causa un relajamiento agradable en la boca, sensaci n que se propaga al sistema nervioso central. Sin embargo, masticar regularmente la nuez de betel, ti e la saliva de rojo vivo y ennegrece los dientes, siendo extremadamente perjudicial para la salud oral, causando la p rdida precoz de dientes. A pesar de sus efectos mal ficos, existe la dificultad de erradicar el h bito, debido a su car cter cultural, donde las manchas son motivo de orgullo. La agencia internacional de investigaci n del c ncer (IARC) clasifica a la nuez de betel como un cancer geno, existiendo numerosos estudios que ...
If youre searching for the perfect indoor plant, you cant go wrong with an areca palm (Dypsis lutescens), which also goes by the names butterfly palm, yellow palm, or golden cane palm. Areca palms a Green Fingers, GFinger APP, GFinger Succulents Plant Diary, GFinger flower identification, Free Flower APP, GFinger gardening answer, GFinger Garden plants The Best Gardening APP.
VIJAY INDUSTRIES is manufacturer and supplier of Areca Food Container, based in Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore. we offer best quality Areca Food Container at affordable price.
seed of betel palm; chewed with leaves of the betel pepper and lime as a digestive stimulant and narcotic in southeastern Asia. ...
Uthara Menon, Poongodi V, Pitty Hari Raghuram , Kannan Ashokan, Giri Valanthan Veda Govindarajan, Arvind Ramanathan. Mutation Analysis of the Dimer Forming Domain of the Caspase 8 Gene in Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Squamous Cell Carcinomas . Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16 (11) , 4589- ...
Alhamdulillah Putri pertama ane.,lahir normal 28 maret 2011 namanya Zivara Sofie Suerland sekarang usianya udah 8 bulan, -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Udah dua minggu ini istri ane sakit sakitan gan, kalo ditanya sama ane jawabya lemes, kalo tiap pagi muntah muntah padahal muntahahnya ga ada cuma kaya air ludah aja. nah kebetulan pas kemaren JJS sambil
Compare NetStor 8-Bay SAS JBOD NA341A-S AND Areca SAS Enclosure ARC-4038-8ML ☎Call for pricing +44 20 8288 8555 [email protected] ✓Free Advice
Epowermac Australia offers Areca Thunderbolt RAID storage for MAC and PC users. With protection against drive failure as well as high performance hardware, it offers the best value for money.
Areca Nut or Betel Nut Control is Mandatory if India Wants to Reduce the Burden of Cancer Especially Cancer of the Oral Cavity ...
Eni Paulo, nexi noxou Timoti ta mitema sou xaixai noxou Kalisito Iesu, tekaukavunu vaivaikala ane o ulai noxinge ngingi ta mitema ane Kalisito Iesu ta nau mo ta tatila sou isaxilainge iloa ta mitema sou xaixai no a lalotu ne Pilipai.
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ARC5020_Firmware/ 15-Feb-2011 01:00 - ARC5033_Firmware/ 14-Dec-2010 01:00 - ARC5040_Firmware/ 15-Feb-2011 01:00 - ARC8040_Firmware/ 17-Jul-2013 07:45 - Apps/ 03-May-2005 01:00 - Manual_Spec/ 13-Mar-2013 01:00 - OldProducts/ 13-Mar-2013 01:00 - Thunderbolt/ 13-Mar-2013 01:00 - Firmware_Release.txt 14-Dec-2010 01:00 40918 Notice.txt 07-Aug-2008 01:00 1093 ...
Plastic has permeated into ​just about every aspect of our lives which has also lead to plastic pollution.Research suggests that around eight million metric tons of plastic waste enter the oceans each year, and its estimated that by 2050.. ...
chains in the Genus database with same CATH superfamily 3UU2 A; 4LSI A; 2PRN A; 4AUI A; 2ZFG A; 3O0E A; 8PRN A; 1HXT A; 2XG6 A; 3T24 A; 1HXX A; 3SY9 A; 1E54 A; 4C69 X; 2FGR A; 5DL5 A; 4GCS A; 3UPG A; 1GFN A; 3SY7 A; 4BUM X; 3SYB A; 1PRN A; 2XE2 A; 3POX A; 4FT6 A; 2Y2X A; 1OSM A; 1BT9 A; 2J4U P; 4FSP A; 4KRA A; 5JDP A; 3POQ A; 1BH3 A; 3A2S X; 4FRT A; 2OMF A; 3T20 A; 4LSF A; 3VZW X; 2O4V A; 4D5U A; 4KR4 A; 4FOZ A; 3WI4 A; 3T0S A; 3VZT X; 3SZD A; 3K19 A; 5DL8 A; 2XE5 A; 2QTK A; 4LSE A; 3VZU X; 1MPF A; 3JTY A; 5DL6 A; 1PHO A; 1OPF A; 4RJX A; 4FSO A; 4RJW A; 3PRN A; 3EMN X; 7PRN A; 3POR A; 5FVN A; 5PRN A; 6PRN A; 3SYS A; 3HW9 A; 4LSH A; 1GFM A; 2Y0L A; 5DL7 A; 2XE1 A; 3HWB A; 4D64 A; 2ODJ A; 2K4T A; 3POU A; 2ZLD A; 3WI5 A; 2Y0K A; 4JFB A; 1GFQ A; 2POR A; 1HXU A; 3SZV A; 4KR8 A; 2J1N A; 3VY9 X; 1GFO A; 4FRX A; 4FMS A; 2XE3 A; 2FGQ X; 1H6S 1; 4GCQ A; 4D65 A; 1GFP A; 2Y0H A; 3VY8 X; 4GCP A; 3FYX A; 3NSG A; #chains in the Genus database with same CATH topology 2R88 A; 3UU2 A; 3AAE B; 4RL9 A; 3VE2 A; 4F4B ...
