Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Nerve Tissue ProteinsTelencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Anterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Mice, Inbred C57BLVisual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Nervous System Malformations: Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 188.8.131.52.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Substantia Innominata: Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Iofetamine: An amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs and from there redistributed primarily to the brain and liver. It is used in brain radionuclide scanning with I-123.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Dizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Neuroanatomy: Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
"Implicitly perceived vocal attractiveness modulates prefrontal cortex activity". Cerebral Cortex. 22 (6): 1263-1270. doi: ... and the more activity is produced in the temporal voice areas (areas of the brain that deal with voice perception and accents ... Cerebral Cortex. 22 (1): 191-200. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhr113. PMID 21625012. Pell, M. D.; Leonard, C. L. (2003). "Processing ... Cortex. 49 (5): 1394-1403. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2012.08.003. PMID 22938844. Sander, D.; Grafman, J.; Zalla, T. (2003). "The ...
Cerebral Cortex. 17 (10): 2387-2399. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhl147. PMC 2896890 . PMID 17218482. Campbell, R; MacSweeney, M; ... Skipper, JI; van Wassenhove, V; Nusbaum, HC; Small, SL (2007). "Hearing Lips and Seeing Voices: How Cortical Areas Supporting ... doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.03.006. PMC 4475441 . PMID 25890390. Campbell, R (2008). "The processing of audio-visual speech: ... In some but not all studies, activation of Broca's area is reported for speechreading, suggesting that articulatory mechanisms ...
Neuroscience of sex differences
"Sex differences in lateralization revealed in the posterior language areas". Cerebral Cortex. 10 (9): 866-72. doi:10.1093/ ... areas in the left posterior and anterior cingulate gyri, and areas in the cerebellum bilateral VIIb, VIIIa and Crus I lobes, ... The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC) plays a key role in social emotional processing. In accordance with the sexual ... in areas in the right hemisphere related to language in addition to several limbic structures such as the right insular cortex ...
Father Tongue hypothesis
2000). "Sex differences in lateralization revealed in the posterior language areas". Cerebral Cortex. 10 (9): 866-872. doi: ... 1996). "Cerebral organization of component processes in reading". Brain. 119: 1221-1238. doi:10.1093/brain/119.4.1221. Pugh, K ... Focusing on prehistoric language shift in already settled areas, examples worldwide show that as little as 10-20% of ... Focusing on prehistoric language shift in already settled areas, examples worldwide show that as little as 10-20% of ...
Motor theory of speech perception
Disrupting the premotor cortex disrupts the perception of speech units such as plosives. The activation of the motor areas ... Cerebral Cortex. 17 (10): 2387-2399. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhl147. PMC 2896890 . PMID 17218482. Meister, I. G.; Wilson, S. M.; ... Hearing speech activates vocal tract muscles, and the motor cortex and premotor cortex. The integration of auditory and visual ... Wilson, S. M.; Saygin, A. E. P.; Sereno, M. I.; Iacoboni, M. (2004). "Listening to speech activates motor areas involved in ...
Autism and working memory
Visual Coding and Underconnectivity with Frontal Areas". Cerebral Cortex. 18 (2): 289-300. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhm054. PMC ... The interaction between the amygdala, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STG) enables ... and that autism is a hindrance in this area. Autistic people appear to have a local bias for visual information processing, ... may have implications in their ability to encode information because of the role the MTL and especially the hippocampal areas ...
"Control of object-based attention in human cortex". Cerebral Cortex. 14 (12): 1346-1357. PMID 15166105. doi:10.1093/cercor/ ... A 2009 case study involving "DF", who had suffered bilateral damage to the lateral occipital lobe (LO) area of her ventral ... In a recent study Baldauf and Desimone show that a region in frontal cortex, the inferior-frontal junction (IFJ), is involved ... De-Wit, L. H.; Kentridge, R. W.; Milner, A.D. (2009). "Object-based attention and visual area LO". Neuropsychologia. 47 (6): ...
6 (6): 823 -- Cerebral Cortex". Retrieved 2009-11-03. "Neuron - An Area within Human Ventral Cortex Sensitive to "Building" ... The parahippocampal place area (PPA) is a sub-region of the parahippocampal cortex that lies medially in the inferior temporo- ... The term parahippocampal cortex is used to refer to an area that encompasses both the posterior parahippocampal gyrus and the ... Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere. Parahippocampal gyrus shown in orange. Human brain inferior-medial view. ...
Cerebral Cortex. 18 (1): 53-66. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhm031. PMID 17478416. Tran H, Sawatari A, Leamey CA (January 2015). "The ... Immunostaining reveals a cluster of high Ten-m3 protein expression in the areas involved in this ipsilateral mapping. In Ten-m3 ... They are expressed in distinct, but often interconnected, areas of the developing nervous system and in some non-neural tissues ... and primary visual cortex (V1) and to the superior colliculus (SC). Ten-m3 facilitates the retinotopic mapping of ipsilateral ...
The axons of these cells pass in the depth of the cerebral cortex to the corona radiata and then to the internal capsule ... The motor impulses originate in the giant pyramidal cells or Betz cells of the motor area; i.e., precentral gyrus of cerebral ... start in the motor center of the cerebral cortex. There are upper and lower motor neurons in the corticospinal tract. ... cortex. These are the upper motor neurons (UMN) of the corticospinal tract. ...
Conway, B. R.; Tsao, DY (22 December 2005). "Color Architecture in Alert Macaque Cortex Revealed by fMRI". Cerebral Cortex. 16 ... evidence shows other areas are involved and that these areas subserve processing of multiple properties (e.g. V1) (thus taken ... Bouvier, S. E.; Engel, SA (27 April 2005). "Behavioral Deficits and Cortical Damage Loci in Cerebral Achromatopsia". Cerebral ... Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). 11 (8): 761-72. doi:10.1093/cercor/11.8.761. PMID 11459766. Mishkin, Mortimer; ...
Mallamaci, A; Muzio, L; Chan, CH; Parnavelas, J; Boncinelli, E (July 2000). "Area identity shifts in the early cerebral cortex ... The Protomap is a primordial molecular map of the functional areas of the mammalian cerebral cortex during early embryonic ... Sur, M; Rubenstein, JL (4 November 2005). "Patterning and plasticity of the cerebral cortex". Science. 310 (5749): 805-10. doi: ... Grove, EA; Fukuchi-Shimogori, T (2003). "Generating the cerebral cortical area map". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 26: 355-80 ...
... is a field of developmental neuroscience which aims to determine how the various functional areas of the cerebral cortex are ... Brodmann's Localisation in the cerebral cortex : the principles of comparative localisation in the cerebral cortex based on ... Sur, M; Rubenstein, JL (4 November 2005). "Patterning and plasticity of the cerebral cortex". Science. 310 (5749): 805-10. doi: ... Grove, EA; Fukuchi-Shimogori, T (2003). "Generating the cerebral cortical area map". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 26: 355-80 ...
The Cerebral Cortex of the Rat, 113-150. MIT Press, Cambridge. For Neuroanatomy of this area visit BrainInfo. ... and sends major projections to the superficial layers of the entorhinal cortex (Amaral & Witter, 1995). The parasubicular area ... It is postulated that this area may play an integral role in spatial navigation and the integration of head-directional ... cells in this area are modulated by local theta rhythm, and display theta-frequency membrane potential oscillations (Glasgow & ...
Anterior nuclei of thalamus
... a cerebral cortex region sometimes called the Wernicke's area) as a centre of the sound "images" of speech and its syllables ... At least some cortical areas neurobiologically active during both sign and vocal speech, such as the auditory cortex, are ... Cerebral Cortex. 16 (8): 1069-1076. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhj047. PMID 16207930. Umiltà, M. A.; Kohler, E.; Gallese, V.; Fogassi, ... Part of the auditory cortex also can represent aspects of speech such as its consonantal features. Mirror neurons have been ...
Cerebral achromatopsia differs from congenital achromatopsia in that it is caused by damage to the cerebral cortex as opposed ... as well as the idea that there are area specializations in the cortex. Many studies have shown that lesions in the areas ... The primary visual cortex V1 sends visual information to the extrastriate cortical areas for higher order visual processing. ... Cerebral achromatopsia occurs after injury to the lingual or fusiform gyrus, the areas associated with hV4. These injuries ...
Chemoreceptor trigger zone
Evolutionarily, the cerebral cortex is the most recent development. This area of the brain is responsible for critical thinking ... This is the area in which "a final decision is made" about whether to evoke an emetic response or not. This decision is based ... The CTZ is located within the area postrema, which is on the floor of the fourth ventricle and is outside of the blood-brain ... This area of the brain is responsible for producing emotion and emotional responses to external stimuli, and also is ...
