Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.ComputersElectric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Carboplatin: An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Discriminant Analysis: A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Dye Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.

In vivo modulation of alternative pathways of P-450-catalyzed cyclophosphamide metabolism: impact on pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity. (1/6505)

The widely used anticancer prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA) is activated in liver by a 4-hydroxylation reaction primarily catalyzed by cytochrome P-4502B and P-4502C enzymes. An alternative metabolic pathway involves CPA N-dechloroethylation to yield chloroacetaldehyde (CA), a P-4503A-catalyzed deactivation/neurotoxication reaction. The in vivo modulation of these alternative, competing pathways of P-450 metabolism was investigated in pharmacokinetic studies carried out in the rat model. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) for 4-OH-CPA and CA were increased by 3- to 4-fold, and apparent plasma half-lives of both metabolites were correspondingly shortened in rats pretreated with phenobarbital (PB), an inducer of P-4502B and P-4503A enzymes. However, PB had no net impact on the extent of drug activation or its partitioning between these alternative metabolic pathways, as judged from AUC values (area-under-the-plasma concentration x time curve) for 4-OH-CPA and CA. The P-4503A inhibitor troleandomycin (TAO) decreased plasma Cmax and AUC of CA (80-85% decrease) without changing the Cmax or AUC of 4-OH-CPA in uninduced rats. In PB-induced rats, TAO decreased AUCCA by 73%, whereas it increased AUC4-OH-CPA by 93%. TAO thus selectively suppresses CPA N-dechloroethylation, thereby increasing the availability of drug for P-450 activation via 4-hydroxylation. By contrast, dexamethasone, a P-4503A inducer and antiemetic widely used in patients with cancer, stimulated large, undesirable increases in the Cmax and AUC of CA (8- and 4-fold, respectively) while reducing the AUC of the 4-hydroxylation pathway by approximately 60%. Tumor excision/in vitro colony formation and tumor growth delay assays using an in vivo 9L gliosarcoma solid tumor model revealed that TAO suppression of CPA N-dechloroethylation could be achieved without compromising the antitumor effect of CPA. The combination of PB with TAO did not, however, enhance the antitumor activity of CPA, despite the approximately 2-fold increase in AUC4-OH-CPA, suggesting that other PB-inducible activities, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase, may counter this increase through enhanced deactivation of the 4-hydroxy metabolite. Together, these studies demonstrate that the P-4503A inhibitor TAO can be used to effectively modulate CPA metabolism and pharmacokinetics in vivo in a manner that decreases the formation of toxic metabolites that do not contribute to antitumor activity.  (+info)

Prediction of the effects of inoculum size on the antimicrobial action of trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in an in vitro dynamic model. (2/6505)

The effect of inoculum size (N0) on antimicrobial action has not been extensively studied in in vitro dynamic models. To investigate this effect and its predictability, killing and regrowth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli exposed to monoexponentially decreasing concentrations of trovafloxacin (as a single dose) and ciprofloxacin (two doses at a 12-h interval) were compared at N0 = 10(6) and 10(9) CFU/ml (S. aureus) and at N0 = 10(6), 10(7), and 10(9) CFU/ml (E. coli). A series of pharmacokinetic profiles of trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin with respective half-lives of 9.2 and 4 h were simulated at different ratios of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to MIC (in [micrograms x hours/milliliter]/[micrograms/milliliter]): 58 to 466 with trovafloxacin and 116 to 932 with ciprofloxacin for S. aureus and 58 to 233 and 116 to 466 for E. coli, respectively. Although the effect of N0 was more pronounced for E. coli than for S. aureus, only a minor increase in minimum numbers of surviving bacteria and an almost negligible delay in their regrowth were associated with an increase of the N0 for both organisms. The N0-induced reductions of the intensity of the antimicrobial effect (IE, area between control growth and the killing-regrowth curves) were also relatively small. However, the N0 effect could not be eliminated either by simple shifting of the time-kill curves obtained at higher N0s by the difference between the higher and lowest N0 or by operating with IEs determined within the N0-adopted upper limits of bacterial numbers (IE's). By using multivariate correlation and regression analyses, linear relationships between IE and log AUC/MIC and log N0 related to the respective mean values [(log AUC/MIC)average and (log N0)average] were established for both trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against each of the strains (r2 = 0.97 to 0.99). The antimicrobial effect may be accurately predicted at a given AUC/MIC of trovafloxacin or ciprofloxacin and at a given N0 based on the relationship IE = a + b [(log AUC/MIC)/(log AUC/MIC)average] - c [(log N0)/(log N0)average]. Moreover, the relative impacts of AUC/MIC and N0 on IE may be evaluated. Since the c/b ratios for trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against E. coli were much lower (0.3 to 0.4) than that for ampicillin-sulbactam as examined previously (1.9), the inoculum effect with the quinolones may be much less pronounced than with the beta-lactams. The described approach to the analysis of the inoculum effect in in vitro dynamic models might be useful in studies with other antibiotic classes.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of amikacin in low-clearance unilamellar liposomes after a single or repeated intravenous administration in the rhesus monkey. (3/6505)

Liposomal aminoglycosides have been shown to have activity against intracellular infections, such as those caused by Mycobacterium avium. Amikacin in small, low-clearance liposomes (MiKasome) also has curative and prophylactic efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. To develop appropriate dosing regimens for low-clearance liposomal amikacin, we studied the pharmacokinetics of liposomal amikacin in plasma, the level of exposure of plasma to free amikacin, and urinary excretion of amikacin after the administration of single-dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) and repeated-dose (20 mg/kg eight times at 48-h intervals) regimens in rhesus monkeys. The clearance of liposomal amikacin (single-dose regimen, 0.023 +/- 0.003 ml min-1 kg-1; repeated-dose regimen, 0.014 +/- 0.001 ml min-1 kg-1) was over 100-fold lower than the creatinine clearance (an estimate of conventional amikacin clearance). Half-lives in plasma were longer than those reported for other amikacin formulations and declined during the elimination phase following administration of the last dose (from 81.7 +/- 27 to 30.5 +/- 5 h). Peak and trough (48 h) levels after repeated dosing reached 728 +/- 72 and 418 +/- 60 micrograms/ml, respectively. The levels in plasma remained > 180 micrograms/ml for 6 days after the administration of the last dose. The free amikacin concentration in plasma never exceeded 17.4 +/- 1 micrograms/ml and fell rapidly (half-life, 1.47 to 1.85 h) after the administration of each dose of liposomal amikacin. This and the low volume of distribution (45 ml/kg) indicate that the amikacin in plasma largely remained sequestered in long-circulating liposomes. Less than half the amikacin was recovered in the urine, suggesting that the level of renal exposure to filtered free amikacin was reduced, possibly as a result of intracellular uptake or the metabolism of liposomal amikacin. Thus, low-clearance liposomal amikacin could be administered at prolonged (2- to 7-day) intervals to achieve high levels of exposure to liposomal amikacin with minimal exposure to free amikacin.  (+info)

Influences of urinary pH on ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics in humans and antimicrobial activity in vitro versus those of sparfloxacin. (4/6505)

The impact of acidification and alkalinization of urine on the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin was investigated after single 200-mg oral doses were administered to nine healthy male volunteers. In addition, the effect of human urine on the MICs of ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin against some common urinary tract pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Acidic and alkaline conditions were achieved by repeated oral doses of ammonium chloride or sodium bicarbonate, respectively. Plasma ciprofloxacin levels in all subjects were adequately described in terms of two-compartment model kinetics with first-order absorption. Acidification and alkalinization treatments had no effect on ciprofloxacin absorption, distribution, or elimination. The total amount of unchanged ciprofloxacin excreted over 24 h under acidic conditions was 88.4 +/- 14.5 mg (mean +/- standard deviation) (44.2% of the oral dose) and 82.4 +/- 16.5 mg (41.2% of the oral dose) under alkaline conditions, while the total amount of unchanged drug excreted over 24 h in volunteers receiving neither sodium bicarbonate nor ammonium chloride was 90.53 +/- 9.8 mg (45.2% of the oral dose). The mean renal clearance of ciprofloxacin was 16.78 +/- 2.67, 16.08 +/- 3.2, and 16.31 +/- 2.67 liters/h with acidification, alkalinization, and control, respectively. Renal clearance and concentrations of ciprofloxacin in urine were not correlated with urinary pH. The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin against E. coli NIHJ JC-2 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was affected by human urine and in particular by its pH. The activities of both quinolones against E. coli NIHJ JC-2 were lower at lower urinary pH and rather uniform, while in the case of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 ciprofloxacin was more active than sparfloxacin.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of ethambutol under fasting conditions, with food, and with antacids. (5/6505)

Ethambutol (EMB) is the most frequent "fourth drug" used for the empiric treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a frequently used drug for infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. The pharmacokinetics of EMB in serum were studied with 14 healthy males and females in a randomized, four-period crossover study. Subjects ingested single doses of EMB of 25 mg/kg of body weight under fasting conditions twice, with a high-fat meal, and with aluminum-magnesium antacid. Serum was collected for 48 h and assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with zero-order absorption and first-order elimination. Both fasting conditions produced similar results: a mean (+/- standard deviation) EMB maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of 4.5 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml, time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (Tmax) of 2.5 +/- 0.9 h, and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-infinity) of 28.9 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of antacids, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 2.9 +/- 1.2 h, and AUC0-infinity of 27.5 +/- 5.9 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of the Food and Drug Administration high-fat meal, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.8 +/- 0.8 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 3.2 +/- 1.3 h, and AUC0-infinity of 29.6 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. These reductions in Cmax, delays in Tmax, and modest reductions in AUC0-infinity can be avoided by giving EMB on an empty stomach whenever possible.  (+info)

Safety and pharmacokinetics of abacavir (1592U89) following oral administration of escalating single doses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected adults. (6/6505)

Abacavir (1592U89) is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has been demonstrated to have selective activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro and favorable safety profiles in mice and monkeys. A phase I study was conducted to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of abacavir following oral administration of single escalating doses (100, 300, 600, 900, and 1,200 mg) to HIV-infected adults. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects with baseline CD4+ cell counts ranging from < 50 to 713 cells per mm3 (median, 315 cells per mm3) were randomly assigned to receive abacavir (n = 12) or placebo (n = 6). The bioavailability of the caplet formulation relative to that of the oral solution was also assessed with the 300-mg dose. Abacavir was well tolerated by all subjects; mild to moderate asthenia, abdominal pain, headache, diarrhea, and dyspepsia were the most frequently reported adverse events, and these were not dose related. No significant clinical or laboratory abnormalities were observed throughout the study. All doses resulted in mean abacavir concentrations in plasma that exceeded the mean 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for clinical HIV isolates in vitro (0.07 microgram/ml) for almost 3 h. Abacavir was rapidly absorbed following oral administration, with the time to the peak concentration in plasma occurring at 1.0 to 1.7 h postdosing. Mean maximum concentrations in plasma (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) increased slightly more than proportionally from 100 to 600 mg (from 0.6 to 4.7 micrograms/ml for Cmax; from 1.0 to 15.7 micrograms.h/ml for AUC0-infinity) but increased proportionally from 600 to 1,200 mg (from 4.7 to 9.6 micrograms/ml for Cmax; from 15.7 to 32.8 micrograms.h/ml for AUC0-infinity. The elimination of abacavir from plasma was rapid, with an apparent elimination half-life of 0.9 to 1.7 h. Abacavir was well absorbed, with a relative bioavailability of the caplet formulation of 96% versus that of an oral solution (drug substance in water). In conclusion, this study showed that abacavir is safe and is well tolerated by HIV-infected subjects and demonstrated predictable pharmacokinetic characteristics when it was administered as single oral doses ranging from 100 to 1,200 mg.  (+info)

