An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. Members contain ARECOLINE and CATECHIN. The leaves and nuts have been used as masticatories, stimulants, and astringents in traditional medicine. The common name of betel is also used for PIPER BETLE. The common name of catechu is sometimes used for ACACIA CATECHU.
Diazomethane is an extremely hazardous and unstable organic compound, (CH2)N=N=O, with a methane substituted diazo group, that is highly explosive when heated, shocked or contaminated, and used as a powerful methylating agent in chemical syntheses, but its production and handling require special expertise and equipment due to the high risks involved.
2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.
Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.
ISOQUINOLINES with a benzyl substituent.
'Oral Submucous Fibrosis' is a chronic, insidious, and potentially disabling condition, characterized by progressive stiffness and loss of elasticity of the oral mucosa, due to fibrotic changes in the lamina propria, often associated with juxta-epithelial inflammation and epithelial atrophy.
An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.

A common muscarinic pathway for diapause recovery in the distantly related nematode species Caenorhabditis elegans and Ancylostoma caninum. (1/85)

Converging TGF-beta and insulin-like neuroendocrine signaling pathways regulate whether Caenorhabditis elegans develops reproductively or arrests at the dauer larval stage. We examined whether neurotransmitters act in the dauer entry or recovery pathways. Muscarinic agonists promote recovery from dauer arrest induced by pheromone as well as by mutations in the TGF-beta pathway. Dauer recovery in these animals is inhibited by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. Muscarinic agonists do not induce dauer recovery of either daf-2 or age-1 mutant animals, which have defects in the insulin-like signaling pathway. These data suggest that a metabotropic acetylcholine signaling pathway activates an insulin-like signal during C. elegans dauer recovery. Analogous and perhaps homologous cholinergic regulation of mammalian insulin release by the autonomic nervous system has been noted. In the parasitic nematode Ancylostoma caninum, the dauer larval stage is the infective stage, and recovery to the reproductive stage normally is induced by host factors. Muscarinic agonists also induce and atropine potently inhibits in vitro recovery of A. caninum dauer arrest. We suggest that host or parasite insulin-like signals may regulate recovery of A. caninum and could be potential targets for antihelminthic drugs.  (+info)

Heart rate responses to a muscarinic agonist in rats with experimentally induced acute and subacute chagasic myocarditis. (2/85)

We administered arecoline to rats, with experimentally induced chagasic myocarditis, in order to study the sinus node sensitivity to a muscarinic agonist. Sixteen month old rats were inoculated with 200,000 T. cruzi parasites ("Y" strain). Between days 18 and 21 (acute stage), 8 infected rats and 8 age-matched controls received intravenous arecoline as a bolus injection at the following doses: 5. 0, 10.0, 20.0, 40.0, and 80.0 microg/kg. Heart rate was recorded before, during and after each dose of arecoline. The remaining 8 infected animals and 8 controls were subjected to the same experimental procedure during the subacute stage, i.e., days 60 to 70 after inoculation. The baseline heart rate, of the animals studied during the acute stage (349 +/- 68 bpm, mean +/- SD), was higher than that of the controls (250 +/- 50 bpm, p < 0.005). The heart rate changes were expressed as percentage changes over baseline values. A dose-response curve was constructed for each group of animals. Log scales were used to plot the systematically doubled doses of arecoline and the induced-heart rate changes. The slope of the regression line for the acutely infected animals (r = - 0.99, b =1.78) was not different from that for the control animals (r = - 0.97, b = 1.61). The infected animals studied during the subacute stage (r = - 0.99, b = 1.81) were also not different from the age-matched controls (r = - 0.99, b = 1.26, NS). Consequently, our results show no pharmacological evidence of postjunctional hypersensitivity to the muscarinic agonist arecoline. Therefore, these results indirectly suggest that the postganglionic parasympathetic innervation, of the sinus node of rats with autopsy proved chagasic myocarditis, is not irreversibly damaged by Trypanosoma cruzi.  (+info)

Effects of chewing betel nut (Areca catechu) on the symptoms of people with schizophrenia in Palau, Micronesia. (3/85)

BACKGROUND: Although millions of people with schizophrenia live in betel chewing regions, the effects of betel chewing on their symptoms are unknown. Betel nut alkaloids include potent muscarinic cholinomimetics: recent research suggests that these agents may be therapeutic in schizophrenia. AIMS: To compare the primary and extrapyramidal symptom profiles and substance-using habits of betel chewing v. non-chewing people with schizophrenia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 70 people with schizophrenia. Symptom ratings measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS), and demographic and substance-use data, were compared for 40 chewers and 30 non-chewers of betel nut. RESULTS: Betel chewers with schizophrenia scored significantly lower on the positive (P = 0.001) and negative (P = 0.002) sub-scales of the PANSS than did non-chewers. There were no significant differences in extrapyramidal symptoms or tardive dyskinesia. CONCLUSIONS: Betel chewing is associated with milder symptomatology and avoidance of more harmful recreational drugs. These initial results indicate that longitudinal research is merited.  (+info)

