An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.
A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. Members contain ARECOLINE and CATECHIN. The leaves and nuts have been used as masticatories, stimulants, and astringents in traditional medicine. The common name of betel is also used for PIPER BETLE. The common name of catechu is sometimes used for ACACIA CATECHU.
2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.
Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.
ISOQUINOLINES with a benzyl substituent.
An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the second stage of cysteine biosynthesis it catalyzes the reaction of homocysteine with serine to form cystathionine with the elimination of water. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA and HOMOCYSTINURIA. EC 4.2.1.22.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A plant species of the family CLUSIACEAE. It is a source of hydroxycitric acid.
A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. It is the source of the mangosteen fruit.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.

A common muscarinic pathway for diapause recovery in the distantly related nematode species Caenorhabditis elegans and Ancylostoma caninum. (1/85)

Converging TGF-beta and insulin-like neuroendocrine signaling pathways regulate whether Caenorhabditis elegans develops reproductively or arrests at the dauer larval stage. We examined whether neurotransmitters act in the dauer entry or recovery pathways. Muscarinic agonists promote recovery from dauer arrest induced by pheromone as well as by mutations in the TGF-beta pathway. Dauer recovery in these animals is inhibited by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. Muscarinic agonists do not induce dauer recovery of either daf-2 or age-1 mutant animals, which have defects in the insulin-like signaling pathway. These data suggest that a metabotropic acetylcholine signaling pathway activates an insulin-like signal during C. elegans dauer recovery. Analogous and perhaps homologous cholinergic regulation of mammalian insulin release by the autonomic nervous system has been noted. In the parasitic nematode Ancylostoma caninum, the dauer larval stage is the infective stage, and recovery to the reproductive stage normally is induced by host factors. Muscarinic agonists also induce and atropine potently inhibits in vitro recovery of A. caninum dauer arrest. We suggest that host or parasite insulin-like signals may regulate recovery of A. caninum and could be potential targets for antihelminthic drugs.  (+info)

Heart rate responses to a muscarinic agonist in rats with experimentally induced acute and subacute chagasic myocarditis. (2/85)

We administered arecoline to rats, with experimentally induced chagasic myocarditis, in order to study the sinus node sensitivity to a muscarinic agonist. Sixteen month old rats were inoculated with 200,000 T. cruzi parasites ("Y" strain). Between days 18 and 21 (acute stage), 8 infected rats and 8 age-matched controls received intravenous arecoline as a bolus injection at the following doses: 5. 0, 10.0, 20.0, 40.0, and 80.0 microg/kg. Heart rate was recorded before, during and after each dose of arecoline. The remaining 8 infected animals and 8 controls were subjected to the same experimental procedure during the subacute stage, i.e., days 60 to 70 after inoculation. The baseline heart rate, of the animals studied during the acute stage (349 +/- 68 bpm, mean +/- SD), was higher than that of the controls (250 +/- 50 bpm, p < 0.005). The heart rate changes were expressed as percentage changes over baseline values. A dose-response curve was constructed for each group of animals. Log scales were used to plot the systematically doubled doses of arecoline and the induced-heart rate changes. The slope of the regression line for the acutely infected animals (r = - 0.99, b =1.78) was not different from that for the control animals (r = - 0.97, b = 1.61). The infected animals studied during the subacute stage (r = - 0.99, b = 1.81) were also not different from the age-matched controls (r = - 0.99, b = 1.26, NS). Consequently, our results show no pharmacological evidence of postjunctional hypersensitivity to the muscarinic agonist arecoline. Therefore, these results indirectly suggest that the postganglionic parasympathetic innervation, of the sinus node of rats with autopsy proved chagasic myocarditis, is not irreversibly damaged by Trypanosoma cruzi.  (+info)

Effects of chewing betel nut (Areca catechu) on the symptoms of people with schizophrenia in Palau, Micronesia. (3/85)

BACKGROUND: Although millions of people with schizophrenia live in betel chewing regions, the effects of betel chewing on their symptoms are unknown. Betel nut alkaloids include potent muscarinic cholinomimetics: recent research suggests that these agents may be therapeutic in schizophrenia. AIMS: To compare the primary and extrapyramidal symptom profiles and substance-using habits of betel chewing v. non-chewing people with schizophrenia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 70 people with schizophrenia. Symptom ratings measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS), and demographic and substance-use data, were compared for 40 chewers and 30 non-chewers of betel nut. RESULTS: Betel chewers with schizophrenia scored significantly lower on the positive (P = 0.001) and negative (P = 0.002) sub-scales of the PANSS than did non-chewers. There were no significant differences in extrapyramidal symptoms or tardive dyskinesia. CONCLUSIONS: Betel chewing is associated with milder symptomatology and avoidance of more harmful recreational drugs. These initial results indicate that longitudinal research is merited.  (+info)

Gene-experience interaction alters the cholinergic septohippocampal pathway of mice. (4/85)

Spatial learning requires the septohippocampal pathway. The interaction of learning experience with gene products to modulate the function of a pathway may underlie use-dependent plasticity. The regulated release of nerve growth factor (NGF) from hippocampal cultures and hippocampus, as well as its actions on cholinergic septal neurons, suggest it as a candidate protein to interact with a learning experience. A method was used to evaluate NGF gene-experience interaction on the septohippocampal neural circuitry in mice. The method permits brain region-specific expression of a new gene by using a two-component approach: a virus vector directing expression of cre recombinase; and transgenic mice carrying genomic recombination substrates rendered transcriptionally inactive by a "floxed" stop cassette. Cre recombinase vector delivery into transgenic mouse hippocampus resulted in recombination in 30% of infected cells and the expression of a new gene in those cells. To examine the interaction of the NGF gene and experience, adult mice carrying a NGF transgene with a floxed stop cassette (NGFXAT) received a cre recombinase vector to produce localized unilateral hippocampal NGF gene expression, so-called "activated" mice. Activated and control nonactivated NGFXAT mice were subjected to different experiences: repeated spatial learning, repeated rote performance, or standard vivarium housing. Latency, the time to complete the learning task, declined in the repeated spatial learning groups. The measurement of interaction between NGF gene expression and experience on the septohippocampal circuitry was assessed by counting retrogradely labeled basal forebrain cholinergic neurons projecting to the hippocampal site of NGF gene activation. Comparison of all NGF activated groups revealed a graded effect of experience on the septohippocampal pathway, with the largest change occurring in activated mice provided with repeated learning experience. These data demonstrate that plasticity of the adult spatial learning circuitry can be robustly modulated by experience-dependent interactions with a specific hippocampal gene product.  (+info)

A rapid method for measuring miotic activity of drugs in the intact mouse eye. (5/85)

A rapid and precise method for evaluating the miotic activity of cholinergic drugs has been developed based on Long's method for measuring the rate of mydriasis. The rate of reversal of mydriasis developed previously in the intact mouse eye by a mild mydriatic (phenycyclidine) is used to evaluate the miotic activity. The method provides a useful tool for measuring and comparing the miotic activity of acetylcholine agonists and cholinesterase inhibitors.  (+info)

A pertussis toxin-sensitive 8-lipoxygenase pathway is activated by a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in aplysia neurons. (6/85)

Acetylcholine (ACh) activates two types of chloride conductances in Aplysia neurons that can be distinguished by their kinetics and pharmacology. One is a rapidly desensitizing current that is blocked by alpha-conotoxin-ImI and the other is a sustained current that is insensitive to the toxin. These currents are differentially expressed in Aplysia neurons. We report here that neurons that respond to ACh with a sustained chloride conductance also generate 8-lipoxygenase metabolites. The sustained chloride conductance and the activation of 8-lipoxygenase have similar pharmacological profiles. Both are stimulated by suberyldicholine and nicotine, and both are inhibited by alpha-bungarotoxin. Like the sustained chloride conductance, the activation of 8-lipoxygenase is not blocked by alpha-conotoxin-ImI. In spite of the similarities between the metabolic and electrophysiological responses, the generation of 8-lipoxygenase metabolites does not appear to depend on the ion current since an influx of chloride ions is neither necessary nor sufficient for the formation of the lipid metabolites. In addition, the application of pertussis toxin blocked the ACh-activated release of arachidonic acid and the subsequent production of 8-lipoxygenase metabolites, yet the ACh-induced activation of the chloride conductance is not dependent on a G protein. Our results are consistent with the idea that the nicotinic ACh receptor that activates the sustained chloride conductance can, independent of the chloride ion influx, initiate lipid messenger synthesis.  (+info)

Oral submucous fibrosis in a 11-year-old Bangladeshi girl living in the United Kingdom. (7/85)

A case of oral submucous fibrosis occurring in a 11-year-old Bangladeshi girl is presented. This paper reviews the aetiology, clinical presentation and treatment modalities of oral submucous fibrosis. This case highlights the link between oral submucous fibrosis and the regular use of areca-nut (paan) and the newer transcultural oral tobacco products. This association has been reported among children resident in the Indian sub-continent but is unrecorded for United Kingdom residents. The case report underlines the danger that children face with products which are clearly targeted at them by the tobacco industry.  (+info)

Areca nut extract and arecoline induced the cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis of cultured oral KB epithelial cells: association of glutathione, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential. (8/85)