B ttre med Allians. Ikv ll bes kte jag de lokala Moderaterna. Trevligt och intressant. Diskussioner f rdes som i h g grad handlade om en vilja att g ra mycket och de hinder som st r i v gen. Men det finns i vart fall en tydlig vilja - till exempel att forts tta s nka kommunalskatten trots l gkonjunkturen. Det r stor skillnad till det b ttre - i ett frihetligt perspektiv - med Alliansstyre, ocks lokalt. Ett ytterligare helt f rbisett bel gg f r att s r fallet ocks p riksniv framg r av denna lista. D r anges de 60 statliga myndigheter som nu l ggs ned av regeringen. En tydlig minskning av byr krati och av statens omf ng. S vitt jag vet lade inte s-regeringen ned en enda myndighet under sina tolv r. ...
Серия DG126-5.0 Характеристики Основные ∙ Серия DG126-5.0 Технические ∙ Провод 0.5-2.5кв. мм ∙ Рядность 1, однорядные ∙ Шаг 5мм ∙ Цвет корпуса ...Не найдено: aneСерия DG126-5.0 (DEGSON) - Компэлhttps://www.compel.ru › Каталог › Электромеханика › Клеммы › Клеммы зажимныеСохраненная копияОписание серии клемм зажимных DG126-5.0 производства DEGSON, документация, отличительные особенности, сравнение вариантов заказа.Не найдено: aneКартинки по запросу dg 126 ...
Walczymy o prawa kobiet do bezpiecznego i legalnego wyboru. W wielu krajach kobiety są skazywane i poniżane, kobiety umierają w wyniku kryminalizacji aborcji. Fakty są często makabryczne i zawsze poniżającym naruszeniem praw człowieka.
Knox is credited with at least two U.S. Patents, Production of Arecoline accepted on May 2, 1950 and Photochemical Preparation ... Knox, Lawrence Howland (May 2, 1950). "Production of arecoline". Google Patents. Retrieved June 9, 2020. Sluby, Patricia Carter ...
Guvacine Arecoline PubChem. "Guvacoline". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-06-14. v t e. ...
Arecoline Anatoxin-a Scheidweiler, KB; Plessinger, MA; Shojaie, J; Wood, RW; Kwong, TC (Dec 2003). "Pharmacokinetics and ...
"Showing metabocard for Arecoline (HMDB0030353)". Human Metabolome Database, HMDB. 4.0. Melchiorre C, Angeli P, Lambrecht G, ... Ghelardini C, Galeotti N, Lelli C, Bartolini A (2001). "M1 receptor activation is a requirement for arecoline analgesia". ...
Biologically, these effects may be a consequence of the arecoline that is found in areca nuts. The habit also exposes the fetus ... The major alkaloid in betel nut is Arecoline. Besides, there are other compounds such as Arecaidine, Guvacine, Isoguvacine, ... Various compounds present in the nut, including arecoline (the primary psychoactive ingredient which is similar to nicotine), ... and three main alkaloids-arecoline, arecaidine, and guvacine-all of which have vasoconstricting properties. The betel leaf ...
Arecoline, an alkaloid present in the Betel nut. Pilocarpine is a drug that acts as a muscarinic receptor agonist that is used ...
The lime in the betel quid [areca nut, lime and Piper betle leaves] causes hydrolysis of arecoline to arecailide, a central ... Liu YJ, Peng W, Hu MB, Xu M, Wu CJ (November 2016). "The pharmacology, toxicology and potential applications of arecoline: a ... The major parasympathetic and muscarinic effects of areca nut are due to arecoline. Sharan RN, Mehrotra R, Choudhury Y, Asotra ... Pilocarpine, arecoline and muscarine are rather selective parasympathetic agents; i.e., their cholinomimetic activity is ...
Lime is said to hydrolyse arecoline to arecaidine Voigt, V; Laug, L; Zebisch, K; Thondorf, I; Markwardt, F; Brandsch, M (2013 ...
Although novel ways to produce these compound exist, background stems from arecoline chemistry. E.g. Paxil and femoxetine also ...
The seed contains alkaloids such as arecaidine and arecoline, which, when chewed, are intoxicating and slightly addictive. ...