This occurs primarily in the inferior frontal cortex, specifically in an area known as Broca's area. Next, the brain must plan ... Cerebral Cortex. 15 (8): 1261-1269. PMID 15635062. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhi009. Konrad, Andreas; Goran Vucurevic; Francesco Musso ... Aphasia is the inability to speak, and can be caused by damage to Broca's area or the motor cortex. Alexia is the inability to ... Agraphia is the inability to write which can also arise from damage to Broca's area or the motor cortex. In addition, damage to ...
Each of these areas has a complex internal structure. Some parts, such as the cerebral cortex and the cerebellar cortex, ... The elaboration of the cerebral cortex carries with it changes to other brain areas. The superior colliculus, which plays a ... and many of its functions are taken over by visual areas of the cerebral cortex. The cerebellum of mammals contains a large ... and uncovered other types of activity-driven synaptic change in a variety of brain areas, including the cerebral cortex, ...
... mapping shapes the folding of the cerebral cortex. In both the V1 and V2 areas of macaques and humans the vertical ... Mapping striate and extrastriate visual areas in human cerebral cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996-3-19;93:2382-2386> Engel, ... Areas of the visual cortex are sometimes defined by their retinotopic boundaries, using a criterion that states that each area ... Those visual areas of the brainstem and cortex that perform the first steps of processing the retinal image tend to be ...
Cerebral Cortex. 19 (9): 2025-2037. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhn228. PMC 2722423 . PMID 19150924. Berman R.; Wurtz R. (2011). " ... Warner CE, Goldshmit Y, Bourne JA (2010). "Retinal afferents synapse with relay cells targeting the middle temporal area in the ... The dorsal part of the lateral pulvinar nucleus predominantly has connections with posterior parietal cortex and the dorsal ... which projects to visual cortical area MT, in the early development of MT and the dorsal stream, as well as following early- ...
Neural top-down control of physiology
Areas doing this include the insular cortex, the orbital, and the medial prefrontal cortices. These cerebral areas also control ... Through them, the higher cerebral cortex areas can control the immune system, and the body's homeostatic and stress physiology ... These lower brain areas are under control of cerebral cortex ones. Such cortical regulation differs between its left and right ... The cerebral cortex in rodents shows lateral specialization in its regulation of immunity with immunosuppression being ...
Mark A. O'Neill
"Computational Analysis of Functional Connectivity between Areas of Primate Cerebral Cortex". Philosophical Transactions of the ... Work in the latter area led to the successful flotation in 2007 of a systems biology company, e-Therapeutics, where O'Neill was ... He has worked in the areas of artificial life and biologically inspired computing. In particular, he has attempted to answer ... "Anatomical connectivity defines the organisation of cortical areas in the macaque monkey and the cat". Philosophical ...
The surface area of a cat's cerebral cortex is approximately 83 cm2 (13 in2) whereas the human brain has a surface area of ... Area 17 of the visual cortex was found to contain about 51,400 neurons per mm3. Area 17 is the primary visual cortex. Both ... Of the cat cerebral cortex: A comparison with major visual areas". The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 279 (2): 228-34. doi: ... Payne, B. R.; Siwek, D. F. (1991). "The Visual Map in the Corpus Callosum of the Cat". Cerebral Cortex. 1 (2): 173-88. doi: ...
Within the cerebral cortex, sensations are linked with other cortical areas. Sensory pathways from the periphery to the cortex ... Thalamic nuclei, in turn, send information to specific areas in the cerebral cortex. Each pathway consists of three bundles of ... Adjacent areas of the body are represented by adjacent areas in the cortex. When body parts are drawn in proportion to the ... The IL projects diffusely to all parts of the cerebral cortex. The insular and cingulate cortices are parts of the brain which ...
Current research includes the tracking of changes that occur in the motor areas of the cerebral cortex as a result of a stroke ... This results in activity within the surrounding area of the cortex being misinterpreted by the area of the cortex formerly ... Diamond MC, Krech D, Rosenzweig MR (1964). "The Effects of an Enriched Environment on the Histology of the Rat Cerebral Cortex ... The areas representing digit one and five are not located directly beside the area representing digit three, so these regions ...
Cerebral Cortex. 20 (2): 486-491. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhp117. PMID 19546157. Gilaie-Dotan, S.; Bentin, S.; Harel, M.; Rees, G.; ... Grossman, E.; Blake, R. (2002). "Brain areas active during visual perception of biological motion". Neuron. 35: 1167-1175. doi: ... Cerebral Cortex. 26 (1): 234-245. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhu199. PMC 4701122 . PMID 25217472. Kerr-Gaffney, J. E.; Hunt, A. R.; ... Also, premotor cortex is important, which indicates that the mirror neuron system is recruited for "filling in" the dots. In a ...
Benzodiazepine drugs including diazepam increase the inhibitory processes in the cerebral cortex. The anticonvulsant properties ... Diazepam appears to act on areas of the limbic system, thalamus, and hypothalamus, inducing anxiolytic effects. ... caused by cerebral or spinal cord conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, or spinal cord injury (long-term treatment is ...
Positron emission tomography
Disadvantages are that shot noise in the raw data is prominent in the reconstructed images, and areas of high tracer uptake ... March 1999). "In vivo mapping of cerebral acetylcholinesterase activity in aging and Alzheimer's disease". Neurology. 52 (4): ... 2006). "D2/D3 dopamine receptor binding with F-18fallypride in thalamus and cortex of patients with schizophrenia". ... Neurology: PET neuroimaging is based on an assumption that areas of high radioactivity are associated with brain activity. What ...
"Cerebral Cortex. 11 (9): 868-877. doi:10.1093/cercor/11.9.868. PMID 11532891.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link). ... it has been shown that volume differences identified with VBM may reflect mostly differences in surface area of the cortex, ... However, this is time consuming and can only provide measures of rather large areas. Smaller differences in volume may be ... Construction of symmetric grey and white matter templates by averaging right and left cerebral hemispheres. ...
... although glial cells outnumber neurons roughly 4 to 1 in the cerebral cortex. Glia come in several types, which perform a ... However, a smaller tumor in an area such as Wernicke's area (small area responsible for language comprehension) can result in a ... The brain is divided into 4 lobes and each lobe or area has its own function. A tumor in any of these lobes may affect ... These areas are composed of two broad classes of cells: neurons and glia. These two types are equally numerous in the brain as ...
Hof, Patrick R.; Van Der Gucht, Estel (2007). "Structure of the cerebral cortex of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae ( ... Whale spindle neurons are found in areas of the brain that are homologous to where they are found in humans, suggesting that ... A pair of pygmy right whales were retained in an enclosed area (with nets); they were eventually released in South Africa. ... Smith, Thomas G.; Sjare, Becky (1990). "Predation of Belugas and Narwhals by Polar Bears in Nearshore Areas of the Canadian ...
... motor area on the medial surface of the frontal lobe and progressing to the primary motor cortex and then to parietal cortex ... it is somewhat close to the contemporary view of cerebral cortex and formation of associations. The intellectuality of all ... Libet, B. (1985). "Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action". Behavioral and Brain ... with this orderly sequential network activation incorporating premotor association cortices together with primary motor cortex ...
ادرار کردن - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Brain centers that regulate urination include the pontine micturition center, periaqueductal gray, and the cerebral cortex. In ... There is an inhibitory area for micturition in the midbrain. After transection of the brain stem just above the pons, the ... DasGupta R, Kavia RB, Fowler CJ (2007). "Cerebral mechanisms and voiding function". BJU Int. 99 (4): 731-4. doi:10.1111/j.1464- ... Urination in a heavily wooded area is generally harmless, actually saves water, and may be condoned for males (and less ...
Certain smells can be associated with specific areas and help a person with vision problems to remember a familiar area. This ... Arnott, S., Thaler, L., Milne, J., Kish, D., & Goodale, M. (n.d). Shape-specific activation of occipital cortex in an early ... Blindness can occur in combination with such conditions as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, ... A "blind spot" is an area where someone cannot see: for example, where a car driver cannot see because parts of his car's ...
Brodmann area 45
Cerebral cortex of frontal lobe in the human brain. Identifiers. Latin. Area triangularis. ... Brodmann area 45 (BA45), is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. It is situated on the lateral surface, inferior to ... In terms of cytoarchitecture, it is bounded caudally by the opercular area 44 (BA44), rostrodorsally by the middle frontal area ... This area is also known as the pars triangularis (of the inferior frontal gyrus). In humans, it occupies the triangular part of ...
Instead of using the cerebral cortex like mammals, birds use the mediorostral HVC for cognition. Not only have parrots ... However, in areas where there are existing feral parrot populations, escaped pets may sometimes successfully join these flocks. ... Parrots are persecuted because, in some areas, they are (or have been) hunted for food and feathers, and as agricultural pests ... Depending on locality, parrots may be either wild-caught or be captive-bred, though in most areas without native parrots, pet ...