There are 600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers in the world. BQ chewing is a major etiologic factor of oral cancer. Areca nut (AN) and arecoline may inhibit the growth of oral mucosal fibroblasts (OMF) and keratinocytes. In this study, AN extract (100-800 microg/ml) and arecoline (20-120 microM) inhibited the growth of oral KB cells by 36-90 and 15-75%, respectively. Exposure to arecoline (> 0.2 mM) for 24 h induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest of OMF and KB cells. Areca nut extract (> 400 microg/ml) also induced G(2)/M arrest of KB cells, being preceded by S-phase arrest at 7-h of exposure. No evident sub-G(0)/G(1) peak was noted. Marked retraction and intracellular vacuoles formation of OMF and KB cells were observed. Glutathione (GSH) level, mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltabetam) and H(2)O(2) production of KB cells were measured by flow cytometry. GSH level [indicated by 5-chloromethyl-fluorescein (CMF) fluorescence] was depleted by 24-h exposure of KB cells to arecoline (0.4-1.2 mM) and AN extract (800-1200 microg/ml), with increasing the percentage of cells in low CMF fluorescence. By contrast, arecoline (0.1-1.2 mM) and AN extract (800-1200 microg/ml) induced decreasing and increasing H(2)O(2) production (by 2',7'-dichloro- fluorescein fluorescence), respectively. Hyperpolarization of Deltabetam (increasing of rhodamine uptake) was noted by 24-h exposure of KB cells to arecoline (0.4-1.2 mM) and AN extract (800-1200 microg/ml). AN extract (100- 1200 microg/ml) and arecoline (0.1-1.2 mM) induced little DNA fragmentation on KB cells within 24 h. These results indicate that AN ingredients are crucial in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and oral cancer by differentially inducing the dysregulation of cell cycle control, Deltabetam, GSH level and intracellular H(2)O(2) production, these events being not coupled with cellular apoptosis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Areca nut extract and arecoline induced the cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis of cultured oral KB epithelial cells. T2 - Association of glutathione, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential. AU - Chang, M. C.. AU - Ho, Y. S.. AU - Lee, P. H.. AU - Chan, C. P.. AU - Lee, J. J.. AU - Hahn, L. J.. AU - Wang, Y. J.. AU - Jeng, J. H.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - There are 600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers in the world. BQ chewing is a major etiologic factor of oral cancer. Areca nut (AN) and arecoline may inhibit the growth of oral mucosal fibroblasts (OMF) and keratinocytes. In this study, AN extract (100-800 μg/ml) and arecoline (20-120 μM) inhibited the growth of oral KB cells by 36-90 and 15-75%, respectively. Exposure to arecoline (,0.2 mM) for 24 h induced G 2/M cell cycle arrest of OMF and KB cells. Areca nut extract (,400 μg/ml) also induced G 2/M arrest of KB cells, being preceded by S-phase arrest at 7-h of exposure. No evident sub-G 0/G 1 peak was ...
Arecoline is a major alkaloid of areca nut and has been effect on central nervous system. Although arecoline-induced neurotoxicity has been reported, the possible underlying neurotoxic mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Increasing evidences have shown that both excessive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and disturbance of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production are involved in the pathophysiology of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Here, the purpose of present study was to verify whether ER stress and the disturbance of endogenous H2S generation are also involved in arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. We found that treatment of PC12 cells with arecoline induced the down-regulation of cells viability and up-regulation of apoptosis and the activity of caspase-3, indicating the neurotoxic role of arecoline to PC12 cells. In addition, arecoline also increased the expression of Bax (pro-apoptotic protein) and attenuated the expression of Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic protein) in PC12 cells. Simultaneously,
Title:Arecoline Increases the Production of Nitric Oxide and Post-Translational S-Nitrosoproteome in Endothelial Cells. VOLUME: 17 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Chien-Yi Wu, Wun-Rong Lin, Cherng-Jye Jeng, Chien-Hsing Wu and Bin Huang*. Affiliation:Department of Pediatrics, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung 82445, Department of Urology, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 10449, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 83301, Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, College of Life Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708. Keywords:Arecoline, nitric oxide, S-nitrosylation, iTRAQ, proteomics, endothelial cells.. Abstract:. Background: Arecoline is known as a carcinogenic toxicant. The refreshment effect of arecoline is mainly due to the increase in vasodilation and blood flow. ...
Listing your company for Arecoline hydrobromide allows buyers to find your information through our directory pages which appear in the top positions when a search is conducted in Google, Yahoo!, MSN etc ...
Following an intravenous benzodiazepine generally suffices. Note these situations once the alteration has occurred. Maintains consistency of environment, which facilitates a healthy pregnancy p. 27), try to sleep through the gi tract, placenta, and fetus. Central nervous system (fig. As you do find a change in gaba-receptorplex characteristics. Lithium has effects on pregnancy fears about the cause and action gastroenteritis (inflammation of the eye, is a structural analog of ghb, gbl was substituted for bal in chronic illness. Arecoline may cause increased potential for infection. Provide the client with i statements using references related to the environment. Consult your doctor. [note the plan of care with focus onponents to determine environmental conditions that would contribute to the emergency department setting, questions concerning the teratogenic effects were delayed for a patient weight of the skeletal system is thus protected from external events or circumstances, your personal ...
Agonists: 77-LH-28-1 • AC-42 • AC-260,584 • Aceclidine • Acetylcholine • AF30 • AF150(S) • AF267B • AFDX-384 • Alvameline • AQRA-741 • Arecoline • Bethanechol • Butyrylcholine • Carbachol • CDD-0034 • CDD-0078 • CDD-0097 • CDD-0098 • CDD-0102 • Cevimeline • cis-Dioxolane • Ethoxysebacylcholine • LY-593,039 • L-689,660 • LY-2,033,298 • McNA343 • Methacholine • Milameline • Muscarine • NGX-267 • Ocvimeline • Oxotremorine • PD-151,832 • Pilocarpine • RS86 • Sabcomeline • SDZ 210-086 • Sebacylcholine • Suberylcholine • Talsaclidine • Thiopilocarpine • Vedaclidine • VU-0029767 • VU-0090157 • VU-0152099 • VU-0152100 • VU-0238429 • WAY-132,983 • Xanomeline • YM- ...
The scope of work on this project is to extend the ​OMF (cOntrol and Management Framework) to design and implement a prototype of a GENI-compliant resource management, experiment control, and measurement framework, so that it can support experiments across heterogeneous testbed resources, with a specific focus on mobile testbeds. GENI control framework functions will be added to the OMF as they become defined. Support for mobile testbeds will include the handling of disconnection, and providing temporal and spatial control. Reference implementations of your GENI-compliant resource management, experiment control, and measurement framework will be provided to another wireless project, and its testbed will be integrated into your OMF environment as a federated testbed. Both testbeds will be connected to a GENI backbone network. ...
Areca catechu L. (areca nut) is a family of Arecaceae that can reach 15-20 m height with upright stem in 15 cm diameter. The fruit germinate after 1,5 months and 4 months again has the crested little leaves that not yet open. The new stem forming happen after 2 years and fruiting on 5-8 years old depend in the ground situation. This plant flowering at the beginning and end of the rain season and has lifetime around 25-30 years. The seeds of fruit are brownish until reddish brown, lithe curvy with the younger color. In the seed sliced field appear that perisperm is dark brown with irregular crease pierce the whitish endosperm (Depkes RI, 1989). 4. Chemical Ingredients. Areca nut seed contain alkaloid, like arekoline (C8 H13 NO2), arekolidine, arekain, guvakolin, guvasine and isoguvasine, tannin condensed, hydrolyzed tannin, flavan, phenolic compound, gallic acid, latex, lignin, evaporates oil and non evaporates oil, also salt (Wang et al., 1996). Nonaka (1989) states that areca nut seed contain ...
miRNAs have been implicated in inflammation, fibrosis, EMT and various types of cancers, such as oral cancer. Some miRNA families have gained attention for their clear function in tissue fibrosis. miR-30c has been reported to be a tumor suppressor in endometrial cancer (14) and to act as an independent predictor for the clinical benefit of tamoxifen therapy in patients with advanced breast cancer (15). A previous study showed that miR-206 overexpression inhibited estrogen receptor-α-dependent proliferation, impaired invasiveness and induced cell cycle arrest of estrogen receptor-α-positive endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell lines (16). miR-203 has previously been shown to play an important role in epithelial cell biology (17). miR-203 was differentially regulated in gingival epithelial cells in the presence of P. gingivalis. Silencing of miR-203 diminished the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), suggesting that alterations in miRNAs modulate ...
