Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Arecoline: An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is used in the form of various salts as a ganglionic stimulant, a parasympathomimetic, and a vermifuge, especially in veterinary practice. It has been used as a euphoriant in the Pacific Islands.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cystathionine gamma-Lyase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.Areca: A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. Members contain ARECOLINE and CATECHIN. The leaves and nuts have been used as masticatories, stimulants, and astringents in traditional medicine. The common name of betel is also used for PIPER BETLE. The common name of catechu is sometimes used for ACACIA CATECHU.Cystathionine beta-Synthase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the second stage of cysteine biosynthesis it catalyzes the reaction of homocysteine with serine to form cystathionine with the elimination of water. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA and HOMOCYSTINURIA. EC 4.2.1.22.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Neurotoxicity Syndromes: Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Garcinia cambogia: A plant species of the family CLUSIACEAE. It is a source of hydroxycitric acid.Garcinia mangostana: A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. It is the source of the mangosteen fruit.Araliaceae: The ginseng plant family of the order Apiales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Leaves are generally alternate, large, and compound. Flowers are five-parted and arranged in compound flat-topped umbels. The fruit is a berry or (rarely) a drupe (a one-seeded fruit). It is well known for plant preparations used as adaptogens (immune support and anti-fatigue).Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Leptospermum: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. The common name of tea tree is also used for MELALEUCA and KUNZEA.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Crack Cocaine: The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Tropanes: N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.MEDLARS: A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.United StatesXenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Etorphine: A narcotic analgesic morphinan used as a sedative in veterinary practice.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

A common muscarinic pathway for diapause recovery in the distantly related nematode species Caenorhabditis elegans and Ancylostoma caninum. (1/85)

Converging TGF-beta and insulin-like neuroendocrine signaling pathways regulate whether Caenorhabditis elegans develops reproductively or arrests at the dauer larval stage. We examined whether neurotransmitters act in the dauer entry or recovery pathways. Muscarinic agonists promote recovery from dauer arrest induced by pheromone as well as by mutations in the TGF-beta pathway. Dauer recovery in these animals is inhibited by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. Muscarinic agonists do not induce dauer recovery of either daf-2 or age-1 mutant animals, which have defects in the insulin-like signaling pathway. These data suggest that a metabotropic acetylcholine signaling pathway activates an insulin-like signal during C. elegans dauer recovery. Analogous and perhaps homologous cholinergic regulation of mammalian insulin release by the autonomic nervous system has been noted. In the parasitic nematode Ancylostoma caninum, the dauer larval stage is the infective stage, and recovery to the reproductive stage normally is induced by host factors. Muscarinic agonists also induce and atropine potently inhibits in vitro recovery of A. caninum dauer arrest. We suggest that host or parasite insulin-like signals may regulate recovery of A. caninum and could be potential targets for antihelminthic drugs.  (+info)

Heart rate responses to a muscarinic agonist in rats with experimentally induced acute and subacute chagasic myocarditis. (2/85)

We administered arecoline to rats, with experimentally induced chagasic myocarditis, in order to study the sinus node sensitivity to a muscarinic agonist. Sixteen month old rats were inoculated with 200,000 T. cruzi parasites ("Y" strain). Between days 18 and 21 (acute stage), 8 infected rats and 8 age-matched controls received intravenous arecoline as a bolus injection at the following doses: 5. 0, 10.0, 20.0, 40.0, and 80.0 microg/kg. Heart rate was recorded before, during and after each dose of arecoline. The remaining 8 infected animals and 8 controls were subjected to the same experimental procedure during the subacute stage, i.e., days 60 to 70 after inoculation. The baseline heart rate, of the animals studied during the acute stage (349 +/- 68 bpm, mean +/- SD), was higher than that of the controls (250 +/- 50 bpm, p < 0.005). The heart rate changes were expressed as percentage changes over baseline values. A dose-response curve was constructed for each group of animals. Log scales were used to plot the systematically doubled doses of arecoline and the induced-heart rate changes. The slope of the regression line for the acutely infected animals (r = - 0.99, b =1.78) was not different from that for the control animals (r = - 0.97, b = 1.61). The infected animals studied during the subacute stage (r = - 0.99, b = 1.81) were also not different from the age-matched controls (r = - 0.99, b = 1.26, NS). Consequently, our results show no pharmacological evidence of postjunctional hypersensitivity to the muscarinic agonist arecoline. Therefore, these results indirectly suggest that the postganglionic parasympathetic innervation, of the sinus node of rats with autopsy proved chagasic myocarditis, is not irreversibly damaged by Trypanosoma cruzi.  (+info)

Effects of chewing betel nut (Areca catechu) on the symptoms of people with schizophrenia in Palau, Micronesia. (3/85)

BACKGROUND: Although millions of people with schizophrenia live in betel chewing regions, the effects of betel chewing on their symptoms are unknown. Betel nut alkaloids include potent muscarinic cholinomimetics: recent research suggests that these agents may be therapeutic in schizophrenia. AIMS: To compare the primary and extrapyramidal symptom profiles and substance-using habits of betel chewing v. non-chewing people with schizophrenia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 70 people with schizophrenia. Symptom ratings measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS), and demographic and substance-use data, were compared for 40 chewers and 30 non-chewers of betel nut. RESULTS: Betel chewers with schizophrenia scored significantly lower on the positive (P = 0.001) and negative (P = 0.002) sub-scales of the PANSS than did non-chewers. There were no significant differences in extrapyramidal symptoms or tardive dyskinesia. CONCLUSIONS: Betel chewing is associated with milder symptomatology and avoidance of more harmful recreational drugs. These initial results indicate that longitudinal research is merited.  (+info)

Gene-experience interaction alters the cholinergic septohippocampal pathway of mice. (4/85)

Spatial learning requires the septohippocampal pathway. The interaction of learning experience with gene products to modulate the function of a pathway may underlie use-dependent plasticity. The regulated release of nerve growth factor (NGF) from hippocampal cultures and hippocampus, as well as its actions on cholinergic septal neurons, suggest it as a candidate protein to interact with a learning experience. A method was used to evaluate NGF gene-experience interaction on the septohippocampal neural circuitry in mice. The method permits brain region-specific expression of a new gene by using a two-component approach: a virus vector directing expression of cre recombinase; and transgenic mice carrying genomic recombination substrates rendered transcriptionally inactive by a "floxed" stop cassette. Cre recombinase vector delivery into transgenic mouse hippocampus resulted in recombination in 30% of infected cells and the expression of a new gene in those cells. To examine the interaction of the NGF gene and experience, adult mice carrying a NGF transgene with a floxed stop cassette (NGFXAT) received a cre recombinase vector to produce localized unilateral hippocampal NGF gene expression, so-called "activated" mice. Activated and control nonactivated NGFXAT mice were subjected to different experiences: repeated spatial learning, repeated rote performance, or standard vivarium housing. Latency, the time to complete the learning task, declined in the repeated spatial learning groups. The measurement of interaction between NGF gene expression and experience on the septohippocampal circuitry was assessed by counting retrogradely labeled basal forebrain cholinergic neurons projecting to the hippocampal site of NGF gene activation. Comparison of all NGF activated groups revealed a graded effect of experience on the septohippocampal pathway, with the largest change occurring in activated mice provided with repeated learning experience. These data demonstrate that plasticity of the adult spatial learning circuitry can be robustly modulated by experience-dependent interactions with a specific hippocampal gene product.  (+info)

A rapid method for measuring miotic activity of drugs in the intact mouse eye. (5/85)

A rapid and precise method for evaluating the miotic activity of cholinergic drugs has been developed based on Long's method for measuring the rate of mydriasis. The rate of reversal of mydriasis developed previously in the intact mouse eye by a mild mydriatic (phenycyclidine) is used to evaluate the miotic activity. The method provides a useful tool for measuring and comparing the miotic activity of acetylcholine agonists and cholinesterase inhibitors.  (+info)

A pertussis toxin-sensitive 8-lipoxygenase pathway is activated by a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in aplysia neurons. (6/85)

Acetylcholine (ACh) activates two types of chloride conductances in Aplysia neurons that can be distinguished by their kinetics and pharmacology. One is a rapidly desensitizing current that is blocked by alpha-conotoxin-ImI and the other is a sustained current that is insensitive to the toxin. These currents are differentially expressed in Aplysia neurons. We report here that neurons that respond to ACh with a sustained chloride conductance also generate 8-lipoxygenase metabolites. The sustained chloride conductance and the activation of 8-lipoxygenase have similar pharmacological profiles. Both are stimulated by suberyldicholine and nicotine, and both are inhibited by alpha-bungarotoxin. Like the sustained chloride conductance, the activation of 8-lipoxygenase is not blocked by alpha-conotoxin-ImI. In spite of the similarities between the metabolic and electrophysiological responses, the generation of 8-lipoxygenase metabolites does not appear to depend on the ion current since an influx of chloride ions is neither necessary nor sufficient for the formation of the lipid metabolites. In addition, the application of pertussis toxin blocked the ACh-activated release of arachidonic acid and the subsequent production of 8-lipoxygenase metabolites, yet the ACh-induced activation of the chloride conductance is not dependent on a G protein. Our results are consistent with the idea that the nicotinic ACh receptor that activates the sustained chloride conductance can, independent of the chloride ion influx, initiate lipid messenger synthesis.  (+info)

Oral submucous fibrosis in a 11-year-old Bangladeshi girl living in the United Kingdom. (7/85)

A case of oral submucous fibrosis occurring in a 11-year-old Bangladeshi girl is presented. This paper reviews the aetiology, clinical presentation and treatment modalities of oral submucous fibrosis. This case highlights the link between oral submucous fibrosis and the regular use of areca-nut (paan) and the newer transcultural oral tobacco products. This association has been reported among children resident in the Indian sub-continent but is unrecorded for United Kingdom residents. The case report underlines the danger that children face with products which are clearly targeted at them by the tobacco industry.  (+info)