Safety and single-dose pharmacokinetics of abacavir (1592U89) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children. (7/6505)

Abacavir (formerly 1592U89) is a potent 2'-deoxyguanosine analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has been demonstrated to have a favorable safety profile in initial clinical trials with adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection. A phase I study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of abacavir following the administration of two single oral doses (4 and 8 mg/kg of body weight) to 22 HIV-infected children ages 3 months to 13 years. Plasma was collected for analysis at predose and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 5, and 8 h after the administration of each dose. Plasma abacavir concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods. Abacavir was well tolerated by all subjects. The single abacavir-related adverse event was rash, which occurred in 2 of 22 subjects. After administration of the oral solution, abacavir was rapidly absorbed, with the time to the peak concentration in plasma occurring within 1.5 h postdosing. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were comparable among the different age groups for each dose level. The mean maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax) and the mean area under the curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) increased by 16 and 45% more than predicted, respectively, as the abacavir dose was doubled from 4 to 8 mg/kg (Cmax increased from 1.69 to 3.94 micrograms/ml, and AUC0-infinity increased from 2.82 to 8.09 micrograms.h/ml). Abacavir was rapidly eliminated, with a mean elimination half-life of 0.98 to 1.13 h. The mean apparent clearance from plasma decreased from 27.35 to 18.88 ml/min/kg as the dose increased. Neither body surface area nor creatinine clearance were correlated with pharmacokinetic estimates at either dose. The extent of exposure to abacavir appears to be slightly lower in children than in adults, with the comparable unit doses being based on body weight. In conclusion, this study showed that abacavir is safe and well tolerated in children when it is administered as a single oral dose of 4 or 8 mg/kg.  (+info)

Optimizing aminoglycoside therapy for nosocomial pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria. (8/6505)

Nosocomial pneumonia is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality and leads to increases in lengths of hospital stays and institutional expenditures. Aminoglycosides are used to treat patients with these infections, but few data on the doses and schedules required to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes exist. We analyzed aminoglycoside treatment data for 78 patients with nosocomial pneumonia to determine if optimization of aminoglycoside pharmacodynamic parameters results in a more rapid therapeutic response (defined by outcome and days to leukocyte count resolution and temperature resolution). Cox proportional hazards, Classification and Regression Tree (CART), and logistic regression analyses were applied to the data. By all analyses, the first measured maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/MIC predicted days to temperature resolution and the second measured Cmax/MIC predicted days to leukocyte count resolution. For days to temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution, CART analyses produced breakpoints, with an 89% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.7 and an 86% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.5, respectively. Logistic regression analyses predicted a 90% probability of temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution by day 7 if a Cmax/MIC of > or = 10 is achieved within the first 48 h of aminoglycoside therapy. Aggressive aminoglycoside dosing immediately followed by individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring would ensure that Cmax/MIC targets are achieved early in therapy. This would increase the probability of a rapid therapeutic response for pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria and potentially decreasing durations of parenteral antibiotic therapy, lengths of hospitalization, and institutional expenditures, a situation in which both the patient and the institution benefit.  (+info)

*Area under the curve (pharmacokinetics)

In the field of pharmacokinetics, the area under the curve (AUC) is the definite integral in a plot of drug concentration in ...

*Insular biogeography

... this is the species-area curve or effect. Larger islands contain larger habitat areas and opportunities for more different ... For biogeographical purposes, an insular environment or "island" is any area of habitat suitable for a specific ecosystem, ... Degree of isolation (distance to nearest neighbour, and mainland) Length of isolation (time) Size of island (larger area ... Franzén, Markus; Schweiger, Oliver; Betzholtz, Per-Eric (January 2012). "Species-Area Relationships Are Controlled by Species ...

*Species richness

Such curves can be constructed in different ways. Increasing the area sampled increases observed species richness both because ... Scheiner, S. M. (2003) Six types of species-area curves. Global Ecology & Biogeography, 12, 441-447. Waide, R. B. et al (1999) ... An area with many endemic or rare species is generally considered to have higher conservation value than another area where ... Latitudinal gradients in species diversity Rapoport's rule Scaling pattern of occupancy Species-area curve Species discovery ...

*Abbott-Firestone curve

The Abbott-Firestone curve or bearing area curve (BAC) describes the surface texture of an object. The curve could be found ... The shape of the curve is distilled into several of the surface roughness parameters, especially the Rk family of parameters. ...

*Gamma diversity

The degree of underestimation can be estimated from a species-area curve. Researchers have used different ways to define ... The smaller the available sample in relation to the area of interest, the more species that actually exist in the area are not ... The area or landscape of interest may be of very different sizes in different situations, and no consensus has been reached on ... account that the species diversity in the dataset generally gives an underestimation of the species diversity in a larger area ...

*Evolution

Lewis, Owen T. (January 29, 2006). "Climate change, species-area curves and the extinction crisis". Philosophical Transactions ... Eugene Odum, a founder of ecology, defined an ecosystem as: "Any unit that includes all of the organisms...in a given area ... An area of current investigation in evolutionary developmental biology is the developmental basis of adaptations and ... The comparative importance of adaptive and non-adaptive forces in driving evolutionary change is an area of current research. ...

*Species discovery curve

... the species-area curve. The species discovery curve will necessarily be increasing, and will normally be negatively accelerated ... In ecology, the species discovery curve or species accumulation curve is a graph recording the cumulative number of species of ... This is usually done by fitting some kind of functional form to the curve, either by eye or by using non-linear regression ... However, some theoretical approaches imply that the logarithmic curve may be more appropriate,[citation needed] implying that ...

*Safe operating area

... area' referring to the area under the curve. The SOA specification combines the various limitations of the device - maximum ... The safe operating area curve is a graphical representation of the power handling capability of the device under various ... SOA curves are also important in the design of foldback circuits. For a device that makes use of the secondary breakdown effect ... The ordinary safe operating area (when the device is in the on state) may be referred to as the Forward bias safe operating ...

*M-14 (Michigan highway)

The freeway through this area curves around a bit north of its previous course. As M-14 nears the Livonia city line, it meets ... In Wayne County, the freeway returns to a suburban area of mixed residential neighborhoods and light industrial areas. It ... From the Jackson area north to Lansing, it was US 127; from Lansing to Cheboygan, it was US 27. In 1930, US 127 was rerouted to ... M-14 curves around to the east through an interchange that has ramps that connect Miller and Maple roads; the ramps connect to ...

*Yellingbo Nature Conservation Reserve

East, R., Species-area curves and populations of large mammals in African savanna reserves. Biological Conservation, 1981. 21(2 ... Subsequently, several adjoining areas were acquired by Government by purchase or donation, increasing the protected area. In ... The total reserve area at Yellingbo Nature Conservation Reserve is approximately 590 hectares comprising several separate areas ... for Protected Areas. Category 1A protected areas are managed primarily for science. 'Yellingbo' means today in Woiwurrung ...

*Big Cottonwood Canyon

S-Curve Area is a popular rock climbing area in Big Cottonwood Canyon. Most of the routes are bolted and offer a variety of ... Most distinctive about this climbing area are the impressive overhangs that exist on many of the routes. The S-Curve Area is ... In the 1930s the Civilian Conservation Corps built a small stage area for public events. The Storm Mountain area is also ...

*Species-area relationship

The species-area relationship or species-area curve describes the relationship between the area of a habitat, or of part of a ... This is called the minimal area. A quadrat that encloses the minimal area is called a relevé, and using species-area curves in ... "Species and Area" J. Ecol. 9: 95-99 Scheiner, S.M. 2003. Six types of species-area curves. Global Ecology and Biogeography 12: ... Estimation of the minimal area from the curve is necessarily subjective, so some authors prefer to define minimal area as the ...

*Reconciliation ecology

The most relevant of these patterns is the species-area curve which states that a larger geographic area will contain higher ... The number of species present in a given area increases in relationship to that area with the relationship S = cAz where S is ... Restoration ecology Human impacts on the nitrogen cycle Human impact of climate change Ecological footprint Species-area curve ... These warm areas replace the warm springs that manatees once naturally used in the winter. These springs have been drained or ...

*Rankovce, Republic of Macedonia

... and Rankovce Palanka municipality curve represents the catchment area curve Reka.Minuvajkji through steep grassy area and ... Near the village river flowing curves ( about 500 m ), the village is flat type and quality abounds in agricultural areas, it ... The territory of the municipality Rankovce occupies space Slavishko field that belongs to the famous area of the curve River. ... Strongly and sources of kings peak ( source curve River), White Water, Stone Kalin and others. Curve River rises in the ...

*Mississippi Highway 182

The road soon curves east and heads into the commercial downtown of Columbus. The highway leaves the downtown area and ... The road continues through rural areas and curves east. MS 182 enters Starkville and comes to an interchange with MS 25. At ... The road passes through a mix of fields and woods with some homes before it curves east and enters Eupora. The highway becomes ... Drive West and passes commercial development before it narrows back to two lanes and runs through wooded areas with homes and ...

*Carboplatin

It takes under consideration the creatinine clearance and the desired area under curve. Carboplatin was discovered at Michigan ...

*Gabapentinoid

Conversely, food increases the area-under-curve levels of gabapentin by about 10%. Drugs that increase the transit time of ...

*Luis Santaló

Hyperbolic geometry: graphic properties, angles and distances, areas and curves. (This text develops the Klein model, the ... Includes standard vector algebra, vector analysis, introduction to tensor fields and Riemannian manifolds, geodesic curves, ...

*Maryland Route 178

North of Bestgate Road, the highway leaves the commercial area, curves to the northwest, and reduces to two lanes. MD 178 ... MD 178 curves north and reaches its northern terminus at Veterans Highway, a county highway that parallels I-97 between ... The highway forms a curve east of the junction of MD 178 and Veterans Highway that intersects both highways on a tangent. MD ...

*Kentucky Route 1072

The road curves southwest and northwest again through wooded areas and comes to a bridge over a CSX railroad line. The route ... The road winds north into wooded areas and curves to the northwest. The route passes under a Norfolk Southern railroad line and ... The road curves to the northeast and passes through residential neighborhoods and comes to an intersection with the northern ... Immediately after, the road intersects US 25/US 42/US 127 in a commercial area. At this point, KY 1072 turns northeast to form ...

*Kentucky Route 321

The route curves north and gains a second northbound lane as it passes through wooded areas of development. KY 321 narrows back ... KY 321 heads into wooded areas and curves to the north, coming to a junction with the western terminus of KY 2378. The road ... The road runs through more forested areas and curves to the north, where it gains a second northbound lane. The route heads ... The route heads north into residential areas and curves to the northeast. KY 321 continues north into dense forests, where it ...

*David Ramadan

Plumb, Tierney (March 8, 2011). "D.C.-area businessman expands Curves overseas". Washington Business Journal. Retrieved March 8 ... He has also taken the 9th largest US franchise, Curves International, into the Middle East and India. Ramadan was highlighted ... In his business career, he managed companies in diverse areas such as franchising, retail, manufacturing, immigration ... in a 2011 Washington Business Journal article discussing his bullish outlook on expanding Curves in Egypt and other Middle ...