Neuroscience of music
With more difficult rhythms such as a 1:2.5, more areas in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are involved. EEG recordings ... These areas included the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, Broca's area, anterior insula, primary and secondary ... Role of right auditory cortex in fine pitch resolution. The primary auditory cortex is one of the main areas associated ... orbitofrontal cortex, ventral striatum, midbrain, and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex. Many of these areas appear to be ...
National Museum of Health and Medicine
Cerebral cortices. *Visual cortex. *Auditory cortex. *Vestibular cortex. *Olfactory cortex. *Gustatory cortex ... Mechanoreceptors found in areas of the body with less tactile acuity tend to have larger receptive fields. ... Cutaneous mechanoreceptors with small, accurate receptive fields are found in areas needing accurate taction (e.g. the ... The third-order neurons then send the signal to the somatosensory cortex. ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
... cortex, and basal forebrain-areas vital to learning, memory, and higher thinking. BDNF is also expressed in the retina, ... "BDNF regulates reelin expression and Cajal-Retzius cell development in the cerebral cortex". Neuron. 21 (2): 305-15. doi: ... BDNF has been found within many areas of the brain and plays an important role in supporting the formation of memories. It ... Animals chronically exposed to drugs of abuse show increased levels of BDNF in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain, ...
Outline of brain mapping
... there is also an increased amount of cerebral blood flow to that area. Functional magnetic resonance imaging is enabled by the ... of using electrodes placed directly on the exposed surface of the brain to record electrical activity from the cerebral cortex. ... Blob detection an area in computer vision, A blob is a region of a digital image in which some properties (such as brightness ... For creating functional maps of human cortex during more complex cognitive tasks, MEG is most often combined with fMRI, as the ...
Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2012, pp372-380. Slotnick, S. D., Thompson, W. L., and Kosslyn, S. M., Visual memory and ... Audio therapy synthesises elements from a number of discreet areas of research and practice, including receptive music therapy ... Kosslyn, S. M., Seeing and imagining in the cerebral hemispheres-A computational approach. Psychological Review, Vol. 94, No. 2 ... Kosslyn, S. M. (1987). Seeing and imagining in the cerebral hemispheres-A computational approach. Psychological Review, Vol. 94 ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
An MRI with increased signal in the posterior part of the internal capsule that can be tracked to the motor cortex, consistent ... Prion-like propagation of misfolded proteins from cell to cell may explain why ALS starts in one area and spreads to others.[27 ... The defining feature of ALS is the death of both upper motor neurons (located in the motor cortex of the brain) and lower motor ... Lateral identifies the areas in a person's spinal cord where the affected motor neurons that control muscle are located. ...
Cortex. 8 (2): pp. 97-107. doi:10.1093/cercor/8.2.97. Retrieved 30 November 2012.. Unknown parameter ,coauthors=. ignored (. , ... or that someone could be asked to research/contribute in this area. There obviously are ideas out there which are worth ... properties of brain processing exert an active control role as causal determinants in shaping the flow patterns of cerebral ...
... that language was localized and that certain psychological functions were localized in specific areas of the cerebral cortex.[ ... anatomical definitions from this era in continuing to show that distinct areas of the cortex are activated in the execution of ... Another major area of neuroscience is directed at investigations of the development of the nervous system. These questions ... Integrative neuroscience makes connections across these specialized areas of focus. Major branches. Modern neuroscience ...
... of lamotrigine's mechanism of action examined its effects on the release of endogenous amino acids from rat cerebral cortex ... These actions are thought to inhibit release of glutamate at cortical projections in the ventral striatum limbic areas, and ... using primary neurological cultures from rat cortex". Brain Research. 612 (1-2): 190-9. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(93)91660-K. PMID ...
Progressive supranuclear palsy
... but may be structurally similar when they occur in the cerebral cortex. Their chemical composition is usually different, ... The principal areas of the brain affected are the: *basal ganglia, particularly the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and ... Unlike globose NFTs, they may be more widespread in the cortex. Lewy bodies are seen in some cases, but it is not clear ... spinal cord, particularly the area where some control of the bladder and bowel resides. ...
... which link corresponding cortical areas in the two hemispheres; or projection fibres, which connect the cerebral cortex with ... which shows the corpus callosum has an anteroposterior topographical organization that is uniform with the cerebral cortex. ... This tract can be observed to be in the shape of a bicycle as it branches through various areas of the brain. Through diffusion ... The anterior commissure (also known as the precommissure) is a tract that connects the two temporal lobes of the cerebral ...
Strok bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
... dan occipital cortex; hipotalamus; area suprakiasmatik; cerebellum; pons; dan midbrain. Hampir 70 persen kasus stroke ... impaired cerebral autoregulation dan perubahan protrombotik dipercaya merupakan penyebab cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). ... Cryptogenic cerebral infarction (CCI)[sunting , sunting sumber]. CCI paling banyak ditemukan dalam penderita patent foramen ... "Cryptogenic cerebral infarction: from classification to concept". SourceCHU de la Cavale Blanche, Service de neurologie; Timsit ...
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
Valproate enhances GABA synthesis and release leading to augmented GABAergic functions in some areas of the brain. Successful ... in 2007 examined the pathogenesis for the disorder by examining the role of oxidative stress on tissues in various cerebral ... reduces mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation via GABAB receptor activation in mouse frontal cortex and hippocampus ...
Frontal lobe epilepsy
Precentral cortexEdit. The precentral cortex is an area of the frontal cortex that is located directly anterior to the central ... of cerebral palsy patients have epilepsy, 15-20% of fragile X syndrome patients have epilepsy, 50% of children with learning ... Primary motor cortex *The primary motor cortex has jacksonian seizures that spread to adjacent areas of the lobe which often ... Supplementary motor area *Area anterior to the primary motor cortex that is involved in planning complex motor movements and ...
The limbic lobe is an arc-shaped region of cortex on the medial surface of each cerebral hemisphere of the mammalian brain, ... Inferomedial view of the left cerebral hemisphere showing the limbic lobe in areas 5-7. ... The term is ambiguous, with some authors[who?] including the paraterminal gyrus, the subcallosal area, the cingulate gyrus, the ...
The electrosensory area of the cerebral cortex is contained within the tactile somatosensory area, and some cortical cells ... "Platypus in Country Areas". Australian Platypus Conservancy. Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 23 ... suggesting that the visual midbrain plays a more important role than the visual cortex, as in some rodents. These features ...
These classifications reflect the areas of the brain that are damaged. Cerebral palsy is also classified according to the ... stemming from an upper motor neuron lesion in the brain as well as the corticospinal tract or the motor cortex. This damage ... World Cerebral Palsy Day. References. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai ... Main article: Ataxic cerebral palsy. Ataxic cerebral palsy is observed in approximately 5-10% of all cases of cerebral palsy, ...
... control skeletal muscles in mammals correspond with neuron groups along the primary motor cortex of the brain's cerebral cortex ... The cross-sectional area of a muscle (rather than volume or length) determines the amount of force it can generate by defining ... Several areas in the brain coordinate movement and position with the feedback information gained from proprioception. The ... Because muscle strength is determined by cross-sectional area, a shorter muscle will be stronger "pound for pound" (i.e., by ...
After starting his neurobiological work in the difficult thicket of the electrophysiology of the cerebral cortex, Kandel was ... Kandel's initial interests lay in the area of history. History and Literature was his undergraduate major at Harvard University ... had tried but failed to identify an anatomical locus for memory storage in the cortex of the brain. When Kandel joined the ...
Entorhinal cortex - Scholarpedia
Krieg WJ (1946) Connections of the cerebral cortex; the albino rat; structure of the cortical areas. J Comp Neurol 84:277-323. ... insular cortex; OB: olfactory bulb; OlfC: olfactory cortex; PaS: parasubiculum; PER: perirhinal cortex; PL: prelimbic cortex; ... Van Hoesen G, Pandya DN, Butters N (1975) Some connections of the entorhinal (area 28) and perirhinal (area 35) cortices of the ... Van Hoesen G, Pandya DN (1975) Some connections of the entorhinal (area 28) and perirhinal (area 35) cortices of the rhesus ...
Computational analysis of functional connectivity between areas of primate cerebral cortex
... Title. Computational analysis of ... Computational analysis of functional connectivity between areas of primate cerebral cortex. *ISI News ... Recent analyses of association fibre networks in the primate cerebral cortex have revealed a small number of densely intra- ... These results are largely compatible with corresponding analyses of structural data of mammalian cerebral cortex, and deliver ...