Areca nut extract and arecoline induced the cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis of cultured oral KB epithelial cells: association of glutathione, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential. (8/85)

There are 600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers in the world. BQ chewing is a major etiologic factor of oral cancer. Areca nut (AN) and arecoline may inhibit the growth of oral mucosal fibroblasts (OMF) and keratinocytes. In this study, AN extract (100-800 microg/ml) and arecoline (20-120 microM) inhibited the growth of oral KB cells by 36-90 and 15-75%, respectively. Exposure to arecoline (> 0.2 mM) for 24 h induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest of OMF and KB cells. Areca nut extract (> 400 microg/ml) also induced G(2)/M arrest of KB cells, being preceded by S-phase arrest at 7-h of exposure. No evident sub-G(0)/G(1) peak was noted. Marked retraction and intracellular vacuoles formation of OMF and KB cells were observed. Glutathione (GSH) level, mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltabetam) and H(2)O(2) production of KB cells were measured by flow cytometry. GSH level [indicated by 5-chloromethyl-fluorescein (CMF) fluorescence] was depleted by 24-h exposure of KB cells to arecoline (0.4-1.2 mM) and AN extract (800-1200 microg/ml), with increasing the percentage of cells in low CMF fluorescence. By contrast, arecoline (0.1-1.2 mM) and AN extract (800-1200 microg/ml) induced decreasing and increasing H(2)O(2) production (by 2',7'-dichloro- fluorescein fluorescence), respectively. Hyperpolarization of Deltabetam (increasing of rhodamine uptake) was noted by 24-h exposure of KB cells to arecoline (0.4-1.2 mM) and AN extract (800-1200 microg/ml). AN extract (100- 1200 microg/ml) and arecoline (0.1-1.2 mM) induced little DNA fragmentation on KB cells within 24 h. These results indicate that AN ingredients are crucial in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and oral cancer by differentially inducing the dysregulation of cell cycle control, Deltabetam, GSH level and intracellular H(2)O(2) production, these events being not coupled with cellular apoptosis.  (+info)

*Arecoline

... is a base, and its conjugate acid has a pKa ~ 6.8. Arecoline is volatile in steam, miscible with most organic ... Arecoline is the primary active ingredient responsible for the central nervous system effects of the areca nut. Arecoline has ... arecoline•HBr, forms slender prisms, mp. 177-179 °C from hot alcohol; the aurichloride, arecoline•HAuCl4, is an oil, but the ... "Arecoline M1 receptor activation is a requirement for arecoline analgesia". Farmaco. 56 (5-7): 383-5. doi:10.1016/S0014-827X(01 ...

*Methylecgonidine

Arecoline Anatoxin-a Scheidweiler, KB; Plessinger, MA; Shojaie, J; Wood, RW; Kwong, TC (Dec 2003). "Pharmacokinetics and ...

*Muscarinic agonist

Arecoline, an alkaloid present in the Betel nut. Pilocarpine is a drug that acts as a muscarinic receptor agonist that is used ...

*Euphoria

The lime in the betel quid [areca nut, lime and Piper betle leaves] causes hydrolysis of arecoline to arecailide, a central ... Liu YJ, Peng W, Hu MB, Xu M, Wu CJ (November 2016). "The pharmacology, toxicology and potential applications of arecoline: a ... The major parasympathetic and muscarinic effects of areca nut are due to arecoline. Sharan RN, Mehrotra R, Choudhury Y, Asotra ... Pilocarpine, arecoline and muscarine are rather selective parasympathetic agents; i.e., their cholinomimetic activity is ...

*CPCA

Although novel ways to produce these compound exist, background stems from arecoline chemistry. E.g. Paxil and femoxetine also ...

*Areca nut

Biologically, these effects may be a consequence of the arecoline that is found in areca nuts. The habit also exposes the fetus ... Various compounds present in the nut, most importantly arecoline (the primary psychoactive ingredient which is similar to ... and three main alkaloids-arecoline, arecaidine, and guvacine-all of which have vasoconstricting properties. The betel leaf ...

*Areca catechu

The seed contains alkaloids such as arecaidine and arecoline, which, when chewed, are intoxicating and slightly addictive. ...

*Alvameline

The tetrazole alvameline (8), for example, was developed as a bioisostere of the muscarinic cholinergic compound arecoline. The ... "Bioisosteres of Arecoline: 1,2,3,6-Tetrahydro-5-pyridyl-Substituted and 3-Piperidyl-Substituted Derivatives of Tetrazoles and 1 ... in which the position of the double bond mimics that in arecoline. Reaction of (3) with ethyl chloroformate results in N- ...

*ANAVEX2-73

"Muscarinic receptor 1 agonist activity of novel N-arylthioureas substituted 3-morpholino arecoline derivatives in Alzheimer's ...

*Demethylation

The preparation of Paxil from arecoline is an application of this reaction, as well as the synthesis of GSK-372,475, for ...

*N,O-Dimethyl-4-(2-naphthyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate

... is a piperidine based stimulant drug which is synthesised from arecoline. It is similar to nocaine in chemical structure, and ...

*Rhododendron ferrugineum

R. ferrugineum is moderately toxic, containing arbutin, arecoline and rhodoxanthin, and can cause vomiting, and difficulties of ...

*Echinococcus granulosus

... or with some difficulty ante mortem by purging with arecoline hydrobromate. Detection of antigens in feces by ELISA is ...

*Areca nut production in India

... which are comprise arecoline, arecolodine, arecaidine, guvacine, isoguvacine, and govacolidine; the pharmacological and other ...

*List of MeSH codes (D03)

... arecoline MeSH D03.066.515.375 --- clonixin MeSH D03.066.515.400 --- etazolate MeSH D03.066.515.475 --- niacin MeSH D03.066. ... arecoline MeSH D03.383.725.547.375 --- clonixin MeSH D03.383.725.547.400 --- etazolate MeSH D03.383.725.547.475 --- niacin MeSH ...

*Active ingredient

... such as salicylic acid in willow bark or arecoline in areca nuts), because the word ingredient in many minds connotes a sense ...

*Anti-tobacco movement in Nazi Germany

... caffeine and arecoline in breast milk" (PDF), Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 21 (16): 2693-2703, doi:10.1002/rcm. ...

*List of psychoactive plants, fungi, and animals

... arecoline Rauvolfia serpentina: rauwolscine yohimbe (Pausinystalia yohimbe): yohimbine, corynantheidine probably many others ...

*Parasympathomimetic drug

Plant alkaloids Arecoline Nicotine Muscarine Pilocarpine (M3 receptors) Indirect acting parasympathomimetic drugs may be either ...

*Evolutionary models of human drug use

Tobacco, as well as arecoline and cannabis, two other plant neurotoxins that are widely used as recreational drugs in humans, ...