*Pennsylvania Route 16

PA 16 heads into forested areas and curves south to ascend Tuscarora Mountain. At the summit of the mountain, the route enters ... The road heads into forested areas in the South Mountain range and curves northeast, gaining a second eastbound lane. The route ... The route fully enters Washington Township and curves east-southeast, passing businesses with nearby residential areas in the ... where it turns southeast into wooded residential areas and passes through Charlestown. PA 16 heads into agricultural areas ...

*Lebesgue measure

Osgood, William F. (January 1903). "A Jordan Curve of Positive Area". Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. ... The image of simple plane curve can have positive Lebesgue measure (it can be obtained by small variation of the Peano curve ... For n = 1, 2, or 3, it coincides with the standard measure of length, area, or volume. In general, it is also called n- ... surfaces or curves in R³ and fractal sets. The Hausdorff measure is not to be confused with the notion of Hausdorff dimension. ...

*Social norm

It encompasses all the positive area under the curve. In Figure 1, the range of tolerable behavior extends is 3, as the group ... It is represented in the return potential model by the total amount of area subsumed by the curve, regardless of whether the ... If the return curve in Figure 1 correctly displays the example social norm, we can see that if someone drinks 0 cups of coffee ... While c in Figure 1 is labeling the return curve in general, the highlighted point just above it at X=6, represents the point ...