Gene-experience interaction alters the cholinergic septohippocampal pathway of mice. (4/85)

Spatial learning requires the septohippocampal pathway. The interaction of learning experience with gene products to modulate the function of a pathway may underlie use-dependent plasticity. The regulated release of nerve growth factor (NGF) from hippocampal cultures and hippocampus, as well as its actions on cholinergic septal neurons, suggest it as a candidate protein to interact with a learning experience. A method was used to evaluate NGF gene-experience interaction on the septohippocampal neural circuitry in mice. The method permits brain region-specific expression of a new gene by using a two-component approach: a virus vector directing expression of cre recombinase; and transgenic mice carrying genomic recombination substrates rendered transcriptionally inactive by a "floxed" stop cassette. Cre recombinase vector delivery into transgenic mouse hippocampus resulted in recombination in 30% of infected cells and the expression of a new gene in those cells. To examine the interaction of the NGF gene and experience, adult mice carrying a NGF transgene with a floxed stop cassette (NGFXAT) received a cre recombinase vector to produce localized unilateral hippocampal NGF gene expression, so-called "activated" mice. Activated and control nonactivated NGFXAT mice were subjected to different experiences: repeated spatial learning, repeated rote performance, or standard vivarium housing. Latency, the time to complete the learning task, declined in the repeated spatial learning groups. The measurement of interaction between NGF gene expression and experience on the septohippocampal circuitry was assessed by counting retrogradely labeled basal forebrain cholinergic neurons projecting to the hippocampal site of NGF gene activation. Comparison of all NGF activated groups revealed a graded effect of experience on the septohippocampal pathway, with the largest change occurring in activated mice provided with repeated learning experience. These data demonstrate that plasticity of the adult spatial learning circuitry can be robustly modulated by experience-dependent interactions with a specific hippocampal gene product.  (+info)

A rapid method for measuring miotic activity of drugs in the intact mouse eye. (5/85)

A rapid and precise method for evaluating the miotic activity of cholinergic drugs has been developed based on Long's method for measuring the rate of mydriasis. The rate of reversal of mydriasis developed previously in the intact mouse eye by a mild mydriatic (phenycyclidine) is used to evaluate the miotic activity. The method provides a useful tool for measuring and comparing the miotic activity of acetylcholine agonists and cholinesterase inhibitors.  (+info)

A pertussis toxin-sensitive 8-lipoxygenase pathway is activated by a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in aplysia neurons. (6/85)

Acetylcholine (ACh) activates two types of chloride conductances in Aplysia neurons that can be distinguished by their kinetics and pharmacology. One is a rapidly desensitizing current that is blocked by alpha-conotoxin-ImI and the other is a sustained current that is insensitive to the toxin. These currents are differentially expressed in Aplysia neurons. We report here that neurons that respond to ACh with a sustained chloride conductance also generate 8-lipoxygenase metabolites. The sustained chloride conductance and the activation of 8-lipoxygenase have similar pharmacological profiles. Both are stimulated by suberyldicholine and nicotine, and both are inhibited by alpha-bungarotoxin. Like the sustained chloride conductance, the activation of 8-lipoxygenase is not blocked by alpha-conotoxin-ImI. In spite of the similarities between the metabolic and electrophysiological responses, the generation of 8-lipoxygenase metabolites does not appear to depend on the ion current since an influx of chloride ions is neither necessary nor sufficient for the formation of the lipid metabolites. In addition, the application of pertussis toxin blocked the ACh-activated release of arachidonic acid and the subsequent production of 8-lipoxygenase metabolites, yet the ACh-induced activation of the chloride conductance is not dependent on a G protein. Our results are consistent with the idea that the nicotinic ACh receptor that activates the sustained chloride conductance can, independent of the chloride ion influx, initiate lipid messenger synthesis.  (+info)

Oral submucous fibrosis in a 11-year-old Bangladeshi girl living in the United Kingdom. (7/85)

A case of oral submucous fibrosis occurring in a 11-year-old Bangladeshi girl is presented. This paper reviews the aetiology, clinical presentation and treatment modalities of oral submucous fibrosis. This case highlights the link between oral submucous fibrosis and the regular use of areca-nut (paan) and the newer transcultural oral tobacco products. This association has been reported among children resident in the Indian sub-continent but is unrecorded for United Kingdom residents. The case report underlines the danger that children face with products which are clearly targeted at them by the tobacco industry.  (+info)

Areca nut extract and arecoline induced the cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis of cultured oral KB epithelial cells: association of glutathione, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential. (8/85)