Background: There are 200-600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers in the world. BQ increases oral cancer risk. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is responsible for matrix degradation, cancer invasion and metastasis. Whether areca nut extract (ANE), a BQ component, stimulates MMP-9 secretion, and the related signaling pathways awaits investigation.Results: ANE (but not arecoline) stimulated MMP-9 production of gingival keratinocytes and SAS cancer epithelial cells. ANE stimulated TGF-β1, p-Smad2, and p-TAK1 protein expression. ANE-induced MMP-9 production/expression in SAS cells can be attenuated by SB431542 (ALK5/Smad2 inhibitor), 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol (TAK1 inhibitor), catalase, PD153035 (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor), AG490 (JAK inhibitor), U0126 (MEK/ERK inhibitor), LY294002 (PI3K/Akt inhibitor), betel leaf (PBL) extract, and hydroxychavicol (HC, a PBL component), and melatonin, but not by aspirin.Conclusions: AN components contribute to oral carcinogenesis by stimulating MMP-9 secretion, thus
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phenol removal from wastewater using arecanut husk (Areca catechu) as adsorbent. AU - Girish, C. R.. AU - George, Geoju M.. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - In this present research, the possibility of Arecanut husk an agricultural waste as an adsorbent for removing phenol from wastewater was explored. The adsorbent was chemically treated with phosphoric acid with an impregnation ratio of 1:4. The treated adsorbent was showing the surface area of 678.78 m2/g. The variation of experimental conditions like adsorbent dosage, concentration, pH, temperature and agitation speed were studied with response surface methodology (RSM). The equilibrium data were examined using various isotherm models and were found to follow Langmuir Isotherm. The kinetic data followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. The adsorption capacity was obtained as 25.746 mg/g showing that arecanut husk is a promising adsorbent.. AB - In this present research, the possibility of Arecanut husk an agricultural ...
Click here for Areca pictures! You can also find pictures of areca nut, areca palm tree, areca palma, areca catechu, areca palm care.
The relationship between muscarinic receptor-mediated inositol lipid hydrolysis and the generation of Ca2+ signals has been examined in human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. The resting cytoplasmic calcium concentration [( Ca2+]i) as determined by fura-2 fluorescence measurements was 59 +/- 2 nM. Upon the addition of oxotremorine-M, there was a 4-fold increase in [Ca2+]i (293 +/- 18 nM), with half-maximal stimulation obtained at an agonist concentration of 8 microM, a value similar to that previously observed for the enhancement of phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Addition of partial muscarinic agonists for phosphoinositide turnover (bethanechol, oxo-2, and arecoline) elicited correspondingly smaller increases in [Ca2+]i than did oxotremorine-M. Inclusion of EGTA lowered the basal [Ca2+]i within 2 min and markedly reduced (greater than 60%) the magnitude of the agonist-induced rise in [Ca2+]i. Addition of muscarinic agonists to SK-N-SH cells that had been prelabeled with [3H]inositol led to the rapid ...
Word Scramble - English word ARECAS: words that start with arecas, words that end with arecas, anagrams of arecas, how to spell arecas!, Words with Friends, Scrabble
Betel nut-actually a seed-is a stimulant produced by the Areca catechu tree. It is traditionally chewed in combination with betel leaf and...
Areca also have the 1320 range of non-RAID controllers which would seem particularly suited to ZFS use and have a Solaris x86 driver...do these controllers work with Illumos at the moment(not in HCL explicitly)? Can the Areca Sol driver be used to replace the arcmsr driver? Anyone any experiences? ...
65311 - Areca ARC-1226-8I. Unterstützte Speicherlaufwerk-Schnittstellen: SAS, SATA, Hostschnittstelle: PCI Express. RAID Level: 0, 1, 1E, 3, 5, 6, 10,
It is a demanding and thought involving process to acquire and design a landscape for corporate offices and malls. It taxes great amount of energy to design and sustain the landscapes and interior with natural plants and trees. This is where the role of artificial plants and landscaping products to mitigate the maintenance costs associated with landscaping becomes important. These live products are fitting options to beautify your office interiors and exterior landscapes. Artificial Areca Palms could enrich your interior with their top notch features and can give a Beautiful makeover to your offices.
ARCMSR(4) FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual ARCMSR(4) NAME arcmsr -- Areca RAID Controller driver SYNOPSIS To compile this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your kernel configuration file: device pci device scbus device da device arcmsr Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the following line in loader.conf(5): arcmsr_load=YES DESCRIPTION The arcmsr driver provides support for the Areca ARC-11xx, ARC-12xx, ARC-13xx, ARC-16xx and ARC-18xx series of SAS and SATA RAID controllers. These controllers feature RAID-0, 1, 3, 5, 6, and 10 and JBOD accelera- tion for up to 16 SATA drives. RAID level and stripe level migration, online capacity expansion, hot insertion/removal, automatic failover and rebuild, and SMART are also supported. Access to the arrays is provided via the SCSI CAM /dev/da? device nodes. A management interface is also present via the /dev/arcmsr? device node. Management tools for i386 and amd64 are available from Areca. HARDWARE The ...
當內地會走過150個年頭,我們再次尋求神,幫助我們覺察到今日仍未竟的使命。經過調查、評估和禱告,我們深盼下列群體能經歷屬靈新突破: ...
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Oral Submucous Fibrosis by people in this website by year, and whether Oral Submucous Fibrosis was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impairment of thymocyte function via induction of apoptosis by areca nut extract. AU - Lee, Chin Cheng. AU - Lin, Ying Chi. AU - Liu, Hsingjin Eugene. AU - Jan, Tong Rong. AU - Wang, Chia Chi. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Areca quid (AQ) chewing is a popular oral habit, especially in Southeast Asia cultures, in which children may be engaged in the addictive habit early in their lives. Extracts of areca nuts, the main component of AQ, have been shown to affect the functionality of T-cells. However, the potential influence of ANE on the development of T-cells is unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the impact of areca nut extracts (ANE) on thymocytes and the potential mechanisms of action. Mice administered intraperitoneally with ANE at 1, 5, or 25mg/kg daily for 5 days showed significant dose-dependent reductions in thymocyte viability. A marked decrease in the total number of thymocytes and the proportion of thymic CD4+CD8+ cells was observed in the 25mg ANE/kg-treated ...
Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of human papilloma viruses (HPV) in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and the etiologic implication of this finding warrants further studies. Objective: The prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and OSMF is high in India, and the diseases are partly attributed to high consumption of betel quid containing areca nut and tobacco. This study investigated the prevalence of HPV, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in two groups of patients using betel quid with tobacco, those with OSMF (n = 12) and those with OSCC (n = 62). Methods: DNA was extracted from all the samples and viral genome was examined by PCR/DNA sequencing. HPV-positive samples were analyzed separately for the high-risk types HPV 16 and 18. Results: HPV DNA, HSV DNA, and EBV DNA were detected in 11 (91%), 1 (8%), and 3 (25%) of the 12 samples from patients with OSMF compared with 15 (24%), 3 (5%), and 18 (29%), respectively, from 62 patients with OSCC. HPV 16 and ...
Background: Areca nut included Palmae plants that are almost in all parts of Indonesia. Areca husks have not been scientifically tested as a drug, not like a leaf and areca seeds. Pectin and flavonoids contained in the areca husks can be used as antidiarrheal medication. Objective: The objective of this research was to know the characteristics and chemical compounds of simplex powder and ethanol extract of areca husk, and antidiarrheal activity of ethanol extract of areca husk compared with loperamide HCl. Methods: The ethanol extract of areca husk was extracted by maceration with 80% ethanol. Filtrate was concentrated by rotary evaporator and dried by freeze dryer. Simplex powder and extracts were characterized and phytochemical screened, then antidiarrheal activity of extracts was tested using rats that had been induced with oleum ricini. Rats were divided into six group, each consisting of five rats, each rat was given doses of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg bw compared with loperamide HCl dose of ...
In 1952, Schwartz coined the term atrophica idiopathica mucosa oris to describe an oral fibrosing disease he discovered in 5 Indian women from Kenya. Joshi subsequently coined the termed oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) for the condition in 1953.
NIH Rare Diseases : 50 the following summary is from orphanet, a european reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.orpha number: 357154disease definitionoral submucous fibrosis (osmf) is a chronic, progressive disease that alters the fibroelasticity of the oral submucosa, prevalent in india and southeast asia but rare elsewhere, and characterized by burning and pain in the oral cavity, loss of gustatory sensation, the presence of blanched fibrous bands and stiffening of the oral mucosa and oro-pharynx (leading to trismus and a progressive reduction in mouth opening) and an increased risk of developing oral squamous cellcancer (3-19%). it is usually associated with the chewing of the areca nut (an ingredient in betel quid) but the exact etiology is unknown and there is currently no effective treatment.visit the orphanet disease page for more resources. last updated: 7/16/2013 ...
Trabecular meshwork is known to be the most important pathway for the outflow of aqueous humor. Pathology changes of TM in glaucoma lead to increased outflow resistance of aqueous humor and IOP elevation [4,7-10]. Our results showed for the first time that elevated hydrostatic pressure could decrease the expression of ZO-1, disrupt the well organized ZO-1, cytoskeleton, and focal adhesions in TM cells. Oxidative stress, hypoxia and D-mannitol (high osmotic solution), nicotine and arecoline could also disrupt or influence the formation or arrangement of TJ protein (ZO-1) in many different kinds of cells [20-24]. Evidence indicates that oxidative stress may trigger degeneration in human TM, which affects the cytoskeleton and the adhesive properties in TM cells, subsequently leading to an increased IOP [25]. Instead, we found that elevated pressure in turn can also affect the cytoskeleton and the adhesive properties in TM cells. Tight conjunction can control ion selectivity and permeability of the ...