*Ifugao

... powdered snail shell and betel nut/arecoline which is used as a chewing gum to the Ifugaos) is an indelible practice during the ...
Arecoline is a major alkaloid of areca nut and has been effect on central nervous system. Although arecoline-induced neurotoxicity has been reported, the possible underlying neurotoxic mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Increasing evidences have shown that both excessive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and disturbance of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production are involved in the pathophysiology of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Here, the purpose of present study was to verify whether ER stress and the disturbance of endogenous H2S generation are also involved in arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. We found that treatment of PC12 cells with arecoline induced the down-regulation of cells viability and up-regulation of apoptosis and the activity of caspase-3, indicating the neurotoxic role of arecoline to PC12 cells. In addition, arecoline also increased the expression of Bax (pro-apoptotic protein) and attenuated the expression of Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic protein) in PC12 cells. Simultaneously,
Listing your company for Arecoline hydrobromide allows buyers to find your information through our directory pages which appear in the top positions when a search is conducted in Google, Yahoo!, MSN etc ...
Agonists: 77-LH-28-1 • AC-42 • AC-260,584 • Aceclidine • Acetylcholine • AF30 • AF150(S) • AF267B • AFDX-384 • Alvameline • AQRA-741 • Arecoline • Bethanechol • Butyrylcholine • Carbachol • CDD-0034 • CDD-0078 • CDD-0097 • CDD-0098 • CDD-0102 • Cevimeline • cis-Dioxolane • Ethoxysebacylcholine • LY-593,039 • L-689,660 • LY-2,033,298 • McNA343 • Methacholine • Milameline • Muscarine • NGX-267 • Ocvimeline • Oxotremorine • PD-151,832 • Pilocarpine • RS86 • Sabcomeline • SDZ 210-086 • Sebacylcholine • Suberylcholine • Talsaclidine • Thiopilocarpine • Vedaclidine • VU-0029767 • VU-0090157 • VU-0152099 • VU-0152100 • VU-0238429 • WAY-132,983 • Xanomeline • YM- ...
The scope of work on this project is to extend the ​OMF (cOntrol and Management Framework) to design and implement a prototype of a GENI-compliant resource management, experiment control, and measurement framework, so that it can support experiments across heterogeneous testbed resources, with a specific focus on mobile testbeds. GENI control framework functions will be added to the OMF as they become defined. Support for mobile testbeds will include the handling of disconnection, and providing temporal and spatial control. Reference implementations of your GENI-compliant resource management, experiment control, and measurement framework will be provided to another wireless project, and its testbed will be integrated into your OMF environment as a federated testbed. Both testbeds will be connected to a GENI backbone network. ...
Areca catechu L. (areca nut) is a family of Arecaceae that can reach 15-20 m height with upright stem in 15 cm diameter. The fruit germinate after 1,5 months and 4 months again has the crested little leaves that not yet open. The new stem forming happen after 2 years and fruiting on 5-8 years old depend in the ground situation. This plant flowering at the beginning and end of the rain season and has lifetime around 25-30 years. The seeds of fruit are brownish until reddish brown, lithe curvy with the younger color. In the seed sliced field appear that perisperm is dark brown with irregular crease pierce the whitish endosperm (Depkes RI, 1989). 4. Chemical Ingredients. Areca nut seed contain alkaloid, like arekoline (C8 H13 NO2), arekolidine, arekain, guvakolin, guvasine and isoguvasine, tannin condensed, hydrolyzed tannin, flavan, phenolic compound, gallic acid, latex, lignin, evaporates oil and non evaporates oil, also salt (Wang et al., 1996). Nonaka (1989) states that areca nut seed contain ...
miRNAs have been implicated in inflammation, fibrosis, EMT and various types of cancers, such as oral cancer. Some miRNA families have gained attention for their clear function in tissue fibrosis. miR-30c has been reported to be a tumor suppressor in endometrial cancer (14) and to act as an independent predictor for the clinical benefit of tamoxifen therapy in patients with advanced breast cancer (15). A previous study showed that miR-206 overexpression inhibited estrogen receptor-α-dependent proliferation, impaired invasiveness and induced cell cycle arrest of estrogen receptor-α-positive endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell lines (16). miR-203 has previously been shown to play an important role in epithelial cell biology (17). miR-203 was differentially regulated in gingival epithelial cells in the presence of P. gingivalis. Silencing of miR-203 diminished the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), suggesting that alterations in miRNAs modulate ...
Background: There are 200-600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers in the world. BQ increases oral cancer risk. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is responsible for matrix degradation, cancer invasion and metastasis. Whether areca nut extract (ANE), a BQ component, stimulates MMP-9 secretion, and the related signaling pathways awaits investigation.Results: ANE (but not arecoline) stimulated MMP-9 production of gingival keratinocytes and SAS cancer epithelial cells. ANE stimulated TGF-β1, p-Smad2, and p-TAK1 protein expression. ANE-induced MMP-9 production/expression in SAS cells can be attenuated by SB431542 (ALK5/Smad2 inhibitor), 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol (TAK1 inhibitor), catalase, PD153035 (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor), AG490 (JAK inhibitor), U0126 (MEK/ERK inhibitor), LY294002 (PI3K/Akt inhibitor), betel leaf (PBL) extract, and hydroxychavicol (HC, a PBL component), and melatonin, but not by aspirin.Conclusions: AN components contribute to oral carcinogenesis by stimulating MMP-9 secretion, thus
Click here for Areca pictures! You can also find pictures of areca nut, areca palm tree, areca palma, areca catechu, areca palm care.
The relationship between muscarinic receptor-mediated inositol lipid hydrolysis and the generation of Ca2+ signals has been examined in human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. The resting cytoplasmic calcium concentration [( Ca2+]i) as determined by fura-2 fluorescence measurements was 59 +/- 2 nM. Upon the addition of oxotremorine-M, there was a 4-fold increase in [Ca2+]i (293 +/- 18 nM), with half-maximal stimulation obtained at an agonist concentration of 8 microM, a value similar to that previously observed for the enhancement of phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Addition of partial muscarinic agonists for phosphoinositide turnover (bethanechol, oxo-2, and arecoline) elicited correspondingly smaller increases in [Ca2+]i than did oxotremorine-M. Inclusion of EGTA lowered the basal [Ca2+]i within 2 min and markedly reduced (greater than 60%) the magnitude of the agonist-induced rise in [Ca2+]i. Addition of muscarinic agonists to SK-N-SH cells that had been prelabeled with [3H]inositol led to the rapid ...
Word Scramble - English word ARECAS: words that start with arecas, words that end with arecas, anagrams of arecas, how to spell arecas!, Words with Friends, Scrabble
Betel nut-actually a seed-is a stimulant produced by the Areca catechu tree. It is traditionally chewed in combination with betel leaf and...
It is a demanding and thought involving process to acquire and design a landscape for corporate offices and malls. It taxes great amount of energy to design and sustain the landscapes and interior with natural plants and trees. This is where the role of artificial plants and landscaping products to mitigate the maintenance costs associated with landscaping becomes important. These live products are fitting options to beautify your office interiors and exterior landscapes. Artificial Areca Palms could enrich your interior with their top notch features and can give a Beautiful makeover to your offices.
65311 - Areca ARC-1226-8I. Unterstützte Speicherlaufwerk-Schnittstellen: SAS, SATA, Hostschnittstelle: PCI Express. RAID Level: 0, 1, 1E, 3, 5, 6, 10,
... FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual ARCMSR(4) NAME arcmsr -- Areca RAID Controller driver SYNOPSIS To compile this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your kernel configuration file: device pci device scbus device da device arcmsr Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the following line in loader.conf(5): arcmsr_load="YES" DESCRIPTION The arcmsr driver provides support for the Areca ARC-11xx, ARC-12xx, ARC-13xx, ARC-16xx and ARC-18xx series of SAS and SATA RAID controllers. These controllers feature RAID-0, 1, 3, 5, 6, and 10 and JBOD accelera- tion for up to 16 SATA drives. RAID level and stripe level migration, online capacity expansion, hot insertion/removal, automatic failover and rebuild, and SMART are also supported. Access to the arrays is provided via the SCSI CAM /dev/da? device nodes. A management interface is also present via the /dev/arcmsr? device node. Management tools for i386 and amd64 are available from Areca. HARDWARE The ...
當內地會走過150個年頭,我們再次尋求神,幫助我們覺察到今日仍未竟的使命。經過調查、評估和禱告,我們深盼下列群體能經歷屬靈新突破: ...
This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Oral Submucous Fibrosis" by people in this website by year, and whether "Oral Submucous Fibrosis" was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impairment of thymocyte function via induction of apoptosis by areca nut extract. AU - Lee, Chin Cheng. AU - Lin, Ying Chi. AU - Liu, Hsingjin Eugene. AU - Jan, Tong Rong. AU - Wang, Chia Chi. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Areca quid (AQ) chewing is a popular oral habit, especially in Southeast Asia cultures, in which children may be engaged in the addictive habit early in their lives. Extracts of areca nuts, the main component of AQ, have been shown to affect the functionality of T-cells. However, the potential influence of ANE on the development of T-cells is unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the impact of areca nut extracts (ANE) on thymocytes and the potential mechanisms of action. Mice administered intraperitoneally with ANE at 1, 5, or 25mg/kg daily for 5 days showed significant dose-dependent reductions in thymocyte viability. A marked decrease in the total number of thymocytes and the proportion of thymic CD4+CD8+ cells was observed in the 25mg ANE/kg-treated ...
Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of human papilloma viruses (HPV) in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and the etiologic implication of this finding warrants further studies. Objective: The prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and OSMF is high in India, and the diseases are partly attributed to high consumption of betel quid containing areca nut and tobacco. This study investigated the prevalence of HPV, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in two groups of patients using betel quid with tobacco, those with OSMF (n = 12) and those with OSCC (n = 62). Methods: DNA was extracted from all the samples and viral genome was examined by PCR/DNA sequencing. HPV-positive samples were analyzed separately for the high-risk types HPV 16 and 18. Results: HPV DNA, HSV DNA, and EBV DNA were detected in 11 (91%), 1 (8%), and 3 (25%) of the 12 samples from patients with OSMF compared with 15 (24%), 3 (5%), and 18 (29%), respectively, from 62 patients with OSCC. HPV 16 and ...