Area identity shifts in the early cerebral cortex of Emx2-/- mutant mice. - PubMed - NCBI
Area identity shifts in the early cerebral cortex of Emx2-/- mutant mice.. Mallamaci A1, Muzio L, Chan CH, Parnavelas J, ... The specification of area identities in the cerebral cortex is a complex process, primed by intrinsic cortical cues and refined ... Proto-mapping the areas of cerebral cortex: transcription factors make the grade. [Nat Neurosci. 2000] ... We found that the normal spectrum of cortical areal identities was encoded in these mutants, but areas with caudal-medial ...
Motor areas of cerebral cortex Pictures
Click here for Motor areas of cerebral cortex pictures! You can also find pictures of Nervous system, Nasal cavity, Nasal bone ... ASSOCIATION AREAS OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX The subdivision of the cerebral cortex into the... Many areas of the cerebral cortex ... The cerebral cortex has premotor and motor areas that control speech and writing. Wernickes area... Human Cerebral Cortex The ... Brodmann area 4 is the primary motor cortex (somatomotor cortex), although the premotor... In humans, the cerebral cortex is ...
Area and Layer Patterning in the Developing Cerebral Cortex
First, neocortex is divided into anatomically distinct and functionally specialized areas that form a species-specific map. ... Area and Layer Patterning in the Developing Cerebral Cortex Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006 Feb;16(1):25-34. doi: 10.1016/j.conb. ... Recent studies of layer and area development have used time-lapse microscopy to follow cortical cell division and migration, ... First, neocortex is divided into anatomically distinct and functionally specialized areas that form a species-specific map. ...
Area identity shifts in the early cerebral cortex of Emx2-/- mutant mice
The specification of area identities in the cerebral cortex is a complex process, primed by intrinsic cortical cues and refined ... Area identity shifts in the early cerebral cortex of Emx2-/- mutant mice Nat Neurosci. 2000 Jul;3(7):679-86. doi: 10.1038/76630 ... The specification of area identities in the cerebral cortex is a complex process, primed by intrinsic cortical cues and refined ... We found that the normal spectrum of cortical areal identities was encoded in these mutants, but areas with caudal-medial ...
Researchers uncover novel mechanism that balances the sizes of functional areas in... ( LA JOLLA CA In the cerebral cortex .....
The factor COUP-TF1 ensures that the frontal areas dont claim too mu...The findings show how the cortex is properly parceled ... into frontal are...,Researchers,uncover,novel,mechanism,that,balances,the,sizes,of,functional,areas,in,the,brain,medicine, ... LA JOLLA CA In the cerebral cortex the brains powerful central proc...In this weeks advance online edition of Nature ... The frontal areas took over most of the cortex, while the sensory areas were drastically reduced in size and relegated to a ...
DeYoe, E.A., et al. (1996) Mapping striate and extrastriate visual areas in human cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National...
1996) Mapping striate and extrastriate visual areas in human cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ( ... 1996) Mapping striate and extrastriate visual areas in human cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ( ... Differential Expression of mGluR2 in the Developing Cerebral Cortex of the Mouse ... TITLE: Effects of healthy aging on human primary visual cortex. AUTHORS: Alyssa A. Brewer, Brian Barton KEYWORDS: Aging; Vision ...
Image 12588 im01: Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Lateral View - Trial Guides
This image demonstrates different areas of the brain and their primary function including areas primarily and secondarily ... Already signed the affidavit for Image 12588_im01: Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Lateral View Illustration? Log in to ... Purchase of Image 12588_im01: Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Lateral View Illustration requires a signed affidavit. ... Image 12588_im01: Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Lateral View Illustration ...
Buy Function Anatomy The Human Brain Areas Cerebral Cortex Wall Art Hanging Tapestry 60x80 inch by Hedda Stan on OpenSky
Article | Effect of Testosterone on Neuronal Morphology and Neuritic Growth of Fetal Lamb Hypothalamus-Preoptic Area and...
To test this hypothesis, cells derived from the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) and cerebral cortex (CTX) of lamb fetuses ... Effect of Testosterone on Neuronal Morphology and Neuritic Growth of Fetal Lamb Hypothalamus-Preoptic Area and Cerebral Cortex ... Effect of Testosterone on Neuronal Morphology and Neuritic Growth of Fetal Lamb Hypothalamus-Preoptic Area and Cerebral Cortex ... The effect of testosterone on oSDN volume may result from enhanced expansion of soma areas and/or dendritic fields. ...
A CT orientational study of the functional areas on cerebral cortex--《CHINESE JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANATOMY》1998年01期
... which could identify the functional areas of cerebral cortex on CT image.Results:The cerebral neural process could easily be ... To find a simple and accurate method to orient the cerebral cortex functional areas on CT scan images.Materials and methods: ... The neural process delivered from cerebral marrow is corresponding to cerebral gyrus.So the corresponding functional area could ... found on both transverse sections and CT image.So the method to orient the functional areas based on the neural process ...
CiteSeerX - Citation Query AE, Bunt AH, Fuchs AF (1975) The origin of efferent pathways from the primary visual cortex, area 17...
... area 17, of the macaque monkey as shown by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase ... The origin of efferent pathways from the primary visual cortex, ... of macaque cerebral cortex are highly selective for the ... Neurons in the middle temporal visual area (MT) of macaque cerebral cortex are highly selective for the direction of mo-tion ... Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex by Daniel J. Felleman, David C. Van Essen - Cereb Cortex , ...
Searching for "cerebral cortex functional areas"
The Orthopedics PERL Channel contains hundreds of items, including full-color medical illustrations, medical animations and patient education articles. The Orthopedics Channel covers topics relevant to skeletal and muscular anatomy, orthopedic injury and repair, and general sports medicine. Health Animation channels are produced by Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
Visual Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
This area receives fibres of the optic radiation. It is also called the striate cortex. ... The classical visual area has been described before. ... Area 18 (peristriate area) is the second visual area; and area ... It is also called the striate cortex. In addition to the striate cortex additional areas of cortex responding to visual inputs ... a) First visual area (V1) in area 17.. b) Second visual area (V2) occupying the greater part of area 18, but not the whole of ...
Cerebral Cortex - Functional Areas - Medical Art Library
The cerebral cortex is divided into sensory, motor and association areas. Sensory areas receive sensory input, motor areas ... The central sulcus divides the primary sensory and motor areas. Both the sensory cortex and the motor cortex have been mapped ... Brocas area, the motor speech area, is involved in translating thoughts into speech. Impulses from this area control the ... The visual area receives visual stimuli and the visual association area helps to interpret those stimuli. It is also involved ...
The Areas of Localisation on the Cerebral Cortex
... Of all portions of the brain the cerebral cortex possesses the most direct ... The Areas of Localisation on the Cerebral Cortex. The Sense Organs. Human Brain Anatomy. Brain Teasers Free Online Games. ... it is possible to map out on the surface of the cerebral cortex certain areas with well-defined functions - thus, motor areas, ... It is since 1870 that direct proof of the functional differences between different areas of the cerebral cortex has been ...
The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders - 1st Edition
Purchase The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... An additional area of research involves the examination of mental stress on cardiovascular reactivity (a risk factor for ... The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders 1st Edition. Experimental Approaches to Clinical Issues ... The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Experimental Approaches to Clinical Issues focuses on ...
Joint Analysis of Cortical Area and Thickness as a Replacement for the Analysis of the Volume of the Cerebral Cortex. - Oxford...
We use the methods to analyze area, thickness and volume in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight, and show that ... Thus, the data produced by this method can be interpreted as estimates of cortical surface area, as opposed to areal expansion ... In addition, focusing on the joint analysis of thickness and area, we compare an improved, analytic method for measuring ... However, the various existing methods for assessment of cortical surface area from magnetic resonance images have never been ...
CiteSeerX - Search Results - The Slicing Extent Technique for Ray Tracing: Isolating Sparse and Dense Areas
Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex by Daniel J. Felleman, David C. Van Essen - Cereb Cortex , ... VERY HIGH RESOLUTION INTERPOLATED CLIMATE SURFACES FOR GLOBAL LAND AREAS by Robert J. Hijmans, Susan E. Cameron, Juan L. Parra ... We report here on (1) a summary of the layout of cortical areas associated with vision and with other modalities, (2) a ... We report here on (1) a summary of the layout of cortical areas associated with vision and with other modalities, (2) a comput ...
Identification of a population of sleep-active cerebral cortex neurons | PNAS
... somatosensory cortex; I Cx, insular cortex; Pir Cx, piriform cortex; CPu, caudate-putamen; PFA, perifornical area. ... motor cortex; S Cx, somatosensory cortex; I Cx, insular cortex; Pir Cx, piriform cortex; Ent Cx, entorhinal cortex; TeA Cx, TA ... 1997) Nitric oxide synthase-expressing neurons are area-specifically distributed within the cerebral cortex of the rat. ... Identification of a population of sleep-active cerebral cortex neurons. Dmitry Gerashchenko, Jonathan P. Wisor, Deirdre Burns, ...