Herbal medicines are respected for its medicinal values through generations. Areca catechu is commonly called as betel nut belonging to the family Are..
Acacia catechu (Black Catechu) is also commonly known as Khadira. Here we are explaining its Uses, Benefits, Dosage and Properties.
La nuez de betel o nuez de areca es una semilla de la palmetra de betel (areca catechu), una de las plantas m s polulares del mundo. Diversos pueblos asi ticos, por influencias culturales, tienen la costumbre de masticar la semilla de esta especie vegetal. Entre sus principios activos, la arecaina y la arecolina, son alcaloides comparables a la nicotina en los efectos nerviosos estimulantes. La sustancia activadora causa un relajamiento agradable en la boca, sensaci n que se propaga al sistema nervioso central. Sin embargo, masticar regularmente la nuez de betel, ti e la saliva de rojo vivo y ennegrece los dientes, siendo extremadamente perjudicial para la salud oral, causando la p rdida precoz de dientes. A pesar de sus efectos mal ficos, existe la dificultad de erradicar el h bito, debido a su car cter cultural, donde las manchas son motivo de orgullo. La agencia internacional de investigaci n del c ncer (IARC) clasifica a la nuez de betel como un cancer geno, existiendo numerosos estudios que ...
If youre searching for the perfect indoor plant, you cant go wrong with an areca palm (Dypsis lutescens), which also goes by the names butterfly palm, yellow palm, or golden cane palm. Areca palms a Green Fingers, GFinger APP, GFinger Succulents Plant Diary, GFinger flower identification, Free Flower APP, GFinger gardening answer, GFinger Garden plants The Best Gardening APP.
VIJAY INDUSTRIES is manufacturer and supplier of Areca Food Container, based in Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore. we offer best quality Areca Food Container at affordable price.
seed of betel palm; chewed with leaves of the betel pepper and lime as a digestive stimulant and narcotic in southeastern Asia. ...
Uthara Menon, Poongodi V, Pitty Hari Raghuram , Kannan Ashokan, Giri Valanthan Veda Govindarajan, Arvind Ramanathan. Mutation Analysis of the Dimer Forming Domain of the Caspase 8 Gene in Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Squamous Cell Carcinomas . Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16 (11) , 4589- ...
Alhamdulillah Putri pertama ane.,lahir normal 28 maret 2011 namanya Zivara Sofie Suerland sekarang usianya udah 8 bulan, -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Udah dua minggu ini istri ane sakit sakitan gan, kalo ditanya sama ane jawabya lemes, kalo tiap pagi muntah muntah padahal muntahahnya ga ada cuma kaya air ludah aja. nah kebetulan pas kemaren JJS sambil
Compare NetStor 8-Bay SAS JBOD NA341A-S AND Areca SAS Enclosure ARC-4038-8ML ☎Call for pricing +44 20 8288 8555 [email protected] ✓Free Advice
Epowermac Australia offers Areca Thunderbolt RAID storage for MAC and PC users. With protection against drive failure as well as high performance hardware, it offers the best value for money.
Areca Nut or Betel Nut Control is Mandatory if India Wants to Reduce the Burden of Cancer Especially Cancer of the Oral Cavity ...
Eni Paulo, nexi noxou Timoti ta mitema sou xaixai noxou Kalisito Iesu, tekaukavunu vaivaikala ane o ulai noxinge ngingi ta mitema ane Kalisito Iesu ta nau mo ta tatila sou isaxilainge iloa ta mitema sou xaixai no a lalotu ne Pilipai.
Bestereşane yek ji çar corên şaneye. Ew di tevahiya laşê mirov de ne û beşên laş bi hev girêdidin û sêwe didine. Gelek cor jê hene. Corên sereke: ...
ARC5020_Firmware/ 15-Feb-2011 01:00 - ARC5033_Firmware/ 14-Dec-2010 01:00 - ARC5040_Firmware/ 15-Feb-2011 01:00 - ARC8040_Firmware/ 17-Jul-2013 07:45 - Apps/ 03-May-2005 01:00 - Manual_Spec/ 13-Mar-2013 01:00 - OldProducts/ 13-Mar-2013 01:00 - Thunderbolt/ 13-Mar-2013 01:00 - Firmware_Release.txt 14-Dec-2010 01:00 40918 Notice.txt 07-Aug-2008 01:00 1093 ...
Plastic has permeated into ​just about every aspect of our lives which has also lead to plastic pollution.Research suggests that around eight million metric tons of plastic waste enter the oceans each year, and its estimated that by 2050.. ...
chains in the Genus database with same CATH superfamily 3UU2 A; 4LSI A; 2PRN A; 4AUI A; 2ZFG A; 3O0E A; 8PRN A; 1HXT A; 2XG6 A; 3T24 A; 1HXX A; 3SY9 A; 1E54 A; 4C69 X; 2FGR A; 5DL5 A; 4GCS A; 3UPG A; 1GFN A; 3SY7 A; 4BUM X; 3SYB A; 1PRN A; 2XE2 A; 3POX A; 4FT6 A; 2Y2X A; 1OSM A; 1BT9 A; 2J4U P; 4FSP A; 4KRA A; 5JDP A; 3POQ A; 1BH3 A; 3A2S X; 4FRT A; 2OMF A; 3T20 A; 4LSF A; 3VZW X; 2O4V A; 4D5U A; 4KR4 A; 4FOZ A; 3WI4 A; 3T0S A; 3VZT X; 3SZD A; 3K19 A; 5DL8 A; 2XE5 A; 2QTK A; 4LSE A; 3VZU X; 1MPF A; 3JTY A; 5DL6 A; 1PHO A; 1OPF A; 4RJX A; 4FSO A; 4RJW A; 3PRN A; 3EMN X; 7PRN A; 3POR A; 5FVN A; 5PRN A; 6PRN A; 3SYS A; 3HW9 A; 4LSH A; 1GFM A; 2Y0L A; 5DL7 A; 2XE1 A; 3HWB A; 4D64 A; 2ODJ A; 2K4T A; 3POU A; 2ZLD A; 3WI5 A; 2Y0K A; 4JFB A; 1GFQ A; 2POR A; 1HXU A; 3SZV A; 4KR8 A; 2J1N A; 3VY9 X; 1GFO A; 4FRX A; 4FMS A; 2XE3 A; 2FGQ X; 1H6S 1; 4GCQ A; 4D65 A; 1GFP A; 2Y0H A; 3VY8 X; 4GCP A; 3FYX A; 3NSG A; #chains in the Genus database with same CATH topology 2R88 A; 3UU2 A; 3AAE B; 4RL9 A; 3VE2 A; 4F4B ...
B ttre med Allians. Ikv ll bes kte jag de lokala Moderaterna. Trevligt och intressant. Diskussioner f rdes som i h g grad handlade om en vilja att g ra mycket och de hinder som st r i v gen. Men det finns i vart fall en tydlig vilja - till exempel att forts tta s nka kommunalskatten trots l gkonjunkturen. Det r stor skillnad till det b ttre - i ett frihetligt perspektiv - med Alliansstyre, ocks lokalt. Ett ytterligare helt f rbisett bel gg f r att s r fallet ocks p riksniv framg r av denna lista. D r anges de 60 statliga myndigheter som nu l ggs ned av regeringen. En tydlig minskning av byr krati och av statens omf ng. S vitt jag vet lade inte s-regeringen ned en enda myndighet under sina tolv r. ...
Серия DG126-5.0 Характеристики Основные ∙ Серия DG126-5.0 Технические ∙ Провод 0.5-2.5кв. мм ∙ Рядность 1, однорядные ∙ Шаг 5мм ∙ Цвет корпуса ...Не найдено: aneСерия DG126-5.0 (DEGSON) - Компэлhttps://www.compel.ru › Каталог › Электромеханика › Клеммы › Клеммы зажимныеСохраненная копияОписание серии клемм зажимных DG126-5.0 производства DEGSON, документация, отличительные особенности, сравнение вариантов заказа.Не найдено: aneКартинки по запросу dg 126 ...
Walczymy o prawa kobiet do bezpiecznego i legalnego wyboru. W wielu krajach kobiety są skazywane i poniżane, kobiety umierają w wyniku kryminalizacji aborcji. Fakty są często makabryczne i zawsze poniżającym naruszeniem praw człowieka.
The areca nut (/ˈærᵻkə/ or /əˈriːkə/) is the seed of the areca palm (Areca catechu), which grows in much of the tropical Pacific (Melanesia and Micronesia), Southeast and South Asia, and parts of east Africa. This seed is commonly referred to as betel nut so it is easily confused with betel leaves that are often used to wrap it (paan). The term areca originated from a South Asian word during the 16th century, when Dutch and Portuguese sailors took the nut to Europe. Consumption has many harmful effects on health and is carcinogenic to humans. Various compounds present in the nut, most importantly arecoline (the primary psychoactive ingredient which is similar to nicotine), contribute to histologic changes in the oral mucosa. As with chewing tobacco, its use is discouraged by preventive efforts.. The areca nut is not a true nut, but rather a fruit categorized as a berry. It is commercially available in dried, cured and fresh forms. When the husk of the fresh fruit is green, the nut ...
Acacia catechu (Mimosa family) stem bark extracts have been used traditionally as a dietary supplement as well as a folk medicine given its reported anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-HIV-1 activity of the extracts from stem bark of A. catechu. The aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts of A. catechu stem bark were prepared and 50% ethanolic extract was further fractioned by successively partitioning with petroleum ether, chloroform and n-butanol. All the extracts and fractions were evaluated for cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 activity using different in vitro assays. The active n-butanol fraction was evaluated for its inhibition against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, integrase, protease, pro-viral genome integration and viral Tat protein mediated transactivation. The effect of n-butanol fraction on the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in Vk2/E6E7 cells and
All contents Copyright 1999-2017 Genius Central and Shop-N-Kart. All rights reserved. This internet site is hosted by Genius Central, a Web site service provider to natural health stores nationwide. Genius Central and Shop-N-Kart have no means of independently evaluating the safety or functionality of the products offered by their suppliers and affiliates and thus can neither endorse nor recommend products. Information presented is of a general nature for educational and informational purposes only. Statements about products and health conditions have not been evaluated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Products and information presented herein are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent disease. If you have any concerns about your own health, you should always consult with a physician or other healthcare professional. Your use of this site indicates your agreement to be bound by our Terms and Conditions ...