There are 600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers in the world. BQ chewing is a major etiologic factor of oral cancer. Areca nut (AN) and arecoline may inhibit the growth of oral mucosal fibroblasts (OMF) and keratinocytes. In this study, AN extract (100-800 microg/ml) and arecoline (20-120 microM) inhibited the growth of oral KB cells by 36-90 and 15-75%, respectively. Exposure to arecoline (> 0.2 mM) for 24 h induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest of OMF and KB cells. Areca nut extract (> 400 microg/ml) also induced G(2)/M arrest of KB cells, being preceded by S-phase arrest at 7-h of exposure. No evident sub-G(0)/G(1) peak was noted. Marked retraction and intracellular vacuoles formation of OMF and KB cells were observed. Glutathione (GSH) level, mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltabetam) and H(2)O(2) production of KB cells were measured by flow cytometry. GSH level [indicated by 5-chloromethyl-fluorescein (CMF) fluorescence] was depleted by 24-h exposure of KB cells to arecoline (0.4-1.2 mM) and AN extract (800-1200 microg/ml), with increasing the percentage of cells in low CMF fluorescence. By contrast, arecoline (0.1-1.2 mM) and AN extract (800-1200 microg/ml) induced decreasing and increasing H(2)O(2) production (by 2',7'-dichloro- fluorescein fluorescence), respectively. Hyperpolarization of Deltabetam (increasing of rhodamine uptake) was noted by 24-h exposure of KB cells to arecoline (0.4-1.2 mM) and AN extract (800-1200 microg/ml). AN extract (100- 1200 microg/ml) and arecoline (0.1-1.2 mM) induced little DNA fragmentation on KB cells within 24 h. These results indicate that AN ingredients are crucial in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and oral cancer by differentially inducing the dysregulation of cell cycle control, Deltabetam, GSH level and intracellular H(2)O(2) production, these events being not coupled with cellular apoptosis.  (+info)

Arecoline is a parasympathomimetic alkaloid that is the primary active component found in the areca nut, which is chewed for its psychoactive effects in various parts of the world. It can cause stimulation of the nervous system and has been associated with several health risks, including oral cancer and cardiovascular disease.

The medical definition of Arecoline is:

A parasympathomimetic alkaloid found in the areca nut, which is chewed for its psychoactive effects. It stimulates the nervous system and has been associated with several health risks, including oral cancer and cardiovascular disease. The chemical formula for Arecoline is C7H9NO2.

"Areca" is the term used to refer to the Areca catechu plant, which is also known as the betel nut palm. The areca nut, which is the seed of the fruit produced by this plant, is commonly chewed with betel leaf for its mild stimulant effects. It contains a number of alkaloids, including arecoline, which has psychoactive properties. Chewing areca nut is a popular habit in many parts of Asia and the Pacific Islands, despite evidence that it can have negative health effects, such as increasing the risk of oral cancer.

Diazomethane is a highly reactive, explosive organic compound with the chemical formula CH2N2. It is a colorless gas or pale yellow liquid that is used as a methylating agent in organic synthesis. Diazomethane is prepared by the reaction of nitrosomethane with a base such as potassium hydroxide.

It is important to handle diazomethane with care, as it can be explosive and toxic. It should only be used in well-ventilated areas, and protective equipment such as gloves and safety glasses should be worn. Diazomethane should not be stored for long periods of time, as it can decompose spontaneously and release nitrogen gas.

Diazomethane is used to introduce methyl groups into organic molecules in a process called methylation. It reacts with carboxylic acids to form methyl esters, and with phenols to form methyl ethers. Diazomethane is also used to synthesize other organic compounds such as pyrazoles and triazoles.

It is important to note that the use of diazomethane in the laboratory has declined due to its hazardous nature, and safer alternatives are now available for many of its applications.

Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is a form of vitamin B3 (B-complex vitamin) that is used by the body to turn food into energy. It is found in various foods including meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, and cereal grains. Niacin is also available as a dietary supplement and prescription medication.

As a medication, niacin is primarily used to treat high cholesterol levels. It works by reducing the production of LDL (bad) cholesterol in the body and increasing the levels of HDL (good) cholesterol. Niacin can also help lower triglycerides, another type of fat found in the blood.

Niacin is available in immediate-release, sustained-release, and extended-release forms. The immediate-release form can cause flushing of the skin, itching, tingling, and headaches, which can be uncomfortable but are not usually serious. The sustained-release and extended-release forms may have fewer side effects, but they can also increase the risk of liver damage and other serious side effects.

It is important to note that niacin should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can interact with other medications and have potentially serious side effects.

Cholinergic agonists are substances that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors, which are neuroreceptors that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. These agents can mimic the effects of acetylcholine in the body and are used in medical treatment to produce effects such as pupil constriction, increased gastrointestinal motility, bronchodilation, and improved cognition. Examples of cholinergic agonists include pilocarpine, bethanechol, and donepezil.