*Hastings Prototype House

A driveway curves around from High Street to it. The house itself is a 21-foot (6.4 m) cubical steel frame structure on a ... Three steps lead down from the south side to the living area, which occupies the bulk of the first-floor space and the greatest ... Its completion in 1934 opened up the neighborhood around it, an area known as Uniontown, to subdivision and development. ...
A method of nerve therapy for treating nerves by electrical stimulation characterized by using pulses of a trapezoidal waveform such that the waveform, as viewed from a positive electrode has a flat positive potential with a negative pip that is a point made by convergence of the sides with no flat or curved portion. The therapy is carried out by contacting a patients skin with a pair of electrodes such that the positive electrode is orientated nearest the brain via the nerves conducting channels. The pulses with a trapezoidal waveform occur at a frequency selected within the range of 60 to 250 cycles per second, preferably within the range of 100 to 150 cycles per second with a peak to peak voltage of 55v or less (e.g., 19 to 25 volts.) These pulses are each defined as a pulse having a flat top portion with leading and trailing side portions which slope away from the top portion as the electrical potential drops toward the zero axis and proceeds into the negative pip.
The plasma concentration-time data observed in our study are similar to those observed in two preliminary reports describing the pharmacokinetics of orally administered nafithromycin in healthy subjects (17, 18). The mean ± SD Cmax of nafithromycin after the first dose of 800 mg in our study was 1.015 ± 0.314 mg/liter (at a mean time to Cmax [Tmax] of 3.97 h), whereas the reported range of mean Cmax values after a single dose was 0.932 to 1.207 mg/liter (at mean Tmax ranging from 3.88 to 4.0 h). Our observed value for the AUC from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞) after the first dose (12.89 ± 3.77 mg · h/liter) was consistent with the values observed in subjects who received a single 800-mg dose in the fasted (12.49 mg · h/liter) or fed (14.85 mg · h/liter) state or on the first day (AUC0-24, 11.99 mg · h/liter) of a multiple-dose study. Previously reported data provided evidence that the plasma exposure of nafithromycin was only mildly increased by food (AUC and Cmax were ...
Plasma drug concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters, including volume of the central compartment (Vc/F), elimination rate constant (Ke), half-life (t1/2), apparent oral clearance (CL/F), and area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC ...
Eligibility for participation of this study will be determined from demographic information, medical history, physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG) and clinical laboratory tests within 4 weeks before study drug administration. Subjects suitable for this study will be admitted to the Clinical Trial Center of Ajou Medical Center on the day before dosing, and they will overnight-fasted from 10 p.m. of Day -1.. Subjects will be dosed study drug (a tablet containing 75 mg of Clopidogrel and 100 mg of Aspirin, or the simultaneous administration of the separate formulations of the two drugs) orally with 240 mL of water around 8 a.m. of Day 1. Subjects will be performed scheduled pharmacokinetic sampling upto 24 hours.. After 2 weeks of washout period, Subjects will be dosed study drug by crossover manner, and will be performed scheduled pharmacokinetic sampling upto 24 hours.. Study participation will be ended on post-study visit (Day 25). ...
Abstract , References , Similar Articles , Additional Information Abstract: An interesting property of the midpoint rule and the trapezoidal rule, which is expressed by the so-called Hermite-Hadamard inequalities, is that they provide one-sided approximations to the integral of a convex function. We establish multivariate analogues of the Hermite-Hadamard inequalities and obtain access to multivariate integration formulae via convexity, in analogy to the univariate case. In particular, for simplices of arbitrary dimension, we present two families of integration formulae which both contain a multivariate analogue of the midpoint rule and the trapezoidal rule as boundary cases. The first family also includes a multivariate analogue of a Maclaurin formula and of the two-point Gaussian quadrature formula; the second family includes a multivariate analogue of a formula by P.C. Hammer and of Simpsons rule. In both families, we trace out those formulae which satisfy a Hermite-Hadamard inequality. As ...
Twenty chemotherapy-naive patients with ovarian carcinoma received 1, 5, 10, or 15 µg/kg/day (five patients per dose step) of recombinant human interleukin 3 (rhIL-3) over 7 days after carboplatin/cyclophosphamide in Cycles 1 and 3. Patients received rhIL-3 by continuous i.v. infusion or once daily s.c. injection in Cycle 1 and the alternate route in Cycle 3. Plasma rhIL-3 samples were obtained once daily on Days 1 to 6 and serially over a 24-h period on Day 7 for pharmacokinetic assessment of s.c. and i.v. administered rhIL-3 in 16 and 17 patients, respectively. Concentrations were assayed by a time-resolved fluorescence sandwich immunoassay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived by noncompartmental methods. Mean steady-state concentrations during continuous i.v. infusion ranged from 117 pg/ml) 1 µg/kg/day) to 2217 pg/ml (15 µg/kg/day) and were linearly related to dose (r = 0.87, P , 0.001). When dose normalized, the mean steady-state concentrations were comparable at all doses. The ...
Purpose: This study determined the range of tolerable doses, clinical safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary evidence of clinical activity following once or twice daily administration of lapatinib in patients with solid malignancies.. Experimental Design: Cancer patients (n = 81) received oral doses of lapatinib ranging from 175 to 1,800 mg once daily or 500 to 900 mg twice daily. Clinical assessments of safety and antitumor activity were recorded and blood was sampled for pharmacokinetic assessments. The effect of a low-fat meal on lapatinib pharmacokinetics was assessed in a subset of patients.. Results: Lapatinib was well tolerated, such that dose escalation was limited at 1,800 mg once daily only by pill burden. Twice-daily dosing was implemented to further explore tolerability, and was limited by diarrhea to 500 mg twice daily. The most commonly reported adverse events with once-daily dosing were diarrhea (48%), nausea (40%), rash (40%), and fatigue (38%) and with twice-daily dosing were ...
View Notes - ConcentrationandSolubility from CHEM 100 at BYU. Concentration vs. Solubility From http:/www.iit.edu/~smile/ Therese Donatello 7929 Elm Grove Dr. Elmwood Park IL 60635 Archbishop Weber
The principle objective of this proposal is to develop a high resolution, high detection efficiency positron emission tomography (PET) detector with depth-of-in...
This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the considerable decrease in the clearance of I during chronic dosing was due to the formation of an inhibitory methylenedioxyaryl metabolite complex with the P450s that metabolize the compound. In support of this, a small amount of the P450-metabolite complex was formed in dogs within 24 h after a single dose of I, whereas considerably more of the complex was found after 14 days of treatment. Since the study design enabled the determination of the plasma pharmacokinetics of I and the formation of a P450-metabolite complex from the same animals, it was possible to evaluate the correlation between these two parameters. Although there was a 30-fold variation in the plasma AUC or clearance of Ibetween animals and a 12-fold variation in the amount of the liver P450-metabolite complex formed between dogs, there was a positive correlation between these pharmacokinetic parameters and the amount of the P450-metabolite complex formed in the livers of ...
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My son Evan was diagnosed with idiopathic infantile scoliosis at the age of 6 months (4-01-03). At the time of diagnosis he had a 38 degree left thoracic curve measuring from t4 to t8. A MRI revealed no abnormalities. We are currently being treated by an orthopedic surgeon at Chidrens Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. His decision was to watch the curve over a period of a few months. After taking a series of x-rays over a 5 month period the curve had shown no change. At this time
If you want the curve to start inside the letter and continue outside, create the whole curl or swirl that you want , then position the curve over the letters where you want it, cut it where it intersects the letter outline and paste the portion which comes inside the lettering first, then paste the portion outside taking care the curve looks continuous. Do not squash the curl/swirl while working as you will loose continuity. ...
DogBooksOnline have recently started selling the Wicked Hound Recurve Sports Collar on their website. This is a collar designed by Kirsty Cumming, a vet and top Australian agility competitor and trainer, specifically for performance dogs. It features contoured sides to allow more freedom of movement through the shoulder and avoids pressure points on the neck. Her plan was to design a collar that provided proper tracheal support for dogs when they are running or pulling rather than the normal strap collar that has a 3 x load increase on the top edge when a dog is exerting pressure. The stiffer the collar, the higher the point of pressure, which inevitably leads to throat damage.. Several years were spent testing materials and working on digital modelling to perfect the design. The result is a collar that has a broad front that tapers and curves over the dogs shoulder to direct load back to the handler holding the lead. Thus, the worlds first ergonomic collar, made from military grade cordura, ...
We report the fabrication and characterization of a new polarization converter for InGaAsP-InP photonic integrated circuits. The converter consists of two right trapezoidal sections with the angled sidewalls etched wetly. The converters show a greatly improved tolerance to variations of the fabrication, an averaged efficiency of polarization conversion of 99.8% and a loss of about 0.7 dB at a wavelength of 1.535 μm.. © 2013 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Based on the relationship between fraction metabolized by CYP2D6 and the observed pharmacokinetic differences in CL/F between EM and PM subjects, a recommended cutoff value for CYP2D6 metabolism can be established. Figure 4 illustrates the observed ratio of AUCPM/AUCEM and the estimated fraction metabolized by CYP2D6 in vivo. From this relationship, it can be seen that for a fraction metabolized by CYP2D6 of 60%, it would be anticipated that, on average, PM subjects would have a 2.5-fold increase in exposure relative to EM subjects. Due to the nonlinear shape of the relationship between CYP2D6 contribution and EM/PM CL/F differences, small changes in percentage contribution can resulted in large EM/PM pharmacokinetic differences when the fraction metabolized then exceeds 60%.. With more information about the safety and/or efficacy of a compound, the cutoff value can be refined. However, frequently, the challenge in drug discovery is to select compounds without a full appreciation of the safety ...
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Proportionality, Fundamental Rights and Balance of Powers de Davor Susnjar en Iberlibro.com - ISBN 10: 9004182861 - ISBN 13: 9789004182868 - Martinus Nijhoff - 2010 - Tapa dura
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Learn about MATLAB support for pharmacokinetic models. Resources include SimBiology models, examples, documentation, and code describing pharmacokinetic modeling.
PHARMACODYNAMICS DRUG Chemical that has the ability to determine one or more functional changes in a living organism Because this potential capacity to fulfill
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We have all given exams where the grades end up lower than we hoped. A curve is in order. How do we do it? In this post I share my thoughts on when you should (or should not) curve an exam. I give ten sample curving techniques, including pros and cons of each, I explain…
We have all given exams where the grades end up lower than we hoped. A curve is in order. How do we do it? In this post I share my thoughts on when you should (or should not) curve an exam. I give ten sample curving techniques, including pros and cons of each, I explain…
Theoretically, Ambien CR has the ideal pharmacokinetic profile. such as one recent study of elderly patients comparing Ambien CR with Dalmane 30. And
DET curves comparing classical parameters in a gender-independent setup with the GDEB parameterization on MOBIO development set for male (left) and female (righ
http://drlloydhey.blogspot.com/2012/11/11-yo-young-lady-we-straightened-up.html Neither curve appears to be |10* post op so she technically doesnt have scoliosis any more.
The risk curve is a two-dimensional display creating a visualization of the relationship between risk and return of one or more assets.
سنقدم يد العون لهذه الفتاة في لعبة تلبيس ملابس التنظيف التي لم تجد من يدلها على ما يريحها من ثياب لتنظف المنزل في غياب والدتها فقصدتكم وكلها امل في قدرتكم على فعل هذا وترجو منكم الا ترفضو طلبها و ترشدوها الى الاختيار السليم انها تتواجد بالبهو الذي ستنطلق منه حملة النظافة لتفاجئ امها و تعرفها انها قادرة على تحمل المسؤولية و اداء اعمال البيت لوحدها فهي مقبلة على الزواج وينبغي ان تكون مستعدة للقيام بكل واجباتها على اكمل وجه لتنال رضى زوجها و توفر له جوا نقيا في بيته لينعم بالهدوء و السكننة والنظام و يشم رائحة زكية حوله وهو جالس يشاهد التلفاز او يقرا ...
سنقدم يد العون لهذه الفتاة في لعبة تلبيس ملابس التنظيف التي لم تجد من يدلها على ما يريحها من ثياب لتنظف المنزل في غياب والدتها فقصدتكم وكلها امل في قدرتكم على فعل هذا وترجو منكم الا ترفضو طلبها و ترشدوها الى الاختيار السليم انها تتواجد بالبهو الذي ستنطلق منه حملة النظافة لتفاجئ امها و تعرفها انها قادرة على تحمل المسؤولية و اداء اعمال البيت لوحدها فهي مقبلة على الزواج وينبغي ان تكون مستعدة للقيام بكل واجباتها على اكمل وجه لتنال رضى زوجها و توفر له جوا نقيا في بيته لينعم بالهدوء و السكننة والنظام و يشم رائحة زكية حوله وهو جالس يشاهد التلفاز او يقرا ...
if(interactive()) curve(ptukey(x, nm=6, df=5), from=-1, to=8, n=101) (ptt ,- ptukey(0:10, 2, df= 5)) (qtt ,- qtukey(.95, 2, df= 2:11)) ## The precision may be not much more than about 8 digits: summary(abs(.95 - ptukey(qtt,2, df = 2:11 ...
Antimicrobials are among the most important and commonly prescribed drugs in the management of critically ill patients and beta-lactams are the most common antibiotic class used. Critically ill patients pathophysiological factors lead to altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of beta-lactams. A comprehensive bibliographic search in PubMed database of all English language articles published from January 2000 to December 2017 was performed, allowing the selection of articles addressing the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of beta-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients. In critically ill patients, several factors may increase volume of distribution and enhance renal clearance, inducing high intra- and inter-patient variability in beta-lactam concentration and promoting the risk of antibiotic underdosing. The duration of infusion of beta-lactams has been shown to influence the fT | minimal inhibitory concentration and an improved beta-lactam pharmacodynamics profile may be obtained by
Background: Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) is a pharmacokinetic parameter that represents general contact with a medication. EMBASE databases had been researched using the conditions "anti-infective realtors" "limited sampling" "optimum sampling" "sparse sampling" "AUC monitoring" Neratinib "abbreviated AUC" "abbreviated sampling" and "Bayesian". The reference lists of retrieved articles manually were searched. Included research had been classified regarding to modified requirements from the united states Preventive Services Job Force. Outcomes: Twenty research met the addition criteria. Six from the research (concerning didanosine zidovudine nevirapine ciprofloxacin efavirenz and nelfinavir) had been classified as offering level I proof 4 research (concerning vancomycin didanosine lamivudine and lopinavir-ritonavir) offered level II-1 proof 2 research (concerning saquinavir and ceftazidime) provided level II-2 evidence and 8 studies (involving ciprofloxacin nelfinavir vancomycin ...
Anlotinib is a novel multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is designed to primarily inhibit VEGFR2/3, FGFR1-4, PDGFR α/β, c-Kit, and Ret. We aimed to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of anlotinib in patients with advanced refractory solid tumors. Anlotinib (5-16 mg) was orally administered in patients with solid tumor once a day on two schedules: (1) four consecutive weeks (4/0) or (2) 2-week on/1-week off (2/1). Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed in all patients. Twenty-one patients were further enrolled in an expanded cohort study on the recommended dose and schedule. Preliminary tumor response was also assessed. On the 4/0 schedule, dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was grade 3 hypertension at 10 mg. On the 2/1 schedule, DLT was grade 3 hypertension and grade 3 fatigue at 16 mg. Pharmacokinetic assessment indicated that anlotinib had long elimination half-lives and significant accumulation during multiple oral doses. The 2/1 schedule was selected, with 12 mg once
Seven healthy volunteers showing a fourteenfold range in steady-state plasma concentrations on oral alprenolol (200 mg b.i.d.) were investigated by administration of 5 mg of the drug intravenously and then 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg as single oral doses. The rank order for individual steady-state plasma concentrations was the same as that for the relative bioavailability of the 200 mg dose. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve showed a nonlinear increase with the dose. As the relative availability was a good predictor of steady state while clearance after intravenous administration was not, it was concluded that differences in first-pass elimination markedly contribute to the interindividual variability in steady state plasma concentrations. After pentobarbital treatment, the area under the plasma concentration curve of the 200 mg dose was decreased to 32% and 59% of the pretreatment values in two subjects, but there was no change in the plasma half-life of alprenolol. This indicates
Mean steady-state plasma concentration-time profiles are shown in Figure 1. Pharmacokinetic parameters are summarized in Table 2. There was no period or sequence effect for any ATV parameter (AUC0-24, P = 0.25; Cmax, P = 0.46; Cmin, P = 0.91; Tmax, P = 0.84) or RAL parameter (AUC0-24, P = 0.12; Cmax, P = 0.35; Cmin, P = 0.19; Tmax, P = 0.47). Both ATV and RAL demonstrated considerable pharmacokinetic variability (Table 2). The 90% CIs of Cmin GMR (q24h/q12h) for both ATV and RAL were outside the prespecified equivalence interval of 0.80-1.25 [1.30 (90% CI: 1.08 to 1.58) and 0.48 (90% CI: 0.31 to 0.75), respectively], demonstrating nonequivalence between q12h and q24h dosages. We observed significant between-strategy differences for ATV AUC0-24 [GMR 0.76 (90% CI: 0.59 to 0.98)] and RAL Cmax [GMR 1.99 (90% CI: 1.50 to 2.63)]. RTV pharmacokinetic parameters are summarized in Table 2; there was no period effect for any parameter (AUC0-12, P = 0.10; Cmin, P = 0.31; Cmax, P = 0.45; Tmax, P = 0.86 ...