Absorption of nicotine and the various carcinogens for long periods due to placement of the pan or Gutkha in the oral cavity, gets into the mucosa . The blood stream may show increased content of nicotine in cases where the tobacco products are consumed orally.Chewers of BQ with or without tobacco often develop clinically visible whitish (leukoplakia) or reddish (erythroplakia) lesions and/or stiffening of the oral mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) as an early sign prior to severity of condition . Quid-related lesions are significantly classified into two types based on their margins. They are diffusely lined and the other is localised based on the site of the betel quid placement. There are various theories and researchers that are conducted to help identify and differentiate each type of mucosal lesion from another. The various identified lesions are such as chewers mucosa, areca nut chewers lesion, and other quid-related lesions. The betel-quid lichenoid lesion,was a new clinical ...
Hop on to get the meaning of T/AN acronym / slang / Abbreviation. The Medical & Science Acronym / Slang T/AN means... AcronymsAndSlang. The T/AN acronym/abbreviation definition. The T/AN meaning is Tobacco Plus Areca Nut. The definition of T/AN by AcronymAndSlang.com
Cant find what youre looking for Automatic Hazelnut Processing Shelling Peanut Groundnut Red Skin Removing Cracking Crusher Almond Areca Nut Peeling Machine ? Our expert Peanut Crusher Machine Shandong Leader Machinery Representatives be in contact with you shortly!
Halo agan agan sekalian,Selamat datang di thread ane yang ke 2. Kemaren ane bikin thread tentang seluk beluk undesensus testis. Dan kali ini ane mau ngeceritain kisah hidup ane yang berliku liku ini :ngakaks Kalau agan ngga tau apa itu undesensus testis bisa cek di thread ane yg ini Pengidap Undesensus Testis (Bijinya cuma 1 BB+) Oke sekarang kita masuk ke cerita,dan semua yang ada di cerita ini n
Located in UNESCO World Heritage Site of George Town, Areca Hotel Penang offers accommodations in Penang. Guests can enjoy meals at the in-house...
ကြမ္းရြက္ဟာေဆးဖက္၀င္အရြက္ထဲမွာပါေပမယ့္၊ ကြမ္းသီး၊ ေဆးရြက္ၾကီးနဲ႔အေမႊးအၾကိဳင္ေတြမွာ ႏုိင္ထရုိစမင္း၊ အလ္ကာလြဳိက္နဲ႔ပုိလီဖီေနာဓာတ္ေတြအပါအ၀င္ ကင္ဆာျဖစ္ေစတဲ့ ျဒပ္ေပါင္း အမ်ဳိး ၃၀ေလာက္ပါ၀င္ပါတယ္။ ထုံးကခံတြင္းသားေတြကုိေလာင္ေစျပီး၊ ကင္ဆာျဖစ္ေစတဲ့ဓာတ္ေတြအထဲစိမ့္၀င္ေအာင္အားေပးပါတယ္။ ကင္ဆာမျဖစ္ခင္အဆင့္မွာ၊ submucous fibrosis ဆုိတဲ့ ...
Listing your company for Pharmaceutical & Laboratory Machinery allows buyers to find your information through our directory pages which appear in the top positions when a search is conducted in Google, Yahoo!, MSN etc ...
There were many prehistoric ways for cleaning the teeth before the dawn of a real toothbrush. Chewing sticks were popular. In Southeast Asia the use of betel leaves, areca nuts and slaked lime did have an antiseptic effect against caries, although resulting in blackened teeth from the phenols. The hilltribers usually say it is better…
Congratulations to our own residents Dr. Mario Francispragasam and Dr. Jeff Yoo, as well as Dr. Tong Lam and Dr. Dan Kim for their article in this months CJEM! Read how they diagnosed a thoracic aortic aneurysm using POCUS here: CJEM Case Report
Enter the name or part of a name you wish to search for. The asterisk character * can be used as wildcard, but must not be used as first character ...
I had high hopes that Adaptec 52445 will at least work with new Seagate 2 TB disk, but I should have known better - the controller (with the latest available firmware) does NOT see the disk at all. Ive seen 10 dollar disk adapters have better compatibility than this overpriced crock of steaming (very hot processor used in it!) hardware.. New server uses Areca ARC-1231-ML and it works perfectly with all disks even Samsung F1 that do have known compatibility issues (they dont work in Adaptec 52445 either, but that I expected).. Just how bad is Adaptec? Consider that back in April 2009 when I had 10 new Western Digital 2 TB disks on my hands, support claimed they only plan to test them in May because disks were not yet available! My suggestion to post them disk was not accepted (or even properly considered). Guess what Adaptec? You just lost on a fair few near future sales of rather expensive disk controllers.. And how about having manually going to turtle-slow BIOS options that make you ...
Kajian menunjukkan jika senah terkurung dalam bilik yangg kedap udara dengan hanya diletakkan pokok snake plant dan areca palm, senah boleh hidup dengannya kerana bekalan oksigennya yang cukup (mengikut saiz bilik tertentu, dengan jumlah orang yg tertentu) Kajian Nasa menyatakan ia juga alternatif sebagai bekalan oksigen bila berada di angkasa). Bye ...
Areca ist eine eher ruhige aber gewissenhafte, arbeitsfreudige H ndin mit sehr guten ausbauf higen Anlagen im jagdlichen so wie im Dummy- Bereich. Sie ist sehr f hrerbezogen und leichtf hrig. Sie liebt Kinder und Familie ber alles und ist am liebsten immer dabei. Schlichtweg macht es immer Freude mit ihr gemeinsam etwas zu Unternehmen, egal ob Arbeit oder Spa . ...
Arecoline Anatoxin-a Scheidweiler, KB; Plessinger, MA; Shojaie, J; Wood, RW; Kwong, TC (Dec 2003). "Pharmacokinetics and ...
Arecoline, an alkaloid present in the Betel nut. Pilocarpine is a drug that acts as a muscarinic receptor agonist that is used ...
The lime in the betel quid [areca nut, lime and Piper betle leaves] causes hydrolysis of arecoline to arecailide, a central ... Liu YJ, Peng W, Hu MB, Xu M, Wu CJ (November 2016). "The pharmacology, toxicology and potential applications of arecoline: a ... The major parasympathetic and muscarinic effects of areca nut are due to arecoline. Sharan RN, Mehrotra R, Choudhury Y, Asotra ... Pilocarpine, arecoline and muscarine are rather selective parasympathetic agents; i.e., their cholinomimetic activity is ...
Although novel ways to produce these compound exist, background stems from arecoline chemistry. E.g. Paxil and femoxetine also ...
Biologically, these effects may be a consequence of the arecoline that is found in areca nuts. The habit also exposes the fetus ... Various compounds present in the nut, most importantly arecoline (the primary psychoactive ingredient which is similar to ... and three main alkaloids-arecoline, arecaidine, and guvacine-all of which have vasoconstricting properties. The betel leaf ...
The seed contains alkaloids such as arecaidine and arecoline, which, when chewed, are intoxicating and slightly addictive. ...
The tetrazole alvameline (8), for example, was developed as a bioisostere of the muscarinic cholinergic compound arecoline. The ... "Bioisosteres of Arecoline: 1,2,3,6-Tetrahydro-5-pyridyl-Substituted and 3-Piperidyl-Substituted Derivatives of Tetrazoles and 1 ... in which the position of the double bond mimics that in arecoline. Reaction of (3) with ethyl chloroformate results in N- ...
"Muscarinic receptor 1 agonist activity of novel N-arylthioureas substituted 3-morpholino arecoline derivatives in Alzheimer's ...
The preparation of Paxil from arecoline is an application of this reaction, as well as the synthesis of GSK-372,475, for ...
... is a piperidine based stimulant drug which is synthesised from arecoline. It is similar to nocaine in chemical structure, and ...
R. ferrugineum is moderately toxic, containing arbutin, arecoline and rhodoxanthin, and can cause vomiting, and difficulties of ...
... or with some difficulty ante mortem by purging with arecoline hydrobromate. Detection of antigens in feces by ELISA is ...
... which are comprise arecoline, arecolodine, arecaidine, guvacine, isoguvacine, and govacolidine; the pharmacological and other ...
... arecoline MeSH D03.066.515.375 --- clonixin MeSH D03.066.515.400 --- etazolate MeSH D03.066.515.475 --- niacin MeSH D03.066. ... arecoline MeSH D03.383.725.547.375 --- clonixin MeSH D03.383.725.547.400 --- etazolate MeSH D03.383.725.547.475 --- niacin MeSH ...
... such as salicylic acid in willow bark or arecoline in areca nuts), because the word ingredient in many minds connotes a sense ...
... caffeine and arecoline in breast milk" (PDF), Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 21 (16): 2693-2703, doi:10.1002/rcm. ...
... arecoline Rauvolfia serpentina: rauwolscine yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe): yohimbine, corynantheidine probably many others ...
Plant alkaloids Arecoline Nicotine Muscarine Pilocarpine (M3 receptors) Indirect acting parasympathomimetic drugs may be either ...
Tobacco, as well as arecoline and cannabis, two other plant neurotoxins that are widely used as recreational drugs in humans, ...
... powdered snail shell and betel nut/arecoline which is used as a chewing gum to the Ifugaos) is an indelible practice during the ...
... is a base, and its conjugate acid has a pKa ~ 6.8. Arecoline is volatile in steam, miscible with most organic ... Arecoline is the primary active ingredient responsible for the central nervous system effects of the areca nut. Arecoline has ... arecoline•HBr, forms slender prisms, mp. 177-179 °C from hot alcohol; the aurichloride, arecoline•HAuCl4, is an oil, but the ... "Arecoline M1 receptor activation is a requirement for arecoline analgesia". Farmaco. 56 (5-7): 383-5. doi:10.1016/S0014-827X(01 ...
InChI=1S/C26H37NO3/c1-18(2)26(29)30-25-13-12-21(17-28)16-24(25)23(22-10-8-7-9-11-22)14-15-27(19(3)4)20(5)6/h7-13,16,18-20,23,28H,14-15,17H2,1-6H3/t23-/m1/s1 ...
In the US, "yohimbe" preparations are sold as a dietary supplements for enhancing libido, for weight loss and as aids for bodybuilding; but "There is virtually no published research on yohimbe which supports these or any other claims".[9]:861 Often, these products explicitly claim to contain yohimbine.[8] Cohen et al. found that samples of brands sold in American brick-and-mortar stores contained highly variable amounts of yohimbine, and sometimes none at all.[8]:368 Labelling claims were often misleading.[8]:368 Similar results have been reported by other laboratories for products sold in the U.S., in other countries and on the internet.[15][16][17][18][19] One study found that many brands of "yohimbe" might not derive from the P. johimbe tree in the first place.[20] According to yet another source the yohimbe sold in markets in West Africa, where the tree grows, is frequently adulterated with other species of the genus Pausinystalia; these contain little yohimbine.[21] The amounts of alkaloid ...