Parasympathomimetics are substances or drugs that mimic the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous system is one of the two branches of the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary physiological functions. It is responsible for the "rest and digest" response, and its neurotransmitter is acetylcholine.

Parasympathomimetic drugs work by either directly stimulating muscarinic receptors or increasing the availability of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft. These drugs can have various effects on different organs, depending on the specific receptors they target. Some common effects include decreasing heart rate and contractility, reducing respiratory rate, constricting pupils, increasing glandular secretions (such as saliva and sweat), stimulating digestion, and promoting urination and defecation.

Examples of parasympathomimetic drugs include pilocarpine, which is used to treat dry mouth and glaucoma; bethanechol, which is used to treat urinary retention and neurogenic bladder; and neostigmine, which is used to treat myasthenia gravis and reverse the effects of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants.

Benzylisoquinolines are a type of naturally occurring organic compounds found in various plants. These compounds are derived from the combination of a benzyl group and an isoquinoline ring, hence the name "benzylisoquinolines." They are known to have diverse biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and antimicrobial properties. Some well-known examples of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids include papaverine, found in the opium poppy, and berberine, found in various medicinal plants such as goldenseal and barberry. These compounds have been used in traditional medicine for centuries and continue to be studied for their potential therapeutic uses.

Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic, progressive, and potentially disabling disease that affects the oral soft tissues. It is characterized by inflammation and fibrosis (excessive deposition of collagen) of the submucosal tissues, leading to stiffness and limitation of mouth opening, tongue movement, and occasionally swallowing or speaking difficulties. The condition primarily affects individuals with a history of areca nut (betel nut) chewing, although other factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and genetic predisposition may also contribute to its development. Symptoms can include burning sensation in the mouth, dryness, and pain during speaking, eating, or swallowing. In severe cases, OSF can lead to significant functional impairment and require surgical intervention.

Echinococcosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus. There are several species of Echinococcus that can cause disease in humans, but the most common ones are Echinococcus granulosus (causing cystic echinococcosis) and Echinococcus multilocularis (causing alveolar echinococcosis).

Humans typically become infected with echinococcosis by accidentally ingesting eggs of the tapeworm, which are shed in the feces of infected animals such as dogs, foxes, and wolves. The eggs hatch in the small intestine and release larvae that migrate to various organs in the body, where they form cysts or hydatids.

The symptoms of echinococcosis depend on the location and size of the cysts. Cystic echinococcosis often affects the liver and lungs, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, cough, and shortness of breath. Alveolar echinococcosis typically involves the liver and can cause chronic liver disease, abdominal pain, and jaundice.

Treatment of echinococcosis may involve surgery to remove the cysts, medication to kill the parasites, or both. Preventive measures include avoiding contact with dogs and other animals that may be infected with Echinococcus, practicing good hygiene, and cooking meat thoroughly before eating it.