BioAssay record AID 236679 submitted by ChEMBL: Maximum plasma concentration in rat after oral administration at 10 mg/kg dosage.
PURPOSE: Metarrestin is a first-in-class small molecule clinical candidate capable of disrupting the perinucleolar compartment, a subnuclear structure unique to metastatic cancer cells. This study aims to define the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of metarrestin and the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of metarrestin-regulated markers. METHODS: PK studies included the administration of single or multiple dose of metarrestin at 3, 10, or 25 mg/kg via intravenous (IV) injection, gavage (PO) or with chow to wild-type C57BL/6 mice and KPC mice bearing autochthonous pancreatic tumors. Metarrestin concentrations were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacodynamic assays included mRNA expression profiling by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR for KPC mice. RESULTS: Metarrestin had a moderate plasma clearance of 48 mL/min/kg and a large volume of distribution of 17 L/kg at 3 mg/kg IV in C57BL/6 mice. The oral bioavailability after single-dose (SD) treatment was , 80%. In KPC mice treated with SD 25 mg/kg PO, plasma ...
Antibiotic dose is important in determining serum area-under-the-curve (AUC) and peak serum concentration (Cmax), as well as the time the serum concentration remains over the pathogen minimum inhibitory concentration (T,MIC). However, dose is not the sole determinant of these factors; they are modified by absorption, clearance, and frequency of dosing. It is difficult to relate dose to clinical outcome in humans, but pharmacodynamic parameters (AUC/MIC, Cmax/MIC, or T,MIC) have been related to clinical and bacteriological efficacy or emergence of resistance to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides, and β-lactams.. ...
We measured hair and plasma concentrations of isoniazid among sixteen children with tuberculosis who underwent personal or video-assisted directly observed therapy and thus had 100% adherence. This study therefore defined typical isoniazid exposure parameters after two months of treatment among fully-adherent patients in both hair and plasma (plasma area under the concentration-time curve, AUC, estimated using pharmacokinetic data collected 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours after drug administration). We found that INH levels in hair among highly-adherent individuals did not correlate well with plasma AUC or trough concentrations, suggesting that each measure may provide incremental and complementary information regarding drug exposure in the context of TB treatment ...
Downloadable! Multivariate continuous time models are now widely used in economics and finance. Empirical applications typically rely on some process of discretization so that the system may be estimated with discrete data. This paper introduces a framework for discretizing linear multivariate continuous time systems that includes the commonly used Euler and trapezoidal approximations as special cases and leads to a general class of estimators for the mean reversion matrix. Asymptotic distributions and bias formulae are obtained for estimates of the mean reversion parameter. Explicit expressions are given for the discretization bias and its relationship to estimation bias in both multivariate and in univariate settings. In the univariate context, we compare the performance of the two approximation methods relative to exact maximum likelihood (ML) in terms of bias and variance for the Vasicek process. The bias and the variance of the Euler method are found to be smaller than the trapezoidal method, which
The aim of this study was to obtain pharmacokinetic data for the anxiolytic compound galphimine-A (G-A) from Galphimia glauca. G-A is the most abundant anxiolytic compound in this plant, while Galphimine-E (G-E) is the most abundant galphimine, but inactive. G-E was transformed chemically into G-A. The pharmacokinetic study was carried out in ICR mice, which were orally administered a single 200 mg/kg dose of G-A. Samples of blood and brain were taken at different times after administration of G-A. Previously, we established the validation of methods for determining the concentration of G-A. The G-A was detected in plasma 5 min after oral administration, and its concentration reached 2.47 μg/mL. Data from concentration-time curves allowed us to establish the main pharmacokinetic parameters in two models: one- and/or two-compartment. Cmax values were 3.33 and 3.42 μg/mL respectively, likewise AUC0→1440 min were 1,951.58 and 1,824.95 μg/mL·min. The G-A in brain tissue was noted to cross the blood
f(1)= 20, f(3)=13, f(5)=15, f(7)=16, f(9)=11, on [0,6] a, used midpint rule with n=5 to estimate intergral form 0 to 10 f(x)dx b, use trapezoidal rule with n=4 to estimate intergral from 1 to 9 f(x)dx c, used simpsons rule with n=4 to estimate intergal from 1 to 9 (x)dx ...
Maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (tmax), area under the concentration time curve from zero to last observed concentration (AUC0-τ), half-life (t1/2), total body clearance (CL), apparent volume of distribution (VD) in plasma; penetration ratio calculated as CSF concentration (Cmax and AUC0-τ, respectively) divided by plasma ...
This open-label, multi-center, three-period, one sequence study will investigate the effect of vemurafenib on the pharmacokinetics digoxin of in patient
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Malcolm A Young, Jeffrey A Wald, Jessica E Matthews, Fred Yang, Rickey R Reinhardt].
Pediatric Patients: The pharmacokinetics of abacavir have been studied after either single or repeat doses of ZIAGEN in 68 pediatric patients. Following multiple_dose administration of ZIAGEN 8 mg/kg twice daily, steady-state AUC (0-12 hr) and Cmax were 9.8 ± 4.56 mcg hr/mL and 3.71 ± 1.36 mcg/mL (mean ± SD), respectively [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. In addition, to support dosing of Ziagen scored tablet (300 mg) for pediatric patients 14 - > 30 kg, analysis of actual and simulated pharmacokinetic data indicated comparable exposures are expected following administration of 300 mg scored tablet and the 8 mg/kg dosing regimen using oral solution. Ziagen. a member of the Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI) class, is a product of GlaxoSmithKline ...
Myocardial perfusion imaging can be competent in hepatic aminotransferase concentrations, such as the earlier gastric mucosal injury. Contraception. how much does acyclovir pills cost The follow-up was short at 11.5 months. The inability to talk to inulin; it is transient in antibiotic-free growth medium, and vary greatly from institution to 2010. No fever, weighs 68 kg (150 lb), blood-streaked diarrhea with a study of pathophysiologic how much does acyclovir pills cost conditions of Americans have a low dosage. About half of hemorrhaging, which serves as the log concentration-versus-time plot. The annual cost of illnesses during pregnancy sometimes differ from those used in vivo imaging can be performed with a CYP2C9 allele associated with the patient is unclear, these tests have a large number of several agents and incorporate cultural competence into an organization, CT, rounded to 46% during the lungs, with either watery, distributive (eg, blood-tinged or prognostic assessment to 15 mL per ...
Read "Intestinal and hepatic contributions to the pharmacokinetic interaction between gamithromycin and rifampicin after single‐dose and multiple‐dose administration in healthy foals, Equine Veterinary Journal" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Of small-medium to medium size, having the general form of Ectinochilus. Protoconch helicoid-trochoid, consisting of about four smooth, moderately convex whorls. Spire gently cyrtoconoid; last whorl slightly more than half the height of the shell. Whorls only slightly convex, sutures distinct; five to six spire whorls. An incised line separates a narrow juxtasutural band which is always crenulated or beaded in the early stages; later, the band is either smooth or beaded, and may be vaguely bifid. Last whorl oval, base declivous; neck short, not swollen. Rostrum short, scarcely projecting, inclined gently to the right, with a broad, very shallow notch to its right, the notchlimited externally by a short, sharp spine. Aperture oval, rather small, with a long, narrow, callous posterior sinus which curves over and slightly down on to the suture of the last whorl, extending only a short distance back. On those specimens which have a heavily beaded juxtasutural thread, the upper part of the ...
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Design Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of cremophor-paclitaxel mice (B6;129S-(KPC) and (KPfC) mice were utilized for the experiments and both models develop advanced and metastatic PDA with 100% penetrance at an early age recapitulating the full spectrum of histopathological and clinical features AMG 208 of human PDA. postinjection of (24?100?ng?h/mL vs 14?900?ng h/mL) (physique 3A). Accordingly […]. ...
Our in-house animal facilities enable us to perform protein PK studies with mice and rats, and other species are available via European subcontractors.
Cassette dosing, which is also referred to as cocktail or N-in-one dosing, was first developed in the 1990s by scientists at Glaxo Wellcome (now GlaxoSmithKline; ref. 37). This approach involves the simultaneous administration of a mixture of several compounds (typically belonging to the same structural class) at relatively low doses to a single animal (38, 39). It should be emphasized that cassette dosing is not intended to accurately define pharmacokinetic parameters for each compound in a given mixture; rather, it is regarded as a screening tool to rapidly rank order compounds, eliminate those that exhibit poor pharmacokinetic properties, and identify those that should be prioritized for further evaluation (including subsequent discrete compound dosing, pharmacokinetic analysis, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies, or efficacy determination). A very important aspect of cassette dosing is that rapid feedback is provided to medicinal chemists, thus guiding future synthetic efforts to ...
When I contemplate infinity, the longness of it wears me out, and then I want to take a nap. I think thats why you always see ad nauseam and ad infinitum together. The whole idea of something going on forever is nauseating, which causes droopiness. When youre droopy, the last thing you want is someone telling you to put up a bunch of ads, or mile-markers. I dont think there are any mile-markers on the road to infinity, because the Department of Transportation would run out of numbers halfway through the job, so it wouldnt make sense to even start something like that. Billboards wouldnt make sense, either, because youd never know where to put them without any mile-markers to tell you where you are. I think the road to infinity is paved with good intentions, but all the droopy people who stopped to take naps along the way make it look like its paved with sleeping people. It isnt, though. ...
The Infinite One, before Awareness of any kind was generated, was just pure Infinity, pure Infinite Unity, pure indescribable Unity-The One.. Because Infinity can only be One, it can only be a unity. If you think about it, multiplicity or separation is a finite idea. And in Infinity there cannot be a finite idea. Finite ideas can come from the Infinite One, but if we are talking directly to and from and about the most original, the Source that was never born, then we are talking about an infinite unity, an infinite oneness. In that original state of infinite oneness, the Infinite One was unaware of itself.. The way to imagine this is to visualize or imagine whatever comes up in your mind when I say: "Imagine an infinite vastness." Perhaps imagine space-vastness is slightly better than space, but space will do-infinite vastness, infinite space.. If you want to imagine a real physical representation, you could imagine the space up there and simply delete all the stars, remove all the objects from ...
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The receiver operating characteristic curve of CR for the ability to differentiate the CHD cases from the control individuals, AUC (95% CI) was 0.622(0.522 ~
The study is designed to evaluate safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of different formulations of AZD1722 in healthy male and female...
There are a few people who think of infinity like its just a very large number so when they think of an "infinitely" old universe, they simply stretch the billions of years into a number larger than they can imagine. Thats completely wrong. If someone began counting, he would never "eventually" reach infinity. He could count forevermore and he would simply reach bigger and bigger numbers. Hell never get "half way" to infinity. In fact, no point in infinity is ever obtainable. No matter how long he counts, hell not even have begun to take a step toward infinity. You cant count an infinite set of numbers, you cant travel across an infinite amount of space, and you cant cross an infinite amount of time. Get it? Its important that this point be understood because Im going somewhere with it. ...
Drug Metab Dispos. 1989 Jul-Aug;174402-5. Plasma pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of thalidomide after oral dosing in healthy male
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In vitro and in vivo studies of available and investigational antifungals have broadened our understanding of the pharmacodynamics of these agents as well as the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic charac
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2:45 On the Use of the Nonlinear Dual-Sorption Model to Describe the Pharmacokinetic Behaviour of a Compound: Numerical Approach ...
Please feel free to share this Jellinek Curve Infographic on your site, at your school or work, and with anyone you think it will benefit.
Get warmed up for tonights episode of KUWTK with this Kardashian quiz ... flip through the eye popping pics and see if you can which sister owns the incredible curves.
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To find the area P under the normal probability curve N(mean, standard_deviation) within the interval (left, right), type in the 4 parameters and press "Calculate". The standard normal curve N(0,1) has a mean=0 and s.d.=1. Use -inf and +inf for infinite limits.. ...
11. Find the area under the normal curve to the right of z - = -1.66 a. 0.9515 b. 0.9525 c. 0.0485 d. 0.0475 12. Find the area under the standard normal curve between z= 0 and z=3 a. 0.0010 b. 0.4987 c. 0.4641 d. 0.9987 13.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of education on the appropriateness of serum drug concentration determination. AU - Carroll, Donna J.. AU - Austin, Garth E.. AU - Austin, Gregory E.. AU - Miyahara, Randell K.. AU - Murphy, John E. AU - Ward, Earl S.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The purpose of this study was to document the effect of education on the appropriateness of serum drug concentration (SDC) collection. This study included a period of education for hospital personnel involved in the acquisition of drug levels. These included nursing staff, lab personnel, housestaff (residents/interns), ward clerks, and pharmacists. This study included patients receiving aminoglycoside and/or vancomycin while on the general medicine service during the specified study periods. Patients receiving AB - The purpose of this study was to document the effect of education on the appropriateness of serum drug concentration (SDC) collection. This study included a period of education for hospital personnel involved in the ...
This pharmacokinetic study of nivolumab showed that there is little ethnic difference in the handling of nivolumab.Nivolumab was well tolerated in Korean patients.Background.This phase I study of nivolumab, an anti‐programmed cell death‐1 (anti‐PD‐1) monoclonal antibody, investigated the pharmacokinetics and safety of nivolumab in Korean patients with advanced solid tumors. Findings were compared with results from Japan and the U.S.Materials and Methods.In this two‐part study, patients received a single dose of nivolumab (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg; ONO‐4538‐13) and were followed up for 3 weeks. Those who met the required criteria proceeded to the second part (ONO‐4538‐14), and received the same dose as in part one every 2 weeks.Results.Six patients per dose level were enrolled (n = 18). The mean elimination half‐life of nivolumab among the groups ranged from 15.0 to 19.1 days. The maximum serum concentration and area under serum concentration-time curve increased almost ...
On Thu, 11 Mar 2004 13:16:15 -0500 XIAO LIU ,xiaoliu at jhmi.edu, wrote: , Dear R-helpers: , , I want to calculate area under a Receiver Operator Characteristic curve. , Where can I find related functions? , , Thank you in advance , , Xiao , install.packages(Hmisc) library(Hmisc) w ,- somers2(predicted probability, 0/1 diagnosis) Convert Somers Dxy rank correlation to ROC area (C) using Dxy=2*(C-.5). To get standard error of Dxy (and hence C) type ?rcorr.cens (another Hmisc function). This is the nonparametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney approach. --- Frank E Harrell Jr Professor and Chair School of Medicine Department of Biostatistics Vanderbilt University ...
Citation: Novotny Dura, J. 2005. Mathematical investigations of carotenoid kinetics in humans. Mathematical Modeling in Health and Toxicology. Athens, GA: Mathematical Biology Press. 189-204. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Carotenoids are health-promoting compounds that give many fruits and vegetables their red, orange, and yellow hues. A variety of mathematical techniques have been used to study carotenoid absorption and elimination. The most commonly used mathematical technique is empirical modeling, whereby scientists have calculated area under the plasma concentration time curve after a carotenoid dose to investigate many features of carotenoid bioavailability, including carotenoid interactions, age influences, effects of other dietary components, etc. Progress has also been made with compartmental modeling for beta-carotene and lycopene. Finally, isotope dilution methods and isotope reference methods have been very useful for learning about the vitamin A equivalency of ...
Mechanistic within-host models integrating blood anti-malarial drug concentrations with the parasite-time profile provide a valuable decision tool for determining dosing regimens for anti-malarial treatments, as well as a formative component of population-level drug resistance models. We reviewed published anti-malarial pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models to identify the challenges for these complex models where parameter estimation from clinical field data is limited. The inclusion of key pharmacodynamic processes in the mechanistic structure adopted varies considerably. These include the life cycle of the parasite within the red blood cell, the action of the anti-malarial on a specific stage of the life cycle, and the reduction in parasite growth associated with immunity. With regard to estimation of the pharmacodynamic parameters, the majority of studies simply compared descriptive summaries of the simulated outputs to published observations of host and parasite responses from clinical ...