Ji, Jianguo; Bunnelle, William H.; Anderson, David J.; Faltynek, Connie; Dyhring, Tino; Ahring, Philip K.; Rueter, Lynne E.; Curzon, Peter; Buckley, Michael J.; Marsh, Kennan C.; Kempf-Grote, Anita; Meyer, Michael D. (2007). "A-366833: A novel nicotinonitrile-substituted 3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.0]-heptane α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor selective agonist: Synthesis, analgesic efficacy and tolerability profile in animal models". Biochemical Pharmacology. 74 (8): 1253-1262. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2007.08.010. PMID 17854775 ...
The topic of this article may not meet Wikipedia's general notability guideline. Please help to establish notability by citing reliable secondary sources that are independent of the topic and provide significant coverage of it beyond a mere trivial mention. If notability cannot be established, the article is likely to be merged, redirected, or deleted ...
... (INN), also known as captodiamine, is an antihistamine sold under the trade names Covatine, Covatix, and Suvren which is used as a sedative and anxiolytic. The structure is related to diphenhydramine.[1] A 2004 study suggested captodiame may be helpful in preventing benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in people discontinuing benzodiazepine treatment.[1] In addition to its actions as an antihistamine, captodiamine has been found to act as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and σ1 receptor and D3 receptor agonist.[2] It produces antidepressant-like effects in rats.[2] However, captodiamine is unique among antidepressant-like drugs in that it increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hypothalamus but not in the frontal cortex or hippocampus.[2] This unique action may be related to its ability to attenuate stress-induced anhedonia and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the hypothalamus.[2] ...
... is a drug and research chemical used in scientific studies. It acts as a monoamine releasing agent with 20- to 48-fold selectivity for releasing dopamine versus serotonin. It is most efficacious as a releaser of norepinephrine, with an ec50 of 109/41.4/5246nM for DA/NE/5HT, respectively .[1] It has a fast onset of action and a short duration.[1] It also functions as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) with preference for MAO-A.[2] ...
... , also known as (-)-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane-2β-pyrrolidine carboxamide and RTI-4229-229, is a potent and long-lasting stimulant drug which was developed in the 1990s as part of a large group of related analogues from the phenyltropane family. With the combination of two potent dopamine transporter (DAT) binding motifs attached to the tropane ring, the p-iodophenyl group at the 3β-position and a pyrrolidine carboxamide at 2β, RTI-229 has extremely high selectivity for the dopamine transporter (2600x and 4600x selective over NET and 5-HTT respectively) and is one of the most DAT-selective compounds in the RTI series.[1][2] ...
Used in fixed combination with chlordiazepoxide as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease; however, no conclusive data that antimuscarinics aid in the healing, decrease the rate of recurrence, or prevent complications of peptic ulcers.[2] With the advent of more effective therapies for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease, antimuscarinics have only limited usefulness in this condition. ...
Caffeine is a stimulant compound belonging to the xanthine class of chemicals naturally found in coffee, tea, and (to a lesser degree) cocoa or chocolate. It is included in many soft drinks, as well as a larger amount in energy drinks. Caffeine is the world's most widely used psychoactive drug and by far the most common stimulant. In North America, 90% of adults consume caffeine daily.[63] A few jurisdictions restrict its sale and use. Caffeine is also included in some medications, usually for the purpose of enhancing the effect of the primary ingredient, or reducing one of its side-effects (especially drowsiness). Tablets containing standardized doses of caffeine are also widely available. Caffeine's mechanism of action differs from many stimulants, as it produces stimulant effects by inhibiting adenosine receptors.[64] Adenosine receptors are thought to be a large driver of drowsiness and sleep, and their action increases with extended wakefulness.[65] Caffeine has been found to increase ...
Background: Arecoline is known as a carcinogenic toxicant. The refreshment effect of arecoline is mainly due to the increase in ... Background: Arecoline is known as a carcinogenic toxicant. The refreshment effect of arecoline is mainly due to the increase in ... Chang, M.C.; Ho, Y.S.; Lee, P.H.; Chan, C.P.; Lee, J.J.; Hahn, L.J.; Wang, Y.J.; Jeng, J.H. Areca nut extract and arecoline ... Kuo, F.C.; Wu, D.C.; Yuan, S.S.; Hsiao, K.M.; Wang, Y.Y.; Yang, Y.C.; Lo, Y.C. Effects of arecoline in relaxing human umbilical ...
... indicating the neurotoxic role of arecoline to PC12 cells. In addition, arecoline also increased the expression of Bax (pro- ... were also reduced by arecoline treatment. These results indicate that arecoline-caused neurotoxicity to PC12 cells is involved ... Simultaneously, arecoline caused excessive ER stress in PC12 cells, as evidenced by the up-regulations of Glucose-regulated ... Although arecoline-induced neurotoxicity has been reported, the possible underlying neurotoxic mechanisms have not yet been ...
Arecoline may cause increased potential for infection. Provide the client with i statements using references related to the ...
Arecoline • Bethanechol • Butyrylcholine • Carbachol • CDD-0034 • CDD-0078 • CDD-0097 • CDD-0098 • CDD-0102 • Cevimeline • cis- ...
... base; Methyl N-methyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydronicotinate; Methylarecaidine; Methyl 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methylnicotinate; N ...
Arecoline is a base, and its conjugate acid has a pKa ~ 6.8. Arecoline is volatile in steam, miscible with most organic ... Arecoline is the primary active ingredient responsible for the central nervous system effects of the areca nut. Arecoline has ... arecoline•HBr, forms slender prisms, mp. 177-179 °C from hot alcohol; the aurichloride, arecoline•HAuCl4, is an oil, but the ... "Arecoline M1 receptor activation is a requirement for arecoline analgesia". Farmaco. 56 (5-7): 383-5. doi:10.1016/S0014-827X(01 ...
Arecoline: An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic ... Arecoline (Arecolin). Subscribe to New Research on Arecoline An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of ... 01/01/2010 - "However, few reports exist as to the effects of arecoline in human tissues other than oral cancer cell lines. ". ... 07/01/2008 - "The time between arecoline injection and time of onset of the tremor in the controls and Mg-deficient rats were ...
The effect of the central cholinolytic benactyzine and the cholinomimetic arecoline on the uptake of45Ca by rat brain ... whereas arecoline led to a rapid initial increase in45Ca uptake. Benactyzine was shown to depress the effect of arecoline and ... Semenov, E.V. Effect of benactyzine and arecoline on the45Ca uptake by rat brain nerve endings. Bull Exp Biol Med 86, 1168-1170 ... Effect of benactyzine and arecoline on the45Ca uptake by rat brain nerve endings. *E. V. Semenov ...
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Arecoline administration also increased acetylcholine and 5-HIAA levels, but the arecoline-induced rise in acetyleholine ... EFFECTS OF PILOCARPINE OR ARECOLINE ADMINISTRATION ON ACETYLCHOLINE LEVELS AND SEROTONIN TURNOVER IN RAT BRAIN. DEAN R. ... EFFECTS OF PILOCARPINE OR ARECOLINE ADMINISTRATION ON ACETYLCHOLINE LEVELS AND SEROTONIN TURNOVER IN RAT BRAIN. DEAN R. ... EFFECTS OF PILOCARPINE OR ARECOLINE ADMINISTRATION ON ACETYLCHOLINE LEVELS AND SEROTONIN TURNOVER IN RAT BRAIN. DEAN R. ...
Caution! Arecoline is a possible carcinogen and is biologically active!**,/span,,/div,,/strong,,br /,. Arecoline is an alkaloid ... Though of topic, while we are on topic of arecoline, I might just as well attach the chapter on arecoline analogues and their ... Synthesis of Arecoline - 3 Steps from Nicotinic Acid. ,div style="text-align: center;",,span style="color: Red;",. **Caution! ... Arecoline is a muscarinic acetylcholine M1 and M2 receptor agonist, and has generated moderate interest in academic research ...
Effects of arecoline on miR-203, SFRP4 and TM4SF1 in the HaCaT cells. To further analyze the effects of arecoline on miR-203, ... Arecoline affects the expression of EMT-related genes in a dose-dependent manner. To determine the effects of arecoline on EMT ... To detect the effect of arecoline on EMT, the HaCaT cells were treated with arecoline (Selleck Chemicals, Houston, TX, USA) at ... we validated that arecoline induced EMT in the HaCaT cells. We found that arecoline significantly decreased the expression of ...
... www.iarc.fr/news-events/iarc-monographs-evaluation-of-the-carcinogenicity-of-acrolein-crotonaldehyde-and-arecoline/ ... Arecoline, which has a mild psychoactive effect, was also classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). Arecoline ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer evaluates carcinogenicity of acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and arecoline ...
... caffeine and arecoline in breast milk, using N-ethylnorcotinine as internal standard. Li … ... Arecoline induces TNF-alpha production and Zonula Occludens-1 redistribution in mouse Sertoli TM4 cells. Kuo TM, Luo SY, Chiang ... Caffeine and Arecoline in Breast Milk Manuela Pellegrini 1 , Emilia Marchei, Silvia Rossi, Federica Vagnarelli, Abhilasha ... Quantification of arecoline (areca nut alkaloid) in neonatal biological matrices by high-performance liquid chromatography/ ...
Arecoline improves vascular endothelial function in high fructose-fed rats via increasing cystathionine-γ-lyase expression and ... abolished the restoration of ACh-induced EDVR by high dose arecoline. On the contrary, treatment with high dose arecoline ... Conclusion: Arecoline treatment improves ACh-induced EDVR in high fructose-fed rats, and the potential mechanism of action ... Arecoline improves vascular endothelial function in high fructose-fed rats via increasing cystathionine-γ-lyase expression and ...