... is a base, and its conjugate acid has a pKa ~ 6.8. Arecoline is volatile in steam, miscible with most organic ... Arecoline has also been used medicinally as an antihelmintic (a drug against parasitic worms). Arecoline has also been shown to ... Arecoline also inhibits AMPK through generation of ROS in several types of cells. Arecoline promotes excitation and decreases ... Arecoline is metabolized by both kidneys and liver. Currently, 11 metabolites of arecoline are documented among which N- ...
Knox is credited with at least two U.S. Patents, Production of Arecoline accepted on May 2, 1950 and Photochemical Preparation ... Knox, Lawrence Howland (May 2, 1950). "Production of arecoline". Google Patents. Retrieved June 9, 2020. Carter Sluby, Patricia ...
It agonizes musacarinic receptors just like arecoline but unlike arecoline it lacks nicotinic activity. Guvacine Arecoline ...
"Showing metabocard for Arecoline (HMDB0030353)". Human Metabolome Database, HMDB. 5.0. Melchiorre C, Angeli P, Lambrecht G, ... Ghelardini C, Galeotti N, Lelli C, Bartolini A (2001). "M1 receptor activation is a requirement for arecoline analgesia". ...
Arecoline "Oxybutynin Chloride Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ...
Biologically, these effects may be a consequence of the arecoline that is found in areca nuts. The habit also exposes the fetus ... The major alkaloid in betel nut is arecoline. There are other compounds, such as arecaidine, guvacine, isoguvacine, and ... Various compounds present in the nut, including arecoline (the primary psychoactive ingredient which is similar to nicotine), ... arecoline, arecaidine, and guvacine-all of which have vasoconstricting properties. The betel leaf chewed along with the nut ...
Winger G (August 2021). "Nicotinic aspects of the discriminative stimulus effects of arecoline". Behavioural Pharmacology. 32 ( ... 3-Bromocytisine Acetylcholine Cytisine Galantamine Epibatidine Epiboxidine Nicotine A-84,543 A-366,833 ABT-418 Arecoline ...
The lime in the betel quid [areca nut, lime and Piper betle leaves] causes hydrolysis of arecoline to arecailide, a central ... Liu YJ, Peng W, Hu MB, Xu M, Wu CJ (November 2016). "The pharmacology, toxicology and potential applications of arecoline: a ... The major parasympathetic and muscarinic effects of areca nut are due to arecoline. Sharan RN, Mehrotra R, Choudhury Y, Asotra ... Pilocarpine, arecoline and muscarine are rather selective parasympathetic agents; i.e., their cholinomimetic activity is ...
Ghelardini C, Galeotti N, Lelli C, Bartolini A (2001). "Arecoline M1 receptor activation is a requirement for arecoline ...
The arecoline route goes the same as for RTI-31 starting from Methylecgonidine. Trudell lays down the groundwork for the ... Thus, these methods is now well known in the art and does not necessarily rely on the use of arecoline as a starting material. ... Although novel ways to produce these compound exist, background stems from arecoline chemistry. E.g. paroxetine (Paxil) and ... Further support lends a scale-up process that also relies on arecoline, which is toxic and already active pharmaceutical salt: ...
Arecoline Arecaidine Guvacoline Guvacine The total alkaloid content of the nuts increases during ripening and decreases upon ... A roasting of dried nuts increases the proportion of arecoline in the total alkaloid content. Arecolin is a potent ... The main alkaloid is arecoline, which accounts for over 50% of the total alkaloid content. Other representatives include ...
Arecoline Anatoxin-a Tropacocaine Scheidweiler KB, Plessinger MA, Shojaie J, Wood RW, Kwong TC (December 2003). " ...
The seed contains alkaloids such as arecaidine and arecoline, which, when chewed, are intoxicating and slightly addictive. The ...
A racemic mixture of DMNPC can be synthesized from freebase arecoline in a grignard reaction with 2-naphthylmagnesium bromide. ... is a piperidine based stimulant drug which is synthesised from arecoline. It is similar to nocaine in chemical structure, and ...
"Muscarinic receptor 1 agonist activity of novel N-arylthioureas substituted 3-morpholino arecoline derivatives in Alzheimer's ...
... modafinil Others arecoline (found in Areca catechu) caffeine (found in Coffea spp.) nicotine (found in Nicotiana spp.) ... arecoline Rauvolfia serpentina: rauwolscine yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe): yohimbine and corynanthine many others Fungi: ...
Lime is said to hydrolyse arecoline to arecaidine Voigt V, Laug L, Zebisch K, Thondorf I, Markwardt F, Brandsch M (April 2013 ...
The preparation of Paxil from arecoline is an application of this reaction, as well as the synthesis of GSK-372,475, for ...
... arecoline, and the natural muscarinic receptor neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. Xanomeline is an achiral and lipophilic small ...
... is moderately toxic, containing arbutin, arecoline and rhodoxanthin, and can cause vomiting, and ...
... another agent with a similar structure claimed to have been synthesized using arecoline as the starting alkaloid.[citation ...
... or with some difficulty ante mortem by purging with arecoline hydrobromate. Detection of antigens in feces by ELISA is ...
In a similar fashion to coca leaves, betel nuts are chewed with added limestone, turning the active ingredient arecoline into ...
... which are comprise arecoline, arecolodine, arecaidine, guvacine, isoguvacine, and govacolidine; the pharmacological and other ...
... arecoline, theophylline, theobromine, kava, khat, tobacco, L-theanine, or caffeine (in moderate amounts) or in moderate and ...
... arecoline MeSH D03.066.515.375 - clonixin MeSH D03.066.515.400 - etazolate MeSH D03.066.515.475 - niacin MeSH D03.066.515.530 ... arecoline MeSH D03.383.725.547.375 - clonixin MeSH D03.383.725.547.400 - etazolate MeSH D03.383.725.547.475 - niacin MeSH ...
... such as salicylic acid in willow bark or arecoline in areca nuts), since the word "ingredient" can be taken to connote a sense ...
The molecular formula C8H13NO2 (molar mass: 155.19 g/mol, exact mass: 155.0946 u) may refer to: Arecoline Bemegride Scopine ...