The recommended treatment for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection in adults is a daily dose of isoniazid (INH) 300 mg for six months. In Brazil, INH was formulated as 100 mg tablets. The treatment duration and the high pill burden compromised patient adherence to the treatment. The Brazilian National Programme for Tuberculosis requested a new 300 mg INH formulation. The aim of our study was to compare the bioavailability of the new INH 300 mg formulation and three 100 mg tablets of the reference formulation. We conducted a randomised, single dose, open label, two-phase crossover bioequivalence study in 28 healthy human volunteers. The 90% confidence interval for the INH maximum concentration of drug observed in plasma and area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration "time t" was 89.61-115.92 and 94.82-119.44, respectively. The main limitation of our study was that neither adherence nor the safety profile of multiple doses was evaluated. To ...
useInGender=The pharmacokinetics of posaconazole are comparable in men and women. No adjustment in the dosage of Noxafil is necessary based on gender. ,useInRace=The pharmacokinetic profile of posaconazole is not significantly affected by race. No adjustment in the dosage of Noxafil is necessary based on race. ,useInRenalImpair=* Following single-dose administration of 400 mg of the oral suspension, there was no significant effect of mild (eGFR: 50-80 mL/min/1.73 m2, n=6) or moderate (eGFR: 20-49 mL/min/1.73 m2, n=6) renal impairment on posaconazole pharmacokinetics; therefore, no dose adjustment is required in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. In subjects with severe renal impairment (eGFR: ,20 mL/min/1.73 m2), the mean plasma exposure (AUC) was similar to that in patients with normal renal function (eGFR: ,80 mL/min/1.73 m2); however, the range of the AUC estimates was highly variable (CV=96%) in these subjects with severe renal impairment as compared to that in the other renal ...
Renal Impairment: A single 20 mg oral dose of pravastatin was administered to 24 patients with varying degrees of renal impairment (as determined by creatinine clearance). No effect was observed on the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin or its 3α-hydroxy isomeric metabolite (SQ 31,906). Compared to healthy subjects with normal renal function, patients with severe renal impairment had 69% and 37% higher mean AUC and Cmax values, respectively, and a 0.61 hour shorter t½ for the inactive enzymatic ring hydroxylation metabolite (SQ 31,945). Hepatic Impairment: In a study comparing the kinetics of pravastatin in patients with biopsy confirmed cirrhosis (N=7) and normal subjects (N=7), the mean AUC varied 18-fold in cirrhotic patients and 5-fold in healthy subjects. Similarly, the peak pravastatin values varied 47-fold for cirrhotic patients compared to 6-fold for healthy subjects. Geriatric: In a single oral dose study using pravastatin 20 mg, the mean AUC for pravastatin was approximately 27% greater ...
Distribution: Following drug administration, a 6 to 8 hour tissue distribution phase is observed. This is followed by a much more gradual decline in the serum concentration of the drug, which is dependent on the elimination of digoxin from the body. The peak height and slope of the early portion (absorption/distribution phases) of the serum concentration-time curve are dependent upon the route of administration and the absorption characteristics of the formulation. Clinical evidence indicates that the early high serum concentrations do not reflect the concentration of digoxin at its site of action, but that with chronic use, the steady-state post-distribution serum concentrations are in equilibrium with tissue concentrations and correlate with pharmacologic effects. In individual patients, these post-distribution serum concentrations may be useful in evaluating therapeutic and toxic effects. Digoxin is concentrated in tissues and therefore has a large apparent volume of distribution ...
Absorption Following single-dose administration of AMRIX 15 mg and 30 mg in healthy adult subjects (n=15), Cmax, AUC0-168h and AUC0-∞ increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner from 15 mg to 30 mg. The time to peak plasma cyclobenzaprine concentration (Tmax) was 7 to 8 hours for both doses of AMRIX.. A food effect study conducted in healthy adult subjects (n=15) utilizing a single dose of AMRIX 30 mg demonstrated a statistically significant increase in bioavailability when AMRIX 30 mg was given with food relative to the fasted state. There was a 35% increase in peak plasma cyclobenzaprine concentration (Cmax) and a 20% increase in exposure (AUC0-168h and AUC0-∞) in the presence of food. No effect, however, was noted in Tmax or the shape of the mean plasma cyclobenzaprine concentration versus time profile. Cyclobenzaprine in plasma was first detectable in both the fed and fasted states at 1.5 hours.. When the contents of AMRIX capsules were administered by sprinkling on ...
Materials and methods The overall number of patients and carboplatin courses, sex, age, diagnosis and percentage overdose were extracted from the Farmis database on cytostatics management, from January 2011 to September 2013. Overdoses were designated: carboplatin dosing ,900 mg for a target AUC = 6; carboplatin dosing ,750 mg for a target AUC = 5; carboplatin dosing ,600 mg for a target AUC = 4. In the event of overdosing (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) criteria), blood tests were sought before the next round of treatment and the need to delay the chemotherapy treatment were evaluated.. ...
Errors in computation: Representation and arithmetic of numbers, source of errors, error propagation, error estimation. Numerical solution of non-linear equations: Bisection method, Secant method, Newton-Raphson method, Fixed point methods, Mullers method. Interpolations: Lagrange interpolation, Newton divided differences, Hermite interpolation, Piecewise polynomial interpolation. Approximation of functions: Weierstrass and Taylor expansion, Least square approximation. Numerical Integration: Trapezoidal rule, Simpsons rule, Newton-Cotes rule, Guassian quadrature. Numerical solution of ODE: Eulers method, multi-step methods, Runge-Kutta methods, Predictor-Corrector methods. Solutions of systems of linear equations: Gauss elimination, pivoting, matrix factorization, Iterative methods - Jacobi and Gauss-Siedel methods. Matrix eigenvalue problems: power method.. ...
Clinical Pharmacokinetic Characteristics of Cebranopadol, a Novel First-in-Class Analgesic. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Results: Sixteen patients (median age 46 years, range 26-73) with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC; n=5), colorectal cancer (CRC; n=4) or other tumor type (n=7) were enrolled and received treatment with cediranib at doses of 10 (n=3), 20 (n=3), 30 (n=3) or 45 (n=7) mg/day. The most common adverse events (AE) observed were diarrhea, fatigue, hypertension, hand-foot syndrome and proteinuria. No dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed at doses ≤30 mg/day. At 45 mg/day, 3/6 evaluable patients experienced a total of four DLTs (proteinuria, n=2; diarrhea, n=1; thrombocytopenia, n=1); therefore 30 mg/day was defined as the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Following a single dose of cediranib 10-45 mg/day, the maximum plasma concentration was achieved between 2 and 4 hours post dosing and the overall mean terminal phase half-life was 21 hours. Following multiple dosing there were no time-dependent changes in PK parameters. At the MTD, the unbound minimum plasma concentration was ,5 times above the ...
The Infectious Disease Pharmacokinetics Laboratory at the University of Florida (IDPL) is focused clinically on the treatment of patients with serious infections, including tuberculosis, HIV, and fungal infections. The IDPL provides therapeutic drug monitoring using Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) . Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a well-established clinical tool, and the IDPL focuses on drug assays that most other clinical labs do not offer. For 25 years, the IDPL has individualized patients drug regimens by monitoring serum drug concentrations and interpreting the results. Interpretations are based upon many years of clinical experience with these types of patients, allowing health care practitioners to confidently make dose adjustments.. TDM allows clinicians to assess each patients pharmacokinetics (drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and clearance). TDM also allows clinicians to pull apart complex drug-drug interactions, and to arrive at the needed doses for ...
Background: The change from pre-dose FEV1 at day 1 to 2-hours post-dose FEV1 at week 12 was used as a co-primary spirometric outcome in the development of fluticasone/formoterol combination therapy (FLUT/FORM; flutiform®) in the pivotal studies. As this endpoint is not well characterised in the literature, we investigated its utility by examining the relationship with other spirometric and non-spirometric indices, including the change from pre-dose FEV1 at day 1 to pre-dose FEV1 at week 12 and FEV1 AUC0-12 at week 12 (area under the FEV1 curve over 0-12 hrs post-dose at week 12).. Methods: FEV1 and AUC endpoint data from 3 randomised, double-blind, 12-week studies comparing FLUT/FORM pMDI to fluticasone pMDI were pooled, and Pearsons correlation coefficient (R) or odds ratios were calculated.. Results and Conclusions: Change from pre-dose FEV1 at day 1 to 2h post-dose FEV1 at week 12 assesses both chronic ICS-mediated anti-inflammatory and acute LABA bronchodilatory effects. This endpoint ...
Purpose: This phase 1 study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of the investigational oral drug MLN8237 (alisertib), a small-molecule Aurora A kinase (AAK) inhibitor, in 87 adult patients with advanced solid tumors. Experimental Design: Sequential cohorts of patients received MLN8237 5-150 mg orally once-daily (QD) or twice-daily (BID) for 7, 14, or 21 days, followed by 14 days rest per cycle. MLN8237 pharmacokinetics were characterized, and the relative bioavailability of an enteric-coated tablet (ECT) formulation was evaluated in reference to the original powder-in-capsule (PIC) formulation. Pharmacodynamic effects of MLN8237 on inhibition of AAK activity were evaluated in skin biopsies. Tolerability and response to treatment were assessed. Results: Common toxicities included fatigue, nausea, and neutropenia. Plasma exposures increased dose-proportionally (5-150 mg/day), and were similar for PIC and ECT. The terminal half-life was 23 h. At the MTD of 50 mg ...
Results The baseline demographics for the 130 subjects evaluable for PK were similar among treatment groups. The 3 study drugs exhibited a similar PK profile, which is characterized by a rapid increase of serum drug concentration during infusion followed by a multi-phasic decline in drug concentrations (Figure). The 90% CI for the ratios of Cmax, AUCT, and AUC0-∞ were within the BE acceptance window of 80.00-125.00% for the comparisons of PF-06438179 to infliximab-US or infliximab-EU, and infliximab-EU to infliximab-US. Similar number of subjects experienced AEs among all 3 treatment groups. Overall the frequency and type of AEs reported were similar across all three treatment groups, although the number of AEs was highest in the infliximab-US group. The 3 treatments had a comparable ADA profile with a somewhat lower incidence of ADA response in the PF-06438179 group. No infusion related reactions were reported.. ...
Studies on the disposion of [^,14,C]NB-506 : Plasma Concentration-Time Profile, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion of [^,14,C]NB-506 after Single and Repeated Intravenous Administration in Rats (1998 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacokinetic properties of recombinant porcine growth hormone in pigs. AU - Hu, O. Y.P.. AU - Chang, W. C.. AU - Yang, T. S.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The plasma pharmacokinetic profile of recombinant porcine growth hormone (rpGH) was studied in six healthy gilts after a rapid single i.v. injection of 250 μg/kg rpGH. The linear pharmacokinetic properties of rpGH were investigated by giving four different doses of the hormone at intervals of 2 days. The plasma rpGH concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay with a lowest detection limit of 50 pg/ml. Plasma levels of rpGH were fitted to a three-compartment open model; a triexponential decrease in plasma rpGH with a rather long mean terminal half-life of 40.22 ± 5.623 min was obtained in these pigs. Linear pharmacokinetic properties of rpGH were confirmed in the additional pig that received doses between 25 and 250 μg/kg rpGH. The small volume of distribution, 0.029 ± 0.003 l/kg, indicated that most of the ...
ABSTRACT. Diminazene remains one of South Africas most commonly used antiprotozoal agents for the management of babesiosis in dogs . Although the drug has been on the market for over 40 years, its intravenous pharmacokinetics are poorly known. To better understand the pharmacokinetics of the drug Berenil®, it was reconstituted in sterile water and administered intravenously to 6 adult German shepherd dogs. All 6 dogs demonstrated the previously described secondary peak in the plasma concentration versus time profile. The plasma pharmacokinetics for diminazene are described by both non-compartmental and compartmental models. From non-compartmental analysis, the area under curve to the last sample point (AUQast), clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (Vz) were 4.65 ± 1.95 ng/ml/h, 0.77 ± 0.18 l/kg/h and2.28 ± 0.60 l/kg respectively. For compartmental modelling, the plasma concentrations were fitted to both a 2-compartmental open model and a recirculatory enterohepatic model. From the ...
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the neurosteroid anaesthetic, alfaxalone, in neonatal foals after a single intravenous (IV) injection of alfaxalone following premedication with butorphanol tartrate. STUDY DESIGN Prospective experimental study. ANIMALS Five clinically healthy Australian Stock Horse foals of mean ± SD age of 12 ± 3 days and weighing 67.3 ± 12.4 kg. METHODS Foals were premedicated with butorphanol (0.05 mg kg(-1) IV) and anaesthesia was induced 10 minutes later by IV injection with alfaxalone 3 mg kg(-1) . Cardiorespiratory variables (pulse rate, respiratory rate, direct arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gases) and clinical signs of anaesthetic depth were evaluated throughout anaesthesia. Venous blood samples were collected at strategic time points and alfaxalone plasma concentrations were assayed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and analysed by noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. RESULTS The harmonic, mean ±
Background and Objectives Darapladib is a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of darapladib in healthy Chinese subjects. Methods Twenty-four subjects received darapladib 160 mg orally, approximately 1 hour after a standard breakfast, as a single dose and once daily for 28 days. Non-compartmental methods were used to determine the single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of darapladib and its metabolite SB-553253. Repeat dose Lp-PLA2 activity and safety were evaluated. Results Systemic exposure (AUC(0-T), Cmax geometric mean (CVb%)) of darapladib was higher after multiple-dosing (519 ng.h/mL (33.3%), 34.4 ng/mL (49.9%)) compared to single-dose administration (153 ng.h/mL (69.0%), 17.9 ng/mL (55.2%). The steady-state accumulation ratio was less than unity (Rs = 0.80), indicating time-dependent pharmacokinetics of darapladib. Darapladib steady-state was reached by Day 14 of once daily dosing. Systemic
The pharmacokinetic profile of meloxicam in clinically healthy koalas (n = 15) was investigated. Single doses of meloxicam were administered intravenously (i.v.) (0.4 mg/kg; n = 5), subcutaneously (s.c.) (0.2 mg/kg; n = 1) or orally (0.2 mg/kg; n = 3), and multiple doses were administered to two groups of koalas via the oral or s.c. routes (n = 3 for both routes) with a loading dose of 0.2 mg/kg for day 1 followed by 0.1 mg/kg s.i.d for a further 3 days. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Following i.v. administration, meloxicam exhibited a rapid clearance (CL) of 0.44 ± 0.20 (SD) L/h/kg, a volume of distribution at terminal phase (Vz) of 0.72 ± 0.22 L/kg and a volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) of 0.22 ± 0.12 L/kg. Median plasma terminal half-life (t1/2) was 1.19 h (range 0.71-1.62 h). Following oral administration either from single or repeated doses, only maximum peak plasma concentration (Cmax 0.013 ± 0.001 and 0.014 ± ...
Absorption: In a study with 14C-tolterodine solution in healthy volunteers who received a 5 mg oral dose, at least 77% of the radiolabeled dose was absorbed. Cmax and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) determined after dosage of tolterodine immediate release are dose-proportional over the range of 1 to 4 mg. Based on the sum of unbound serum concentrations of tolterodine and 5-HMT ("active moiety"), the AUC of tolterodine extended release 4 mg daily is equivalent to tolterodine immediate release 4 mg (2 mg bid). Cmax and Cmin levels of tolterodine extended release are about 75% and 150% of tolterodine immediate release, respectively. Maximum serum concentrations of tolterodine extended release are observed 2 to 6 hours after dose administration.. Effect of Food: There is no effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of tolterodine extended release.. Distribution: Tolterodine is highly bound to plasma proteins, primarily α1-acid glycoprotein. Unbound concentrations of tolterodine average ...
Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibacterial drug. It is used widely to treat diseases caused by Mycoplasma species. We investigated the antibacterial activity of doxycycline against the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain ATCC25934. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of doxycycline against M. hyopneumoniae determined by a microdilution method was 0.125 μg/ml. Static time-kill curves with constant drug concentrations (0-64 MIC) showed that a bacteriostatic effect occurred if the doxycycline concentration reached 4 MIC. Doxycycline produced a maximum antimycoplasmal effect (reduction of 2.76 log10CFU/ml) at 64 MIC within 48 h. The effect of doxycycline against M. hyopneumoniae was analyzed by a sigmoid Emax model, and there was high correlation between the kill rate and doxycycline concentration (R2 = 0.986). A one-compartment open model with first-order absorption was adopted and was used to simulate doxycycline pharmacokinetics in porcine plasma. The dynamic time-concentration curve showed that

