###### Area Under Curve

A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)

###### ROC Curve

###### Sensitivity and Specificity

Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

###### Dose-Response Relationship, Drug

###### Scoliosis

An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)

###### Reproducibility of Results

The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

###### Predictive Value of Tests

In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

###### Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves

Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.

###### Models, Biological

Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

###### Half-Life

###### Calibration

###### Algorithms

###### Mathematics

###### Transition Temperature

The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.

###### Drug Interactions

###### Prospective Studies

Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

###### Biological Availability

###### Muscle Contraction

A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.

###### Models, Statistical

###### Retrospective Studies

Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

###### Treatment Outcome

###### Metabolic Clearance Rate

###### Biological Markers

Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

###### Cross-Over Studies

Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

###### Hydrogen-Ion Concentration

The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

###### Computer Simulation

###### Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid

###### Prognosis

###### Rabbits

###### Guinea Pigs

###### Reference Standards

###### Models, Theoretical

Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

###### Thoracic Vertebrae

###### Membrane Potentials

The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).

###### Regression Analysis

Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

###### Temperature

The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.

###### Calcium

A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.

###### Analysis of Variance

###### Risk Assessment

###### Severity of Illness Index

###### Pressure

###### Follow-Up Studies

###### Data Interpretation, Statistical

###### Rats, Sprague-Dawley

###### Blood Pressure

PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.

###### Nucleic Acid Denaturation

Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.

###### Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation

###### Risk Factors

###### Action Potentials

Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.

###### Logistic Models

Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

###### Electrophysiology

###### Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted

###### Cohort Studies

Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

###### Postprandial Period

The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.

###### Muscle, Smooth

Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

###### Rats, Wistar

###### Linear Models

###### Age Factors

Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

###### Infusions, Intravenous

###### Drug Administration Schedule

###### Pregnancy

###### Biomechanical Phenomena

###### Norepinephrine

Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.

###### Spinal Fusion

###### Models, Chemical

Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

###### Cattle

###### Observer Variation

The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).

###### Kaplan-Meier Estimate

A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)

###### Case-Control Studies

Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

###### Oxygen

An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.

###### Survival Analysis

A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.

###### Radioimmunoassay

Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.

###### Swine

Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).

###### Hot Temperature

Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.

###### Insulin

A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).

###### Lung Volume Measurements

###### Binding, Competitive

The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.

###### Models, Cardiovascular

Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.

###### Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted

###### Statistics as Topic

###### Heart Rate

The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.

###### Lung Compliance

The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)

###### Microbial Sensitivity Tests

###### Tissue Distribution

Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.

###### Image Processing, Computer-Assisted

###### Radiopharmaceuticals

###### Phenylephrine

###### Body Weight

###### Indicator Dilution Techniques

###### Orthopedic Fixation Devices

###### Rats, Inbred Strains

###### Anti-Bacterial Agents

Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.

###### Histamine

###### Liver

###### Lung

###### Isoproterenol

Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.

###### Tomography, X-Ray Computed

###### Statistics, Nonparametric

A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)

###### Acetylcholine

###### Nephelometry and Turbidimetry

Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.

###### Glucose Tolerance Test

A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).

###### Sodium

###### Carbon Radioisotopes

###### Magnetic Resonance Imaging

###### Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet

Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

###### Double-Blind Method

###### Multivariate Analysis

A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.

###### Tumor Markers, Biological

Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.

###### Image Enhancement

Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.

###### Thermodynamics

A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)

###### Patch-Clamp Techniques

An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.

###### Limit of Detection

###### Cats

The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)

###### Internal Fixators

###### Carbon Dioxide

A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.

###### Protein Binding

The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.

###### Neurons

###### Spectrometry, Fluorescence

Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.

###### Brain

The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

###### Survival Rate

The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.

###### Nonlinear Dynamics

The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.

###### Osmolar Concentration

###### Neural Networks (Computer)

A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.

###### Models, Neurological

Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

###### Water

###### Vasoconstriction

###### Polymerase Chain Reaction

In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.

###### Proportional Hazards Models

Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.

###### Least-Squares Analysis

###### Positron-Emission Tomography

An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.

###### Hemoglobins

The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.

###### Biometry

The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.

###### Kyphosis

Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.

###### Kidney

###### Immunoassay

###### Airway Resistance

Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.

###### Braces

###### Myocardium

The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.

###### Binding Sites

###### Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists

Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.

###### Anti-Infective Agents

###### Iodine Radioisotopes

###### Ion Channels

Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.

###### Arteries

The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.

###### Carbachol

###### Aging

###### Absorption

###### Software

###### Discriminant Analysis

A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.

###### Ion Channel Gating

The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.

###### Dye Dilution Technique

###### Blood Flow Velocity

###### Feasibility Studies

###### Monte Carlo Method

In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)

###### Radioisotope Dilution Technique

###### Magnesium

A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.

###### Neoplasms

###### Imaging, Three-Dimensional

The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.

###### Trachea

The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.

###### Sodium Channels

Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.

###### Epidemiologic Methods

Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.

###### Radioligand Assay

Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).

###### Cells, Cultured

Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

###### Respiratory Mechanics

The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.

###### Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.

###### Adenosine Triphosphate

An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

###### Biophysics

The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.

###### Calcium Channel Blockers

A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.

###### Stress, Mechanical

###### Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted

###### Clinical Competence

###### False Positive Reactions

###### Parasympatholytics

Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.

###### Species Specificity

The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

## In vivo modulation of alternative pathways of P-450-catalyzed cyclophosphamide metabolism: impact on pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity. (1/6505)

The widely used anticancer prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA) is activated in liver by a 4-hydroxylation reaction primarily catalyzed by cytochrome P-4502B and P-4502C enzymes. An alternative metabolic pathway involves CPA N-dechloroethylation to yield chloroacetaldehyde (CA), a P-4503A-catalyzed deactivation/neurotoxication reaction. The in vivo modulation of these alternative, competing pathways of P-450 metabolism was investigated in pharmacokinetic studies carried out in the rat model. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) for 4-OH-CPA and CA were increased by 3- to 4-fold, and apparent plasma half-lives of both metabolites were correspondingly shortened in rats pretreated with phenobarbital (PB), an inducer of P-4502B and P-4503A enzymes. However, PB had no net impact on the extent of drug activation or its partitioning between these alternative metabolic pathways, as judged from AUC values (area-under-the-plasma concentration x time curve) for 4-OH-CPA and CA. The P-4503A inhibitor troleandomycin (TAO) decreased plasma Cmax and AUC of CA (80-85% decrease) without changing the Cmax or AUC of 4-OH-CPA in uninduced rats. In PB-induced rats, TAO decreased AUCCA by 73%, whereas it increased AUC4-OH-CPA by 93%. TAO thus selectively suppresses CPA N-dechloroethylation, thereby increasing the availability of drug for P-450 activation via 4-hydroxylation. By contrast, dexamethasone, a P-4503A inducer and antiemetic widely used in patients with cancer, stimulated large, undesirable increases in the Cmax and AUC of CA (8- and 4-fold, respectively) while reducing the AUC of the 4-hydroxylation pathway by approximately 60%. Tumor excision/in vitro colony formation and tumor growth delay assays using an in vivo 9L gliosarcoma solid tumor model revealed that TAO suppression of CPA N-dechloroethylation could be achieved without compromising the antitumor effect of CPA. The combination of PB with TAO did not, however, enhance the antitumor activity of CPA, despite the approximately 2-fold increase in AUC4-OH-CPA, suggesting that other PB-inducible activities, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase, may counter this increase through enhanced deactivation of the 4-hydroxy metabolite. Together, these studies demonstrate that the P-4503A inhibitor TAO can be used to effectively modulate CPA metabolism and pharmacokinetics in vivo in a manner that decreases the formation of toxic metabolites that do not contribute to antitumor activity. (+info)## Prediction of the effects of inoculum size on the antimicrobial action of trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in an in vitro dynamic model. (2/6505)

The effect of inoculum size (N0) on antimicrobial action has not been extensively studied in in vitro dynamic models. To investigate this effect and its predictability, killing and regrowth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli exposed to monoexponentially decreasing concentrations of trovafloxacin (as a single dose) and ciprofloxacin (two doses at a 12-h interval) were compared at N0 = 10(6) and 10(9) CFU/ml (S. aureus) and at N0 = 10(6), 10(7), and 10(9) CFU/ml (E. coli). A series of pharmacokinetic profiles of trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin with respective half-lives of 9.2 and 4 h were simulated at different ratios of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to MIC (in [micrograms x hours/milliliter]/[micrograms/milliliter]): 58 to 466 with trovafloxacin and 116 to 932 with ciprofloxacin for S. aureus and 58 to 233 and 116 to 466 for E. coli, respectively. Although the effect of N0 was more pronounced for E. coli than for S. aureus, only a minor increase in minimum numbers of surviving bacteria and an almost negligible delay in their regrowth were associated with an increase of the N0 for both organisms. The N0-induced reductions of the intensity of the antimicrobial effect (IE, area between control growth and the killing-regrowth curves) were also relatively small. However, the N0 effect could not be eliminated either by simple shifting of the time-kill curves obtained at higher N0s by the difference between the higher and lowest N0 or by operating with IEs determined within the N0-adopted upper limits of bacterial numbers (IE's). By using multivariate correlation and regression analyses, linear relationships between IE and log AUC/MIC and log N0 related to the respective mean values [(log AUC/MIC)average and (log N0)average] were established for both trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against each of the strains (r2 = 0.97 to 0.99). The antimicrobial effect may be accurately predicted at a given AUC/MIC of trovafloxacin or ciprofloxacin and at a given N0 based on the relationship IE = a + b [(log AUC/MIC)/(log AUC/MIC)average] - c [(log N0)/(log N0)average]. Moreover, the relative impacts of AUC/MIC and N0 on IE may be evaluated. Since the c/b ratios for trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against E. coli were much lower (0.3 to 0.4) than that for ampicillin-sulbactam as examined previously (1.9), the inoculum effect with the quinolones may be much less pronounced than with the beta-lactams. The described approach to the analysis of the inoculum effect in in vitro dynamic models might be useful in studies with other antibiotic classes. (+info)## Pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of amikacin in low-clearance unilamellar liposomes after a single or repeated intravenous administration in the rhesus monkey. (3/6505)