The tetrazole alvameline (8), for example, was developed as a bioisostere of the muscarinic cholinergic compound arecoline. The ... "Bioisosteres of Arecoline: 1,2,3,6-Tetrahydro-5-pyridyl-Substituted and 3-Piperidyl-Substituted Derivatives of Tetrazoles and 1 ... in which the position of the double bond mimics that in arecoline. Reaction of (3) with ethyl chloroformate results in N- ...
"Muscarinic receptor 1 agonist activity of novel N-arylthioureas substituted 3-morpholino arecoline derivatives in Alzheimer's ...
... modafinil Others arecoline (found in Areca catechu) caffeine (found in Coffea spp.) nicotine (found in Nicotiana spp.) ... arecoline Rauvolfia serpentina: rauwolscine yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe): yohimbine, corynantheidine many others Fungi: ...
The preparation of Paxil from arecoline is an application of this reaction, as well as the synthesis of GSK-372,475, for ...
... is a piperidine based stimulant drug which is synthesised from arecoline. It is similar to nocaine in chemical structure, and ...
... is moderately toxic, containing arbutin, arecoline and rhodoxanthin, and can cause vomiting, and ...
... or with some difficulty ante mortem by purging with arecoline hydrobromate. Detection of antigens in feces by ELISA is ...
... which are comprise arecoline, arecolodine, arecaidine, guvacine, isoguvacine, and govacolidine; the pharmacological and other ...
... arecoline, theophylline, theobromine, kava, khat, tobacco, L-theanine, or caffeine (in moderate amounts) or in moderate and ...
... arecoline MeSH D03.066.515.375 - clonixin MeSH D03.066.515.400 - etazolate MeSH D03.066.515.475 - niacin MeSH D03.066.515.530 ... arecoline MeSH D03.383.725.547.375 - clonixin MeSH D03.383.725.547.400 - etazolate MeSH D03.383.725.547.475 - niacin MeSH ...
... such as salicylic acid in willow bark or arecoline in areca nuts), because the word ingredient in many minds connotes a sense ...
The molecular formula C8H13NO2 (molar mass: 155.19 g/mol, exact mass: 155.0946 u) may refer to: Arecoline Bemegride Scopine ...
... caffeine and arecoline in breast milk" (PDF), Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 21 (16): 2693-2703, Bibcode:2007RCMS ...
... arecoline Rauvolfia serpentina: rauwolscine Yohimbe: yohimbine, corynantheidine Kanna: mesembrine and mesembrenone Yellow ...
Plant alkaloids Arecoline Nicotine Muscarine Pilocarpine (M3 receptors) Indirect acting parasympathomimetic substances may be ...
Tobacco, as well as arecoline and cannabis, two other plant neurotoxins that are widely used as recreational drugs in humans, ...
... powdered snail shell and betel nut/arecoline which is used as a chewing gum to the Ifugaos) is an indelible practice during the ...
... arecoline, eserine, emetine, psyhotrine, emataliine, cinchonamine, tubocurarine and other alkaloids of curare (magnolin, ...
... is a base, and its conjugate acid has a pKa ~ 6.8. Arecoline is volatile in steam, miscible with most organic ... Arecoline also acts as an agonist on the nicotinic receptor which may account for its anti-inflammatory activity. Arecoline ... Arecoline is metabolized by both kidneys and liver. Currently, 11 metabolites of arecoline are documented among which N- ... Arecoline has also been used medicinally as an antihelmintic (a drug against parasitic worms). Arecoline also increase ...
Arecoline is a base, and its conjugate acid has a pKa ~ 6.8. Arecoline is volatile in steam, miscible with most organic ... Arecoline also acts as an agonist on the nicotinic receptor which may account for its anti-inflammatory activity. Arecoline ... Arecoline is metabolized by both kidneys and liver. Currently, 11 metabolites of arecoline are documented among which N- ... Arecoline has also been used medicinally as an antihelmintic (a drug against parasitic worms). Arecoline also increase ...
... base; Methyl N-methyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydronicotinate; Methylarecaidine; Methyl 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methylnicotinate; N ...
Arecoline: An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic ... Arecoline (Arecolin). Subscribe to New Research on Arecoline An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of ... 01/01/2010 - "However, few reports exist as to the effects of arecoline in human tissues other than oral cancer cell lines. ". ... 07/01/2008 - "The time between arecoline injection and time of onset of the tremor in the controls and Mg-deficient rats were ...
The effect of the central cholinolytic benactyzine and the cholinomimetic arecoline on the uptake of45Ca by rat brain ... whereas arecoline led to a rapid initial increase in45Ca uptake. Benactyzine was shown to depress the effect of arecoline and ... Semenov, E.V. Effect of benactyzine and arecoline on the45Ca uptake by rat brain nerve endings. Bull Exp Biol Med 86, 1168-1170 ... Effect of benactyzine and arecoline on the45Ca uptake by rat brain nerve endings. *E. V. Semenov ...
where to buy 131448-17-4(Arecoline-d5 Hydrobromide Salt).Also offer free database of 131448-17-4(Arecoline-d5 Hydrobromide Salt ... Arecoline-d5 Hydrobromide Salt) for price inquiry. ... ARECOLINE-D5, HYDROBROMIDE SALT;NSC 56321-d5;Arecaidine-d5; ...