Arecoline. Clinical Trials. Clinical Trials Phase. Status. Purpose. Conditions. Count. Pharmacoeconomics. Manufacturers. Not ... Arecoline. Accession Number. DB04365. Description. An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm ... K. S. Keshave Murthy, Allan W. Rey, Dan S. Matu, Preparation of 1,2,5,6-tetra-hydro-3-carboalkoxypridines such as arecoline ... The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Arecoline. ...
The Arecoline freebase was prepared by treating the Arecoline Hydrobromide of commerce with concentrated aqueous sodium ... Arecoline Hydrobromide is a fairly cheap commercial starting material, $80/50g from Aldrich. Also, I think that it is used in ... Synthesis of Cocaine analogs from Arecoline. Written by Beagle, edited by Rhodium [ Back to the Chemistry Archive ] ... To a solution of 166ml of 1M 4-chlorophenylmagnesium bromide in 700ml ether was added 12.9g of arecoline freebase in 300ml ...
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Arecoline (CAS 300-8-3) is a covalent inhibitor of ACAT1. It is an agonist at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors M1 - M5. It ... Arecoline HBr , ACAT1 inhibitor Arecoline (CAS 300-8-3) is a covalent inhibitor of ACAT1 which binds to and disrupts only ACAT1 ... Treatment of xenograft nude mice with Arecoline resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in tumor mass.1 Agonist at muscarinic ... 3) Christie et al. (1981), Physostigmine and arecoline: effects of intravenous infusions in Alzheimer presenile dementia; Br. J ...
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The active ingredient, arecoline, is contained in the areca nut or betel nut (the nut of the palm Areca catechu ), which is cut ...
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The basic aim of our study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the action of arecoline on the expression of genes in oral ... Furthermore, arecoline down-regulated the expression of collagens 1A1 and 3A1 in human primary gingival fibroblasts; however ... Results: We observed the induction of transforming growth factor-beta2 by arecoline in HaCaT cells and this induction was found ... However, the molecular basis of the action of arecoline in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis is poorly understood. ...
指紋 深入研究「Arecoline enhances miR-21 to promote buccal mucosal fibroblasts activation」主題。共同形成了獨特的指紋。 * Arecoline Medicine & Life ... Yang, H. W., Yu, C. C., Hsieh, P. L., Liao, Y. W., Chu, P. M., Yu, C. H., & Fang, C. Y. (認可的出版社/出版中). Arecoline enhances miR-21 ... Arecoline enhances miR-21 to promote buccal mucosal fibroblasts activation. Hui Wen Yang, Cheng Chia Yu, Pei Ling Hsieh, Yi Wen ... Arecoline enhances miR-21 to promote buccal mucosal fibroblasts activation. / Yang, Hui Wen; Yu, Cheng
  • Jeng, J.H. Areca nut extract and arecoline induced the cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis of cultured oral KB epithelial cells: association of glutathione, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Arecoline is a major alkaloid of areca nut and has been effect on central nervous system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Arecoline, a major alkaloid of the areca nut, causes neurotoxicity through enhancement of oxidative stress and suppression of the antioxidant protective system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We found that treatment of PC12 cells with arecoline induced the down-regulation of cells viability and up-regulation of apoptosis and the activity of caspase-3, indicating the neurotoxic role of arecoline to PC12 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Notably, the level of H2S in the culture supernatant and the expressions of cystathionine β-synthase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (two major enzymes for endogenous H2S generation in PC12 cells) were also reduced by arecoline treatment. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results indicate that arecoline-caused neurotoxicity to PC12 cells is involved in ER stress and disturbance of endogenous H2S generation and suggest that the modulation of ER stress and endogenous H2S generation may be potential therapeutic approach in treatment of arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Results: Our study reveals that a lower concentration of arecoline can increase the phosphorylation of peNOS Ser1177 . (eurekaselect.com)
  • In addition, arecoline also increased the expression of Bax (pro-apoptotic protein) and attenuated the expression of Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic protein) in PC12 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The refreshment effect of arecoline is mainly due to the increase in vasodilation and blood flow. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The effect of arecoline on the S-nitrosylation of HSP60 chaperonin and calnexin was verified. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Here, the purpose of present study was to verify whether ER stress and the disturbance of endogenous H2S generation are also involved in arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Simultaneously, arecoline caused excessive ER stress in PC12 cells, as evidenced by the up-regulations of Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and Cleaved caspase-12 expressions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • [5] Arecoline hydrobromide was obtained 11% overall yield starting from nicotinic acid - no attempt was made to optimize yield. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Arecoline Hydrobromide is a fairly cheap commercial starting material, $80/50g from Aldrich. (designer-drug.com)
  • The Arecoline freebase was prepared by treating the Arecoline Hydrobromide of commerce with concentrated aqueous sodium bicarbonate, followed by extraction with methylene chloride, thorough drying of the extracts over anhydrous Magnesium Sulfate, followed by suction filtration and evaporation of the solvent in vacuo . (designer-drug.com)
  • A procedure based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is described for the determination of nicotine and its principal metabolites cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine and cotinine-N-oxide, caffeine and arecoline in breast milk, using N-ethylnorcotinine as internal standard. (nih.gov)
  • Liquid/liquid extraction with chloroform/isopropanol (95:5, v/v) was used for nicotine, cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, cotinine-N-oxide and caffeine under neutral conditions and for arecoline under basic conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Limits of quantification were 5 microg/L for nicotine, cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, cotinine-N-oxide and caffeine, and 50 microg/L for arecoline using 1 mL human milk per assay. (nih.gov)
  • But to give you an idea of where we're going here, the arecoline in betel nut is akin to the nicotine in tobacco - both in terms of the benefits and the nasty side effects. (priceplow.com)
  • They discovered that arecoline stimulates the same brain cell receptors responsible for nicotine addiction but doesn't stimulate the other types of nicotine receptors. (newswise.com)
  • The methyl esters of arecoline and guvacoline are hydrolyzed in the presence of alkali to the respective acids, arecaidine and guvacine. (drugs.com)
  • The contents of arecoline, arecaidine and guvacine in SA and CSA. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite the similarities between the peripheral muscarinic actions of pilocarpine and arecoline, the central excitatory effect of pilocarpine HCL (100 mg/kg i.p.) lasted several hours in rats and was accompanied by clonic movementS, whereas the excitation induced by arecoline (50 mg/kg i.p.) lasted only 10 minutes and was associated with tremors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Arecoline resembles pilocarpine and muscarine in its effect. (stuartxchange.org)
  • Idelivery - animals vntli cardiac weakness should not receive pilocarpine or arecoline. (riseaustin.org)
  • The results of the recent IARC Monographs evaluation of the carcinogenicity of acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and arecoline have now been published in The Lancet Oncology . (who.int)
  • The oral epithelial cell line GNM cells were challenged with arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, by using Western blot analysis. (elsevier.com)
  • Arecoline (/əˈrɛkəliːn/) is a nicotinic acid-based alkaloid found in the areca nut, the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu). (wikipedia.org)
  • Background and Objective: Oral submucous fibrosis, a disease of collagen disorder, has been attributed to arecoline present in the saliva of betel quid chewers. (iisc.ac.in)
  • 4 Arecoline is thought to be responsible for some of the claimed effects of betel quid chewing, such as alertness, increased stamina, a sense of well-being, euphoria, and salivation. (drugs.com)
  • It is concluded that the increase in 45 Ca uptake through the action of arecoline is connected with activation of Nachannels. (springer.com)
  • However, the molecular basis of the action of arecoline in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis is poorly understood. (iisc.ac.in)
  • The basic aim of our study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the action of arecoline on the expression of genes in oral fibroblasts. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Central and peripheral effects of arecoline in patients with autonomic failure. (bmj.com)
  • Arecoline is known to be a partial agonist of muscarinic acetylcholine M1, M2, M3 receptors and M4, which is believed to be the primary cause of its parasympathetic effects (such as pupillary constriction, bronchial constriction, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arecoline administration also increased acetylcholine and 5-HIAA levels, but the arecoline-induced rise in acetyleholine occurred within five minutes and returned to normal within 20 minutes, well before the 5-HIAA levels began to rise. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Prior administration of atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg i.p.), which blocked the overt behavioral and cholinomimetic actions of both drugs, diminished the arecoline-incluced rises in acetylcholine and 5-HIAA levels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Arecoline is a muscarinic acetylcholine M1 and M2 receptor agonist, and has generated moderate interest in academic research for use in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative conditions, though its application is hindered by the compound's reported carcinogenicity ( see Wikipedia ). (sciencemadness.org)