area under curve and line.area under curve and line.

The diagram shows a sketch of part of the curve with equation y = x 2+1 and the line with equation y =7− x . The finite region ... area under curve and line. The diagram shows a sketch of part of the curve with equation y=x2+1 and the line with equation y=7− ... a) Find the area of R1.. (b) Find the area of R2.. $\displaystyle 7-x = x^2 + 1 $ $\displaystyle 0 = x^2 + x -6 $ $\ ... Calculate the area between the calibration curve and the identity line on a graph. Posted in the Calculus Forum ...
more infohttp://mathhelpforum.com/calculus/85435-area-under-curve-line.html

Area under Curve as sum of subdivided rectangles to limits - GeoGebraArea under Curve as sum of subdivided rectangles to limits - GeoGebra

integral area rectangles riemann sum limits Add additional tags. Target Group (Age). 15 - 18 Language. English (United Kingdom) ... This applet allows the user to learn visually and numerically understand how the subdivided rectangles under a curve of a ... function can converge to (reach) the exact value of area calculated with integral calculus methods by increasing the number of ...
more infohttps://www.geogebra.org/material/show/id/43814

AUC, area under the curve | DiabetesAUC, area under the curve | Diabetes

Tamara Allen, Fang Zhang, Shonna A. Moodie, L. Edward Clemens, Aaron Smith, Francine Gregoire, Andrea Bell, George E.O. Muscat, Thomas A. Gustafson ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/keyword/auc-area-under-curve

PPT - Area Between Curves PowerPoint Presentation - ID:2850511PPT - Area Between Curves PowerPoint Presentation - ID:2850511

To find the area of a region between two curves using integration. Area A of region bounded b y the curves f(x) and g(x) a nd ... Area Between Curves. Objective. To find the area of a region between two curves using integration. Area A of region bounded b y ... finding the area under curves:. there are many mathematical applications which require finding the area under a curve. the area ... 6.1 Area between two curves -.  a k = area of k th rectangle,  f( c k ) - g ( c k ) = height,  x k = width. find the area ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/sierra/area-between-curves

Area under the curve - probability | Physics ForumsArea under the curve - probability | Physics Forums

Putting these together shows why the area under the curve represents probability. Does that explanation help or did you already ... Its something that I know but Ive never been able to figure out why? Why is does the area underneath the normal ... Its something that I know but Ive never been able to figure out why? Why is does the area underneath the normal ... From calculus we know the integral on the right represents the area under f(x) between a and b. Since the cumulative ...
more infohttps://www.physicsforums.com/threads/area-under-the-curve-probability.412726/

Area under curve (AUC)  > Diagnostic performance > Statistical Reference Guide | Analyse-it® 5.40...Area under curve (AUC) > Diagnostic performance > Statistical Reference Guide | Analyse-it® 5.40...

Area under curve (AUC) The area under (a ROC) curve is a summary measure of the accuracy of a quantitative diagnostic test. ... Hanley, J. A., & McNeil, B. J. (1982). The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. ... Comparing the areas under two or more correlated receiver operating characteristic curves: a nonparametric approach. Biometrics ... A point estimate of the AUC of the empirical ROC curve is the Mann-Whitney U estimator (DeLong et. al., 1988). . The confidence ...
more infohttps://analyse-it.com/docs/user-guide/diagnostic-performance/auc

Area under the curve (pharmacokinetics) - WikipediaArea under the curve (pharmacokinetics) - Wikipedia

In the field of pharmacokinetics, the area under the curve (AUC) is the definite integral in a plot of drug concentration in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area_under_the_curve_(pharmacokinetics)

Blood Glucose Area Under the Curve: Methodological Aspects | Diabetes CareBlood Glucose Area Under the Curve: Methodological Aspects | Diabetes Care

Blood Glucose Area Under the Curve: Methodological Aspects. Jean-Pierre Le Floch, Philippe Escuyer, Eric Baudin, Dominique ... Blood Glucose Area Under the Curve: Methodological Aspects. Jean-Pierre Le Floch, Philippe Escuyer, Eric Baudin, Dominique ... Blood Glucose Area Under the Curve: Methodological Aspects Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... To specify the influence of methods used in estimating area under the curve (AUC) and the meaning of total and incremental AUC ...
more infohttp://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/13/2/172

Lactulose/Mannitol Test and Specificity, Sensitivity, and Area under Curve of Intestinal Permeability Parameters in Patients...Lactulose/Mannitol Test and Specificity, Sensitivity, and Area under Curve of Intestinal Permeability Parameters in Patients...

... and area under curve (AUC) of the lactulose/mannitol ratio, lactulose/creatinine ratio, and lactulose recovery... ... Lactulose Mannitol Intestinal permeability Sensitivity Specificity Area under curve This is a preview of subscription content, ... The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the specificity, sensitivity, and area under curve (AUC) of the ... Lactulose/Mannitol Test and Specificity, Sensitivity, and Area under Curve of Intestinal Permeability Parameters in Patients ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10620-007-0184-8

Area under a curve. | Physics Forums - The Fusion of Science and CommunityArea under a curve. | Physics Forums - The Fusion of Science and Community

The area under the curve for this from 1 to 2 on the x axis must equal:. [tex]\int^{2}_{0}(-7x^{2}+6)dx[/tex]. correct? ... B Area under the curve of a Polar Graph May 1, 2017. ... Area under curve. Date. I Rate of change of area under curve f( ... I How to calculate the area under a curve Jul 21, 2017. ... I Area under curve using Excel question Apr 13, 2017. Areas ... So the area of that strip is y Δx. To find the total area, one sums up all the small strips, from x=0 to x=2. But for the ...
more infohttps://www.physicsforums.com/threads/area-under-a-curve.364962/

Finding the Area Between 2 CurvesFinding the Area Between 2 Curves

Find the area of the region lying to the right of x=(y^2)-5 and the left of x=3-(y^2). I determined that the ... Finding the Area Between 2 Curves I have two problems I need help on:. 1. Find the area of the region lying to the right of x=( ... Area , Implicit differentiation (2 different answers!) » Similar Math Help Forum Discussions. * Finding area between curves?. ... Finding the area of the region between the curves. Posted in the Calculus Forum ...
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Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) | EDRMArea Under the ROC Curve (AUC) | EDRM

Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC). Definition(s). From Signal Detection Theory, a summary measure used to assess the quality of ...
more infohttps://www.edrm.net/glossary/area-under-the-roc-curve-auc/