Arecoline administration also increased acetylcholine and 5-HIAA levels, but the arecoline-induced rise in acetyleholine ... EFFECTS OF PILOCARPINE OR ARECOLINE ADMINISTRATION ON ACETYLCHOLINE LEVELS AND SEROTONIN TURNOVER IN RAT BRAIN. DEAN R. ... EFFECTS OF PILOCARPINE OR ARECOLINE ADMINISTRATION ON ACETYLCHOLINE LEVELS AND SEROTONIN TURNOVER IN RAT BRAIN. DEAN R. ... EFFECTS OF PILOCARPINE OR ARECOLINE ADMINISTRATION ON ACETYLCHOLINE LEVELS AND SEROTONIN TURNOVER IN RAT BRAIN. DEAN R. ...
Caution! Arecoline is a possible carcinogen and is biologically active!**,/span,,/div,,/strong,,br /,. Arecoline is an alkaloid ... Though of topic, while we are on topic of arecoline, I might just as well attach the chapter on arecoline analogues and their ... Synthesis of Arecoline - 3 Steps from Nicotinic Acid. ,div style="text-align: center;",,span style="color: Red;",. **Caution! ... Arecoline is a muscarinic acetylcholine M1 and M2 receptor agonist, and has generated moderate interest in academic research ...
Effects of arecoline on miR-203, SFRP4 and TM4SF1 in the HaCaT cells. To further analyze the effects of arecoline on miR-203, ... Arecoline affects the expression of EMT-related genes in a dose-dependent manner. To determine the effects of arecoline on EMT ... To detect the effect of arecoline on EMT, the HaCaT cells were treated with arecoline (Selleck Chemicals, Houston, TX, USA) at ... we validated that arecoline induced EMT in the HaCaT cells. We found that arecoline significantly decreased the expression of ...
... www.iarc.fr/news-events/iarc-monographs-evaluation-of-the-carcinogenicity-of-acrolein-crotonaldehyde-and-arecoline/ ... Arecoline, which has a mild psychoactive effect, was also classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). Arecoline ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer evaluates carcinogenicity of acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and arecoline ...
... caffeine and arecoline in breast milk, using N-ethylnorcotinine as internal standard. Li … ... Arecoline induces TNF-alpha production and Zonula Occludens-1 redistribution in mouse Sertoli TM4 cells. Kuo TM, Luo SY, Chiang ... Caffeine and Arecoline in Breast Milk Manuela Pellegrini 1 , Emilia Marchei, Silvia Rossi, Federica Vagnarelli, Abhilasha ... Quantification of arecoline (areca nut alkaloid) in neonatal biological matrices by high-performance liquid chromatography/ ...
Arecoline improves vascular endothelial function in high fructose-fed rats via increasing cystathionine-γ-lyase expression and ... abolished the restoration of ACh-induced EDVR by high dose arecoline. On the contrary, treatment with high dose arecoline ... Conclusion: Arecoline treatment improves ACh-induced EDVR in high fructose-fed rats, and the potential mechanism of action ... Arecoline improves vascular endothelial function in high fructose-fed rats via increasing cystathionine-γ-lyase expression and ...
Background: Arecoline is known as a carcinogenic toxicant. The refreshment effect of arecoline is mainly due to the increase in ... Background: Arecoline is known as a carcinogenic toxicant. The refreshment effect of arecoline is mainly due to the increase in ... Chang, M.C.; Ho, Y.S.; Lee, P.H.; Chan, C.P.; Lee, J.J.; Hahn, L.J.; Wang, Y.J.; Jeng, J.H. Areca nut extract and arecoline ... Kuo, F.C.; Wu, D.C.; Yuan, S.S.; Hsiao, K.M.; Wang, Y.Y.; Yang, Y.C.; Lo, Y.C. Effects of arecoline in relaxing human umbilical ...
Arecoline. Clinical Trials. Clinical Trials Phase. Status. Purpose. Conditions. Count. Pharmacoeconomics. Manufacturers. Not ... Arecoline. Accession Number. DB04365. Description. An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm ... K. S. Keshave Murthy, Allan W. Rey, Dan S. Matu, Preparation of 1,2,5,6-tetra-hydro-3-carboalkoxypridines such as arecoline ... The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Arecoline. ...
The Arecoline freebase was prepared by treating the Arecoline Hydrobromide of commerce with concentrated aqueous sodium ... Arecoline Hydrobromide is a fairly cheap commercial starting material, $80/50g from Aldrich. Also, I think that it is used in ... Synthesis of Cocaine analogs from Arecoline. Written by Beagle, edited by Rhodium [ Back to the Chemistry Archive ] ... To a solution of 166ml of 1M 4-chlorophenylmagnesium bromide in 700ml ether was added 12.9g of arecoline freebase in 300ml ...