Liposomal aminoglycosides have been shown to have activity against intracellular infections, such as those caused by Mycobacterium avium. Amikacin in small, low-clearance liposomes (MiKasome) also has curative and prophylactic efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. To develop appropriate dosing regimens for low-clearance liposomal amikacin, we studied the pharmacokinetics of liposomal amikacin in plasma, the level of exposure of plasma to free amikacin, and urinary excretion of amikacin after the administration of single-dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) and repeated-dose (20 mg/kg eight times at 48-h intervals) regimens in rhesus monkeys. The clearance of liposomal amikacin (single-dose regimen, 0.023 +/- 0.003 ml min-1 kg-1; repeated-dose regimen, 0.014 +/- 0.001 ml min-1 kg-1) was over 100-fold lower than the creatinine clearance (an estimate of conventional amikacin clearance). Half-lives in plasma were longer than those reported for other amikacin formulations and declined during the elimination phase following administration of the last dose (from 81.7 +/- 27 to 30.5 +/- 5 h). Peak and trough (48 h) levels after repeated dosing reached 728 +/- 72 and 418 +/- 60 micrograms/ml, respectively. The levels in plasma remained > 180 micrograms/ml for 6 days after the administration of the last dose. The free amikacin concentration in plasma never exceeded 17.4 +/- 1 micrograms/ml and fell rapidly (half-life, 1.47 to 1.85 h) after the administration of each dose of liposomal amikacin. This and the low volume of distribution (45 ml/kg) indicate that the amikacin in plasma largely remained sequestered in long-circulating liposomes. Less than half the amikacin was recovered in the urine, suggesting that the level of renal exposure to filtered free amikacin was reduced, possibly as a result of intracellular uptake or the metabolism of liposomal amikacin. Thus, low-clearance liposomal amikacin could be administered at prolonged (2- to 7-day) intervals to achieve high levels of exposure to liposomal amikacin with minimal exposure to free amikacin. (+info)## Influences of urinary pH on ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics in humans and antimicrobial activity in vitro versus those of sparfloxacin. (4/6505)

The impact of acidification and alkalinization of urine on the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin was investigated after single 200-mg oral doses were administered to nine healthy male volunteers. In addition, the effect of human urine on the MICs of ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin against some common urinary tract pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Acidic and alkaline conditions were achieved by repeated oral doses of ammonium chloride or sodium bicarbonate, respectively. Plasma ciprofloxacin levels in all subjects were adequately described in terms of two-compartment model kinetics with first-order absorption. Acidification and alkalinization treatments had no effect on ciprofloxacin absorption, distribution, or elimination. The total amount of unchanged ciprofloxacin excreted over 24 h under acidic conditions was 88.4 +/- 14.5 mg (mean +/- standard deviation) (44.2% of the oral dose) and 82.4 +/- 16.5 mg (41.2% of the oral dose) under alkaline conditions, while the total amount of unchanged drug excreted over 24 h in volunteers receiving neither sodium bicarbonate nor ammonium chloride was 90.53 +/- 9.8 mg (45.2% of the oral dose). The mean renal clearance of ciprofloxacin was 16.78 +/- 2.67, 16.08 +/- 3.2, and 16.31 +/- 2.67 liters/h with acidification, alkalinization, and control, respectively. Renal clearance and concentrations of ciprofloxacin in urine were not correlated with urinary pH. The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin against E. coli NIHJ JC-2 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was affected by human urine and in particular by its pH. The activities of both quinolones against E. coli NIHJ JC-2 were lower at lower urinary pH and rather uniform, while in the case of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 ciprofloxacin was more active than sparfloxacin. (+info)## Pharmacokinetics of ethambutol under fasting conditions, with food, and with antacids. (5/6505)

Ethambutol (EMB) is the most frequent "fourth drug" used for the empiric treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a frequently used drug for infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. The pharmacokinetics of EMB in serum were studied with 14 healthy males and females in a randomized, four-period crossover study. Subjects ingested single doses of EMB of 25 mg/kg of body weight under fasting conditions twice, with a high-fat meal, and with aluminum-magnesium antacid. Serum was collected for 48 h and assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with zero-order absorption and first-order elimination. Both fasting conditions produced similar results: a mean (+/- standard deviation) EMB maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of 4.5 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml, time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (Tmax) of 2.5 +/- 0.9 h, and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-infinity) of 28.9 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of antacids, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 2.9 +/- 1.2 h, and AUC0-infinity of 27.5 +/- 5.9 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of the Food and Drug Administration high-fat meal, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.8 +/- 0.8 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 3.2 +/- 1.3 h, and AUC0-infinity of 29.6 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. These reductions in Cmax, delays in Tmax, and modest reductions in AUC0-infinity can be avoided by giving EMB on an empty stomach whenever possible. (+info)## Safety and pharmacokinetics of abacavir (1592U89) following oral administration of escalating single doses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected adults. (6/6505)

Abacavir (1592U89) is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has been demonstrated to have selective activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro and favorable safety profiles in mice and monkeys. A phase I study was conducted to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of abacavir following oral administration of single escalating doses (100, 300, 600, 900, and 1,200 mg) to HIV-infected adults. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects with baseline CD4+ cell counts ranging from < 50 to 713 cells per mm3 (median, 315 cells per mm3) were randomly assigned to receive abacavir (n = 12) or placebo (n = 6). The bioavailability of the caplet formulation relative to that of the oral solution was also assessed with the 300-mg dose. Abacavir was well tolerated by all subjects; mild to moderate asthenia, abdominal pain, headache, diarrhea, and dyspepsia were the most frequently reported adverse events, and these were not dose related. No significant clinical or laboratory abnormalities were observed throughout the study. All doses resulted in mean abacavir concentrations in plasma that exceeded the mean 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for clinical HIV isolates in vitro (0.07 microgram/ml) for almost 3 h. Abacavir was rapidly absorbed following oral administration, with the time to the peak concentration in plasma occurring at 1.0 to 1.7 h postdosing. Mean maximum concentrations in plasma (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) increased slightly more than proportionally from 100 to 600 mg (from 0.6 to 4.7 micrograms/ml for Cmax; from 1.0 to 15.7 micrograms.h/ml for AUC0-infinity) but increased proportionally from 600 to 1,200 mg (from 4.7 to 9.6 micrograms/ml for Cmax; from 15.7 to 32.8 micrograms.h/ml for AUC0-infinity. The elimination of abacavir from plasma was rapid, with an apparent elimination half-life of 0.9 to 1.7 h. Abacavir was well absorbed, with a relative bioavailability of the caplet formulation of 96% versus that of an oral solution (drug substance in water). In conclusion, this study showed that abacavir is safe and is well tolerated by HIV-infected subjects and demonstrated predictable pharmacokinetic characteristics when it was administered as single oral doses ranging from 100 to 1,200 mg. (+info)## Safety and single-dose pharmacokinetics of abacavir (1592U89) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children. (7/6505)

Abacavir (formerly 1592U89) is a potent 2'-deoxyguanosine analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has been demonstrated to have a favorable safety profile in initial clinical trials with adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection. A phase I study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of abacavir following the administration of two single oral doses (4 and 8 mg/kg of body weight) to 22 HIV-infected children ages 3 months to 13 years. Plasma was collected for analysis at predose and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 5, and 8 h after the administration of each dose. Plasma abacavir concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods. Abacavir was well tolerated by all subjects. The single abacavir-related adverse event was rash, which occurred in 2 of 22 subjects. After administration of the oral solution, abacavir was rapidly absorbed, with the time to the peak concentration in plasma occurring within 1.5 h postdosing. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were comparable among the different age groups for each dose level. The mean maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax) and the mean area under the curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) increased by 16 and 45% more than predicted, respectively, as the abacavir dose was doubled from 4 to 8 mg/kg (Cmax increased from 1.69 to 3.94 micrograms/ml, and AUC0-infinity increased from 2.82 to 8.09 micrograms.h/ml). Abacavir was rapidly eliminated, with a mean elimination half-life of 0.98 to 1.13 h. The mean apparent clearance from plasma decreased from 27.35 to 18.88 ml/min/kg as the dose increased. Neither body surface area nor creatinine clearance were correlated with pharmacokinetic estimates at either dose. The extent of exposure to abacavir appears to be slightly lower in children than in adults, with the comparable unit doses being based on body weight. In conclusion, this study showed that abacavir is safe and well tolerated in children when it is administered as a single oral dose of 4 or 8 mg/kg. (+info)## Optimizing aminoglycoside therapy for nosocomial pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria. (8/6505)

Nosocomial pneumonia is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality and leads to increases in lengths of hospital stays and institutional expenditures. Aminoglycosides are used to treat patients with these infections, but few data on the doses and schedules required to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes exist. We analyzed aminoglycoside treatment data for 78 patients with nosocomial pneumonia to determine if optimization of aminoglycoside pharmacodynamic parameters results in a more rapid therapeutic response (defined by outcome and days to leukocyte count resolution and temperature resolution). Cox proportional hazards, Classification and Regression Tree (CART), and logistic regression analyses were applied to the data. By all analyses, the first measured maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/MIC predicted days to temperature resolution and the second measured Cmax/MIC predicted days to leukocyte count resolution. For days to temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution, CART analyses produced breakpoints, with an 89% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.7 and an 86% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.5, respectively. Logistic regression analyses predicted a 90% probability of temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution by day 7 if a Cmax/MIC of > or = 10 is achieved within the first 48 h of aminoglycoside therapy. Aggressive aminoglycoside dosing immediately followed by individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring would ensure that Cmax/MIC targets are achieved early in therapy. This would increase the probability of a rapid therapeutic response for pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria and potentially decreasing durations of parenteral antibiotic therapy, lengths of hospitalization, and institutional expenditures, a situation in which both the patient and the institution benefit. (+info)###### Trapezoidal distribution - Wikipedia

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###### Dopamine agonist

For example, in one study bromocriptine was given with a CYP3A4 inhibitor and the AUC (e.