Background: Areca nut included Palmae plants that are almost in all parts of Indonesia. Areca husks have not been scientifically tested as a drug, not like a leaf and areca seeds. Pectin and flavonoids contained in the areca husks can be used as antidiarrheal medication. Objective: The objective of this research was to know the characteristics and chemical compounds of simplex powder and ethanol extract of areca husk, and antidiarrheal activity of ethanol extract of areca husk compared with loperamide HCl. Methods: The ethanol extract of areca husk was extracted by maceration with 80% ethanol. Filtrate was concentrated by rotary evaporator and dried by freeze dryer. Simplex powder and extracts were characterized and phytochemical screened, then antidiarrheal activity of extracts was tested using rats that had been induced with oleum ricini. Rats were divided into six group, each consisting of five rats, each rat was given doses of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg bw compared with loperamide HCl dose of ...
In 1952, Schwartz coined the term atrophica idiopathica mucosa oris to describe an oral fibrosing disease he discovered in 5 Indian women from Kenya. Joshi subsequently coined the termed oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) for the condition in 1953.
NIH Rare Diseases : 50 the following summary is from orphanet, a european reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.orpha number: 357154disease definitionoral submucous fibrosis (osmf) is a chronic, progressive disease that alters the fibroelasticity of the oral submucosa, prevalent in india and southeast asia but rare elsewhere, and characterized by burning and pain in the oral cavity, loss of gustatory sensation, the presence of blanched fibrous bands and stiffening of the oral mucosa and oro-pharynx (leading to trismus and a progressive reduction in mouth opening) and an increased risk of developing oral squamous cellcancer (3-19%). it is usually associated with the chewing of the areca nut (an ingredient in betel quid) but the exact etiology is unknown and there is currently no effective treatment.visit the orphanet disease page for more resources. last updated: 7/16/2013 ...
Trabecular meshwork is known to be the most important pathway for the outflow of aqueous humor. Pathology changes of TM in glaucoma lead to increased outflow resistance of aqueous humor and IOP elevation [4,7-10]. Our results showed for the first time that elevated hydrostatic pressure could decrease the expression of ZO-1, disrupt the well organized ZO-1, cytoskeleton, and focal adhesions in TM cells. Oxidative stress, hypoxia and D-mannitol (high osmotic solution), nicotine and arecoline could also disrupt or influence the formation or arrangement of TJ protein (ZO-1) in many different kinds of cells [20-24]. Evidence indicates that oxidative stress may trigger degeneration in human TM, which affects the cytoskeleton and the adhesive properties in TM cells, subsequently leading to an increased IOP [25]. Instead, we found that elevated pressure in turn can also affect the cytoskeleton and the adhesive properties in TM cells. Tight conjunction can control ion selectivity and permeability of the ...
seed of betel palm; chewed with leaves of the betel pepper and lime as a digestive stimulant and narcotic in southeastern Asia. ...
Alhamdulillah Putri pertama ane.,lahir normal 28 maret 2011 namanya Zivara Sofie Suerland sekarang usianya udah 8 bulan, -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Udah dua minggu ini istri ane sakit sakitan gan, kalo ditanya sama ane jawabya lemes, kalo tiap pagi muntah muntah padahal muntahahnya ga ada cuma kaya air ludah aja. nah kebetulan pas kemaren JJS sambil
Epowermac Australia offers Areca Thunderbolt RAID storage for MAC and PC users. With protection against drive failure as well as high performance hardware, it offers the best value for money.
Areca Nut or Betel Nut Control is Mandatory if India Wants to Reduce the Burden of Cancer Especially Cancer of the Oral Cavity ...
Eni Paulo, nexi noxou Timoti ta mitema sou xaixai noxou Kalisito Iesu, tekaukavunu vaivaikala ane o ulai noxinge ngingi ta mitema ane Kalisito Iesu ta nau mo ta tatila sou isaxilainge iloa ta mitema sou xaixai no a lalotu ne Pilipai.
ARC5020_Firmware/ 15-Feb-2011 01:00 - ARC5033_Firmware/ 14-Dec-2010 01:00 - ARC5040_Firmware/ 15-Feb-2011 01:00 - ARC8040_Firmware/ 17-Jul-2013 07:45 - Apps/ 03-May-2005 01:00 - Manual_Spec/ 13-Mar-2013 01:00 - OldProducts/ 13-Mar-2013 01:00 - Thunderbolt/ 13-Mar-2013 01:00 - Firmware_Release.txt 14-Dec-2010 01:00 40918 Notice.txt 07-Aug-2008 01:00 1093 ...
B ttre med Allians. Ikv ll bes kte jag de lokala Moderaterna. Trevligt och intressant. Diskussioner f rdes som i h g grad handlade om en vilja att g ra mycket och de hinder som st r i v gen. Men det finns i vart fall en tydlig vilja - till exempel att forts tta s nka kommunalskatten trots l gkonjunkturen. Det r stor skillnad till det b ttre - i ett frihetligt perspektiv - med Alliansstyre, ocks lokalt. Ett ytterligare helt f rbisett bel gg f r att s r fallet ocks p riksniv framg r av denna lista. D r anges de 60 statliga myndigheter som nu l ggs ned av regeringen. En tydlig minskning av byr krati och av statens omf ng. S vitt jag vet lade inte s-regeringen ned en enda myndighet under sina tolv r. ...
Серия DG126-5.0 Характеристики Основные ∙ Серия DG126-5.0 Технические ∙ Провод 0.5-2.5кв. мм ∙ Рядность 1, однорядные ∙ Шаг 5мм ∙ Цвет корпуса ...Не найдено: aneСерия DG126-5.0 (DEGSON) - Компэлhttps://www.compel.ru › Каталог › Электромеханика › Клеммы › Клеммы зажимныеСохраненная копияОписание серии клемм зажимных DG126-5.0 производства DEGSON, документация, отличительные особенности, сравнение вариантов заказа.Не найдено: aneКартинки по запросу dg 126 ...
The areca nut (/ˈærᵻkə/ or /əˈriːkə/) is the seed of the areca palm (Areca catechu), which grows in much of the tropical Pacific (Melanesia and Micronesia), Southeast and South Asia, and parts of east Africa. This seed is commonly referred to as betel nut so it is easily confused with betel leaves that are often used to wrap it (paan). The term areca originated from a South Asian word during the 16th century, when Dutch and Portuguese sailors took the nut to Europe. Consumption has many harmful effects on health and is carcinogenic to humans. Various compounds present in the nut, most importantly arecoline (the primary psychoactive ingredient which is similar to nicotine), contribute to histologic changes in the oral mucosa. As with chewing tobacco, its use is discouraged by preventive efforts.. The areca nut is not a true nut, but rather a fruit categorized as a berry. It is commercially available in dried, cured and fresh forms. When the husk of the fresh fruit is green, the nut ...
Acacia catechu (Mimosa family) stem bark extracts have been used traditionally as a dietary supplement as well as a folk medicine given its reported anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-HIV-1 activity of the extracts from stem bark of A. catechu. The aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts of A. catechu stem bark were prepared and 50% ethanolic extract was further fractioned by successively partitioning with petroleum ether, chloroform and n-butanol. All the extracts and fractions were evaluated for cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 activity using different in vitro assays. The active n-butanol fraction was evaluated for its inhibition against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, integrase, protease, pro-viral genome integration and viral Tat protein mediated transactivation. The effect of n-butanol fraction on the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in Vk2/E6E7 cells and
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Hop on to get the meaning of T/AN acronym / slang / Abbreviation. The Medical & Science Acronym / Slang T/AN means... AcronymsAndSlang. The T/AN acronym/abbreviation definition. The T/AN meaning is Tobacco Plus Areca Nut. The definition of T/AN by AcronymAndSlang.com
Halo agan agan sekalian,Selamat datang di thread ane yang ke 2. Kemaren ane bikin thread tentang seluk beluk undesensus testis. Dan kali ini ane mau ngeceritain kisah hidup ane yang berliku liku ini :ngakaks Kalau agan ngga tau apa itu undesensus testis bisa cek di thread ane yg ini Pengidap Undesensus Testis (Bijinya cuma 1 BB+) Oke sekarang kita masuk ke cerita,dan semua yang ada di cerita ini n
ကြမ္းရြက္ဟာေဆးဖက္၀င္အရြက္ထဲမွာပါေပမယ့္၊ ကြမ္းသီး၊ ေဆးရြက္ၾကီးနဲ႔အေမႊးအၾကိဳင္ေတြမွာ ႏုိင္ထရုိစမင္း၊ အလ္ကာလြဳိက္နဲ႔ပုိလီဖီေနာဓာတ္ေတြအပါအ၀င္ ကင္ဆာျဖစ္ေစတဲ့ ျဒပ္ေပါင္း အမ်ဳိး ၃၀ေလာက္ပါ၀င္ပါတယ္။ ထုံးကခံတြင္းသားေတြကုိေလာင္ေစျပီး၊ ကင္ဆာျဖစ္ေစတဲ့ဓာတ္ေတြအထဲစိမ့္၀င္ေအာင္အားေပးပါတယ္။ ကင္ဆာမျဖစ္ခင္အဆင့္မွာ၊ submucous fibrosis ဆုိတဲ့ ...
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There were many prehistoric ways for cleaning the teeth before the dawn of a real toothbrush. Chewing sticks were popular. In Southeast Asia the use of betel leaves, areca nuts and slaked lime did have an antiseptic effect against caries, although resulting in blackened teeth from the phenols. The hilltribers usually say it is better…
Congratulations to our own residents Dr. Mario Francispragasam and Dr. Jeff Yoo, as well as Dr. Tong Lam and Dr. Dan Kim for their article in this months CJEM! Read how they diagnosed a thoracic aortic aneurysm using POCUS here: CJEM Case Report
I had high hopes that Adaptec 52445 will at least work with new Seagate 2 TB disk, but I should have known better - the controller (with the latest available firmware) does NOT see the disk at all. Ive seen 10 dollar disk adapters have better compatibility than this overpriced crock of steaming (very hot processor used in it!) hardware.. New server uses Areca ARC-1231-ML and it works perfectly with all disks even Samsung F1 that do have known compatibility issues (they dont work in Adaptec 52445 either, but that I expected).. Just how bad is Adaptec? Consider that back in April 2009 when I had 10 new Western Digital 2 TB disks on my hands, support claimed they only plan to test them in May because disks were not yet available! My suggestion to post them disk was not accepted (or even properly considered). Guess what Adaptec? You just lost on a fair few near future sales of rather expensive disk controllers.. And how about having manually going to turtle-slow BIOS options that make you ...
Areca ist eine eher ruhige aber gewissenhafte, arbeitsfreudige H ndin mit sehr guten ausbauf higen Anlagen im jagdlichen so wie im Dummy- Bereich. Sie ist sehr f hrerbezogen und leichtf hrig. Sie liebt Kinder und Familie ber alles und ist am liebsten immer dabei. Schlichtweg macht es immer Freude mit ihr gemeinsam etwas zu Unternehmen, egal ob Arbeit oder Spa . ...
Kajian menunjukkan jika senah terkurung dalam bilik yangg kedap udara dengan hanya diletakkan pokok snake plant dan areca palm, senah boleh hidup dengannya kerana bekalan oksigennya yang cukup (mengikut saiz bilik tertentu, dengan jumlah orang yg tertentu) Kajian Nasa menyatakan ia juga alternatif sebagai bekalan oksigen bila berada di angkasa). Bye ...
Eureka!! My Areca Palm Tree ( Dypsis lutescens ) is seeding and they are almost done. I have been waiting for this Palm Tree to seed for a long time now. The Areca Palm Tree is one of my favorite types of Palm Tree. I always smile when I hear someone call it the Eureka Palm Tree. It is a very common mispronunciation. The name is Areca Palm Tree ( Ah-reek-ah). I noticed that the seeds of my Areca Palm are almost gold in color. That means they are pretty much ready to be picked. I will wait a little bit longer before I pick them though. I usually like to wait until they fall on the ground themselves. If you would like to see my other Areca Palm Tree post then click here. For now here are some pictures of Areca Palm Tree seeds ...