Arecoline is a cancer-causing compound found in betel nut / areca nut, similar to the nicotine in tobacco. Does it belong in ... In response, heres a more complete list of studies demonstrating the extremely toxic potential of arecoline:. *Arecoline- ... Arecoline, Arecoline Hydrobromide, Betel Nut, Blackstone Labs, Bodybuilding.com, Cancer, Carcinogen, Driven Sports, Insane Labz ... Arecoline from Betel Nut: Cancer-Causing Supplement Ingredient?. Posted on January 18, 2018 by Mike Roberto , 10 Comments ...
The [email protected] Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access ...
128: Acrolein, Crotonaldehyde and Arecoline. The results of the recent IARC Monographs evaluation of the carcinogenicity of ... acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and arecoline have now been published in The Lancet Oncology. This summary article presents the ...
Arecoline (CAS 300-8-3) is a covalent inhibitor of ACAT1. It is an agonist at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors M1 - M5. It ... Arecoline HBr , ACAT1 inhibitor Arecoline (CAS 300-8-3) is a covalent inhibitor of ACAT1 which binds to and disrupts only ACAT1 ... Treatment of xenograft nude mice with Arecoline resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in tumor mass.1 Agonist at muscarinic ... 3) Christie et al. (1981), Physostigmine and arecoline: effects of intravenous infusions in Alzheimer presenile dementia; Br. J ...
... indicating the neurotoxic role of arecoline to PC12 cells. In addition, arecoline also increased the expression of Bax (pro- ... were also reduced by arecoline treatment. These results indicate that arecoline-caused neurotoxicity to PC12 cells is involved ... Simultaneously, arecoline caused excessive ER stress in PC12 cells, as evidenced by the up-regulations of Glucose-regulated ... Although arecoline-induced neurotoxicity has been reported, the possible underlying neurotoxic mechanisms have not yet been ...
Buy bulk arecoline with CAS#300-08-3 which is an alkaloid from betel nut (Areca catechu) InChIKey=AXOJRQLKMVSHHZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N ... 500mg of Arecoline HBr. Not available to UK customers and other countries where scheduled. Review the laws in your country ...
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100% Pure Natural Areca Catechu Extract Arecoline Powder FOB Price: US $20 / kilogram Min. Order: 1 kilogram ...
Thread: Arecoline: Full Information (CNS Stimulant,ect.). by Estopell Replies. 270. Views. 19,750. ...
The active ingredient, arecoline, is contained in the areca nut or betel nut (the nut of the palm Areca catechu ), which is cut ...
... products and learn more about Arecoline hydrobromide, 98+%, ACROS Organics™ 100g; Glass ... Shop a large selection of Arecoline hydrobromide, 98+%, ACROS Organics™ ... arecoline hydrobromide, arecoline bromide, taeniolin, arecoline hbr, methyl 1-methyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carboxylate ... arecoline hydrobromide, arecoline bromide, taeniolin, arecoline hbr, methyl 1-methyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carboxylate ...
Français : Un alkaloïde est une molécule organique à base dazote et possédant des effets pharmacologiques sur lêtre humain et sur dautres animaux ...
Knox is credited with at least two U.S. Patents, Production of Arecoline accepted on May 2, 1950 and Photochemical Preparation ... Knox, Lawrence Howland (May 2, 1950). "Production of arecoline". Google Patents. Retrieved June 9, 2020. Sluby, Patricia Carter ...
  • [5] Arecoline hydrobromide was obtained 11% overall yield starting from nicotinic acid - no attempt was made to optimize yield. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Arecoline Hydrobromide is a fairly cheap commercial starting material, $80/50g from Aldrich. (designer-drug.com)
  • The Arecoline freebase was prepared by treating the Arecoline Hydrobromide of commerce with concentrated aqueous sodium bicarbonate, followed by extraction with methylene chloride, thorough drying of the extracts over anhydrous Magnesium Sulfate, followed by suction filtration and evaporation of the solvent in vacuo . (designer-drug.com)
  • Arecoline, one of the areca alkaloids, induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors in primary human buccal mucosal fibroblasts. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Arecoline, one of the areca alkaloids, is the main agent of the areca nut responsible for fibroblast proliferation ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In prior work (click here for a video), Papke and Horenstein studied arecoline, one of the psychoactive alkaloids in the areca nut. (newswise.com)
  • Four alkaloids: arecoline, arecain, guracaine and another in very small amounts. (stuartxchange.org)
  • A metabolomic approach to the metabolism of the areca nut alkaloids arecoline and arecaidine in the mouse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A procedure based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is described for the determination of nicotine and its principal metabolites cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine and cotinine-N-oxide, caffeine and arecoline in breast milk, using N-ethylnorcotinine as internal standard. (nih.gov)
  • Liquid/liquid extraction with chloroform/isopropanol (95:5, v/v) was used for nicotine, cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, cotinine-N-oxide and caffeine under neutral conditions and for arecoline under basic conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Limits of quantification were 5 microg/L for nicotine, cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, cotinine-N-oxide and caffeine, and 50 microg/L for arecoline using 1 mL human milk per assay. (nih.gov)
  • But to give you an idea of where we're going here, the arecoline in betel nut is akin to the nicotine in tobacco - both in terms of the benefits and the nasty side effects. (priceplow.com)
  • They discovered that arecoline stimulates the same brain cell receptors responsible for nicotine addiction but doesn't stimulate the other types of nicotine receptors. (newswise.com)