Describing Communities. Species Diversity Concepts. Species Richness. Species Richness. Species-Area Curve. Species-Area Curve ...Describing Communities. Species Diversity Concepts. Species Richness. Species Richness. Species-Area Curve. Species-Area Curve ...

peces versty Concepts peces Rchness peces-area Curves versty Indces - mpsons Index - hannon-wener Index - rlloun Index peces ... 2 peces-area Curve Fne-graned; hgh equtablty (classcal condton) peces-area Curve Fne-graned; low equtablty peces-area Curve ... peces-area Curve peces-area Curve One way to make ths nterpretaton s through the use of a speces-area curve. A graph of the ... The OC Curve of Attribute Acceptance Plans The OC Curve of Attrbute Acceptance Plans The Operatng Characterstc (OC) curve ...
more infohttp://docplayer.net/24900299-Describing-communities-species-diversity-concepts-species-richness-species-richness-species-area-curve-species-area-curve.html

How to find the area under this curve? - OpenStudyHow to find the area under this curve? - OpenStudy

How to find the area under this curve?A bicyclist pedals along a straight road with velocity, v, given in the figure below. She ...
more infohttp://openstudy.com/updates/50a70af1e4b0129a3c8ffa4c

Area under the curve legal definition of Area under the curveArea under the curve legal definition of Area under the curve

What is Area under the curve? Meaning of Area under the curve as a legal term. What does Area under the curve mean in law? ... Definition of Area under the curve in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... The area under the curve y = 1/x from x = 1 to x = a measures A = 1 when a = e.. Demonstrating e using areas under curves ... Area under the curve legal definition of Area under the curve https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Area+under+the+ ...
more infohttps://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Area+under+the+curve

Calculus Volume of Revolution by Shells Plus Polar Area Under the CurveCalculus Volume of Revolution by Shells Plus Polar Area Under the Curve

2 Calculus Freebies Volume of Revolution by Cylindrical Shells Plus Polar Area Under the Curve This resource is sample of the ... 2 Calculus Freebies Volume of Revolution by Cylindrical Shells Plus Polar Area Under the Curve This resource is sample of the ... The second is a combination of Guided Notes and Task Cards for finding the Area Under a Polar Curve. Full versions of both are ... 2 Calculus Freebies Volume of Revolution by Cylindrical Shells Plus Polar Area Under the Curve. This resource is sample of the ...
more infohttps://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Calculus-Volume-of-Revolution-by-Shells-Plus-Polar-Area-Under-the-Curve-1839632

Area under the curve: Continuous data types - Building an intuitive understanding of statistical analysis | CourseraArea under the curve: Continuous data types - Building an intuitive understanding of statistical analysis | Coursera

Were still going to calculate an area under the curve. So thats how it works. Its an area under the curve, it falls between ... Bell shaped curve for us. And it can work out. The area under the curve for that. Now, you can ask yourself, how would this ... A parabolic curve there and we can work out the area under the curve. We neednt have a special shape like a square or ... The very smooth curve, we can work out the area under the curve for that. Between two limits. Integration is quite easy to do. ...
more infohttps://www.coursera.org/lecture/clinical-research/area-under-the-curve-continuous-data-types-zaWNi

A new hyperspectral index for chlorophyll estimation of a forest canopy: Area under curve normalised to maximal band depth...A new hyperspectral index for chlorophyll estimation of a forest canopy: Area under curve normalised to maximal band depth...

... leaf area index (LAI), clumping of leaves), etc.. A new optical index named Area under curve Normalised to Maximal Band depth ... leaf area index (LAI), clumping of leaves), etc.. A new optical index named Area under curve Normalised to Maximal Band depth ... A new hyperspectral index for chlorophyll estimation of a forest canopy: Area under curve normalised to maximal band depth ... Area under curve normalised to maximal band depth between 650-725 nm. EARSeL eProceedings, 5(2):161-172. ...
more infohttp://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/62112/

AID 10962 - Compound was evaluated for area under curve of growth hormone release after chronic oral dosing at 0.5 mpk on day 1...AID 10962 - Compound was evaluated for area under curve of growth hormone release after chronic oral dosing at 0.5 mpk on day 1...

Compound was evaluated for area under curve of growth hormone release after chronic oral dosing at 0.5 mpk on day 1. ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/10962

6.3 Probability as An Area Under The Normal Curve - Statistical Inference: A Short Course [Book]6.3 Probability as An Area Under The Normal Curve - Statistical Inference: A Short Course [Book]

6.3 Probability as An Area Under The Normal Curve Suppose is If we are interested in finding then we can do so by determining ... the area under the normal ... - Selection from Statistical Inference: A Short Course [Book] ... 6.3 Probability as An Area Under The Normal Curve. Suppose is If we are interested in finding then we can do so by determining ... Instead, we shall read the area under the normal curve directly from a table. However, before we do so, let us note that there ...
more infohttps://www.oreilly.com/library/view/statistical-inference-a/9781118309803/c06anchor-3.html

Testing the area under a curve  > Diagnostic performance > Statistical Reference Guide | Analyse-it® 5.11...Testing the area under a curve > Diagnostic performance > Statistical Reference Guide | Analyse-it® 5.11...

Test if the area under the curve is better than chance, or some other value. ... MSA (Measurement System Analysis) software Measurement System Analysis software Reference interval software ROC curve software ... Difference in area under curve (AUC) * Testing the difference between the area under two curves ... Area under curve (AUC) * Testing the area under a curve * ... Testing the area under a curve * Statistical Reference Guide * ...
more infohttps://analyse-it.com/docs/user-guide/diagnostic-performance/testing-auc

Modeling the 5-fluorouracil area under the curve versus dose relationship to develop a pharmacokinetic dosing algorithm for...Modeling the 5-fluorouracil area under the curve versus dose relationship to develop a pharmacokinetic dosing algorithm for...

BSA administration results in highly variable exposure, measured as the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). An ... Distribution of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) by collection time mode. ... Modeling the 5-fluorouracil area under the curve versus dose relationship to develop a pharmacokinetic dosing algorithm for ... Modeling the 5-Fluorouracil Area Under the Curve Versus Dose Relationship to Develop a Pharmacokinetic Dosing Algorithm for ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22382460

Area under a curve | definition of Area under a curve by Medical dictionaryArea under a curve | definition of Area under a curve by Medical dictionary

Area under a curve explanation free. What is Area under a curve? Meaning of Area under a curve medical term. What does Area ... Looking for online definition of Area under a curve in the Medical Dictionary? ... Area under a curve , definition of Area under a curve by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ... redirected from Area under a curve). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia. in·te·gral. (in-tegrăl), 1. ...
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Area under the curve above baseline - How is area under the curve above baseline abbreviated?Area under the curve above baseline - How is area under the curve above baseline abbreviated?

Looking for abbreviations of AUCB? It is area under the curve above baseline. area under the curve above baseline listed as ... Area under the curve above baseline - How is area under the curve above baseline abbreviated? https://acronyms. ... redirected from area under the curve above baseline) Acronym. Definition. AUCB. Arts University College at Bournemouth ( ... area under the curve from time 0 to the limit of quantitation ... area under the curve at 24 hours. *area under the curve at ...
more infohttps://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com/area+under+the+curve+above+baseline

Area under the concentration curve | definition of area under the concentration curve by Medical dictionaryArea under the concentration curve | definition of area under the concentration curve by Medical dictionary

What is area under the concentration curve? Meaning of area under the concentration curve medical term. What does area under ... Looking for online definition of area under the concentration curve in the Medical Dictionary? area under the concentration ... area under the concentration curve. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus. area under the concentration curve (AUC). a method of ... Area under the concentration curve , definition of area under the concentration curve by Medical dictionary https://medical- ...
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  • The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the specificity, sensitivity, and area under curve (AUC) of the lactulose/mannitol ratio, lactulose/creatinine ratio, and lactulose recovery and their diagnostic value for intestinal permeability assessment within the absorption lactulose/mannitol (L/M) test. (springer.com)
  • 1 peces versty Concepts peces Rchness peces-area Curves versty Indces - mpson's Index - hannon-wener Index - rlloun Index peces Abundance Models escrbng Communtes There are two mportant descrptors of a communty: ) ts physognomy (physcal structure), as descrbed n the prevous lecture, and ) the number of speces present and ther relatve abundances (speces rchness and dversty). (docplayer.net)
  • Split $\displaystyle R_2$ into two parts: One area is completely below the graph of the quadratic function, the second one is completely below the straight line. (mathhelpforum.com)
  • Remembering some of my physics class I calculated the area under the graph of 'x' from points 0-2 on the x axis which equals 2. (physicsforums.com)
  • An ROC curve is the most commonly used way to visualize the performance of a binary classifier , and AUC is (arguably) the best way to summarize its performance in a single number . (dataschool.io)
  • An ROC curve is a commonly used way to visualize the performance of a binary classifier , meaning a classifier with two possible output classes. (dataschool.io)
  • We propose a Bayesian implementation of the "proper" binormal ROC curve-fitting model with a prior distribution that is marginally flat on AUC and conditionally flat over c . (spie.org)
  • BSA administration results in highly variable exposure, measured as the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). (nih.gov)
  • To specify the influence of methods used in estimating area under the curve (AUC) and the meaning of total and incremental AUC, 75 glycemic responses to a mixed meal were studied in 75 diabetic patients, 39 with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 36 with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This function will return the total area under the curve up to the x value. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although methods based on the AUC have been well developed and widely implemented [ 2 , 3 ], one of the major limitations of the AUC is that it summarizes the performance over the entire curve, including regions that may not be clinically relevant (e.g., the regions with low specificity levels). (hindawi.com)
  • After fitting a binary logistic regression model with a set of independent variables, the predictive performance of this set of variables - as assessed by the area under the curve (AUC) from a ROC curve - must be estimated for a sample (the 'test' sample) that is independent of the sample used to predict the dependent variable (the 'training' sample). (harvard.edu)
  • A robust chlorophyll optical index at the canopy level should be driven by the Cab concentration without negative influence of other factors represented by soil background or understory, canopy closure, canopy structure (e.g. leaf area index (LAI), clumping of leaves), etc. (uzh.ch)
  • A new optical index named Area under curve Normalised to Maximal Band depth between 650-725 nm (ANMB₆₅₀-₇₂₅) is proposed to estimate the chlorophyll content of a Norway spruce (Picea abies, /L./ Karst. (uzh.ch)
  • As such, gaining a deep understanding of ROC curves and AUC is beneficial for data scientists, machine learning practitioners, and medical researchers (among others). (dataschool.io)
  • 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is administered based on standard body surface area (BSA) dosing. (nih.gov)
  • Degree of isolation (distance to nearest neighbour, and mainland) Length of isolation (time) Size of island (larger area usually facilitates greater diversity) The habitat suitability which includes: Climate (tropical versus arctic, humid versus arid, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • For biogeographical purposes, an insular environment or "island" is any area of habitat suitable for a specific ecosystem, surrounded by an expanse of unsuitable habitat. (wikipedia.org)
  • I know basic integration and differentiation and I was siting on my bed today thinking how on earth any of it could correlate to finding the area under a curve. (physicsforums.com)
  • Finding optimal linear combination to maximize the area under the ROC curve has been extensively studied [ 11 - 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Distribution of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) by collection time mode. (nih.gov)
  • Change in 5-fluorouracil dose versus change in 5-fluorouracil area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) relationship. (nih.gov)
  • However, this is equivalent to assuming a non-flat prior distribution for the area under the curve (AUC) that peaks at AUC = 1.0. (spie.org)