Edibility. · Cabbage (ubod) is edible, raw as salad or cooked.. Folkloric traditional medicine benefits and uses of areca nut. · In the Philippines, the buyo is regarded as tonic and general stimulant, but harmful with excessive use which can cause loss of appetite, salivation, and general degeneration of the organism.. · Fruit in decoction considered abortifacient, the nut as an emmenagogue.. · Tender seeds used as purgative; grated ripened ones as vermifuge. Externally used as astringent.. · Sprains, bruises, contusions - Crush leaves, mix with a little coconut oil, warm and apply on affected area.. · Tooth whitener: Carbonize and powder a kernel and rub on teeth.. · Tapeworm infestation: 1 glassful of 5% decoction as enema to be retained for one hour. Also, decoction of kernels boiled 20-30 minutes; for less than 12 years of age, 6 kernels (30 g); over 12 years old, 10-12 kernels (50-60 g); for adults, 16-18 kernels (80-90 g). The bunga may be mixed with kalabasa, boil for 1 hour, ...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
NEXT- Here comes Betel nut or also known as Areca nut and in Bahasa Malaysia -buah pinang- is my favorite chewable nut but not really a nut whereas when eaten can cause a hot sensation like a bit dizzy, but the effects are vary from the person eating it. My mothers advice when buying or choosing this nut to eat is that when you divide the nut into half and you see the rather white colors of the nut its indicating a sign of not causing a dizzy feeling..but when you see the nuts color is more to red be caution you will find yourself sweating with those dizzy feeling ,from my experience. Eating and chewing betel nut can be addictive but I use to eat the nuts more when Im in my parents home, even though I have it in my place and planted it I seldom eat it. ...
Some research suggests that betel nut utilize may relieve a few of the symptoms of schizophrenia, although not enough evidence, as of 2011, is available to make this more than a possibility. Other areas of medicine where the substance might offer small benefits consist of recovery from stroke and also the intestinal situation ulcerative colitis, however, not enough proof exists to demonstrate this. The nut is considered to have somewhat beneficial effects on the protection against tooth cavities.Although betel nut might have obvious desired biological effects on your body, the serious chances of the nut should also be taken into consideration. Chewing betel nut may cause cancers of the mouth, pharynx and esophagus. Just before cancer develops, the person utilizing betel nut can have problems with serious mouth problems to the extent where the mouth cannot open. Additionally, pregnant women who use betel nut can slow the development of their baby therefore it might be born underweight. ...
Find out details on the rock climbing route named Ane Ledge, including topos, photos, user reviews, and route info such as climbing type and grade.
Question - Got gastritis scared in case I have a Abdominal aortic ane - FA. Find the answer to this and other Medical questions on JustAnswer
BASIC INFORMATION: Type of property: apartments. Check in: 12:00 Check out: 10:00 INTERNET: WIFI gratis. FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT: free parking within the property. ADDITIONAL SERVICES: baby bed on request ...
Find 64 listings related to Osf in Rockford on YP.com. See reviews, photos, directions, phone numbers and more for Osf locations in Rockford, IL.
A central feature of this adaptable, robust microscope range is the stable mechanism which can be adjusted precisely. This is emphasized by the functional and ergonomic design ...
Unless you are allergic to nuts, there are myriad reasons to indulge in this wholesome food. Here are our top reasons to benefit from healthy nuts.
A procedure based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is described for the determination of nicotine and its principal metabolites cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine and cotinine-N-oxide, caffeine and arecoline in breast milk, using N-ethylnorcotinine as internal standard. Li …
Sun: Cancer of the lip can be caused by exposure to the sun. Using a lotion or lip balm that has a sunscreen can reduce the risk. Wearing a hat with a brim can also block the suns harmful A personal history of Head and Neck Cancer: People who had head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing another primary oral cancer.. Beetlenut and Pan Masala: Pan Masala is a slow poison that will cause painful death to people who are using it continuously. Chewing of betel quid with or without tobacco or areca nut with or without tobacco are the predominant causes of oral cancer. In most areas, betel quid consists of a mixture of areca nut, In most areas, betel quid consists of a mixture of areca nut, slaked lime and several other ingredients according to taste, wrapped in a betel leaf. These products have been strongly implicated in the recent increase in the incidence of oral sub mucous fibrosis. This precancerous lesion, which has a high rate of malignant transformation, is extremely ...
For definition of Groups, see Preamble Evaluation. Supplement 7: (1987) (p. 128) A. Evidence for carcinogenicity to humans (sufficient for betel quid with tobacco; inadequate for betel quid without tobacco). Many descriptive studies and case reports have shown an association between the habit of chewing betel quid with tobacco and oral cancer. A significant increase in the risk of oral cancer has been observed in chewers of betel quid with tobacco in several case-control studies and in one large-scale cohort study. In chewers of betel quid with tobacco, a statistically significant increase in risk was also observed for cancers of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx and oesophagus [ref: 1]. Several descriptive studies from Papua-New Guinea and a number of case-control studies have suggested an association between the habit of chewing betel quid without tobacco and oral cancer. In one of the case-control studies, in which smoking was not controlled for, a statistically significant increase in risk ...
UNSPECIFIED UNSPECIFIED UNSPECIFIED UNSPECIFIED UNSPECIFIED UNSPECIFIED *, Denny E Ceena and *, Priya K Jeena and Ongole, Ravikiran Genetic Susceptibility: Etiologic Factor in Oral Submucous Fibrosis. Journal of Indian Academy of Oral Medicine and Radiology, 23 (4). p. 664. *, Gopalakrishna HN and shastry, Rajeshwari and Pemminati, Sudhakar and shenoy, Ashok K and *, Alwar MC and *, Rathnakar UP and Pai , MRSM A preliminary study on antidepressant activity of NR-ANX-C (a polyherbal product) in mice. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 3 (3). pp. 550-553. ISSN 0974-6943 Aithal, Venkataraja U and Vaidyanathan, R and Rajashekhar, B Tulu Syntax Screening Test (TSST) - Test Manual- Version-1. Lambert Academic Publishing. ISBN 978-3-8454-7627-8 Alva , Abhilash and Shailesh, K R and Tanuja , S Design and Implementation off Video Based Occupancy Sensing for Adaptive Lighting Applications. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TRENDS IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT, 2013. Andrade, Maxie ...
Read siesta42 review of Areca with Decorative Planter Polyester Plant. Get everyday discount prices plus everyday free shipping over $50*. Save from Overstock.com!
It is true that many Papua New Guineans rely on the sale of betel nut for their livelihoods. A native cash crop, betel nut is referred to as "green gold", and it is completely untaxed. Markets often have an area dedicated solely to betel nut vendors. Prices for one betel nut and mustard stick vary between 6 cents to $1.30 (5p to £1), dependent upon the location, season and recent growing conditions. For Nuari, betel nut sales are her main source of income. She tends to the plants herself, and when they bear fruit she comes to the market to make some cash. If there are good sales, she will make £25 in a day. "With the money I make I can sustain myself and can buy things like soap and salt, the small things I need in life.". ...
It is true that many Papua New Guineans rely on the sale of betel nut for their livelihoods. A native cash crop, betel nut is referred to as "green gold", and it is completely untaxed. Markets often have an area dedicated solely to betel nut vendors. Prices for one betel nut and mustard stick vary between 6 cents to $1.30 (5p to £1), dependent upon the location, season and recent growing conditions. For Nuari, betel nut sales are her main source of income. She tends to the plants herself, and when they bear fruit she comes to the market to make some cash. If there are good sales, she will make £25 in a day. "With the money I make I can sustain myself and can buy things like soap and salt, the small things I need in life.". ...
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Miotic cysts of pupillary margin information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
View list of generic drugs that are classified under Miotics along with ICD Code. Find related prescribing information and price details for each drug listed under it.
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One thing you can rely on about tobacco: Its bound to give you cancer if you put it in your body. Most of you may think that statement only applies … Read More ...
Lucy Marzban, DMLS PhD Associate Professor Academic Address: Rm 288 - VGH Research Pavilion - 828 West 10th Avenue | Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1M9 Phone: 604.875.4111 extension 61742 Fax: n/a Email: [email protected]
U subotu, 19. oktobra sa početkom od 17h očekuje vas predstava za mališane - Ceca pereca. Ne propustite priliku da se dobro zabavite! Vidimo se!. ...
Zedox Lb in Gujrati - નાં ઉપયોગો, ડોઝ, આડઅસરો, ફાયદાઓ, ક્રિયાપ્રતિક્રિયાઓ અને ચેતવણી વિશે જાણો - Zedox Lb naa upyogo, dojh, adasro, fayado, kriyapratikriyao ane chetavni
Librate in Gujrati - નાં ઉપયોગો, ડોઝ, આડઅસરો, ફાયદાઓ, ક્રિયાપ્રતિક્રિયાઓ અને ચેતવણી વિશે જાણો - Librate naa upyogo, dojh, adasro, fayado, kriyapratikriyao ane chetavni
Description Have you got a hefty chewer on your hands? Does he take care of regular dog toys like theyre butter? Sounds like you need the JW Pet C.... View full details ...
All this week on the Health Beat, Dr. Barry Ramo will bring you a special series, answering your questions to find out if youre Nuts or Normal?
Related to black pepper, the paan leaf along with betel nut (Areca catechu) is chewed in Southeast Asia. A slow grower in containers, but will grow rampantly in tropical regions and is often planted at the base of trees which it uses for support. The Paan or betel leaf is also used in religious rituals by Hindus. Plants are 3-4 tall.. Our plants are healthy at the time of shipping. If for some reason you feel that the plant is damaged during transit please send us a digital photo within 5 days of receipt for us to consider replacement. Due to strict customs regulations we cannot ship plants outside mainland USA. We do not endorse the chewing of Betel nuts. ...
Related to black pepper, the paan leaf along with betel nut (Areca catechu) is chewed in Southeast Asia. A slow grower in containers, but will grow rampantly in tropical regions and is often planted at the base of trees which it uses for support. The Paan or betel leaf is also used in religious rituals by Hindus. Plants are 3-4 tall.. Our plants are healthy at the time of shipping. If for some reason you feel that the plant is damaged during transit please send us a digital photo within 5 days of receipt for us to consider replacement. Due to strict customs regulations we cannot ship plants outside mainland USA. We do not endorse the chewing of Betel nuts. ...