Fusiform face area - Wikipedia
"Cerebral Cortex. 15 (8): 1234-1242. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhi006. ISSN 1047-3211. PMID 15677350.. ... "Cerebral Cortex. 26 (3): 1004-1014. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhu272. ISSN 1047-3211. PMID 25452573.. ... "Cerebral Cortex. 24 (8): 1988-1995. doi:10.1093/cercor/bht046. ISSN 1460-2199. PMID 23463339.. ... The fusiform face area - FFA (meaning: spindular/spindle-shaped face area) is a part of the human visual system that is ...
SciCombinator - Motor, cognitive, and affective areas of the cerebral cortex influence the adrenal medulla
... and affective areas of the cerebral cortex influence the adrenal medulla. ... Limbic system, Neuroanatomy, Brodmann area 24, Premotor cortex, Cerebral cortex, Frontal lobe, Brain, Cerebrum MeSH headings. - ... Motor, cognitive, and affective areas of the cerebral cortex influence the adrenal medulla OPEN Proceedings of the National ... Here, we used transneuronal transport of rabies virus to identify the areas of the primate cerebral cortex that communicate ...
The Medial Ganglionic Eminence Gives Rise to a Population of Early Neurons in the Developing Cerebral Cortex | Journal of...
Electrophysiological Imaging of Functional Architecture in the Cortical Middle Temporal Visual Area of Cebus apella Monkey ... 1990) The prenatal and postnatal development of the rat cerebral cortex. in The cerebral cortex of the rat, eds Kolb E, Tees RC ... 1984) Neurons of layer I. A developmental analysis. in Cerebral cortex, Vol 1, Cellular components of the cerebral cortex, eds ... 1995) Time of origin and early fate of preplate cells in the cerebral cortex of the rat. Cereb Cortex 5:483-493. ...
Development of Layer I Neurons in the Primate Cerebral Cortex | Journal of Neuroscience
Nissl-stained sections of the occipital lobe in the E86 monkey cerebral cortex. A, Prospective area 18 shows a voluminous SGL ... 1995) Time of origin and early fate of preplate cells in the cerebral cortex of the rat. Cereb Cortex 5:483-493. ... 1999b) Molecular gradients and compartments in the embryonic primate cerebral cortex. Cereb Cortex 9:586-600. ... Development of Layer I Neurons in the Primate Cerebral Cortex Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Cognitive Reappraisal and Expressive Suppression of Negative Emotion in Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A...
BA Brodmann area, k cluster size, R right, L left, dACC dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, rACC rostral anterior cingulate ... Cerebral Cortex. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/6.3.342.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... dACC dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, rACC rostral anterior cingulate cortex, vmPFC ventromedial prefrontal cortex ... The dACC shows strong connections with regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and supplementary motor areas, and ...
Substance P induces plasticity and synaptic tagging/capture in rat hippocampal area CA2 | PNAS
Cerebral Cortex 24:353-363.. .. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed. *↵. *Sajikumar S, *Korte M ... For a long time, there has been a lack of information on the CA2 areas role in memory formation. This area is innervated by ... The CA2 area is a small region interposed between CA1 and CA3. Although its function remained unknown for many years, CA2 has ... The hippocampal area Cornu Ammonis (CA) CA2 is important for social interaction and is innervated by Substance P (SP)- ...
Neuroscience for Kids - Alzheimer's Disease
Areas of the brain. affected by AD. A = Cerebral Cortex. B = Basal Forebrain. C = Hippocampus. Image courtesy of the NIA. ... A brain with widened sulci (the indentations on the surface of the brain), and enlarged cerebral ventricles (the spaces in the ... Other parts of the brain including the basal forebrain and hippocampus, areas important for memory, are also affected by AD. ... Understanding Alzheimers disease is one of the most active areas in neuroscience research. In 1998, scientists took a big step ...
Somatosensory system - Wikipedia
"Topographic Maps within Brodmanns Area 5 of macaque monkeys". Cerebral Cortex. 22 (8): 1834-50. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhr257 ... Region S2 (secondary somatosensory cortex) divides into Area S2 and parietal ventral area. Area S2 is involved with specific ... Geyer S, Schleicher A, Zilles K (July 1999). "Areas 3a, 3b, and 1 of Human Primary Somatosensory Cortex". NeuroImage. 10 (1): ... Parietal ventral area is the somatosensory relay to the premotor cortex and somatosensory memory hub, BA5. ...
Regarding the association areas of the cerebral cortex which of the following statements is most accurate | Gotmyhomework
Regarding the association areas of the cerebral cortex which of the following statements is most accurate. Regarding the ... Regarding the association areas of the cerebral cortex which of the following statements is most accurate ... association areas of the cerebral cortex which of the following statements is most accurate ...
Table 2 - Potential Role of Deer Tick Virus in Powassan Encephalitis Cases in Lyme Disease-endemic Areas of New York, USA -...
Ten (72%) of the patients were residents of the Lower Hudson Valley, a Lyme disease-endemic area in which I. scapularis ticks ... Areas affected. No. (%) patients. Regions. Cerebral cortex. 7 (54). Basal ganglia. 7 (54). ... Potential Role of Deer Tick Virus in Powassan Encephalitis Cases in Lyme Disease-endemic Areas of New York, USA Marc Y. El ... Brain areas affected in 13 hospitalized patients with Powassan/deer tick virus encephalitis, New York, USA, 2004-2012 ...
PosteriorAmyloid angiopathyNeuronsHemispheresDeveloping Cerebral CortexFunctional AreasOccipitalMammalian cerebralParietalDevelopment of the cerebral cortexLobesStructure of the cerebral cortexSensory cortexInfluence the adrenal medullaMedial entorhinal cortexConnectivityAnatomicalDerived from theThicknessInputsPrimatesNeuronTemporalPhysiologyHuman visual cortexStriateDistinctPlasticityCircuitsDevelopmentalSurface of the cerebralAuditoryRegionsPrimaryBrain'sVisualGyriResearchersMotorClinicalSubdivisionLocalizationLocalisation
- Li Y, Al-Salaimeh A, DeGrush E, Moonis M. Lateralized Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy presenting with recurrent Lacunar Ischemic Stroke. (heighpubs.org)
- Interestingly, the SWAN sequences showed lateralized rather than global multiple microhemorrhages over the right MCA and PCA territory, and the sulcal hyperintensity on FLAIR was also seen with no associated susceptibility effect and minimal enhancement, indicating probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) based on Boston Criteria. (heighpubs.org)
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging of lateralized cerebral amyloid angiopathy presented as recurrent ischemic stroke. (heighpubs.org)
- Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by the deposition of fibrillar protein with beta-pleated sheet configuration in the media and adventitia of small cortical and leptomeningeal arteries and capillaries . (heighpubs.org)
- We are only beginning to define the mechanisms that determine the area identity of neurons in the cortex. (bio-medicine.org)
- Emx2 is the gold standard for genes that impart area identity to cortical neurons, says OLeary. (bio-medicine.org)
- So OLeary and his team collaborated with Italian researchers, led by Dr. Michele Studer, who is co-senior author with OLeary of the study, to develop mice in which COUP-TF1 can be selectively removed from progenitor cells in the cortex just before they start generating cortical neurons. (bio-medicine.org)
- While Emx2 works in a positive manner to specify the area identity of visual neurons, the presence of COUP-TF1 prevents progenitor cells from taking on a motor area identity. (bio-medicine.org)
- The total number of neurons to be seen in delimited vertical areas of cortex is remarkably constant in different regions. (brainkart.com)
- The cortex of the visual area is an exception and has a much greater density of neurons than other parts of the cortex. (brainkart.com)
- This applies even to such widely different functions as sensation and motion, for in the cortex the neurons of these are so intimately associated that an insensible transition from one to the other is effected. (humannervoussystem.info)
- Although sleep-active neurons have been identified in other brain areas, neurons that are specifically activated during slow-wave sleep have not previously been described in the cerebral cortex. (pnas.org)
- In the course of these studies, we observed that a population of cerebral cortex neurons which express nNOS showed greatly elevated Fos expression during RS after a period of SD. (pnas.org)
- Neurons in the early zones are thought to play important roles in the formation of the cortex: the Cajal-Retzius cells of the marginal zone are instrumental in neuronal migration and laminar formation, and cells of the subplate are involved in the formation of cortical connections. (jneurosci.org)
- These neurons follow a tangential migratory route to their positions in the developing cortex. (jneurosci.org)
- The hippocampal area Cornu Ammonis (CA) CA2 is important for social interaction and is innervated by Substance P (SP)-expressing supramammillary (SuM) nucleus neurons. (pnas.org)
- The hippocampus consists of Cornu Ammonis (CA) areas CA1, CA2, and CA3, containing pyramidal neurons and the dentate gyrus, containing granule cells. (pnas.org)
- The cerebral cortex of the human brain is a sheet of about 10 billion neurons divided into discrete subdivisions or areas that process particular aspects of sensation, movement, and cognition. (sciencemag.org)
- The new evidence indicates that the development of cortical areas involves a rich array of signals, with considerable interplay between mechanisms intrinsic to cortical progenitors and neurons and mechanisms extrinsic to the cortex, including those requiring neural activity. (sciencemag.org)
- Early development of the cortex is highly integrated with development of other parts of the brain, including midline patterning centers, the basal ganglia primordia that produce many of the cortical local circuit neurons, and axonal inputs from the thalamus and brain stem. (sciencemag.org)