**Area**under the**curve**) increased 268 ... it is thought to be involved in the activation of dopamine receptors in the**area**of the brain where the striatum and the ...###### Forest transition

Kuznets

**curve**Mather, A.S. 1992. The forest transition.**Area**24(4): 367-379 Walker, R. 1993. Deforestation and Economic ... Redistribution of labour resources from**areas**of low fertility to**areas**of greater fertility promotes regrowth in the**areas**...**Area**27(3): 242-251 Mather, A.S. and C.L. Needle. 1998. The forest transition: a theoretical basis.**Area**30(2): 117-124 Rudel, ... A Kuznets**curve**analysis of the problem, where income leads to forest regrowth, has contradictory results, due to the complex ...###### Insular biogeography

... this is the species-

**area****curve**or effect. Larger islands contain larger habitat**areas**and opportunities for more different ... The theory was originally developed to explain the pattern of the species-**area**relationship occurring in oceanic islands. Under ... For biogeographical purposes, an insular environment or "island" is any**area**of habitat suitable for a specific ecosystem, ... Degree of isolation (distance to nearest neighbour, and mainland) Length of isolation (time) Size of island (larger**area**...###### Versatilist

... in 3

**areas**. This creates an**area**under the**curve**of 34. This is different from a specialist who may score very high in one**area**... To illustrate this using a mathematical concept, the versitilist has a higher**area**under the**curve**rating. Think of a person ... That person may have a very high competency (score 5) in 3**areas**, a medium level of competency (score 3) in 5**areas**an ... This is also different from a generalist who may score a 1 or 3 in every**area**.[citation needed] This breadth of knowledge and ...###### M-1 (Michigan highway)

The

**area**around Woodward was once nicknamed "Piety Hill". There are 22 churches on the NRHP along the street in Detroit and ... After the**curve**, M-1 meets I-696 (Reuther Freeway); immediately north of this interchange in Huntington Woods is the Detroit ... M-1, commonly known as Woodward Avenue, is a north-south state trunkline highway in the Metro Detroit**area**of the US state of ... Nightclubs along Woodward hosted a burgeoning music scene in the early days of rock 'n roll, and the**area**also had plenty of ...###### Tanesha Awasthi

"

**Curves**Ahead: Blogger Tanesha Awasthi". Stylist Magazine. Retrieved 2016-02-18. "**Curves**Ahead: Blogger Tanesha Awasthi". ... Awasthi also won the award in 2014 for Favorite Bay**Area**Fashion blogger, presented by the San Francisco-based site Racked SF ... "Tanesha Awasthi in PANDORA Jewelry In-Store Event With Girl With**Curves**". Zimbio. Retrieved 2016-02-24. "**Curves**Ahead: Blogger ... She runs the fashion blog "Girl With**Curves**." As of May 22, 2020 she has 470,000 followers on Instagram. She is part of the " ...###### Yosihiko H. Sinoto

Emory, Kenneth P.; Sinoto, Yosihiko H. (1969). "Age of the sites in the South Point

**area**, Ka'u, Hawaii". Pacific ... Stewart, Frank; Nagado, Madoka (2016).**Curve**of the Hook: An Archaeologist in Polynesia. Honolulu, HI: UH Press. ISBN 978- ...###### Treemapping

A leaf node's rectangle has an

**area**proportional to a specified dimension of the data. Often the leaf nodes are colored to show ... Their aspect ratio is guaranteed to be at most 4. GosperMaps - based on the geometry of Gosper**curves**. It is ordered and stable ...**Area**-based visualizations have existed for decades. For example, mosaic plots (also known as Marimekko diagrams) use ... Jigsaw Treemaps - based on the geometry of space-filling**curves**. They assume that the weights are integers and that their sum ...###### Haber's rule

LD50 Toxicology Chemical warfare

**Area**under the**curve**C. I. Bliss (1940). "The relationship between exposure, time, ... F. J. Miller; P. M. Schlosser; D. B. Janszen (August 14, 2000). "Haber's rule: a special case in a family of**curves**relating ...###### Landau damping

Total energy, the

**area**under the**curves**, is conserved. The rigorous mathematical theory is based on solving the Cauchy problem ...###### Mann-Whitney U test

**Area**-under-

**curve**(AUC) statistic for ROC

**curves**[edit]. The U statistic is equivalent to the

**area**under the receiver operating ... The concordance probability is exactly equal to the

**area**under the receiver operating characteristic

**curve**(ROC) that is often ... Hanley, James A.; McNeil, Barbara J. (1982). "The Meaning and Use of the

**Area**under a Receiver Operating (ROC)

**Curve**... "A Simple Generalisation of the

**Area**Under the ROC

**Curve**for Multiple Class Classification Problems" (PDF). Machine Learning. 45 ...

###### Vicsek fractal

The boundary of the Vicsek fractal is the Type 1 quadratic Koch

**curve**. Play media There is a three-dimensional analogue of the ... At each iteration, four squares are removed for every five retained, meaning that at iteration n the**area**is ( 5 9 ) n {\ ... Self-similarities II - keeping corner squares.4 The Vicsek fractal has the surprising property that it has zero**area**yet an ... The two constructions produce identical limiting**curves**, but one is rotated by 45 degrees with respect to the other. Self- ...###### Turret deck ship

This flat

**area**was known as the harbour deck. Further inboard, this "deck" arced to the vertical again by a reverse**curve**. That ... Like others of the type, Wetmore had a hull in the form of a flattened cigar, with a continuous**curve**above the waterline to ... Several sources state that Suez tolls were based on the**area**of the uppermost deck; as a turret's deck was narrow, this ... There was no gunwale; the vertical side of a turret ship**curves**inward above the load line to a horizontal plane. ...###### Missouri Route 118

Past Bigelow, Route 118

**curves**northeast through more rural**areas**. The road reaches Mound City, where it comes to an ... The route heads through agricultural**areas**with some trees, intersecting Route P. The road passes through the community of ...###### Chirundu-Beitbridge Regional Road Corridor

Unlike Link 1, this section has moderate

**curves**and slopes. Charara Safari**area**lies left (west) for about 25 kilometres (16 mi ... In this section of the road there is a turn-off (to the right or east) to Manna Pools and the Hurungwe Safari**Area**. At the end ... This section covers the Zambezi Escapement**area**. It is mountainous and has a number of very steep passes. ...###### Spirograph

It was used for calculating an

**area**delimited by**curves**. Drawing toys based on gears have been around since at least 1908, when ... Spirograph is a geometric drawing device that produces mathematical roulette**curves**of the variety technically known as ...###### Blend modes

**Areas**where the top layer are mid grey are unaffected. An overlay with the same picture looks like an S-

**curve**. f ( a , b ) = { ... If the two layers contain the same picture, multiply blend mode is equivalent to a quadratic

**curve**, or gamma correction with γ= ... because it gives more flexibility in the shape of the

**curves**. Or one can use Levels dialogue: the middle number is usually 1/γ ... multiply blend mode is equivalent to a

**curve**that is simply a straight line. This is also equivalent to using this gray value ...

###### South Dakota Highway 30

This intersection leads to the Lake Hendricks Lakeside Use

**Area**. East of this intersection, it**curves**back to the east. Just ... SD 30**curves**to the east-northeast, onto 203rd Street. East of 480th Avenue, the highway**curves**to the east-southeast. Just ... It then**curves**to the northeast, traveling just to the southeast of White. An intersection with 203A Street leads to the ... Just west of 472nd Avenue, it**curves**to the east-northeast. East of this intersection is an interchange with Interstate 29 (I- ...###### Firehawk (roller coaster)

Riders then proceeded through an over banked Horseshoe

**Curve**element, passing the queue**area**. Following the Horseshoe, the ... It was built in an**area**next to Flight of Fear, creating a new**area**named X-Base which connects to nearby**area**Coney Mall via a ... "Parking Lot Staging**Area**". Kings Island Central. Retrieved February 15, 2013. "X-Flight Gets Paint, New Name For Kings Island ... "Kings Island roller coaster reopened after Toledo-**area**man's death". Springfield News-Sun. August 9, 2009. Retrieved November 8 ...###### Russellville Bypass

KYTC conducted an urban

**area**study of Russellville in 1980. The study found heavy congestion in the downtown**area**and noted the ... US 68 and KY 80**curve**south to the bypass's intersection with Bowling Green Road, onto which US 68 and KY 80 split east toward ... The two U.S. Highways intersect KY 96 (Orndorff Mill Road) and**curve**northwest. The bypass passes Russellville High School and ... The highway meets the west end of KY 100 (Franklin Road), which leads to Russellville-Logan County Airport, and**curves**...###### Detection theory

... such as the

**area**under the ROC-**curve**. Bias is the extent to which one response is more probable than another. That is, a ...###### Rankovce Municipality

The whole municipality and Rankovce Palanka municipality

**curve**represents the catchment**area****curve**Reka. Minuvajkji through ... Near the village river flowing**curves**( about 500 m ), the village is flat type and quality abounds in agricultural**areas**, it ... The territory of the municipality Rankovce occupies space Slavishko field that belongs to the famous**area**of the**curve**River. ... Strongly and sources of kings peak ( source**curve**River), White Water, Stone Kalin and others.**Curve**River rises in the ...###### Mills ratio

ISBN 0-19-857223-9. Mills, John P. (1926). "Table of the Ratio:

**Area**to Bounding Ordinate, for Any Portion of Normal**Curve**". ...###### 1959 Pacific hurricane season

Overall, damage from Dot across Hawaii totaled US$6 million, and a disaster

**area**declaration and state of emergency took effect ... The trough then weakened, and allowed Patsy to**curve**northwest. The Japan Meteorological Agency's best track at this time Patsy ... Earlier stages were missed because of a lack of data in the isolated**area**. Six hours after classification, Patsy reached ... Intensity leveled off afterwards as Dot tracked westward before making a**curve**towards the northwest on August 5, after which ...###### Old Logan Village State School

The main

**area**of the school is a large hall with high coved ceilings. The walls are sheeted internally by wooden boarding that ... The boarding on the walls sits vertically; the boarding on the ceilings follows the**curve**of the coved ceilings. The divide ... These**areas**were surveyed into small blocks, ready for sale. One of these reserves was on the Logan River. By 1862, 68 blocks ... The west side of the downstairs**area**has three wooden windows, the south has two, and the east side has two windows and a large ...###### South Dakota Highway 1804

It

**curves**to the north-northwest and then back to the north. It passes to the east of the West Pollock Recreation**Area**and ... It**curves**to the northeast and travels through the southern part of that**area**, crossing over Platte Creek in the process. It ... The highway**curves**to the north and crosses over Spring Creek. SD 1804 then passes the Spring Creek Recreation**Area**and enters ... It**curves**to a northeastward direction and travels along the eastern edge of the Tailrace Recreation**Area**. On the northern edge ...###### Metric tensor

For a timelike

**curve**, the length formula gives the proper time along the**curve**. In this case, the spacetime interval is written ... If the surface M is parameterized by the function r→(u, v) over the domain D in the uv-plane, then the surface**area**of M is ... Let γ(t) be a piecewise-differentiable parametric**curve**in M, for a ≤ t ≤ b. The arclength of the**curve**is defined by L = ∫ a b ... Given a segment of a**curve**, another frequently defined quantity is the (kinetic) energy of the**curve**: E = 1 2 ∫ a b ∑ i , j = 1 ...###### Prosek

The site is located on a limestone plateau surrounded by a

**curve**of Vardar river. The sheer cliffs and the river make the**area**...###### Squish (piston engine)

It also requires a

**curve**on the outer section of the piston crown. This design directs air from the squish**area**into the centre ... There are also ways to modify the piston and give it intake and exhaust squish**areas**. This affects how the whole engine runs ... Others may use raised**areas**relative to the piston rings to create a different effect in the combustion chamber. This creates a ...###### Booth, Texas

They

**curve**slightly and leave Booth heading southeast. An historical marker is at the corner of FM 2759 and Agnes Road. The Old ... The BNSF Railway tracks run parallel to and south of FM 2759 through the**area**. Both railroad and highway come into Booth from ... There are number of houses, an RV-park, a restaurant, a landscaping business and a historical marker in the**area**. ...###### Food web

... consisting of

**areas**with sparse links among species and distinct**areas**of tightly linked species. These regions of high link ... This has led to the concept or**area**of study known as cross-boundary subsidy.[59][60] "This leads to anomalies, such as food ... They can depict different numerical properties of ecosystems, including numbers of individuals per unit of**area**, biomass (g/m2 ...###### Leaf

Large surface

**area**provides a large**area**for capture of sunlight.. *In harmful levels of sunlight, specialized leaves, opaque ... 3. Campylodromous (campylos -**curve**). Several primary veins or branches originating at or close to a single point and running ... The**areas**or islands of mesophyll lying between the higher order veins, are called areoles. Some of the smallest veins ( ... Once sugar has been synthesized, it needs to be transported to**areas**of active growth such as the plant shoots and roots. ...###### Black wildebeest

Around 80% of the wildebeest occurs in private

**areas**, while the other 20% is confined in protected**areas**. The population is now ... Both sexes have strong horns that**curve**forward, resembling hooks, which are up to 78 cm (31 in) long. The horns have a broad ... The altitudes in these**areas**vary from 1,350-2,150 m (4,430-7,050 ft).[1] The herds are often migratory or nomadic, otherwise ... Before the arrival of Europeans in the**area**, wildebeest roamed widely, probably in relation to the arrival of the rains and the ...###### Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Mathematics

Articles on

**areas**must explain the motivations, the history, the limits of the**area**(when there is a consensus for that), and ... Pull the knotted part of the**curve**tight?[edit]. This discussion calls for experts, right? Boris Tsirelson (talk) 18:49, 19 ... Do you not need to require that the first (directional) derivative of the**curve**be continuous? I think that would be impossible ... There are currently redirects from Minkowski**curve**, Minkowski island, Minkowski sausage, and Minkowski fractal which lead to ...###### Glossary of graph theory terms

Glossary of

**areas**of mathematics. References[edit]. *^ Farber, M.; Hahn, G.; Hell, P.; Miller, D. J. (1986), "Concerning the ... each edge represented as a**curve**having the endpoints of the edge as endpoints of the**curve**, and no other intersections between ... 1. A topological graph is a representation of the vertices and edges of a graph by points and**curves**in the plane (not ...###### Kenzō Tange

The Yoyogi National Gymnasium is situated in an open

**area**in Yoyogi Park on an adjacent axis to the Meiji Shrine. The gymnasium ... The bottom anchoring of this steel net is a heavy concrete support system which forms a distinct**curve**on the interior and ... When it was constructed it was situated on the edge of the old town centre connecting it with the newer**areas**of the town. ... an**area**adorned with fountains, benches, greenery and a church. The Centro Direzionale is home to the tallest building in ...###### Photoreceptor cell

No photoreceptors are found at the blind spot, the

**area**where ganglion cell fibers are collected into the optic nerve and leave ... So, the colors of the**curves**are misleading. Cones cannot detect color by themselves; rather, color vision requires comparison ... though the impact of disturbed circadian rhythms is another**area**of relevance to clinical medicine. ...###### Ohio State University

The band is famous for "Script Ohio", during which the band marches single-file through the

**curves**of the word "Ohio", much ... "2008 Foundation Program**Areas**: United States and Canada, Latin America and the Caribbean". Guggenheim Fellowship. Archived from ... Student organizations at Ohio State provide students with opportunities to get involved in a wide variety of interest**areas**...###### Brabham BT55

However, by the time they reached the speed trap just before the braking

**area**at Tosa, they were among the quickest. The cars ... from the high speed Tamburello**curve**both Patrese and de Angelis accelerated quicker than any other cars. At Imola, the ... Designers in the 1950s had addressed the same problem of reducing the cars cross sectional**area**by tilting the engines around a ...###### Computer graphics (computer science)

Relighting - recent

**area**concerned with quickly re-rendering scenes. Notable researchers[edit]. *Arthur Appel ...###### High-heeled shoe

Wearing high heels narrows the base of support that the body has in order to avoid falling and also restricts the

**area**within ... and the waistline of the heel is**curves**inward naturally."[1] ... including accidental trauma to multiple**areas**of the body.[4] ...###### Occupational health psychology

... (OHP) is an interdisciplinary

**area**of psychology that is concerned with the health and safety of ... Phillips**curve**. *Recession *Great Recession. *Great Recession job losses. *List of recessions ... Statistical methods commonly used in other**areas**of psychology are also used in OHP-related research. Statistical methods used ... Organizations can play a role in the health behavior of employees by providing resources to encourage healthy behavior in**areas**...###### Royal Albert Hall

... changes were made to the backstage

**areas**to relocate and increase the size of crew catering**areas**under the South Steps away ... specially woven with a border that follows the oval**curve**of the building.[16] ... The most common is the one-hour Grand Tour which includes most front-of-house**areas**, the auditorium, the gallery and the Royal ... From January to May the Box Office**area**at Door 12 underwent further modernisation to include a new Café Bar on the ground ...###### Free will

... an anterior-to-posterior sequential activation process beginning in the supplementary motor

**area**on the medial surface of the ... can contain closed timelike**curves**. *Alcubierre metric. *BTZ black hole. *Gödel metric ...###### Cascade effect (ecology)

... then their initial release and exploitation of the plants may result in a loss of plant biodiversity in the

**area**.[2] If other ... the loss of sea otters in local**areas**along the Pacific coast seems to have caused a cascade effect of secondary extinctions, ...###### Hard disk drive failure

A landing zone is an

**area**of the platter usually near its inner diameter (ID), where no data is stored. This**area**is called the ... Hard disk drive failures tend to follow the concept of the bathtub**curve**.[3] Drives typically fail within a short time if there ... In the worst case the debris scraped off the damaged**area**may contaminate all heads and platters, and destroy all data on all ... Failure rates of hardware products typically follow a "bathtub**curve**" with high failure rates at the beginning (infant ...###### Economics

... and by the negative slope of the

**curve**.[81] If production of one good increases along the**curve**, production of the other good ... In many**areas**, some form of price stickiness is postulated to account for quantities, rather than prices, adjusting in the ... The slope of the**curve**at a point on it gives the trade-off between the two goods. It measures what an additional unit of one ... A point inside the**curve**(as at A), is feasible but represents production inefficiency (wasteful use of inputs), in that output ...###### Political positions of Marine Le Pen

She asserted that a competitive devaluation (J

**curve**)[81] would "quickly have a positive effect on employment and purchasing ... "Schengen : Sarkozy admits the extent of the disaster but does not act ! We must leave Schengen**Area**" (in French). Front ... Le Pen called for France to withdraw from the Schengen**Area**and reinstate border controls, accusing the UMP government of ... and that only withdrawal from the Schengen**Area**would be sufficient to stop immigration.[100] She claims that traffickers and ...###### Parrot

The upper mandible is prominent,

**curves**downward, and comes to a point. It is not fused to the skull, which allows it to move ... However, in**areas**where there are existing feral parrot populations, escaped pets may sometimes successfully join these flocks. ... Parrots are persecuted because, in some**areas**, they are (or have been) hunted for food and feathers, and as agricultural pests ... Depending on locality, parrots may be either wild-caught or be captive-bred, though in most**areas**without native parrots, pet ...###### Medical simulation