B44 Background and objective: To determine the prevalence of oral precancerous lesions among Green Marble Mine laborers and find its relation to occupational stress. Method: The participants were selected by stratified cluster sampling technique among four geographic zones. A total of 513 subjects were included in final study which were divided among four age cohorts: 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, and 45-above. The study has been conducted following the research methodology recommended by World Health Organization criteria; recording of data for oral lesions was based on same guidelines. A questionnaire for stress assessment,"Union of Shops, Distribution, and Allied Worker (USDAW) Nationwide", was used for mine workers, and clinical examination of oral mucosa was conducted by one of three examiners with the aid of an artificial light source. The kappa statistics for diagnoses of available oral precancerous lesions, leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and papilloma, was determined (field teams versus ...
In the current study, we showed a link between tobacco use and increased levels of urinary PGE-M. Elevated urinary PGE-M levels were found in healthy male tobacco quid chewers. By contrast, a nonstatistically significant increase in urinary PGE-M was observed in healthy female tobacco quid chewers. One likely explanation for the observed increase in urinary PGE-M in men is tobacco quid-related periodontitis or other inflammatory conditions in the oral cavity (42). COX-2 is overexpressed in periodontitis (17). Notably, some studies have suggested a link between periodontitis and increased risk of OSCC (18). Possibly, the observed elevation in urinary PGE-M reflects an increased risk of OSCC in tobacco quid chewers. Why the effect of tobacco quid on urinary PGE-M levels was less dramatic in women is uncertain. Based on history alone, we cannot exclude the possibility that tobacco quid exposure in women was less than in men. In this context, we also note that estrogen possesses anti-inflammatory ...
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U2e, U4b, C1e, C1f, C1g, C4a3, C5, CH2a1, H6a, some other H clades, some T clades, I, W, etc, were mtDNA clades that distinguished steppe populations from EEF populations to their west. U2e and U4b are from ANE, in which they developed from U2 and U4 from their Kostenki-Sunghir-like ancestors (who probably went extinct, leaving Yana and their ANE descendants the only populations carrying them). They are found in EHG and WSHG samples, and they both transmitted it to their steppe descendants. C1e, C1f, C1g, C4a3 and C5 also seem to be from ANE, but this time they got their ancestor clades from their Tianyuan-like ancestors. They were attested in EHG, WSHG, and Baikal_HG. The rest of the clades are from steppe CHG (the CHG in steppe, which remained north of the Caucasus since the Late Upper Paleolithic), which in turn got it from their Dzudzuana-like ancestors. On the paternal side, R1a, R1b(xR1b-V88) and Q1a clades (such as Q1a2b) seem to be EHG and WSHG, and in turn ANE; and being additionally ...
Except that swraid does usually not support hotswap replacing of a failed drive without interrupting the servers current workload and without an admin logging in and doing some risky mdadm / scsidriver surgery. Michael Sent from my GoodLink synchronized handheld (www.good.com) -----Original Message----- From: Mark Hahn [mailto:hahn at mcmaster.ca] Sent: Wednesday, November 21, 2007 05:27 PM Pacific Standard Time To: Ekechi Nwokah Cc: beowulf at beowulf.org Subject: Re: [Beowulf] Software RAID? , Does anyone know of any software RAID solutions that come close to the , performance of a commodity RAID card such as LSI/3ware/Areca for , direct-attached drives? yes, MD, the standard Linux software raid, is generally faster than HW raid. yes, this can be argued, though not in any kind of slam-dunk. as far as I know, the very fastest HW raid (3ware and areca - I wouldnt guess LSI) top out at 6-800 MB/s. obviously, MD will consume some cycles supporting that kind of bandwidth, but it can be done. for ...
Well this morning I found one in the bathroom at our house. It was surrounded by little black pellets, which Tom identified as seeing frequently around the Areca Palms by the pool. So we know we have more of them, and that they are feeding and transforming into butterflies right in our backyard ...
Looking for Miostat? Find out information about Miostat. C6H15ClN2O2 Hygroscopic, hard, prismatic crystals with a melting point of 200-203°C; soluble in water, methanol, and alcohol; used as a cholinergic drug in... Explanation of Miostat
Patient had major surgery (90 day post op) two weeks ago. Patient is re-admitted for bleeding from stoma site (post op site). MD administers local ane
I have had ane since I was young and went through Retin-A, Accutance, Proactive, natural products etc.... I started to go to a dermatologist to get peels and she...
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We took our New York-style Deluxe Cheesecake and fancied it up with chunky pecan-streusel topping and a ring of piped whipped cream.
Objective. Oral exfoliative cytology (OEC) has been implemented in the diagnosis of pathologic lesions for ages. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the cytomorphological features of some of the commonest potentially malignant disorders (leukoplakia, lichen planus, and oral submucous fibrosis) through a simple procedure and illustrate its importance in mass screening. Materials and Method. A total of 160 subjects with 25-50 years of age were included in the study. Among them, 40 were clinically diagnosed with oral leukoplakia, 40 were diagnosed with oral lichen planus, 40 were diagnosed with oral submucous fibrosis, and 40 were in the control group ...
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Definition of submucous cleft in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is submucous cleft? Meaning of submucous cleft as a legal term. What does submucous cleft mean in law?
Looking for Submucous Resection? Find out information about Submucous Resection. The communications services used by police, ambulances, taxicabs, trucks and other delivery vehicles. Throughout the U.S., approximately 3,000 independent... Explanation of Submucous Resection
Facebook group Fermentation in natural dyeing is a worm hole to the universe of natural pigment chemistry {yes practical information way above my serendipitous belief in"a beautiful natural phenomenon will happen"}. I discovered an in depth research nested in the group files {lots of over my phenomenon practical information} alas a table. I love tables, they remind me of geneology family trees, often a simple layout of who is what . Somewhat of a look see over real good perhaps I know a who on the list before gleaning onward. Given most "info" tables are listed in alphabetical guests, Acacia catechu (Mimosaceae) is at the top of the list. Yes I typical start out totally absorbed in learning at the top of the list and wore out befuddled by midlist. So yes natural dye: acacia /cutch I recognized as first on many ...
In Taiwan, ,2,000,000 people have a habit of chewing betel quids and an increasing number are adolescents (32) . This habit has resulted in an increase in the incidence of oral carcinoma (33) and OSF (34) . Although the etiology of OSF remains unclear, evidence has shown that it is a collagen disorder related to betel quid exposure (14, 15, 16, 17 , 22) . The obvious bimodal distribution in the betel quid exposure among OSF patients, as shown in Fig. 1⇓ , suggests individual differences in susceptibility to the development of OSF. It is essential to evaluate the OSF risk associated with polymorphisms of collagen-related genes in low- and high-exposure groups separately to examine whether the high-risk genotypes are consistent or not. Because several genes are involved in the metabolism and cross-linking of collagens, it is, therefore, important to evaluate the combined effects of multiple genes as well as the main effect of single genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to ...
Help with Air liquid interface cultures ane leaching. - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Hi, We have been growing primary human sinonasal epithelial cells in trans-wells at p2, until confluence. They are grown to confluence in BEGM (Lonza), and switched to a 50:50 mixture of BEGM and DMEM with an addition of Retinol placed in the basolateral side of the trans-well. Theoretically, these cultures should be able to last for about 6 months, but we have experienced considerable leaching ab...
On Thu, 06 Sep 2001 18:45:49 -0700, livesoil ,soil at dirtboat.com, wrote: ,On Fri, 07 Sep 2001 00:02:37 GMT, Toni ,,Toni at irish-wolfhoundsSPAM.com, wrote: , ,,Take it easy.... ,,While it would be nice to have an ID, it is not likely in this case. Id bet ,,it is a Chamaedorea or an Areca, and the likelihood of humidity being needed ,,in an indoor potted palm is about 99.9%. , ,Gosh my Chamaedorea and Areca do very well in 12-20% humidity. ,, ,,Of the 42 species palms I currently have on my property, all are thriving in ,,high humidity. ,,Im betting hers will too. , ,Many palms CAN do well in high humidity....FL has a problem with a ,number of species NOT adapted to humidity......Many Chamaedorea ,species are in very dry conditions for a portion of their ,lives....gosh, but Ill take it easy and smile and enjoy them without ,humidity..:,) Easy to tell when it gets too dry for them the spidermites and scale move in. Zhan ...
In the polystyrene nucleus hives (polynucs) Ive seen, owned or butchered, the Everynuc sold by Thornes will be the one I prefer. These people have a separate OMF floor and Varroa tray, are really easy to paint and are made of dense, robust and thick (i.e. well-insulating) polystyrene. The entrance is a gaping maw, but that is certainly easily fixed with a few wire mesh pinned into position. The beespace is also a problem due to compromises made to accommodate both long-lugged National and short-lugged Langstroth frames, yet this could be fixed easily and cheaply (though its somewhat irritating needing to fix a box that costs almost £50 ?? ).. Colonies overwintered over these boxes did well and were generally a minimum of nearly as good, and frequently better, than my colonies in cedar hives†. Although Ive also purchased some of the Miller-type feeders its actually quicker to prise up one end in the crownboard and simply drop fondant - or pour syrup - in to the integral feeder from the ...
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BE-TEL PLANTS ORIG-I-NATED. FROM South-east Asia and has been cul-ti-vated for thou-sands of years. High in an-tiox-i-dants, their uses have in-cluded, but are not lim-ited to, medic-i-nal heal-ing, stim-u-lants and even breath fresh-en-ers. In In-dia, its even con-sider an aphro-disiac. The be-tel plant is part of the pep-per fam-ily and in-cludes two va-ri-eties, piper sar-men-to-sum and piper be-tle.. In Viet-namese cul-ture, the piper be-tle is also called trau and is used to "be-gin the con-ver-sa-tions," in other words, helps break the ice in awk-ward sit-u-a-tions among adults as these were passed around as chew-ing gum. Of course, this was in the days of our grand-par-ents gen-er-a-tion and not so much any more to-day due to the un-flat-ter-ing stain-ing of teeth black when chew-ing these leaves with the areca nut.. Be-tel leaves also have sym-bolic mean-ing in tra-di-tional Viet-namese wed-dings where the groom would of-fer be-tel leaves, among other gifts, to the brides fam-ily. ...