... caffeine and arecoline in breast milk" (PDF), Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 21 (16): 2693-2703, Bibcode:2007RCMS ...
... arecaidine and arecoline Kratom: mitragynine, mitraphylline, 7-hydroxymitragynine, raubasine, and corynantheidine Rauvolfia ...
Arecoline is a base, and its conjugate acid has a pKa ~ 6.8. Arecoline is volatile in steam, miscible with most organic ... Arecoline has also been used medicinally as an antihelmintic (a drug against parasitic worms). Arecoline has also been shown to ... Arecoline also inhibits AMPK through generation of ROS in several types of cells. Arecoline promotes excitation and decreases ... Arecoline is metabolized by both kidneys and liver. Currently, 11 metabolites of arecoline are documented among which N- ...
The aim of this study was to establish an arecoline-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) model of OSCC … ... Arecoline, the main alkaloid of areca nut, is well known for its role in inducing submucosal fibrosis and oral squamous cell ... Arecoline induces EMT and promotes metastasis of oral cancer by upregulation of SAA1. As shown in the graph, arecoline induces ... Arecoline promoted metastasis of OSCC in vivo. CAL33 cells treated with or without arecoline were inoculated into the tongues ...
... www.iarc.fr/news-events/iarc-monographs-evaluation-of-the-carcinogenicity-of-acrolein-crotonaldehyde-and-arecoline/ ... Arecoline, which has a mild psychoactive effect, was also classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). Arecoline ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer evaluates carcinogenicity of acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and arecoline ...
This study investigated the effectiveness of arecoline hydrobromide (AH) on the functions of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast- ... Arecoline hydrobromide suppresses PI3K/AKT pathway in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts and relieves collagen-induced ... This study investigated the effectiveness of arecoline hydrobromide (AH) on the functions of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast- ...
Similarly, ROS scavengers could block the effects of arecoline.. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that arecoline induced ... Keywords: Arecoline, Glycolysis, ROS, Calcium ion, Anoikis. Citation styles. APA Copy. Cheng, H.L., Chang, W.T., Hu, Y.C., ... Cheng, H.L.; Chang, W.T.; Hu, Y.C.; Hsieh, B.S.; Huang, T.C.; Chong, I.W.; Huang, L.W.; Chang, K.L. Arecoline Increases ... Arecoline Increases Glycolysis and Modulates pH Regulator Expression in HA22T/VGH Hepatoma Cells, Leading to Increase of ...
Arecoline is the primary active ingredient of the areca nut, which is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). Areca nut is chewed for ... IARC Monographs Volume 128: Acrolein, Crotonaldehyde, and Arecoline. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is ... and crotonaldehyde and arecoline are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). ... pleased to announce that Volume 128 of the IARC Monographs, Acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and arecoline, is now available online. ...
arecoline, Arecaline, Arecholine, Methylarecaiden, Methylarecaidin, Arecolin, Arekolin, Arecoline base, Arecaidine methyl ester ...
Arecoline is the primary active ingredient of the areca nut, which is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). At least 10% of the ... Arecoline has been used medicinally as an anthelmintic and is still applied in the form of areca-nut preparations in ... Acrolein, Crotonaldehyde, and Arecoline. IARC Monographs on the Identification of Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans Volume 128. ...
Organophosphate (OP) compounds are a diverse group of chemicals used in both domestic and industrial settings. Examples of organophosphates include insecticides (malathion, parathion, diazinon, fenthion, dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos, ethion), nerve gases (soman, sarin, tabun, VX), ophthalmic agents (echothiophate, isoflurophate), and antihelminti...
Organophosphate (OP) compounds are a diverse group of chemicals used in both domestic and industrial settings. Examples of organophosphates include insecticides (malathion, parathion, diazinon, fenthion, dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos, ethion), nerve gases (soman, sarin, tabun, VX), ophthalmic agents (echothiophate, isoflurophate), and antihelminti...
Analysis of the cholinergic activity of the areca alkaloids indicates that while arecoline and guvacoline are both activators ... Review of the pharmacological activities of arecoline including effects on central nervous system, cardiac, digestive and ... While areca catechu nut has multiple components, its major alkaloid is arecoline which is believed to be the active component ... The pharmacology, toxicology and potential applications of arecoline: a review. Pharm Biol. 2016;54:2753-2760. [PubMed: ...
Wen, X.M.; Zhang, Y.L.; Liu, X.M.; Guo, S.X.; Wang, H. Immune responses in mice to arecoline mediated by lymphocyte muscarinic ...
Interestingly, c-myc promoter activity was also induced by arecoline. MiR-22 expression in arecoline-treated OSCC cells was ... Arecoline, the major alkaloid of areca nut, is known to induce oral carcinogenesis, however, its mechanism is still needed to ... Effects of arecoline on proliferation of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by dysregulating c-Myc and miR-22, directly ... In arecoline-treated OSCC cells, oncostatin M (OSM) expression was significantly upregulated and inversely correlated with miR- ...
Arecoline derivative. Target. CHRM3 [HSA:1131] [KO:K04131]. Pathway. hsa04080 Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. ...
Selvan R and Rao A (2008) Influence of Arecoline on Immune System: III. Suppression of B Cell-Mediated Immune Response in Mice ...