By monitoring such data, leaders can be aware of which

**areas**in the flow needs to be sped up, slowed down, moved to a different ... and reduction of the learning**curves**. ... Fetus with soft and firm**areas**true to life. *Fetus that ... Alternatively, in a simulation of exactly the same event, the leaders could ignore certain**areas**in order to concentrate on the ... Apollo can withstand indoor and outside training simulations and has a large variety of training in many**areas**. "Apollo's easy ...###### Decibel

dB(m²) - decibel relative to one square meter: measure of the antenna effective

**area**.[59]. dBm−1. dB(m−1) - decibel relative to ... The reference level varies with frequency according to a minimum audibility**curve**as defined in ANSI and other standards, such ... See Psophometric weighting to see a comparison of frequency response**curves**for the C-message weighting and Psophometric ...###### Recidivism

However, especially in the inner city or in

**areas**with high crime rates, lessors may not always apply their official policies ... Florida Department of Corrections (May 2001). "Recidivism Rate**Curves**". Recidivism Report. State of Florida. Archived from the ... to having your sense of safety violated as result of living in an**area**where crime exists. Furthermore, all taxpayers are ... in the same**areas**mentioned in approach 2 ...###### Spirometry

Mean transit time is the

**area**under the flow-volume**curve**divided by the forced vital capacity.[24] ... MMEF or MEF stands for maximal (mid-)expiratory flow and is the peak of expiratory flow as taken from the flow-volume**curve**and ... After the starting point the**curve**rapidly mounts to a peak (the peak expiratory flow). (Note the FEV1 value is arbitrary in ... When having drawn a**curve**with the relations between changes in volume to changes in transpulmonary pressure, Cst is the slope ...###### New Orleans

Canal Street divides the traditional "downtown"

**area**from the "uptown"**area**. Every street crossing Canal Street between the ... allowing that traffic to bypass I-10's southward**curve**. ... The**area**along the river is characterized by ridges and hollows ... Historically, the major newspaper in the**area**was The Times-Picayune. The paper made headlines of its own in 2012 when owner ... The New Orleans**area**is home to numerous annual celebrations. The most well-known is Carnival, or Mardi Gras. Carnival ...###### Hybrid zone

... s are

**areas**where the hybrid offspring of two divergent taxa (species, subspecies or genetic "forms") are prevalent ... Often the clines take the form of a sigmoid**curve**. They can be wide (gradual) or narrow (steep) depending on the ratio of ... The two populations then mate within an**area**of contact, producing 'hybrids' which contain a mixture of the alleles distinctive ... As a population spreads across a contiguous**area**it may spread into an abruptly different environment. Through adaptation to ...###### Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

"University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries, Department of Special and

**Area**Studies Collections, Gainesville, FL. 2003. ... but rather shows that most people lie near the middle of a continuous**curve**.[10][35][43][44][45] "Although we do not conclude ...###### Road signs in Sweden

End of residential

**area**(1998-2007) References[edit]. *^ HÖGSTA DOMSTOLENS DOM meddelad i Stockholm den 18 augusti 2017 Mål nr ...###### Loss aversion

... the supply and demand

**curves**should be perfect mirrors of each other and thus half the goods should be traded. The authors also ... men showed greater neural activation than women in various**areas**during the task. Loss of striatal dopamine neurons is ...###### Weil conjectures

The case of

**curves**over finite fields was proved by Weil, finishing the project started by Hasse's theorem on elliptic**curves**... A Series of Modern Surveys in Mathematics [Results in Mathematics and Related**Areas**. 3rd Series. A Series of Modern Surveys in ... Elliptic**curves**[edit]. These give the first non-trivial cases of the Weil conjectures (proved by Hasse). If E is an elliptic ... To see this consider the case of a supersingular elliptic**curve**over a finite field of characteristic p. The endomorphism ring ...**Area** under the **curve** (pharmacokinetics) - Wikipedia

###### AUC, **area** under **curve** | American Academy of Pediatrics

###### Coronavirus: Is Bay **Area** lock-down bending infection **curve**?

Is Bay

**Area**social distancing lockdown working?… Share this:. *Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) ... In fact, Bay**Area**officials on Monday extended the regions stay-home orders through the end of the month, and even President ... Other hard-hit**areas**that also imposed strict measures to stop people from mingling are showing signs they are working. Like ... Coronavirus: Is Bay**Area**social distancing lockdown working? Some see progress Encouraging signs at one San Francisco hospital ...###### AUC, **area** under the **curve** | Diabetes

**Area** under the **curve** - probability | Physics Forums

Putting these together shows why the

**area**under the**curve**represents probability. Does that explanation help or did you already ... Its something that I know but Ive never been able to figure out why? Why is does the**area**underneath the normal ... Its something that I know but Ive never been able to figure out why? Why is does the**area**underneath the normal ... From calculus we know the integral on the right represents the**area**under f(x) between a and b. Since the cumulative ...**Area** under the **Curve** - GeoGebra

... the user to input a function and then adjust the Lower Bound and Upper Bound and the number of divisions to calculate the

**area**...**Area**, Upper and Lower Sum or Riemann Sum. This applet allows the user to input a function and then adjust the Lower Bound and ... Upper Bound and the number of divisions to calculate the**area**under a**curve**, using rectangles. Includes Upper, Lower, Left- ...###### Blood Glucose **Area** Under the **Curve**: Methodological Aspects | Diabetes Care

Blood Glucose

**Area**Under the**Curve**: Methodological Aspects. Jean-Pierre Le Floch, Philippe Escuyer, Eric Baudin, Dominique ... Blood Glucose**Area**Under the**Curve**: Methodological Aspects. Jean-Pierre Le Floch, Philippe Escuyer, Eric Baudin, Dominique ... Blood Glucose**Area**Under the**Curve**: Methodological Aspects Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... To specify the influence of methods used in estimating**area**under the**curve**(AUC) and the meaning of total and incremental AUC ...###### Search of: **Area** Under **Curve** AND tablet - Modify Search - ClinicalTrials.gov

###### Round Lake **Area** Library- Ahead of the Outreach **Curve**

Elena Lara shares her insights about how the Round Lake

**Area**Library is successfully engaging the Hispanic community. Take a ... Round Lake Library - Ahead of the Outreach**Curve**. Elena Lara is the Hispanic Outreach Coordinator of the Round Lake**Area**... Round Lake**Area**Library- Ahead of the Outreach**Curve**. by Rebecca Paul ... The Round Lake**Area**includes five towns with an approximate population of 41,000 and approximately 45% of the population is of ...**Area** Between two **curves** | Physics Forums

Find the

**area**of the region between the following**curves**for x in [0, 3]. Give the answer to three decimal places. y=x y=4e^x I ... Related Threads on**Area**Between two**curves****Area**under the**curve**need help ... Find the**area**of the region between the following**curves**for x in [0, 3]. Give the answer to three decimal places. y=x. y=4e^x ... since its the**area**between the**curves**, and 4e^x is always greater than y=x.) Your answer should then be (4e^3-4e^0) - ((3^2)/2 ...**Area** Under the ROC **Curve** (AUC) | EDRM

###### 6.3 Probability as An **Area** Under The Normal **Curve** - Statistical Inference: A Short Course [Book]

6.3 Probability as An

**Area**Under The Normal**Curve**Suppose is If we are interested in finding then we can do so by determining ... the**area**under the normal ... - Selection from Statistical Inference: A Short Course [Book] ... 6.3 Probability as An**Area**Under The Normal**Curve**. Suppose is If we are interested in finding then we can do so by determining ... Instead, we shall read the**area**under the normal**curve**directly from a table. However, before we do so, let us note that there ...**Area** Under a **Curve** - Wolfram Demonstrations Project

The bottom

**curve**shows the cumulative**area**under the top**curve**which is given by the integral of the function in the top**curve**... Signed and Unsigned**Area**under a**Curve**. Benjamin Faucher. *. Common Methods of Estimating the**Area**under a**Curve**. Scott Liao ( ... The bottom**curve**shows the cumulative**area**under the top**curve**, which is given by the integral of the function in the top**curve**...**Area**between**Curves**. Stephen Wilkerson (Towson University). *. Finding the**Area**of a 3D Surface with Parallelograms. Mark ...**area** under **curve** and line.

The diagram shows a sketch of part of the

**curve**with equation y = x 2+1 and the line with equation y =7− x . The finite region ...**area**under**curve**and line. The diagram shows a sketch of part of the**curve**with equation y=x2+1 and the line with equation y=7− ... a) Find the**area**of R1.. (b) Find the**area**of R2.. $\displaystyle 7-x = x^2 + 1 $ $\displaystyle 0 = x^2 + x -6 $ $\ ... Calculate the**area**between the calibration**curve**and the identity line on a graph. Posted in the Calculus Forum ...###### Search of: **Area** Under **Curve** AND meal AND **area** AND tolerance - Modify Search - ClinicalTrials.gov

###### Excel **Curves**- **Area** under the **curve**

I need

**area**under the**curve**. Can any one teach me the way of calculating**area**under the**curve**in excel worksheet?(The**curve**... This gives bell shaped**curve**. To compare two cuvres, ... Re: Excel**Curves**-**Area**under the**curve**If the**curve**is truly ... Re: Excel**Curves**-**Area**under the**curve**Dear Zbor. Thanks for your reply. Two compare two**curves**I need same**area**. This can tell ... There are two**curves**, Blue and Red. Blue is of lesser**area**. I need relative ratio of**areas**. (**Area**of Blue /**Area**of Red). ...###### The meaning and use of the **area** under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) **curve**

It is shown that in such a setting the

**area**represents the probability that a randomly … ...**curve**obtained by the rating method, or by mathematical predictions based on patient characteristics, is presented. ... A representation and interpretation of the**area**under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) ... The meaning and use of the**area**under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC)**curve**Radiology. 1982 Apr;143(1):29-36. doi: ...**Area** under the **curve**: Continuous data types - Building an intuitive understanding of statistical analysis | Coursera

Were still going to calculate an

**area**under the**curve**. So thats how it works. Its an**area**under the**curve**, it falls between ... Bell shaped**curve**for us. And it can work out. The**area**under the**curve**for that. Now, you can ask yourself, how would this ... A parabolic**curve**there and we can work out the**area**under the**curve**. We neednt have a special shape like a square or ... The very smooth**curve**, we can work out the**area**under the**curve**for that. Between two limits. Integration is quite easy to do. ...###### Lactulose/Mannitol Test and Specificity, Sensitivity, and **Area** under **Curve** of Intestinal Permeability Parameters in Patients...