ArecolineArecoline

... base; Methyl N-methyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydronicotinate; Methylarecaidine; Methyl 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methylnicotinate; N ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI%3D1S/C8H13NO2/c1-9-5-3-4-7

ArecolineArecoline

... base; Methyl N-methyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydronicotinate; Methylarecaidine; Methyl 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methylnicotinate; N ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=63-75-2&Units=SI

Arecoline
      - Arecolin
     Summary Report | CureHunterArecoline - Arecolin Summary Report | CureHunter

Arecoline: An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm tree. It is an agonist at both muscarinic ... Arecoline (Arecolin). Subscribe to New Research on Arecoline An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of ... 01/01/2010 - "However, few reports exist as to the effects of arecoline in human tissues other than oral cancer cell lines. ". ... 07/01/2008 - "The time between arecoline injection and time of onset of the tremor in the controls and Mg-deficient rats were ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD001115-Arecoline-Arecolin.do

Arecoline - WikipediaArecoline - Wikipedia

Arecoline is a base, and its conjugate acid has a pKa ~ 6.8. Arecoline is volatile in steam, miscible with most organic ... Arecoline is the primary active ingredient responsible for the central nervous system effects of the areca nut. Arecoline has ... arecoline•HBr, forms slender prisms, mp. 177-179 °C from hot alcohol; the aurichloride, arecoline•HAuCl4, is an oil, but the ... "Arecoline M1 receptor activation is a requirement for arecoline analgesia". Farmaco. 56 (5-7): 383-5. doi:10.1016/S0014-827X(01 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arecoline

CAS No.131448-17-4,Arecoline-d5 Hydrobromide Salt SuppliersCAS No.131448-17-4,Arecoline-d5 Hydrobromide Salt Suppliers

where to buy 131448-17-4(Arecoline-d5 Hydrobromide Salt).Also offer free database of 131448-17-4(Arecoline-d5 Hydrobromide Salt ... Arecoline-d5 Hydrobromide Salt) for price inquiry. ... ARECOLINE-D5, HYDROBROMIDE SALT;NSC 56321-d5;Arecaidine-d5; ...
more infohttps://www.lookchem.com/cas-131/131448-17-4.html

Effect of benactyzine and arecoline on the 45 Ca uptake by rat brain nerve endings | SpringerLinkEffect of benactyzine and arecoline on the 45 Ca uptake by rat brain nerve endings | SpringerLink

The effect of the central cholinolytic benactyzine and the cholinomimetic arecoline on the uptake of45Ca by rat brain ... whereas arecoline led to a rapid initial increase in45Ca uptake. Benactyzine was shown to depress the effect of arecoline and ... Semenov, E.V. Effect of benactyzine and arecoline on the45Ca uptake by rat brain nerve endings. Bull Exp Biol Med 86, 1168-1170 ... Effect of benactyzine and arecoline on the45Ca uptake by rat brain nerve endings. *E. V. Semenov ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00845018

Sciencemadness Discussion Board - Synthesis of Arecoline - 3 Steps from Nicotinic Acid - Powered by XMB 1.9.11Sciencemadness Discussion Board - Synthesis of Arecoline - 3 Steps from Nicotinic Acid - Powered by XMB 1.9.11

Caution! Arecoline is a possible carcinogen and is biologically active!**,/span,,/div,,/strong,,br /,. Arecoline is an alkaloid ... Though of topic, while we are on topic of arecoline, I might just as well attach the chapter on arecoline analogues and their ... Synthesis of Arecoline - 3 Steps from Nicotinic Acid. ,div style="text-align: center;",,span style="color: Red;",. **Caution! ... Arecoline is a muscarinic acetylcholine M1 and M2 receptor agonist, and has generated moderate interest in academic research ...
more infohttp://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=14359

miR-203 inhibits arecoline-induced epithelial‑mesenchymal transition by regulating secreted frizzled-related protein 4 and...miR-203 inhibits arecoline-induced epithelial‑mesenchymal transition by regulating secreted frizzled-related protein 4 and...

Effects of arecoline on miR-203, SFRP4 and TM4SF1 in the HaCaT cells. To further analyze the effects of arecoline on miR-203, ... Arecoline affects the expression of EMT-related genes in a dose-dependent manner. To determine the effects of arecoline on EMT ... To detect the effect of arecoline on EMT, the HaCaT cells were treated with arecoline (Selleck Chemicals, Houston, TX, USA) at ... we validated that arecoline induced EMT in the HaCaT cells. We found that arecoline significantly decreased the expression of ...
more infohttps://www.spandidos-publications.com/or/33/6/2753

Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assay for Determination of Nicotine and Metabolites,...Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assay for Determination of Nicotine and Metabolites,...

... caffeine and arecoline in breast milk, using N-ethylnorcotinine as internal standard. Li … ... Arecoline induces TNF-alpha production and Zonula Occludens-1 redistribution in mouse Sertoli TM4 cells. Kuo TM, Luo SY, Chiang ... Caffeine and Arecoline in Breast Milk Manuela Pellegrini 1 , Emilia Marchei, Silvia Rossi, Federica Vagnarelli, Abhilasha ... Quantification of arecoline (areca nut alkaloid) in neonatal biological matrices by high-performance liquid chromatography/ ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17640086/

Synthesis of Cocaine analogs from ArecolineSynthesis of Cocaine analogs from Arecoline

The Arecoline freebase was prepared by treating the Arecoline Hydrobromide of commerce with concentrated aqueous sodium ... Arecoline Hydrobromide is a fairly cheap commercial starting material, $80/50g from Aldrich. Also, I think that it is used in ... Synthesis of Cocaine analogs from Arecoline. Written by Beagle, edited by Rhodium [ Back to the Chemistry Archive ] ... To a solution of 166ml of 1M 4-chlorophenylmagnesium bromide in 700ml ether was added 12.9g of arecoline freebase in 300ml ...
more infohttps://www.designer-drug.com/pte/12.162.180.114/dcd/chemistry/cocaine.analog.arecoline.html

Shodhganga@INFLIBNET: Immunobiological effect of arecoline: a plant Alkaloid[email protected]: Immunobiological effect of arecoline: a plant Alkaloid

The [email protected] Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access ...
more infohttp://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in:8080/jspui/handle/10603/16304

Arecoline Induces Neurotoxicity to PC12 Cells: Involvement in ER Stress and Disturbance of Endogenous H2S Generation - Semantic...Arecoline Induces Neurotoxicity to PC12 Cells: Involvement in ER Stress and Disturbance of Endogenous H2S Generation - Semantic...

... indicating the neurotoxic role of arecoline to PC12 cells. In addition, arecoline also increased the expression of Bax (pro- ... were also reduced by arecoline treatment. These results indicate that arecoline-caused neurotoxicity to PC12 cells is involved ... Simultaneously, arecoline caused excessive ER stress in PC12 cells, as evidenced by the up-regulations of Glucose-regulated ... Although arecoline-induced neurotoxicity has been reported, the possible underlying neurotoxic mechanisms have not yet been ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Arecoline-Induces-Neurotoxicity-to-PC12-Cells-Invo-Jiang-Wang/5b287d567123a7d15f10fbbca9cb6135ccd3a313

Regulation of extracellular matrix genes by arecoline in primary gingival fibroblasts requires epithelial factors ePrints@IIScRegulation of extracellular matrix genes by arecoline in primary gingival fibroblasts requires epithelial factors [email protected]

The basic aim of our study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the action of arecoline on the expression of genes in oral ... Furthermore, arecoline down-regulated the expression of collagens 1A1 and 3A1 in human primary gingival fibroblasts; however ... Results: We observed the induction of transforming growth factor-beta2 by arecoline in HaCaT cells and this induction was found ... However, the molecular basis of the action of arecoline in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis is poorly understood. ...
more infohttp://eprints.iisc.ac.in/24952/

The muscarinic cholinergic agonist arecoline stimulates the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through a centrally...The muscarinic cholinergic agonist arecoline stimulates the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through a centrally...