- In the mammalian cerebral cortex neurons are arranged in specific layers and form connections both within the cortex and with other brain regions, thus forming a complex mesh of specialized synaptic connections comprising distinct circuits. (nih.gov)
- In particular, the study of stellate cells (SCs) in medial entorhinal has resulted in discovery of correlations between physiological properties of these neurons and properties of the unique spatial representation that is demonstrated through unit recordings of neurons in medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) from awake-behaving animals. (frontiersin.org)
- The second section focuses upon cholinergic modulation of subthreshold electrophysiological properties of neurons in medial entorhinal cortex (mEC). (frontiersin.org)
- At the cellular and circuit level, the cerebral cortex is characterized by two primary organizational features: across its surface it is divided into functional areas that serve various sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, and it is subdivided into several layers that organize the input and output connectivity of resident neurons. (wikipedia.org)
- After the work of Korbinian Brodmann (1909) the neurons of the cerebral cortex are grouped into six main layers, from outside (pial surface) to inside (white matter): Layer I, the molecular layer, contains few scattered neurons and consists mainly of extensions of apical dendritic tufts of pyramidal neurons and horizontally oriented axons, as well as glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Layer V, the internal pyramidal layer, contains large pyramidal neurons which give rise to axons leaving the cortex and running down to subcortical structures (such as the basal ganglia). (wikipedia.org)
- Grey matter is formed by neurons and their unmyelinated fibers, whereas the white matter below the grey matter of the cortex is formed predominantly by myelinated axons interconnecting different regions of the central nervous system . (bionity.com)
- The phylogenetically more ancient part of the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus , is differentiated in five layers of neurons , whereas the more recent neo-cortex is differentiated in six basic layers. (bionity.com)
- In fact, a columnar distribution of neurons displaying similar functional properties throughout the cerebral cortex has been observed by many researchers. (frontiersin.org)
- The columnar organization of the cerebral cortex is a broadly documented principle of design preserved throughout mammalian evolution ( Mountcastle, 1997 ), which has been proposed to be important to allow a large number of neurons to be connected without a significant increase in cortical volume. (frontiersin.org)
- The cerebral cortex resembles a six layer sheet of neurons that in many animals, including humans, is folded to fit into the confines of the skull. (els.net)
- The cerebral cortex is composed of different neuronal subtypes that are organised into networks that connect neurons within and between distinct functional areas. (els.net)
- Neurons with similar properties are arranged in a columnar manner suggesting that single columns containing canonical circuits may be the basic unit of processing in the cerebral cortex. (els.net)
- Functional specialization refers to groups of neurons in areas of the brain that operate together to carry out a specific function. (forbes.com)
- Cortical areas on the lateral surface and the medial wall of the hemisphere are the source of neurons that influence the adrenal medulla. (kurzweilai.net)
- In the case of the brain, the connections are made by neurons that link the sensory inputs and motor outputs with centers in the various lobes of the cerebral cortex. (howstuffworks.com)
- Here, we tested the idea that M1, despite lacking a cytoarchitecturally visible L4, nevertheless possesses its equivalent in the form of excitatory neurons with input-output circuits like those of the L4 neurons in sensory areas. (elifesciences.org)
- Consistent with this idea, we found that neurons located in a thin laminar zone at the L3/5A border in the forelimb area of mouse M1 have multiple L4-like synaptic connections: excitatory input from thalamus, largely unidirectional excitatory outputs to L2/3 pyramidal neurons, and relatively weak long-range corticocortical inputs and outputs. (elifesciences.org)
- Our findings therefore identify pyramidal neurons in M1 with the expected prototypical circuit properties of excitatory L4 neurons, and question the traditional assumption that motor cortex lacks this layer. (elifesciences.org)
- After staining neurons with a dye and studying the structures of the cells and how they were organized, he realized that he could divide the cortex into 43 numbered regions. (elifesciences.org)
- Neurons in the different layers form distinct sets of connections, and the relative thickness of the layers has implications for the function carried out by that area. (elifesciences.org)
- Neurons at the border between layer 3 and layer 5A in the motor cortex possess many of the same properties as the neurons in layer 4 in sensory cortex. (elifesciences.org)
- go on to characterize some of the properties of the neurons in the putative layer 4 of the motor cortex, finding that they do not look like the specialized 'stellate' cells that are found in some other areas of the cortex. (elifesciences.org)
- The brain can be studied on various scales, said researcher David Alexander, Ph.D., of Belgium's University of Leuven: "You have the neurons, the circuits between the neurons, the Brodmann areas - brain areas that correspond to a certain function - and the entire cortex. (psychcentral.com)
- The gray matter of the brain refers to a core area with many cell bodies ( soma ) of neurons, while white matter is made up of bundles of axons running up and down the cord, colored white because most axons are covered with a myelin sheath. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Human Cerebral Cortex The human cerebrum is divided into two mirror image cerebral hemispheres by. (picsearch.com)
- Primary visual cortex (V1) was clearly identifiable along the calcarine sulcus in all hemispheres. (scirp.org)
- These reach various parts of the cerebral cortex in both hemispheres. (brainkart.com)
- It is also divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres by the longitudinal fissure, but the two hemispheres are joined at the midline by the corpus callosum. (wikipedia.org)
- Major tract of axons that functionally interconnects right and left cerebral hemispheres. (slideshare.net)
- The most-frontal part of the neural tube, the telencephalon , gives rise to the cerebral hemispheres and the neocortex . (bionity.com)
- The cerebral cortex is a telencephalic structure present in some vertebrate species located at the surface of the cerebral hemispheres. (els.net)
- Although structurally similar, the two hemispheres of the cortex are not functionally equivalent. (els.net)
- In a subgroup of 17 boys with autism who have enlarged brains, however, the researchers found increased folding in five areas of the cortex that sit along a line dividing the hemispheres. (scientificamerican.com)
- The two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex are part of the forebrain, which is the largest part of the brain. (mindmeister.com)
Developing Cerebral Cortex1
- Researchers uncover novel mechanism that balances the sizes of functional areas in. (bio-medicine.org)
- Mice without COUP-TF1 have many defects and die a few days after birth before functional areas can be defined, explains co-first author Shen-Ju Chou, a postdoctoral researcher in the OLeary lab. (bio-medicine.org)
- Conical Functional Areas And Vascular Territories Of Cerebral Arteries On The T ransverse Images Of Brain Spect. (cnki.com.cn)
- In this study, we performed diffusion tensor imaging and tractography, together with histological analyses to investigate the emergence of functional areas in the cerebral cortex and their connections in BTBR mice and age-matched C57Bl/6 control mice. (biomedcentral.com)
- The human cerebral cortex is made up of distinct functional areas. (els.net)
- Each cerebral cortex hemisphere is made of four anatomically distinct lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal. (els.net)
- They have less folding in one spot on the occipital cortex, the brain's visual hub. (scientificamerican.com)
- Visual information is processed in the occipital lobe which is an area of the cerebral cortex in the lower rear of the brain behind the base of the skull. (forbes.com)
- One approach divides the occipital lobe into the striate and extrastriate cortices. (forbes.com)
- Occipital lobe -- The occipital lobe receives and processes visual information directly from the eyes and relates this information to the parietal lobe (Wernicke's area) and motor cortex (frontal lobe). (howstuffworks.com)
- Clear differences are apparent such that MEC is connected preferentially with visual-spatial occipital, parietal and postrhinal/parahippocampal cortices and the pre-parasubiculum, whereas LEC is strongly connected with olfactory, insular, frontal, and perirhinal cortices. (scholarpedia.org)
- These results are largely compatible with corresponding analyses of structural data of mammalian cerebral cortex, and deliver the first functional evidence for 'small-world' architecture of primate cerebral cortex. (isi.edu)
- Recent findings implicate embryonic signaling centers in patterning the mammalian cerebral cortex. (biologists.org)
- Normal functioning of the mammalian cerebral cortex depends on the partition of the cortical sheet into different types of cortex, and further subdivision into specialized areas ( Nauta and Feirtag, 1986 ). (biologists.org)
- These disease‐specific differences are initially greatest in temporal and parietal association areas, and spread to engulf the rest of the cortex. (els.net)
- The rear of the parietal lobe (next to the temporal lobe) has a section called Wernicke's area , which is important for understanding the sensory (auditory and visual) information associated with language. (howstuffworks.com)