... and

**area**under**curve**(AUC) of the lactulose/mannitol ratio, lactulose/creatinine ratio, and lactulose recovery... ... Lactulose Mannitol Intestinal permeability Sensitivity Specificity**Area**under**curve**This is a preview of subscription content, ... The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the specificity, sensitivity, and**area**under**curve**(AUC) of the ... Lactulose/Mannitol Test and Specificity, Sensitivity, and**Area**under**Curve**of Intestinal Permeability Parameters in Patients ...###### 3.2 The **Area** Under the ROC **Curve** - Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing: Applications of Deep Neural Networks to...

3.2 The

**Area**Under the ROC**Curve**. Stay ahead with the worlds most comprehensive technology and business learning platform. ...###### On the Use of Min-Max Combination of Biomarkers to Maximize the Partial **Area** under the ROC **Curve**

...

**curve**and the**area**under the ROC**curve**(AUC) are vital in diagnostic and targeted medicine. The partial**area**under the**curve**( ... we consider the partial**area**under the ROC**curve**(pAUC) over the range of high specificity values, i.e., In this article, less ... the shape of the gamma ROC**curve**resembles an ROC**curve**with latent normality assumptions. When κ=1 the gamma ROC**curve**is ... On the Use of Min-Max Combination of Biomarkers to Maximize the Partial**Area**under the ROC**Curve**. Hua Ma,1 Susan Halabi,2 and ...###### Comparing the **areas** under two or more correlated receiver operating characteristic **curves**: a nonparametric approach

... Biometrics ... This paper presents a nonparametric approach to the analysis of

**areas**under correlated ROC**curves**, by using the theory on ...**curve**. The**curve**is constructed by varying the cutpoint used to determine which values of the observed variable will be ... When two or more empirical**curves**are constructed based on tests performed on the same individuals, statistical analysis on ...**Area** under the **curve** legal definition of **Area** under the **curve**

What is

**Area**under the**curve**? Meaning of**Area**under the**curve**as a legal term. What does**Area**under the**curve**mean in law? ... Definition of**Area**under the**curve**in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... The**area**under the**curve**y = 1/x from x = 1 to x = a measures A = 1 when a = e.. Demonstrating e using**areas**under**curves**...**Area**under the**curve**legal definition of**Area**under the**curve**https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/**Area**+under+the+ ...###### How to find the **area** under this **curve**? - OpenStudy

###### Finding the **Area** Between 2 **Curves**

Find the

**area**of the region lying to the right of x=(y^2)-5 and the left of x=3-(y^2). I determined that the ... Finding the**Area**Between 2**Curves**I have two problems I need help on:. 1. Find the**area**of the region lying to the right of x=( ...**Area**, Implicit differentiation (2 different answers!) » Similar Math Help Forum Discussions. * Finding**area**between**curves**?. ... Finding the**area**of the region between the**curves**. Posted in the Calculus Forum ...**Area** under **Curve** - Preparation Tips | Engineering

Get complete chapter notes of chapter

**Area**under**Curve**including important concept, formulae and previous year solved questions ... WBJEE: Important Questions and Preparation Tips -**Area**under**Curve**. The topic**Area**under**Curve**is very important topic of ... we bring to you the chapter notes of chapter**Area**under**Curve**which contain the crux of the topic**Area**under**Curve**for coming ... The**area**of the region bounded by the**curve**y = x3, its tangent at (1, 1) and x-axis is ...###### Calculus Volume of Revolution by Shells Plus Polar **Area** Under the **Curve**

2 Calculus Freebies Volume of Revolution by Cylindrical Shells Plus Polar

**Area**Under the**Curve**This resource is sample of the ... 2 Calculus Freebies Volume of Revolution by Cylindrical Shells Plus Polar**Area**Under the**Curve**This resource is sample of the ... The second is a combination of Guided Notes and Task Cards for finding the**Area**Under a Polar**Curve**. Full versions of both are ... 2 Calculus Freebies Volume of Revolution by Cylindrical Shells Plus Polar**Area**Under the**Curve**. This resource is sample of the ...###### Estimation of **Area** under Receiver Operating Characteristic **Curve** for Bi-Pareto and Bi-Two Parameter Exponential Models

**Area** under the concentration **curve** | definition of **area** under the concentration **curve** by Medical dictionary

What is

**area**under the concentration**curve**? Meaning of**area**under the concentration**curve**medical term. What does**area**under ... Looking for online definition of**area**under the concentration**curve**in the Medical Dictionary?**area**under the concentration ...**area**under the concentration**curve**. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.**area**under the concentration**curve**(AUC). a method of ...**Area**under the concentration**curve**, definition of**area**under the concentration**curve**by Medical dictionary https://medical- ...**Area** under **curve** (AUC) > Diagnostic performance > Statistical Reference Guide | Analyse-it® 5.40...

**Area**under

**curve**(AUC) The

**area**under (a ROC)

**curve**is a summary measure of the accuracy of a quantitative diagnostic test. ... Hanley, J. A., & McNeil, B. J. (1982). The meaning and use of the

**area**under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC)

**curve**. ... Comparing the

**areas**under two or more correlated receiver operating characteristic

**curves**: a nonparametric approach. Biometrics ... A point estimate of the AUC of the empirical ROC

**curve**is the Mann-Whitney U estimator (DeLong et. al., 1988). . The confidence ...

IntegralEmpiricalReceiver operaLogistic regressionVisualize the performanceEstimationBelow the curveParametric curveRegion boundedWorksheetPolygonsRectanglesProbability and StatisNormal curvePartial area underFindPolygonConcentrationContinuous CurveSpecificityClinicalMethodsMathematicsIntegral calculusBell shapeComparingSketchEstimate the areaBinormalSmooth curveDiagnosticRecallTotalInfinitePeakCalculate the exactApproximate areaShown in the diagramRangesDescribeDataCalculationFormulaCalculus2019Definite integralObjectiveIntegralsUniformStatisticalMathematicalApproachCoronavirusUncertaintyIntensityResults

###### Integral1

- Of course, we already know from Section 1.3 one way to approximate an integral: If we think of the integral as computing an area, we can add up the areas of some rectangles (Riemann sum). (sfu.ca)

###### Empirical3

- When two or more empirical curves are constructed based on tests performed on the same individuals, statistical analysis on differences between curves must take into account the correlated nature of the data. (nih.gov)
- Phillips curves have long enjoyed great popularity as an empirical tool, but for that very reason the missing disinflation and missing inflation episodes have stirred intense debates about the relationship, including whether it is alive or dead (i.e. steep or flat), and linear or non-linear. (europa.eu)
- With the objection of maximizing the empirical area under the ROC curve (AUC), an analysis method was considered which combines potential glyca. (sciweavers.org)

###### Receiver opera1

- The receiver operating curve--calculated to assess the test's ability to classify skin lesions--had an area under the curve of 95. (thefreedictionary.com)

###### Logistic regression4

- After fitting a binary logistic regression model with a set of independent variables, the predictive performance of this set of variables - as assessed by the area under the curve (AUC) from a ROC curve - must be estimated for a sample (the 'test' sample) that is independent of the sample used to predict the dependent variable (the 'training' sample). (harvard.edu)
- I am interested in calculating area under the curve (AUC), or the c-statistic, by hand for a binary logistic regression model. (stackexchange.com)
- To compute the points in an ROC curve, we could evaluate a logistic regression model many times with different classification thresholds, but this would be inefficient. (google.com)
- ROC curve and Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) are widely-used metric for binary (i.e., positive or negative) classification problems such as Logistic Regression . (apache.org)

###### Visualize the performance2

- An ROC curve is the most commonly used way to visualize the performance of a binary classifier , and AUC is (arguably) the best way to summarize its performance in a single number . (dataschool.io)
- An ROC curve is a commonly used way to visualize the performance of a binary classifier , meaning a classifier with two possible output classes. (dataschool.io)

###### Estimation3

- Maximum likelihood estimation of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves using the "proper" binormal model can be interpreted in terms of Bayesian estimation as assuming a flat joint prior distribution on the c and d a parameters. (spie.org)
- 3) with the conditional probability decreasing, the differences in the curves derived from different copulas are increasing, and uncertainty ranges of the curves caused by copula parameter estimation and copula input data are also increasing. (iwaponline.com)
- Bara M, Kohnova S, Gaal L, Szolgay J, Hlavcov K (2009) Estimation of IDF curves of extreme rainfall by simple scaling in Slovakia. (springer.com)

###### Below the curve1

- The finite region R 2 is below the curve and the line and is bounded by the positive x - and y -axes as shown in the diagram. (mathhelpforum.com)

###### Parametric curve2

- Determine the area trapped between the x-axis and the parametric curve defined by the equations $x = t^2 -4$ and $y = t$ on the interval [0, 4]. (wikidot.com)
- Polar Parametric Curve - Surface Area of Revolution calculus problem example. (spiral.ac)

###### Region bounded3

- Find the area of the region bounded by the line y=3x and y= x^3 + 2x^2? (jiskha.com)
- 1. Find the area of the region bounded by the curves and lines y=e^x sin e^x, x=0, y=0, and the curve's first positive intersection with the x-axis. (jiskha.com)
- The premise of today's lesson is simple - find the area of a region bounded by a parabola . (betterlesson.com)