  • Treatment of xenograft nude mice with Arecoline resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in tumor mass. 1 Agonist at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors M1 - M5 (EC 50 in the range of 7-410 nM). (focusbiomolecules.com)
  • Found throughout the body, Ach is crucial for autonomic activation of the central nervous system and by binding to the muscarinic receptor, arecoline increases cholinergic activity (more acetylcholine) (2). (anabolicminds.com)
  • It has been showed that arecoline exposure stimulates fibroblast growth ( 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • These findings suggest that arecoline stimulates the HPA axis centrally, mainly via secretion of CRH. (euc.ac.cy)
  • These data suggest that the muscarinic cholinergic agonist arecoline stimulates the HPA axis in the rat and that this effect is mediated mainly by the release of endogenous CRH. (euc.ac.cy)
  • Methods: The expression levels of miR-21 in arecoline-stimulated normal buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs) and OSF specimens were determined by qRT-PCR. (elsevier.com)
  • A recent study also demonstrated that arecoline induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors in primary human buccal mucosal fibroblasts ( 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Previous studies demonstrated that upregulation of several molecules involved in EMT, such as vimentin, were expressed in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts following arecoline treatment ( 9 ), suggesting that the EMT process may be directly involved in the pathogenesis of OSF. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Owing to its muscarinic and nicotinic agonist properties, arecoline has shown improvement in the learning ability of healthy volunteers. (wikipedia.org)
  • When influenced by slaked lime, arecoline is hydrolyzed to arecadine, which has pronounced effects on fibroblasts ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It was also reported that arecoline depleted cellular glutathione (GTH) levels, and subsequently induced various genotoxic and cytotoxic stimulation in oral mucosal fibroblasts ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Material and Methods: Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) and primary human gingival fibroblasts were treated with arecoline in combination with various pathway inhibitors, and the expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoform genes and of collagen isoforms was assessed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. (iisc.ac.in)
  • The main active component, the alkaloid arecoline, has potent cholinergic activity. (livingnaturally.com)
  • The effect of the central cholinolytic benactyzine and the cholinomimetic arecoline on the uptake of 45 Ca by rat brain synaptosomes was studied in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Jeng, J.H. Areca nut extract and arecoline induced the cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis of cultured oral KB epithelial cells: association of glutathione, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Conclusion: Taken together, our data highlight the importance of arecoline-induced epithelial changes in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Arecoline, which has a mild psychoactive effect, was also classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) . (who.int)
  • Fruit flesh on seed contains the alkaloid arecoline with psychoactive properties and chewing produces euphoria, increased alertness, sweating, salivation. (stuartxchange.org)
  • Arecoline is volatile in steam, miscible with most organic solvents and water, but extractable from water by ether in presence of dissolved salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active ingredient in betel nut is a volatile oil called arecoline. (factsanddetails.com)
  • 6 Arecoline is a basic oily liquid that has been used in veterinary medicine as a cathartic (for horses) and a vermifuge. (drugs.com)
  • Since one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease is a cognitive decline, arecoline was suggested as a treatment to slow down this process and arecoline administered intravenously did indeed show modest verbal and spatial memory improvement in Alzheimer's patients, though due to arecoline's possible carcinogenic properties, it is not the first drug of choice for this degenerative disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results: MiR-21 expression was induced in BMFs by arecoline treatment in a dose-dependent manner. (elsevier.com)
  • Arecoline, injected iv to catheterized, freely moving male Sprague-Dawley rats, stimulated plasma ACTH and corticosterone release in a dose-dependent fashion. (euc.ac.cy)
  • This hypothesis was confirmed by the dose-dependent ability of arecoline to cause hypothalamic CRH secretion in vitro, an effect antagonized by atropine, and its failure to elicit ACTH and corticosterone secretion by dispersed anterior pituicytes and adrenocortical cells in culture, respectively. (euc.ac.cy)
  • [ 16 ] In one study, arecoline was found to elevate the mRNA and protein expression of cystatin C, a nonglycosylated basic protein consistently up-regulated in a variety of fibrotic diseases, in a dose-dependent manner in persons with oral submucous fibrosis. (medscape.com)
  • In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in arecoline-induced EMT in HaCaT cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Results: We observed the induction of transforming growth factor-beta2 by arecoline in HaCaT cells and this induction was found to be caused by activation of the M-3 muscarinic acid receptor via the induction of calcium and the protein kinase C pathway. (iisc.ac.in)
  • To a solution of 166ml of 1M 4-chlorophenylmagnesium bromide in 700ml ether was added 12.9g of arecoline freebase in 300ml ether at -10°C. The mix was stirred at -10°C for 30 min, poured onto ice and treated with 200ml of 10% HCl. (designer-drug.com)
  • Pretreatment of the aortic rings rings from high fructose-fed rats with the CSE inhibitor propargylglycine (10 mmol/L) or the ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channel blocker glibenclamide (10 mmol/L) abolished the restoration of ACh-induced EDVR by high dose arecoline. (chinaphar.com)
  • Arecoline (CAS 300-8-3) is a covalent inhibitor of ACAT1 which binds to and disrupts only ACAT1 tetramers (IC 50 =11.1 μM). (focusbiomolecules.com)
  • Subsequently, we demonstrated that the administration of the miR-21 inhibitor suppressed the arecoline-induced myofibroblast characteristics, including a higher collagen gel contractility and cell motility, in normal BMFs. (elsevier.com)
  • On the contrary, treatment with high dose arecoline significantly impaired ACh-induced EDVR in the aortic rings from control rats, and pretreatment with propargylglycine or glibenclamide did not cause further changes. (chinaphar.com)
  • Arecoline from Betel Nut: Cancer-Causing Supplement Ingredient? (priceplow.com)
  • Beginning with the Euphroamine formula, Designer Supplements introduces another potent fatloss ingredient to the industry in Arecoline. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Here, the purpose of present study was to verify whether ER stress and the disturbance of endogenous H2S generation are also involved in arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Notably, the level of H2S in the culture supernatant and the expressions of cystathionine β-synthase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (two major enzymes for endogenous H2S generation in PC12 cells) were also reduced by arecoline treatment. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results indicate that arecoline-caused neurotoxicity to PC12 cells is involved in ER stress and disturbance of endogenous H2S generation and suggest that the modulation of ER stress and endogenous H2S generation may be potential therapeutic approach in treatment of arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The main starting material used by the authors is Arecoline (3,4-unsaturated N-methyl-piperidine-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester), the active principle of the popular red betel nut. (designer-drug.com)
  • The authors start with arecoline (the active compound in betel nut: N-methyl-piperidine- 3-carboxylic acid methyl ester with a double bond between the 3 and 4 positions). (designer-drug.com)
  • The story starts with betel nut, whose background we'll discuss before getting into the dangers of the arecoline compound itself. (priceplow.com)
  • Arecoline, therefore, appears to be a compound suitable to selectively evaluate the responsiveness of the central component of the HPA axis. (euc.ac.cy)
  • Arecoline is merely the first constituent in a truly synergistic blend of ingredients. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Arecoline treatment improves ACh-induced EDVR in high fructose-fed rats, and the potential mechanism of action might be associated with increase of CSE expression and activation of K ATP channels by arecoline. (chinaphar.com)
  • Arecoline is an alkaloid natural product found in the fruit of the Areca palm, Areca catechu . (sciencemadness.org)
  • Recently, a study found that arecoline induced expression changes in miRNAs in normal mucosal cells ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Arecoline mainly found in Areca catechu (also referred as betel nut) which grows in Southeast and South Asia, and parts of East Africa. (who.int)
  • We found that treatment of PC12 cells with arecoline induced the down-regulation of cells viability and up-regulation of apoptosis and the activity of caspase-3, indicating the neurotoxic role of arecoline to PC12 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Quantification of arecoline (areca nut alkaloid) in neonatal biological matrices by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray quadrupole mass spectrometry. (nih.gov)