Arecoline N-oxide: its mutagenicity and possible role as ultimate carcinogen in areca oral carcinogenesis.. Lin KH; Lin CY; Liu ... 2. Arecoline, a major alkaloid of areca nut, inhibits p53, represses DNA repair, and triggers DNA damage response in human ... Enhancement of the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene by arecoline through suppression of DNA repair in HEp-2 cells.. Huang JL; Lu ... 1. On the in vitro N-nitrosation of arecoline.. Wenke G; Hoffmann D. Carcinogenesis; 1983; 4(2):169-72. PubMed ID: 6825205. [ ...
The study shows that the nuts active ingredient, arecoline, acts on the same receptor proteins in the brain as nicotine. This ...
Research dating back to 1957 demonstrated that the naturally occurring mAChR agonist arecoline, when given to patients with ... In the 1990s, a synthetic structural analogue of arecoline, xanomeline, was characterized and ultimately studied in patients ... schizophrenia, resulted in "lucid intervals."6 Notably, arecoline occurs naturally in the betel nut, which is chewed in some ...
ARECOLINE. ARSANILIC ACID AND ITS SALTS. ASPARAGINASE. ATROPINE AND ITS SALTS. AVERMECTINS, THEIR SALTS AND. DERIVATIVES. ...
Arecoline is the active ingredient in betel nut and inhibits the growth of periodontal fibroblasts. Therefore, betel quid ...
... arecoline, arsenic trioxide, arsine, aspidium, astropine. ...
... and arecoline may be responsible for their enhanced expression. [18, 19, 20] Further studies have shown that arecoline is an ... Arecoline, an active alkaloid found in betel nuts, stimulates fibroblasts to increase production of collagen by 150%. [16] In ... Arecoline, an alkaloid found in the areca nut, promotes salivation, stains saliva red, and is a stimulant. ... Raised keratinocyte growth factor-1 expression in oral submucous fibrosis in vivo and upregulated by arecoline in human buccal ...
Arecoline_Hydrobromide,create,28-MAR-08,(null),(null) C72705,Asenapine,create,28-MAR-08,(null),(null) C72706,Aspoxicillin, ...
Strickland, SS; (2002) Anthropological perspectives on use of the areca nut. Addiction biology, 7 (1). pp. 85-97. ISSN 1355-6215 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13556210120091446 Full text not available from this repository ...
  • This volume of the IARC Monographs provides evaluations of the carcinogenicity of three chemicals: acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and arecoline. (iarc.fr)
  • Crotonaldehyde and arecoline are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) . (iarc.fr)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is pleased to announce that Volume 128 of the IARC Monographs , Acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and arecoline, is now available online. (who.int)
  • The IARC Monographs Working Group concluded that acrolein is probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) , and crotonaldehyde and arecoline are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) . (who.int)
  • Arecoline mainly found in Areca catechu (also referred as betel nut) which grows in Southeast and South Asia, and parts of East Africa. (who.int)
  • Nine alkaloids constitute the active ingredients of betel nut ( Reference Farnworth Farnworth, 1976 ), the most abundant of which is arecoline - a potent muscarinic agonist that rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier and induces a range of parasympathetic effects ( Reference Asthana, Greig and Holloway Asthana et al , 1996 ). (cambridge.org)
  • Papke's initial idea to study the activity of the betel nut and its active ingredient arecoline started with writing rather than science. (ufl.edu)
  • Arecoline from Betel Nut: Cancer-Causing Supplement Ingredient? (priceplow.com)
  • Arecoline is a cancer-causing compound found in betel nut / areca nut, similar to the nicotine in tobacco. (priceplow.com)
  • Partaking of the rice wine (bayah), rice cakes, and 'moma' (mixture of several herbs, powdered snail shell and betel nut/ arecoline: and acts as a chewing gum to the Ifugaos) is an indelible practice during the festivities and ritual activitiess. (tribalartasia.com)
  • Arecoline (/əˈrɛkəliːn/) is a nicotinic acid-based mild parasympathomimetic stimulant alkaloid found in the areca nut, the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu). (wikipedia.org)
  • 173-174 °C. Arecoline is the primary active ingredient responsible for the central nervous system effects of the areca nut. (wikipedia.org)
  • It could also decrease symptoms of depression and schizophrenia AN (Areca Nut) is a vasodilator mainly due to the presence of arecoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arecoline is the primary active ingredient of the areca nut, which is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) . (iarc.fr)
  • Arecoline has been used medicinally as an anthelmintic and is still applied in the form of areca-nut preparations in traditional Chinese and Ayurveda medicines. (iarc.fr)
  • The areca nut is rich in alkaloids such as arecoline, a widely used stimulant akin to tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • What would be the proper procedure to extract and isolate arecoline, an alkaloid ester, from the seed of the Areca nut, and is it possible to mass produce arecoline using that method? (stackexchange.com)
  • The nut contains a stimulating alkaloid, arecoline, and tannins, which give it an astringent taste. (innvista.com)
  • He said the nicotine gum works because the areca nut's active ingredient, arecoline, works the same receptor proteins in the brain as nicotine. (upi.com)
  • Findings published today (Oct. 21) in the journal PLOS One show that the nut's active ingredient, arecoline, acts on the same receptor proteins in the brain as nicotine. (ufl.edu)
  • however, nicotine agonizes nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, whereas arecoline is primarily a partial agonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, leading to its parasympathetic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arecoline has the ability to stimulate the digestive system through the activation of muscarinic receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owing to its muscarinic and nicotinic agonist properties, arecoline has shown improvement in the learning ability of healthy volunteers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease is a cognitive decline, arecoline was suggested as a treatment to slow down this process and arecoline administered intravenously did indeed show modest verbal and spatial memory improvement in Alzheimer's patients, though due to arecoline's possible carcinogenic properties, it is not the first drug of choice for this degenerative disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arecoline, which has a mild psychoactive effect, was also classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) . (who.int)