Arecoline, therefore, appears to be a compound suitable to selectively evaluate the responsiveness of the central component of ... Arecoline, injected iv to catheterized, freely moving male Sprague-Dawley rats, stimulated plasma ACTH and corticosterone ... These data suggest that the muscarinic cholinergic agonist arecoline stimulates the HPA axis in the rat and that this effect is ... This hypothesis was confirmed by the dose-dependent ability of arecoline to cause hypothalamic CRH secretion in vitro, an ...
more infohttps://repo.euc.ac.cy/handle/123456789/710

Role of Plant Derived Alkaloids and Their Mechanism in Neurodegenerative DisordersRole of Plant Derived Alkaloids and Their Mechanism in Neurodegenerative Disorders

Arecoline. Arecoline is a pyridine alkaloid belonging to the family Arecaceae and chiefly found in the fruit of the palm tree ... Toxicity of Arecoline. As it is comprehensively mentioned that arecoline exerts potential benefits in NDDs. Minimum lethal dose ... Arecoline-stimulated placenta growth factor production in gingival epithelial cells: modulation by curcumin. Oral Dis. 2013;19( ... Ullah M, Cox S, Kelly E, Boadle R, Zoellner H. Arecoline is cytotoxic for human endothelial cells. J Oral Pathol Med. 2014;43( ...
more infohttp://www.ijbs.com/v14p0341.htm

Alkaloids - Wikimedia CommonsAlkaloids - Wikimedia Commons

Français : Un alkaloïde est une molécule organique à base dazote et possédant des effets pharmacologiques sur lêtre humain et sur dautres animaux ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Alkaloid

Biochemicals and Diagnostics | Fisher ScientificBiochemicals and Diagnostics | Fisher Scientific

... arecoline hydrobromide, arecoline bromide, taeniolin, arecoline hbr, methyl 1-methyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carboxylate ... Arecoline hydrobromide, 98+%, ACROS Organics™. CAS: 300-08-3 Molecular Formula: C8H13NO2·BrH Molecular Weight (g/mol): 236.11 ...
more infohttps://www.fishersci.dk/dk/en/products/IECXCVZE/biochemicals.html

Cholinergic agonists and antagonists Flashcards by Leslie Rea | BrainscapeCholinergic agonists and antagonists Flashcards by Leslie Rea | Brainscape

2. Arecoline → muscarinic and nicotinic agonist. 3. Pilocarpine → mainly muscarinic agonist [this is the only natural alkaloid ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/cholinergic-agonists-and-antagonists-5333912/packs/7968324

Run Everything Labs: EWP & STW Pre-Workout ReviewRun Everything Labs: EWP & STW Pre-Workout Review

Arecoline Hydrobromide. Aerocline Hydrobromide is a natural alkaloid found in the nut of the Areca palm. Aerocoline has been ... EWP Blend including Theobromine, Synephrine, Arecoline Hydrobromide. The ingredients in EWP are designed to repair your muscles ...
more infohttps://www.tigerfitness.com/articles/post/run-everything-labs-pre-workout-review

Methylecgonidine - WikipediaMethylecgonidine - Wikipedia

Arecoline Anatoxin-a Scheidweiler, KB; Plessinger, MA; Shojaie, J; Wood, RW; Kwong, TC (Dec 2003). "Pharmacokinetics and ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methylecgonidine

Transdermal Drug Delivery Research Report 2019: Updated Technologies, Markets, and Companies Analysis & Forecasts 2018-2028 -...Transdermal Drug Delivery Research Report 2019: Updated Technologies, Markets, and Companies Analysis & Forecasts 2018-2028 -...

Transdermal arecoline Transdermal nicotine for Tourette syndrome Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Transdermal ...
more infohttp://www.digitaljournal.com/pr/4402495

Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine - Quick Access to Quality Drug InformationDrug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine - Quick Access to Quality Drug Information

Arecoline View Synonyms. View Structure. Description:. An alkaloid obtained from the betel nut (Areca catechu), fruit of a palm ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/rn/63-75-2

Plus itPlus it

The average IRA values at the M1, M2, and M3 receptors were 0.98, 0.84, and 0.71 for arecoline; 10.2, 8.8, and 3.0 for ... We measured complete concentration-response curves for arecoline, bethanechol, carbachol, McN-A343, pilocarpine, oxotremorine ... Oxotremorine-M; ●, oxotremorine; ▵, carbachol; ▴, arecoline; ♦, S-aceclidine; ×,R-aceclidine; ■, pilocarpine; ▪, bethanechol ... Oxotremorine-M; ●, oxotremorine; ▵, carbachol; ▴, arecoline; ■, pilocarpine; ▪, bethanechol; ⋄, McN-A343. The data points ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/289/2/981
  • A procedure based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is described for the determination of nicotine and its principal metabolites cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine and cotinine-N-oxide, caffeine and arecoline in breast milk, using N-ethylnorcotinine as internal standard. (nih.gov)
  • Liquid/liquid extraction with chloroform/isopropanol (95:5, v/v) was used for nicotine, cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, cotinine-N-oxide and caffeine under neutral conditions and for arecoline under basic conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Limits of quantification were 5 microg/L for nicotine, cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, cotinine-N-oxide and caffeine, and 50 microg/L for arecoline using 1 mL human milk per assay. (nih.gov)
  • Background and Objective: Oral submucous fibrosis, a disease of collagen disorder, has been attributed to arecoline present in the saliva of betel quid chewers. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Arecoline is known to be a partial agonist of muscarinic acetylcholine M1, M2, M3 receptors and M4, which is believed to be the primary cause of its parasympathetic effects (such as pupillary constriction, bronchial constriction, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arecoline is a muscarinic acetylcholine M1 and M2 receptor agonist, and has generated moderate interest in academic research for use in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative conditions, though its application is hindered by the compound's reported carcinogenicity ( see Wikipedia ). (sciencemadness.org)
  • Conclusion: Taken together, our data highlight the importance of arecoline-induced epithelial changes in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. (iisc.ac.in)
  • In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in arecoline-induced EMT in HaCaT cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Material and Methods: Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) and primary human gingival fibroblasts were treated with arecoline in combination with various pathway inhibitors, and the expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoform genes and of collagen isoforms was assessed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Results: We observed the induction of transforming growth factor-beta2 by arecoline in HaCaT cells and this induction was found to be caused by activation of the M-3 muscarinic acid receptor via the induction of calcium and the protein kinase C pathway. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Here, the purpose of present study was to verify whether ER stress and the disturbance of endogenous H2S generation are also involved in arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Notably, the level of H2S in the culture supernatant and the expressions of cystathionine β-synthase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (two major enzymes for endogenous H2S generation in PC12 cells) were also reduced by arecoline treatment. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results indicate that arecoline-caused neurotoxicity to PC12 cells is involved in ER stress and disturbance of endogenous H2S generation and suggest that the modulation of ER stress and endogenous H2S generation may be potential therapeutic approach in treatment of arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To a solution of 166ml of 1M 4-chlorophenylmagnesium bromide in 700ml ether was added 12.9g of arecoline freebase in 300ml ether at -10°C. The mix was stirred at -10°C for 30 min, poured onto ice and treated with 200ml of 10% HCl. (designer-drug.com)
  • Beginning with the Euphroamine formula, Designer Supplements introduces another potent fatloss ingredient to the industry in Arecoline. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Arecoline is found naturally in the Areca catechu plant and is chewed socially in many regions of Asia for its stimulating effect. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Benactyzine was shown to depress the effect of arecoline and depolarization on uptake of the isotope. (springer.com)
  • This hypothesis was confirmed by the dose-dependent ability of arecoline to cause hypothalamic CRH secretion in vitro, an effect antagonized by atropine, and its failure to elicit ACTH and corticosterone secretion by dispersed anterior pituicytes and adrenocortical cells in culture, respectively. (euc.ac.cy)
  • Arecoline has the effect of inhibiting the pineal gland, thereby stimulating testicular function by releasing the restraints of melatonin (3) and subsequently increasing testosterone levels (4). (anabolicminds.com)
  • It was also reported that arecoline depleted cellular glutathione (GTH) levels, and subsequently induced various genotoxic and cytotoxic stimulation in oral mucosal fibroblasts ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The authors start with arecoline (the active compound in betel nut: N-methyl-piperidine- 3-carboxylic acid methyl ester with a double bond between the 3 and 4 positions). (designer-drug.com)
  • Arecoline, therefore, appears to be a compound suitable to selectively evaluate the responsiveness of the central component of the HPA axis. (euc.ac.cy)
  • Arecoline is merely the first constituent in a truly synergistic blend of ingredients. (anabolicminds.com)
  • however these collagens were induced by arecoline in the presence of spent medium of cultured human keratinocytes. (iisc.ac.in)
  • When influenced by slaked lime, arecoline is hydrolyzed to arecadine, which has pronounced effects on fibroblasts ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To examine the site on the HPA axis that is stimulated by cholinergic agents, we evaluated the in vivo and in vitro effects of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist arecoline in intact and pituitary stalk-transected rats as well as on isolated rat hypothalami, dispersed anterior pituicytes, and adrenocortical cells in culture. (euc.ac.cy)
  • In addition, arecoline also increased the expression of Bax (pro-apoptotic protein) and attenuated the expression of Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic protein) in PC12 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Simultaneously, arecoline caused excessive ER stress in PC12 cells, as evidenced by the up-regulations of Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and Cleaved caspase-12 expressions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Research suggests this is probably at least partly because of arecoline itself, although it could also be from the other constituents of the nut as well, some of which are precursors to nitrosamines that form in the mouth during chewing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the strucuture-activity relationship of arecoline analogues is of continued interest in medicinal chemistry. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Arecoline is a base, and its conjugate acid has a pKa ~ 6.8. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arecoline, injected iv to catheterized, freely moving male Sprague-Dawley rats, stimulated plasma ACTH and corticosterone release in a dose-dependent fashion. (euc.ac.cy)
  • Pituitary stalk transection led to diminished plasma ACTH and corticosterone responses to arecoline. (euc.ac.cy)