- Temporal lobe -- The temporal lobe processes auditory information from the ears and relates it to Wernicke's area of the parietal lobe and the motor cortex of the frontal lobe. (howstuffworks.com)
- The somatosensory cortex is in an area of the parietal lobe associated with the interpretation of sensory imput from the body. (prezi.com)
Development of the cerebral cortex1
Structure of the cerebral cortex1
Influence the adrenal medulla1
- This observation," said Dr. Strick, "raises the possibility that activity in these cortical areas when you re-imagine an error, or beat yourself up over a mistake, or think about a traumatic event, results in descending signals that influence the adrenal medulla in just the same way as the actual event. (kurzweilai.net)
Medial entorhinal cortex1
- E . Schematic representation of entorhinal cortex (taken from C) summarizing its main connections with emphasis on the differences between the lateral and medial entorhinal cortex, LEC and MEC respectively, and between the zones that are differently positioned in relation to the rhinal sulcus. (scholarpedia.org)
- We report here on (1) a summary of the layout of cortical areas associated with vision and with other modalities, (2) a computerized database for storing and representing large amounts of information on connectivity patterns, and (3) the application of these data to the analysis of hierarchical organization of the cerebral cortex. (psu.edu)
- Mature cortical areas differ by their location within the cortex, molecular properties, histological organization, patterns of connectivity, and function. (sciencemag.org)
- These different cortical areas have a precise connectivity, particularly with nuclei within the dorsal thalamus, which provides some of the principal inputs to the cerebral cortex ( Fig. 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Each area has its own unique structural-functional criteria and connectivity. (i4u.com)
- We demonstrate that interhemispheric connectivity and cortical area formation are altered in an age- and region-specific manner in BTBR mice, which may contribute to the behavioural deficits previously observed in this strain. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here we targeted high-level category-selective visual areas and tested this prediction by comparing BOLD functional connectivity patterns formed during rest to patterns formed in response to naturalistic stimuli, as well as to more artificial category-selective, dynamic stimuli. (weizmann.ac.il)
- Connectivity relationships between areas is just what it sounds like. (forbes.com)
- Figure 1: Schematic representation of the entorhinal cortex and its main connectivity illustrating its pivotal position to mediate the communication between the hippocampal formation and neocortex. (scholarpedia.org)
- Here we have attempted to determine a graded parameter describing the anatomical relationship of interconnected areas. (psu.edu)
- In fact, the anatomical observation of discontinuous architectural features of cerebral cortex uncovered very early by Ramón y Cajal and Lorente de Nó was followed by the realization that a functional architecture was also present probably as an emerging property of the underlying anatomical architecture. (frontiersin.org)
Derived from the1
- Joint Analysis of Cortical Area and Thickness as a Replacement for the Analysis of the Volume of the Cerebral Cortex. (ox.ac.uk)
- In addition, focusing on the joint analysis of thickness and area, we compare an improved, analytic method for measuring cortical volume to a permutation-based nonparametric combination (NPC) method. (ox.ac.uk)
- We use the methods to analyze area, thickness and volume in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight, and show that NPC analysis is a more sensitive option for studying joint effects on area and thickness, giving equal weight to variation in both of these 2 morphological features. (ox.ac.uk)
- Recently, it was found that the thickness of the cortex in the FFA predicts the ability to recognize faces as well as vehicles. (wikipedia.org)
- We also found that both the primary visual and somatosensory cortical areas are shifted medially in BTBR mice compared to controls and that cortical thickness is differentially altered in BTBR mice between cortical areas and throughout development. (biomedcentral.com)
- The postnatal Brca1 -ablated cerebral cortex was substantially reduced in size with regard to both cortical thickness and surface area. (biologists.org)
- Microstructural architecture such as the thickness of the cortex or the amount of myelin in an area. (forbes.com)
- Unfortunately, a closer look shows that they assumed that the cortical thickness scales with cerebral size by a power law, which is not the case ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
- 1) with the exposed cortical surface area, the total cortical surface area, and cortical thickness T . Let us call the dimensionless constant k the "fractal constant. (sciencemag.org)
- Our analysis concentrates on the visual system, which includes 25 neocortical areas that are predominantly or exclusively visual in function, plus an additional 7 areas that we regard as visual-association areas on the basis of their extensive visual inputs. (psu.edu)
- In addition to the striate cortex additional areas of cortex responding to visual inputs are described. (brainkart.com)
- Inputs to the apical tufts are thought to be crucial for the ''feedback interactions in the cerebral cortex involved in associative learning and attention. (wikipedia.org)
- Sensory cortices (visual, auditory and somatosensory) process information received from peripheral sense organs, motor areas plan and instruct motor output and association areas integrate cortical inputs to create meaningful motor outputs and cognitive and emotional constructs. (els.net)
- In contrast to the dogma that all visual areas in the cerebral cortex get their inputs from primary visual cortex (V1), the new study shows that postrhinal cortex (POR) gets information about moving objects via a parallel visual pathway from an evolutionarily ancient brainstem area called superior colliculus. (ucsf.edu)
- Organization of the cerebral cortex in the marmoset, one of the smallest simian primates. (picsearch.com)
- Kaas JH, Nelson RJ, Sur M, Lin CS and Merzenich MM (1979) Multiple representations of the body within the primary somatosensory cortex of primates. (els.net)
- Circuits for multisensory integration and attentional modulation through the prefrontal cortex and the thalamic reticular nucleus in primates. (bu.edu)
- e) Fifth visual area (V5) at the posterior end of the superior temporal gyrus. (brainkart.com)
- They found pronounced folding in temporal and frontal areas close to those in their original sample. (scientificamerican.com)
- The entorhinal cortex is part of the medial temporal lobe or hippocampal memory system and constitutes the major gateway between the hippocampal formation and the neocortex. (scholarpedia.org)
- There is strong evidence to support the claim that acetylcholine modulates the physiology and the function of the entorhinal cortex (EC). (frontiersin.org)
- It's as if we've discovered a second primary visual cortex," said study senior author Massimo Scanziani , PhD, a professor of physiology at UCSF and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. (ucsf.edu)
Human visual cortex4
- We have used positron emission tomography (PET), which measures regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), to demonstrate directly the specialization of function in the normal human visual cortex. (psu.edu)
- Dumoulin, S.O. and Wandell, B.A. (2008) Population receptive field estimates in human visual cortex. (scirp.org)
- 2003) Visual field representations and locations of visual areas V1/2/3 in human visual cortex. (scirp.org)
- Brewer, A.A. and Barton, B. (2012) Visual field map organization in human visual cortex. (scirp.org)
- First, neocortex is divided into anatomically distinct and functionally specialized areas that form a species-specific map. (nih.gov)
- They are expressed in distinct, but often interconnected, areas of the developing nervous system and in some non-neural tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- The motor cortex (M1) is classically considered an agranular area, lacking a distinct layer 4 (L4). (elifesciences.org)
- Timeline (grey) of key developmental processes in the rodent cortex from embryonic stages to the end of the first month of life, from neurogenesis, to astrogenesis to synapse formation, maturation and stabilization. (nih.gov)
- c Development of synapses in the mouse visual cortex visualized by electron microscopy at the different developmental ages as labeled. (nih.gov)
- Early developmental disruptions in these areas may magnify the folding over time, she says. (scientificamerican.com)
Surface of the cerebral2
- By the use of these various methods, singly or in combination, it is possible to map out on the surface of the cerebral cortex certain areas with well-defined functions - thus, motor areas, sensory areas, and association areas are described. (humannervoussystem.info)
- The surface of the cerebral cortex is folded in large mammals, wherein more than two-thirds of the cortical surface is buried in the grooves, called "sulci. (bionity.com)
- While it had been known for some time that the types of cells and their arrangement in layers were not exactly alike in all the regions of the cortex, yet it is only within the last few years that careful systematic observations have been inade to determine whether these differences had any definite relation to cortical localisation. (humannervoussystem.info)
- Body regions with the greatest number of motor innervation are represented by largest areas of motor cortex. (slideshare.net)
- Certain regions of the brain's outer layer, the cerebral cortex, are more intricately folded in school-age children and adolescents with autism than they are in controls, according to one of the studies. (scientificamerican.com)
- On each lobe , primary sensory areas receive a specific type of sensory. (picsearch.com)
- In normally aging subjects, primary visual cortex has been shown to have reduced responses to visual stimulation . (scirp.org)