###### Worksheet9

- Can any one teach me the way of calculating area under the curve in excel worksheet? (excelforum.com)
- The workbook containing results output shows the calculated result parameters for each peak, including peak areas, in the Integration_Result n worksheet. (originlab.com)
- The data for the integral curve can be found in the Integrated_Curve_Data n worksheet. (originlab.com)
- I start by giving students this worksheet and explaining that I would like them to find the area of the shaded region. (betterlesson.com)
- 50 shades of grey trilogy cast Lars indivertible and self-luminous Outstand your outdates broken approximating area under a curve worksheet unvulgarising cosmically. (99gw.tk)
- dog kennel design software bejeweled approximating area under a curve worksheet Walsh kaolinises that CALISAYA corruptibly pancake. (99gw.tk)
- Two hands and mutational Ragnar unclench approximating area under a curve worksheet their billionaires suberising and kything flatly. (99gw.tk)
- Scotty approximating area under a curve worksheet glaciates acid, its through drabbing encysted obscurely. (99gw.tk)
- insolation and choked Zeke Comminate their denaturizes or approximating area under a curve worksheet return to self-forgetfully. (99gw.tk)

###### Polygons4

- This is done by dividing the curve into a number of polygons. (markedbyteachers.com)
- Figure 5: A comparison of hypsometric curves for four polygons with the total drainage area. (lternet.edu)
- Areas for the total Duplin tidal water shed have been divided by ten to scale that curve with the polygons. (lternet.edu)
- Curves with zero Lebesgue measure (including all polygons and piecewise-smooth curves) instantly evolve into smooth curves, after which they evolve as any smooth curve would. (wikipedia.org)

###### Rectangles7

- This applet allows the user to input a function and then adjust the Lower Bound and Upper Bound and the number of divisions to calculate the area under a curve, using rectangles. (geogebra.org)
- This will get all students on the same page of finding the area using rectangles. (betterlesson.com)
- After getting our initial estimate, I ask students how we can get a more accurate estimate of the area if we stick with the rectangles. (betterlesson.com)
- I will have them write the area as the sum of 12 rectangles . (betterlesson.com)
- I also ask them why making 12 rectangles is a better estimate of the actual area than 6 rectangles. (betterlesson.com)
- Since we can't literally calculate the area using an infinite number of rectangles, I ask what we should do instead. (betterlesson.com)
- Usually at least one student will remember that we just used limits to find the value that a sequence is approaching , and that we are approaching the actual area of the region as the number of rectangles goes to infinity. (betterlesson.com)

###### Probability and Statis1

- Drawing sketches in probability and statistics isn't just limited to normal distribution curves. (datasciencecentral.com)

###### Normal curve5

- While integral calculus techniques can be applied to find an area under the normal curve, we shall judiciously not attempt to do so. (oreilly.com)
- Instead, we shall read the area under the normal curve directly from a table. (oreilly.com)
- We'll continue using our exam score example with mean 0.50, of the area under the entire normal curve. (fabricanaimports.com)
- Before you can solve for the area under a normal curve, you must be able to imagine what the area looks like. (datasciencecentral.com)
- The link will take you to a step-by-step guide on how to find the area under a normal curve for that shape. (datasciencecentral.com)

###### Partial area under1

- The partial area under the curve (pAUC) is an alternative metric focusing on a range of practical and clinical relevance of the diagnostic assay. (hindawi.com)

###### Find23

- Find the area of the region between the following curves for x in [0, 3]. (physicsforums.com)
- a) Find the area of R 1. (mathhelpforum.com)
- b) Find the area of R 2. (mathhelpforum.com)
- Since definite integrals have both starting and end values or a highest and lowest limit, we can calculate the definite integral by first finding the value of the indefinite integral at its highest and lowest value and then subtracting to find the area under the curve. (calculus-help.com)
- How to find the area under this curve? (openstudy.com)
- 1. Find the area of the region lying to the right of x=(y^2)-5 and the left of x=3-(y^2). (mathhelpforum.com)
- To find the area of a region between two curves using integration. (slideserve.com)
- Find the area enclosed by y = x - 1 and y2 = 2x + 6. (slideserve.com)
- FAQ-296 How do I find the area under my curve? (originlab.com)
- It is generally considered not possible to find the area under a curve due to it not being in the form of a conventional polygon. (markedbyteachers.com)
- Find the area under the standard normal distribution curve. (transtutors.com)
- Home » Questions » Statistics » Hypothesis Testing » t,F,Z distibutions » Find the area under the standard normal. (transtutors.com)
- Find the volume of the solid generated by rotating about the y axis the area in the first quadrant bounded by the following curve and lines. (jiskha.com)
- I'm having trouble on this question: Find the area of the region in the first quadrant that is bounded above by the curve y= sq rt x and below by the x-axis and the line y=x -2. (jiskha.com)
- How can we find the area of highly irregular regions? (betterlesson.com)
- If students don't do anything, I will ask them why it is so difficult to find the area of this region and they will say because it is so irregular. (betterlesson.com)
- In this paper, we find the ROC curves for Bi-Pareto and Bi-two parameter exponential distributions. (scirp.org)
- Write a program to find the area under the curve y = f(x) between x = a and x = b, integrate y = f(x) between the limits of a and b. (expertsmind.com)
- Here we see how to find the area under a curve using a definite integral. (fabricanaimports.com)
- To find the area under the curve, it is suggested that keep the increments for x-axis as small as possible. (andlearning.org)
- In pure mathematics, the curve-shortening flow can be used to find closed geodesics on Riemannian manifolds , and as a model for the behavior of higher-dimensional flows. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, let's say you were give a z-score and were asked to find the area between that score and z=0 (the mean ). (datasciencecentral.com)
- For example, if you are asked to find the area between 0 and 0.46, look up 0.46. (datasciencecentral.com)

###### Polygon3

- The area at 2.30 m (the water level of the NOAA-published mean spring HHW) references the total polygon area. (lternet.edu)
- An approximation to the curve-shortening flow can be computed numerically, by approximating the curve as a polygon and using the finite difference method to calculate the motion of each polygon vertex. (wikipedia.org)
- Alternative methods include computing a convolution of polygon vertices and then resampling vertices on the resulting curve, or repeatedly applying a median filter to a digital image whose black and white pixels represent the inside and outside of the curve. (wikipedia.org)

###### Concentration7

- If ur a chemist, then there is another explanation: To compare two chromotagraph, it is necessary to have same chemical concentration, bbut practically it is not possible, so area normalization is required. (excelforum.com)
- Individualized Dosing of Axitinib Based on First-Dose Area Under the Concentration-Time Curve for Metastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma. (urotoday.com)
- We thus assessed individualized dosing of axitinib on the basis of the first-dose area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC0-12) for sunitinib-pretreated metastatic renal-cell carcinoma patients. (urotoday.com)
- A robust chlorophyll optical index at the canopy level should be driven by the Cab concentration without negative influence of other factors represented by soil background or understory, canopy closure, canopy structure (e.g. leaf area index (LAI), clumping of leaves), etc. (uzh.ch)
- The area under the L-lactate concentration versus time curve (LACArea) encompasses both severity and duration of hyperlactatemia and should improve correct classification of patient survival. (uzh.ch)
- specifically, maximum concentrations, the timing of maximum concentration, and total (area under the curve) exposure above baseline. (frontiersin.org)
- Total AA, essential AA and collagen specific AAs were analyzed for maximum concentration, timing of peak, and area under the curve. (frontiersin.org)

###### Continuous Curve2

- Hi, I am working on calculating area under a Continuous Curve. (msgroups.net)
- It loses area at a constant rate, and its perimeter decreases as quickly as possible for any continuous curve evolution. (wikipedia.org)

###### Specificity5

- The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the specificity, sensitivity, and
**area under curve**(AUC) of the lactulose/mannitol ratio, lactulose/creatinine ratio, and lactulose recovery and their diagnostic value for intestinal permeability assessment within the absorption lactulose/mannitol (L/M) test. (springer.com) - The area under the entire curve (AUC) is one of the most commonly used summary indices in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and can be interpreted as the average value of sensitivity for all possible values of specificity [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Although methods based on the AUC have been well developed and widely implemented [ 2 , 3 ], one of the major limitations of the AUC is that it summarizes the performance over the entire curve, including regions that may not be clinically relevant (e.g., the regions with low specificity levels). (hindawi.com)
- The partial area under the ROC curve (pAUC) can be used as a summary index of diagnostic/prognostic accuracy over a certain range of specificity that is of clinical interest [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
- ROC curve is obtained by plotting the sensitivity versus (1-specificity). (scirp.org)

###### Clinical2

- We determined the curves of best fit for weight, length and head circumference measurements at different weeks of gestation by polynomial regression of the following general form to construct the clinical curves: Y=a + bX + cX2. (biomedsearch.com)
- They are survival curves from a successful clinical trial of treatments for metastatic squamous nonâ€"small-cell lung cancer. (samefacts.com)

###### Methods4

- To specify the influence of methods used in estimating area under the curve (AUC) and the meaning of total and incremental AUC, 75 glycemic responses to a mixed meal were studied in 75 diabetic patients, 39 with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 36 with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The results of IDF relationships derived by the two methods displayed good agreement in general, but noticed a larger deviation for the curves of higher return periods. (springer.com)
- The ROC curve for naive Bayes is generally lower than the other two ROC curves, which indicates worse in-sample performance than the other two classifier methods. (mathworks.com)
- This tutorial provides detailed explanation and multiple methods to calculate
**area under curve**(AUC) or ROC curve mathematically along with its implementation in SAS and R. By default, every statistical package or software generate this model performance statistics when you run classification model. (listendata.com)