  • Despite the similarities between the peripheral muscarinic actions of pilocarpine and arecoline, the central excitatory effect of pilocarpine HCL (100 mg/kg i.p.) lasted several hours in rats and was accompanied by clonic movementS, whereas the excitation induced by arecoline (50 mg/kg i.p.) lasted only 10 minutes and was associated with tremors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Arecoline resembles pilocarpine and muscarine in its effect. (stuartxchange.org)
  • Idelivery - animals vntli cardiac weakness should not receive pilocarpine or arecoline. (riseaustin.org)
  • Conclusion Intervention of arecoline contributes to the increase of permeability of DOK cell monolayer model, which maybe an important reason for the cancerization of dysplastic oral epithelia, however Ca 2+ might weaken these effects of arecoline in the process. (kqjbfz.com)
  • Effects of arecoline and calcium ion on the permeability of dysplastic oral epithelia model in vitro [J].Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases, 2017, 25(1): 21-25. (kqjbfz.com)
  • To explore the effects of arecoline on hepatic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes rats and to elucidate its possible mechanism. (bvsalud.org)
  • Central and peripheral effects of arecoline in patients with autonomic failure. (bmj.com)
  • The main active component, the alkaloid arecoline, has potent cholinergic activity. (livingnaturally.com)
  • However, the most common is the parasympathetic stimulant alkaloid arecoline. (drugs.com)
  • Fruit flesh on seed contains the alkaloid arecoline with psychoactive properties and chewing produces euphoria, increased alertness, sweating, salivation. (stuartxchange.org)
  • Key lead structures in this research program were the Amanita muscaria constituents, muscimol and ibotenic acid, and the Areca nut alkaloid, arecoline, all of which interact nonselectively with GABA, glutamate, and muscarinic receptors, respectively. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • The methyl esters of arecoline and guvacoline are hydrolyzed in the presence of alkali to the respective acids, arecaidine and guvacine. (drugs.com)
  • The contents of arecoline, arecaidine and guvacine in SA and CSA. (hindawi.com)
  • The results of the recent IARC Monographs evaluation of the carcinogenicity of acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and arecoline have now been published in The Lancet Oncology . (who.int)
  • The oral epithelial cell line GNM cells were challenged with arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, by using Western blot analysis. (elsevier.com)
  • Background and Objective: Oral submucous fibrosis, a disease of collagen disorder, has been attributed to arecoline present in the saliva of betel quid chewers. (iisc.ac.in)
  • 4 Arecoline is thought to be responsible for some of the claimed effects of betel quid chewing, such as alertness, increased stamina, a sense of well-being, euphoria, and salivation. (drugs.com)
  • We found that treatment of PC12 cells with arecoline induced the down-regulation of cells viability and up-regulation of apoptosis and the activity of caspase-3, indicating the neurotoxic role of arecoline to PC12 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is concluded that the increase in 45 Ca uptake through the action of arecoline is connected with activation of Nachannels. (springer.com)
  • However, the molecular basis of the action of arecoline in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis is poorly understood. (iisc.ac.in)
  • The basic aim of our study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the action of arecoline on the expression of genes in oral fibroblasts. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Arecoline is known to be a partial agonist of muscarinic acetylcholine M1, M2, M3 receptors and M4, which is believed to be the primary cause of its parasympathetic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arecoline administration also increased acetylcholine and 5-HIAA levels, but the arecoline-induced rise in acetyleholine occurred within five minutes and returned to normal within 20 minutes, well before the 5-HIAA levels began to rise. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Prior administration of atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg i.p.), which blocked the overt behavioral and cholinomimetic actions of both drugs, diminished the arecoline-incluced rises in acetylcholine and 5-HIAA levels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Arecoline is a muscarinic acetylcholine M1 and M2 receptor agonist, and has generated moderate interest in academic research for use in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative conditions, though its application is hindered by the compound's reported carcinogenicity ( see Wikipedia ). (sciencemadness.org)
  • Treatment of xenograft nude mice with Arecoline resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in tumor mass. 1 Agonist at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors M1 - M5 (EC 50 in the range of 7-410 nM). (focusbiomolecules.com)
  • Found throughout the body, Ach is crucial for autonomic activation of the central nervous system and by binding to the muscarinic receptor, arecoline increases cholinergic activity (more acetylcholine) (2). (anabolicminds.com)
  • It has been showed that arecoline exposure stimulates fibroblast growth ( 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • These findings suggest that arecoline stimulates the HPA axis centrally, mainly via secretion of CRH. (euc.ac.cy)
  • These data suggest that the muscarinic cholinergic agonist arecoline stimulates the HPA axis in the rat and that this effect is mediated mainly by the release of endogenous CRH. (euc.ac.cy)
  • Methods: The expression levels of miR-21 in arecoline-stimulated normal buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs) and OSF specimens were determined by qRT-PCR. (elsevier.com)