  • Arecoline: It is addictive and carcinogenic. (zinwi.com)
  • Arecoline reversed scopolamine induced memory loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, 11 metabolites of arecoline are documented among which N-methylnipecotic acid was found to be a major metabolite of both arecoline and arecaidine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lime is said to hydrolyse almost all arecoline to arecaidine, a GABA reuptake inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arecaidine is also formed during liver metabolism of arecoline in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arecoline has also been used medicinally as an antihelmintic (a drug against parasitic worms). (wikipedia.org)
  • Arecoline promotes excitation and decreases sleeping time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, the minimum lethal dose (MLD) values of arecoline in mice, dog and horse is 100 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 1.4 mg/kg respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine whether arecoline acts on the same addiction-causing receptor, Papke used ovarian cells from a frog injected with human genes so that they mimic the nicotinic receptors found in a human brain. (ufl.edu)
  • In the present study, we used bioinformatics approaches to analyze the miRNA expression data of arecoline-induced cancer from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and identified the target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) compared to healthy volunteers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We compared the genome-wide miRNA expression profiles of whole blood-derived RNA samples between patients with arecoline-induced cancer and healthy volunteers using the raw data in the NCBI GEO databases ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • It contains arecoline which severely affects nervous and cardiovascular system and also causes various cancer. (who.int)
  • Here, we investigated the effect of arecoline on the proliferation and migration of human HepG2 hepatoma cells and its potential oncogenic mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arecoline may cause cancer, why is it in Kai Greene's "Savage Roar" and DLB's "EWP" preworkouts? (fatlossandworkouts.com)
  • Arecoline may cause premature births, cancer, and thyroid issues. (fatlossandworkouts.com)
  • Arecoline is a well-known risk factor for oral submucosal fibrosis and cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the mechanistic correlation between arecoline and hepatocellular cancer remains elusive. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arecoline is a known risk factor for oral cancer and a potential risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer (HCC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We performed Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and hub target genes analysis to illuminate potential biomarkers and related pathways in arecoline-induced cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We further investigated the roles of these predicted markers by treating human hepatoma HepG2 cultures with arecoline. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In frogs, arecoline also acts as an antagonist (or very weak partial agonist) at α4 and α6-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and as a silent antagonist at α7 nicotinic receptors, which may account for its anti-inflammatory activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraperitoneal administration of arecoline decreases locomotor activity dose-dependently. (wikipedia.org)
  • This activity could be caused by arecoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • MYO1B as a prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target in Arecoline-associated oral carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • [ 16 ] In one study, arecoline was found to elevate the mRNA and protein expression of cystatin C, a nonglycosylated basic protein consistently up-regulated in a variety of fibrotic diseases, in a dose-dependent manner in persons with oral submucous fibrosis. (medscape.com)
  • Arecoline is a base, and its conjugate acid has a pKa ~ 6.8. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lime reacts with the nut and turns it bright red, sort of like the dirt in my old town - seeing betel-cud splattered on a sidewalk always reminds me of Roebourne on a rare, wet, muddy December day - while releasing arecoline, the actual drug behind the betel high. (exiledonline.com)
  • Compared with control group, 2.5 µM arecoline treatment increased the proliferation and migration ability of the HepG2 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A low concentration arecoline can induce the proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells, with the potential mechanism of action linked to high levels of exosomal miR-21 and miR-1267, activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway, upregulation of CDK1 and CCND1, and downregulation of RAF1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite these studies, much remains to be clarified about how arecoline may contribute to HCC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arecoline has also been shown to increase testosterone in rats, in low doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment with 2.5 µM arecoline increased the levels of miR-21-3p, miR-21-5p and miR-1267, upregulated the expression of PI3K-AKT pathway factors, CDK1, CCND1 but decreased RAF1 expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These DE-miRNAs, hub genes and pathway were proved in arecoline-treated HepG2 cells. (biomedcentral.com)