- It is not known, however, to what extent aging affects visual field repre-sentations and population receptive sizes in human primary visual cortex. (scirp.org)
- Here we use func-tional MRI (fMRI) and population receptive field (pRF) modeling to measure angular and ec-centric retinotopic representations and population receptive fields in primary visual cortex in healthy aging subjects ages 57 - 70 and in healthy young volunteers ages 24 - 36 (n = 9). (scirp.org)
- Understanding the extent of changes that occur in primary visual cortex during normal aging is essential both for understanding the normal aging process and for comparisons of healthy, aging subjects with aging patients suffering from age-related visual and cortical disorders. (scirp.org)
- The central sulcus divides the primary sensory and motor areas. (medicalartlibrary.com)
- The presence of large-amplitude, slow waves in the EEG is a primary characteristic that distinguishes cerebral activity during sleep from that which occurs during wakefulness. (pnas.org)
- One of the clearest examples of cortical layering is the line of Gennari in the primary visual cortex. (wikipedia.org)
- Primary area responsible for perception of somatesthetic sensation. (slideshare.net)
- Primary area responsible for vision and coordination of eye movements. (slideshare.net)
- Brewer, A. and Barton, B. (2012) Effects of healthy aging on human primary visual cortex. (scirp.org)
- 2008) The effect of age and fixation instability on retinotopic mapping of primary visual cortex. (scirp.org)
- One of these areas is a portion of the primary motor cortex that is concerned with the control of axial body movement and posture. (kurzweilai.net)
- The assemblies suggest a principal division of the cortex into visual, somatomotor and orbito-temporo-insular systems, while motor and somatosensory areas are inseparably interrelated. (isi.edu)
- When we increased the amount of Emx2, the visual area expanded at the expense of the frontal and somatosensory areas and vice versa. (bio-medicine.org)
- A novel technique, statistical parametric mapping, was used to detect foci of significant change in cerebral blood flow within the prestriate cortex, in order to localize those parts involved in the perception of color and visual motion. (psu.edu)
- The classical visual area has been described before. (brainkart.com)
- and area 19 ( parastriate area ) is the third visual area. (brainkart.com)
- A modified nomenclature recognising five visual areas has been described as follows. (brainkart.com)
- b) Second visual area (V2) occupying the greater part of area 18, but not the whole of it. (brainkart.com)
- c) Third visual area (V3) occupying a narrow strip over the anterior part of area 18. (brainkart.com)
- The visual areas give off efferent fibres also. (brainkart.com)
- Like other 'sensory' areas the visual areas are, therefore, to be regarded as partly motor in function. (brainkart.com)
- Efferents from the visual areas also reach the superior colliculus, the pretectal region, and the nuclei of cranial nerves supplying muscles that move the eyeballs. (brainkart.com)
- The visual area receives visual stimuli and the visual association area helps to interpret those stimuli. (medicalartlibrary.com)
- spindular/spindle-shaped face area) is a part of the human visual system that is specialized for facial recognition . (wikipedia.org)
- Hubel DH and Wiesel TN (1962) Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat's visual cortex. (els.net)
- b P7 mouse visual cortex labeled with DAPI (white) to mark cell nuclei. (nih.gov)
- Astrocytes are present in all cortical layers in the visual cortex. (nih.gov)
- The extrastriate cortex is sometimes called the peristriate cortex and includes areas that are sometimes called Broadman areas 18 and 19, or visual areas V2, V3, V4 and V5. (forbes.com)
- The new study - published online Jan. 4, 2019, in Science - shows for the first time that one of these supposedly higher-order visual areas, which is involved in the perception of moving objects, does not depend on information from V1 at all. (ucsf.edu)
- This undermines the whole concept of the visual system in mammalian cortex as a perfect hierarchy with V1 as the gatekeeper and raises a multitude of questions, including how these two parallel visual systems evolved and how they cooperate to produce a unified visual experience. (ucsf.edu)
- In this weeks advance online edition of Nature Neuroscience, an international collaboration between researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies and the Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine in Italy reports the discovery of a novel function for a factor that negotiates the borders between areas and balances their sizes and positions relative to each other. (bio-medicine.org)
- Although the mice lacking COUP-TF1 in their cortex do not have any obvious sensory or motor problems, the researchers believe that a closer look will reveal substantial deficits. (bio-medicine.org)
- Recently, an international team of researchers used several different types of MRI ( Magnetic Resonance Imaging) data to build a new and surprising map of the cerebral cortex. (forbes.com)
- In the new study, researchers took a different approach as they examined the activity in the cerebral cortex as a whole. (psychcentral.com)
- Researchers believe that each activity wave in the cerebral cortex is unique. (psychcentral.com)
- Many areas of the cerebral cortex process sensory information or coordinate motor output necessary. (picsearch.com)
- The cerebral cortex has premotor and motor areas that control speech and writing. (picsearch.com)
- Nerve fibers from the motor areas join fibers leading to&from other areas of the cortex (the corona. (picsearch.com)
- The back of the cortex is predominantly specialized to process vision, whereas the front of the cortex handles motor functions and controls voluntary movement, as well as having a central role in higher cognitive functions. (bio-medicine.org)
- The cerebral cortex is divided into sensory, motor and association areas. (medicalartlibrary.com)
- Sensory areas receive sensory input, motor areas control movement of muscles. (medicalartlibrary.com)
- Broca's area , the motor speech area, is involved in translating thoughts into speech. (medicalartlibrary.com)
- By this method a region was demarcated, stimulation of portions of which evoked definite muscular movements, and the presence of a motor area was thus established. (humannervoussystem.info)
- in a crude manner motor and sensory areas may be thus delimited. (humannervoussystem.info)
- These cortical areas are involved in all aspects of skeletomotor control from response selection to motor preparation and movement execution. (scicombinator.com)
- JUST IN front of the motor area of the cerebral cortex of man there is a supplementary representation of movements. (jamanetwork.com)
- However, little is known about the development or ultimate organisation of cortical areas devoted to specific sensory and motor functions in these mice that may also contribute to their behavioural phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
- We conducted two-photon calcium imaging of mouse layer 2/3 motor cortex during a self-initiated lever-pull task. (nii.ac.jp)
- Next, we conducted two-photon calcium imaging in the motor cortex during 14 training sessions of the self-initiated lever-pull task. (nii.ac.jp)
- The cerebral cortex is involved in many higher‐level functions such as sensory perception, cognition, language, memory, decision making, motor planning and control. (els.net)
- The remainder of the cortex is devoted to motor planning and control, as well as integration of multiple sensory cues and cognitive processing. (els.net)
- A homunculus is a little person represented in the motor (a) and somatosensory (b) cortex delineating the amount and location of cortical space devoted to sensing or moving the appropriate body part. (els.net)
- The representation is distorted such that areas that require fine motor control or that provide a lot of information about the sensory world (such as fingers) occupy a relatively larger cortical space. (els.net)
- Another surprising result of the research was that motor areas in the cerebral cortex, which are involved in the planning and performance of movement, provide a substantial input to the adrenal medulla. (kurzweilai.net)
- Damage to this area results in motor aphasia , in which patients can understand language but cannot produce meaningful or appropriate sounds. (howstuffworks.com)
- It is thought, for example, that the motor cortex does not have a layer 4, which suggests that the neural circuitry that controls movement differs from that in charge of vision, hearing, and other functions. (elifesciences.org)
- now challenge this view by providing multiple lines of evidence for the existence of layer 4 in the motor cortex in mice. (elifesciences.org)
- The Cerebral Cortex in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Experimental Approaches to Clinical Issues focuses on how pre-clinical investigations are addressing the clinical issues surrounding the involvement of the cerebral cortex in selected conditions of the nervous system, including Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's, addiction, and cardiovascular dysregulation. (elsevier.com)
- ASSOCIATION AREAS OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX The subdivision of the cerebral cortex into the. (picsearch.com)
- Names of connected areas are printed in the color of the subdivision it is connected to (dark green for LEC and light green for MEC) and the arrows indicate efferent/afferent connections with either the entire subdivision (same color) or preferentially with any of the different lateral-to-medial bands (arrows printed in the corresponding colors pink versus blue for lateral versus medial bands). (scholarpedia.org)
- Thompson, Paul M, and Toga, Arthur W(Jul 2003) Cerebral Cortex Diseases and Cortical Localization. (els.net)
- Such systems do not exist physically, but they do serve as excellent mental grid-like tools (viewpoints) during localization and areas in which and from which relationships can be described. (chiro.org)