  • A recent study also demonstrated that arecoline induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors in primary human buccal mucosal fibroblasts ( 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Previous studies demonstrated that upregulation of several molecules involved in EMT, such as vimentin, were expressed in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts following arecoline treatment ( 9 ), suggesting that the EMT process may be directly involved in the pathogenesis of OSF. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Arecoline (/əˈrɛkəliːn/) is a nicotinic acid-based mild parasympathomimetic stimulant alkaloid found in the areca nut, the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu). (wikipedia.org)
  • Arecoline also acts as an agonist on the nicotinic receptor which may account for its anti-inflammatory activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owing to its muscarinic and nicotinic agonist properties, arecoline has shown improvement in the learning ability of healthy volunteers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arecoline, which has a mild psychoactive effect, was also classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) . (who.int)
  • contains arecoline, a stimulant comparable to caffeine. (hoboes.com)
  • [ 16 ] In one study, arecoline was found to elevate the mRNA and protein expression of cystatin C, a nonglycosylated basic protein consistently up-regulated in a variety of fibrotic diseases, in a dose-dependent manner in persons with oral submucous fibrosis. (medscape.com)
  • When influenced by slaked lime, arecoline is hydrolyzed to arecadine, which has pronounced effects on fibroblasts ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It was also reported that arecoline depleted cellular glutathione (GTH) levels, and subsequently induced various genotoxic and cytotoxic stimulation in oral mucosal fibroblasts ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Material and Methods: Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) and primary human gingival fibroblasts were treated with arecoline in combination with various pathway inhibitors, and the expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoform genes and of collagen isoforms was assessed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. (iisc.ac.in)
  • The effect of the central cholinolytic benactyzine and the cholinomimetic arecoline on the uptake of 45 Ca by rat brain synaptosomes was studied in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Jeng, J.H. Areca nut extract and arecoline induced the cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis of cultured oral KB epithelial cells: association of glutathione, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Conclusion: Taken together, our data highlight the importance of arecoline-induced epithelial changes in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Arecoline is volatile in steam, miscible with most organic solvents and water, but extractable from water by ether in presence of dissolved salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active ingredient in betel nut is a volatile oil called arecoline. (factsanddetails.com)
  • Arecaidine is also formed during liver metabolism of arecoline in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aim: To investigate the effect of arecoline, a major component of betel nut, on vascular endothelial function in high fructose-fed rats and the potential mechanisms underlying the effect. (chinaphar.com)
  • At the beginning of week 13, the rats were injected ip with low (0.5 mg·kg −1 ·d −1 ), medium (1.0 mg·kg −1 ·d −1 ) or high (5.0 mg·kg −1 ·d −1 ) doses of arecoline for 4 weeks. (chinaphar.com)
  • Pretreatment of the aortic rings rings from high fructose-fed rats with the CSE inhibitor propargylglycine (10 mmol/L) or the ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channel blocker glibenclamide (10 mmol/L) abolished the restoration of ACh-induced EDVR by high dose arecoline. (chinaphar.com)
  • On the contrary, treatment with high dose arecoline significantly impaired ACh-induced EDVR in the aortic rings from control rats, and pretreatment with propargylglycine or glibenclamide did not cause further changes. (chinaphar.com)
  • Arecoline treatment improves ACh-induced EDVR in high fructose-fed rats, and the potential mechanism of action might be associated with increase of CSE expression and activation of K ATP channels by arecoline. (chinaphar.com)
  • To examine the site on the HPA axis that is stimulated by cholinergic agents, we evaluated the in vivo and in vitro effects of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist arecoline in intact and pituitary stalk-transected rats as well as on isolated rat hypothalami, dispersed anterior pituicytes, and adrenocortical cells in culture. (euc.ac.cy)
  • Arecoline, injected iv to catheterized, freely moving male Sprague-Dawley rats, stimulated plasma ACTH and corticosterone release in a dose-dependent fashion. (euc.ac.cy)
  • rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 8) control group , model group and model group were treated with different dose (0, 0.5, 1, 5 mg/kg) of arecoline . (bvsalud.org)
  • 1.5 mg/kg arecoline could significantly decrease the level of fasting blood glucose , blood lipid , blood insulin level and liver G6Pase, PEPCK, IL-6 , TNF-alpha mRNA level in type 2 diabetes rats . (bvsalud.org)
  • Arecoline improved hepatic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes rats by increasing the mRNA levels of CAR and PXR leading to the creased glucose metabolism and inflammation related genes expression. (bvsalud.org)
  • In conclusion, the vitamins C and E partially attenuated the arecoline -induced hepatotoxiciy but basically had on protective effects against the arecoline -induced testicular toxicity . (bvsalud.org)
  • The muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine significantly blunted the ACTH response to arecoline. (euc.ac.cy)
  • The results showed that arecoline significantly increased the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and significantly decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione -S- transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase ( CAT ) in the liver tissues . (bvsalud.org)
  • 1.5 mg/kg arecoline also could significantly increase CAR , PXR mRNA level and p-AKT and GLUT4 protein expression. (bvsalud.org)