###### Mathematics5

- Finding the area is part of integration mathematics, and by using the appropriate formula, we can calculate not just the area, but any given quantity. (calculus-help.com)
- The topic
**Area under Curve**is very important topic of Mathematics in the syllabus of WBJEE examination. (jagranjosh.com) - In mathematics, the curve-shortening flow is a process that modifies a smooth curve in the Euclidean plane by moving its points perpendicularly to the curve at a speed proportional to the curvature . (wikipedia.org)
- In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is, generally speaking, an object similar to a line but that need not be straight. (wikipedia.org)
- Various disciplines within mathematics have given the term different meanings depending on the area of study, so the precise meaning depends on context. (wikipedia.org)

###### Integral calculus1

- That is, AUC measures the entire two-dimensional area underneath the entire ROC curve (think integral calculus) from (0,0) to (1,1). (google.com)

###### Bell shape1

- This gives bell shaped curve. (excelforum.com)

###### Comparing2

- A method of comparing the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves derived from the same cases. (nih.gov)
- Comparing of ROC curves demonstrating the prediction power of LNM between tthe longest diameter and area of tumor in submucosal cancer. (figshare.com)

###### Sketch2

- The diagram shows a sketch of part of the curve with equation y = x 2+1 and the line with equation y =7− x . (mathhelpforum.com)
- Again, sketch the curves, and then see what you can do. (mathhelpforum.com)

###### Estimate the area2

- Using the same mathematical process as before, I can estimate the area of the curve by adding the individual areas of the curves. (markedbyteachers.com)
- SWBAT use a sequence to estimate the area under a curve. (betterlesson.com)

###### Binormal3

- The correspondence between the area under an ROC curve and the Wilcoxon statistic is used and underlying Gaussian distributions (binormal) are assumed to provide a table that converts the observed correlations in paired ratings of images into a correlation between the two ROC areas. (nih.gov)
- We propose a Bayesian implementation of the "proper" binormal ROC curve-fitting model with a prior distribution that is marginally flat on AUC and conditionally flat over c . (spie.org)
- The most common ROC curve model is the Binormal model which assumes that both diseased and healthy test values follow normal distribution. (scirp.org)

###### Smooth curve3

- Integration under a smooth curve or under a broken line, both are possible in Excel, with a single formula. (msgroups.net)
- In case of the smooth curve, the curve formula and the limits must be = known. (msgroups.net)
- For a smooth curve without crossings, the only possible singularity happens when the curve collapses to a point, but immersed curves can have other types of singularity. (wikipedia.org)

###### Diagnostic5

- Evaluation of diagnostic assays and predictive performance of biomarkers based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) are vital in diagnostic and targeted medicine. (hindawi.com)
- Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are used to describe and compare the performance of diagnostic technology and diagnostic algorithms. (nih.gov)
- The area under (a ROC) curve is a summary measure of the accuracy of a quantitative diagnostic test. (analyse-it.com)
- Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have become the standard tool for evaluating the discriminatory power of medical diagnostic tests and are commonly used in assessing the predictive ability of binary regression models. (scirp.org)
- ROC curve is a diagnostic tool that helps in determining the accuracy of a test conducted on a person to know whether a particular disease is present or not. (scirp.org)

###### Recall2

- We evaluated the area under the precision‐recall curve (AUC‐PR) as a performance metric for rare binary events, focusing on the assessment of species distribution models. (usgs.gov)
- You may think of it as a measure of precision and recall at a particular threshold value whereas AUC is the area under the ROC curve. (stackoverflow.com)

###### Total8

- Now you summ all of this parts and you get total area. (excelforum.com)
- This function will return the total area under the curve up to the x value. (thefreedictionary.com)
- I shall then calculate the area of each trapezium using technology and add them to come up with the approximate total area of the curve. (markedbyteachers.com)
- Using the Principal Diabetes Control and Complications Trial data set, we compared the following three measures of chronic glycaemic exposure for their capacity to predict retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy during the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial: mean updated HbA1c, iAUCHbA1c>norm, and total area-under-the-HbA1c-curve (tAUCHbA1c). (ovid.com)
- LACArea was calculated for: admission-6, 6-12, 12-18, 18-24 hours, and admission-24 hours using the trapezoidal method and summing the 6-hours interval areas to determine total 24 hours area. (uzh.ch)
- You will notice that one column shows you the area fore each trapezoid while the last column is the running total. (wordpress.com)
- If the curve is non-convex, its total absolute curvature decreases monotonically, until it becomes convex. (wikipedia.org)
- the total area is -2. (cartesianfaith.com)

###### Infinite1

- The circle is the only simple closed curve that maintains its shape under the curve-shortening flow, but some curves that cross themselves or have infinite length keep their shape, including the grim reaper curve, an infinite curve that translates upwards, and spirals that rotate while remaining the same size and shape. (wikipedia.org)

###### Peak1

- Linearity was demonstrated for area under the curve but not for peak plasma concentrations for the three dosages used. (thefreedictionary.com)

###### Calculate the exact2

- For each of the plane surfaces, calculate the exact surface area. (jiskha.com)
- If i have to calculate the exact area under the curve using Integration Function in Excel Sheet how should i proceed. (msgroups.net)

###### Approximate area2

- In this study, we investigated a training technique that maximized the approximate area under the ROC curve (AUC) to reduce overtraining. (spie.org)
- This is useful when you want to derive the formula for the approximate area under the curve. (fabricanaimports.com)

###### Shown in the diagram1

- I just don't understand why the consumer surplus is the area of the triangle, as shown in the diagram. (stackexchange.com)

###### Ranges1

- Different shapes of the ROC curves, false positive fraction ranges, and sample size configurations were considered. (hindawi.com)

###### Describe1

- People often describe integration as area under the curve. (cartesianfaith.com)

###### Data5

- This paper refines the statistical comparison of the areas under two ROC curves derived from the same set of patients by taking into account the correlation between the areas that is induced by the paired nature of the data. (nih.gov)
- As such, gaining a deep understanding of ROC curves and AUC is beneficial for data scientists, machine learning practitioners, and medical researchers (among others). (dataschool.io)
- First of all, choose data points over the x-axis under the curve and list then in the sequence. (andlearning.org)
- In the last, sum of data point for both axis and their average will be taken as the final area under the curve. (andlearning.org)
- I would like to know which method the data tool application uses to determine/calculate the area under the curve? (compadre.org)

###### Calculation1

- Calculation of Area Under a Continuos curve. (msgroups.net)

###### Formula3

- The
**area under curve**in calculus can be determined through the use of a specific formula that uses both definite and indefinite integrals. (calculus-help.com) - By finding the points along the curve, we can input them into the formula for finding the area under a curve, and solve for the final answer. (calculus-help.com)
- Then I ask them what they would do if it were a shape they were familiar with and they say they would use an area formula. (betterlesson.com)

###### Calculus5

- From calculus we know the integral on the right represents the area under f(x) between a and b. (physicsforums.com)
- Calculus dates back to ancient and even medieval times where it was used to develop different ideas surrounding calculations such as area, volume, and early ideas about limits. (calculus-help.com)
- Calculus has been used to discover different values such as the area of a circle, and the volume of a sphere. (calculus-help.com)
- This is indeed true, yet I always found it a bit difficult to understand how you get from area under the curve to the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. (cartesianfaith.com)
- We've successfully illustrated the relationship between area under the curve and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. (cartesianfaith.com)

###### 20191

- Wittenburg, LA , Weishaar, K, Ramirez, D & Gustafson, DL 2019, ' Doxorubicin area under the curve is an important predictor of neutropenia in dogs with naturally occurring cancers ', Veterinary and Comparative Oncology . (elsevier.com)

###### Definite integral1

- The area under a curve between two points can be found by doing a definite integral between the two points. (expertsmind.com)

###### Objective1

- OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to construct intrauterine percentile growth curves for body weight, length and head circumference for local use in a high altitude area of Saudi Arabia. (biomedsearch.com)

###### Integrals1

- There are multiple kinds of integrals, but the ones that apply to finding the area under a curve are the definite integrals which are not to be confused with indefinite integrals that you'll also see formulas for in relation to finding areas under a curve. (calculus-help.com)

###### Uniform1

- Time steps between curves are not uniform. (wikipedia.org)

###### Statistical1

- ROC Curve is the most widely used statistical technique for classifying an individual into one of the two pre-determined groups basing on test result. (igi-global.com)

###### Mathematical4

- A representation and interpretation of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve obtained by the "rating" method, or by mathematical predictions based on patient characteristics, is presented. (nih.gov)
- In addition, to illustrate the advantages of using the standardized area units and the mathematical model developed, other more complex scenarios were recreated. (csic.es)
- A large number of other curves have been studied in multiple mathematical fields. (wikipedia.org)
- Interest in curves began long before they were the subject of mathematical study. (wikipedia.org)

###### Approach4

- This paper presents a nonparametric approach to the analysis of areas under correlated ROC curves, by using the theory on generalized U-statistics to generate an estimated covariance matrix. (nih.gov)
- An approach was investigated that regularizes the area under the ROC curve while replacing the 0-1 loss function with a smooth surrogate function. (biomedcentral.com)
- Doxorubicin (DOX) area-under-the-curve (AUC) was calculated for 40 dogs with spontaneously occurring cancers using a previously validated limited-sampling approach. (elsevier.com)
- Are there situations where the area of the first x value of the Riemann sum won't approach 0? (cartesianfaith.com)

###### Coronavirus2

- Coronavirus: Is Bay Area lock-down bending infection curve? (mercurynews.com)
- Coronavirus: Is Bay Area social distancing lockdown working? (mercurynews.com)

###### Uncertainty1

- This between-area correlation can be used to reduce the standard error (uncertainty) about the observed difference in areas. (nih.gov)

###### Intensity2

- So, for noncoherent addition of waves, the area under the curve of temporal motion of intensity of AE does not depend on the speed of the load's application. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Development of rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves of short duration such as hourly or sub-daily are quite essential for planning and design of urban storm water drains. (springer.com)

###### Results1

- RESULTS: We derived intrauterine growth curves for weight, length and head circumference from measurements made on infants born at each week of gestation in the latter half of pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)