  • Currently, 11 metabolites of arecoline are documented among which N-methylnipecotic acid was found to be a major metabolite of both arecoline and arecaidine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lime is said to hydrolyse almost all arecoline to arecaidine, a GABA reuptake inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arecoline most likely is present in the nut as a salt of tannic acid, and the lime facilitates the release of the base from the salt. (drugs.com)
  • Results: MiR-21 expression was induced in BMFs by arecoline treatment in a dose-dependent manner. (elsevier.com)
  • This hypothesis was confirmed by the dose-dependent ability of arecoline to cause hypothalamic CRH secretion in vitro, an effect antagonized by atropine, and its failure to elicit ACTH and corticosterone secretion by dispersed anterior pituicytes and adrenocortical cells in culture, respectively. (euc.ac.cy)
  • In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in arecoline-induced EMT in HaCaT cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Results: We observed the induction of transforming growth factor-beta2 by arecoline in HaCaT cells and this induction was found to be caused by activation of the M-3 muscarinic acid receptor via the induction of calcium and the protein kinase C pathway. (iisc.ac.in)
  • 173-174 °C. Arecoline is the primary active ingredient responsible for the central nervous system effects of the areca nut. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active ingredient is arecoline, a mild central nervous system stimulant. (mazatecgarden.com)
  • To a solution of 166ml of 1M 4-chlorophenylmagnesium bromide in 700ml ether was added 12.9g of arecoline freebase in 300ml ether at -10°C. The mix was stirred at -10°C for 30 min, poured onto ice and treated with 200ml of 10% HCl. (designer-drug.com)
  • Arecoline (CAS 300-8-3) is a covalent inhibitor of ACAT1 which binds to and disrupts only ACAT1 tetramers (IC 50 =11.1 μM). (focusbiomolecules.com)
  • Subsequently, we demonstrated that the administration of the miR-21 inhibitor suppressed the arecoline-induced myofibroblast characteristics, including a higher collagen gel contractility and cell motility, in normal BMFs. (elsevier.com)
  • Arecoline promotes excitation and decreases sleeping time. (wikipedia.org)
  • rCMRglc responses to quipazine, a postsynaptic serotonin agonist, and to arecoline and bromocriptine, cholinergic and dopaminergic agonists, were unchanged by PCA-pretreatment. (nih.gov)
  • Arecoline from Betel Nut: Cancer-Causing Supplement Ingredient? (priceplow.com)
  • Beginning with the Euphroamine formula, Designer Supplements introduces another potent fatloss ingredient to the industry in Arecoline. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Results In arecoline group, the lucifer yellow P app values of each subgroup were higher than that of control group ( P P (kqjbfz.com)
  • Here, the purpose of present study was to verify whether ER stress and the disturbance of endogenous H2S generation are also involved in arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Notably, the level of H2S in the culture supernatant and the expressions of cystathionine β-synthase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (two major enzymes for endogenous H2S generation in PC12 cells) were also reduced by arecoline treatment. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results indicate that arecoline-caused neurotoxicity to PC12 cells is involved in ER stress and disturbance of endogenous H2S generation and suggest that the modulation of ER stress and endogenous H2S generation may be potential therapeutic approach in treatment of arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Benactyzine was shown to depress the effect of arecoline and depolarization on uptake of the isotope. (springer.com)
  • The refreshment effect of arecoline is mainly due to the increase in vasodilation and blood flow. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The effect of arecoline on the S-nitrosylation of HSP60 chaperonin and calnexin was verified. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Arecoline is a major alkaloid of areca nut and has been effect on central nervous system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Arecoline is found naturally in the Areca catechu plant and is chewed socially in many regions of Asia for its stimulating effect. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Arecoline has the effect of inhibiting the pineal gland, thereby stimulating testicular function by releasing the restraints of melatonin (3) and subsequently increasing testosterone levels (4). (anabolicminds.com)
  • The main starting material used by the authors is Arecoline (3,4-unsaturated N-methyl-piperidine-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester), the active principle of the popular red betel nut. (designer-drug.com)
  • The authors start with arecoline (the active compound in betel nut: N-methyl-piperidine- 3-carboxylic acid methyl ester with a double bond between the 3 and 4 positions). (designer-drug.com)
  • As is evident from the statements above, Arecoline alone is clearly an excellent tool for fat loss as it speeds up your metabolism, blunts your appetite and helps enhance your training, but why stop there? (anabolicminds.com)
  • Intraperitoneal administration of arecoline decreases locomotor activity dose-dependently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arecoline present in it is used in preparation of anti-snoring medicine as well as decreases blood pressure. (indiastudychannel.com)
  • Arecoline has the ability to stimulate the digestive system through the activation of musacarinic receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The story starts with betel nut, whose background we'll discuss before getting into the dangers of the arecoline compound itself. (priceplow.com)
  • Arecoline, therefore, appears to be a compound suitable to selectively evaluate the responsiveness of the central component of the HPA axis. (euc.ac.cy)
  • Arecoline is merely the first constituent in a truly synergistic blend of ingredients. (anabolicminds.com)