A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Glucose in blood.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
The spinal or vertebral column.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.
An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

In vivo modulation of alternative pathways of P-450-catalyzed cyclophosphamide metabolism: impact on pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity. (1/6505)

The widely used anticancer prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA) is activated in liver by a 4-hydroxylation reaction primarily catalyzed by cytochrome P-4502B and P-4502C enzymes. An alternative metabolic pathway involves CPA N-dechloroethylation to yield chloroacetaldehyde (CA), a P-4503A-catalyzed deactivation/neurotoxication reaction. The in vivo modulation of these alternative, competing pathways of P-450 metabolism was investigated in pharmacokinetic studies carried out in the rat model. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) for 4-OH-CPA and CA were increased by 3- to 4-fold, and apparent plasma half-lives of both metabolites were correspondingly shortened in rats pretreated with phenobarbital (PB), an inducer of P-4502B and P-4503A enzymes. However, PB had no net impact on the extent of drug activation or its partitioning between these alternative metabolic pathways, as judged from AUC values (area-under-the-plasma concentration x time curve) for 4-OH-CPA and CA. The P-4503A inhibitor troleandomycin (TAO) decreased plasma Cmax and AUC of CA (80-85% decrease) without changing the Cmax or AUC of 4-OH-CPA in uninduced rats. In PB-induced rats, TAO decreased AUCCA by 73%, whereas it increased AUC4-OH-CPA by 93%. TAO thus selectively suppresses CPA N-dechloroethylation, thereby increasing the availability of drug for P-450 activation via 4-hydroxylation. By contrast, dexamethasone, a P-4503A inducer and antiemetic widely used in patients with cancer, stimulated large, undesirable increases in the Cmax and AUC of CA (8- and 4-fold, respectively) while reducing the AUC of the 4-hydroxylation pathway by approximately 60%. Tumor excision/in vitro colony formation and tumor growth delay assays using an in vivo 9L gliosarcoma solid tumor model revealed that TAO suppression of CPA N-dechloroethylation could be achieved without compromising the antitumor effect of CPA. The combination of PB with TAO did not, however, enhance the antitumor activity of CPA, despite the approximately 2-fold increase in AUC4-OH-CPA, suggesting that other PB-inducible activities, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase, may counter this increase through enhanced deactivation of the 4-hydroxy metabolite. Together, these studies demonstrate that the P-4503A inhibitor TAO can be used to effectively modulate CPA metabolism and pharmacokinetics in vivo in a manner that decreases the formation of toxic metabolites that do not contribute to antitumor activity.  (+info)

Prediction of the effects of inoculum size on the antimicrobial action of trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in an in vitro dynamic model. (2/6505)

The effect of inoculum size (N0) on antimicrobial action has not been extensively studied in in vitro dynamic models. To investigate this effect and its predictability, killing and regrowth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli exposed to monoexponentially decreasing concentrations of trovafloxacin (as a single dose) and ciprofloxacin (two doses at a 12-h interval) were compared at N0 = 10(6) and 10(9) CFU/ml (S. aureus) and at N0 = 10(6), 10(7), and 10(9) CFU/ml (E. coli). A series of pharmacokinetic profiles of trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin with respective half-lives of 9.2 and 4 h were simulated at different ratios of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to MIC (in [micrograms x hours/milliliter]/[micrograms/milliliter]): 58 to 466 with trovafloxacin and 116 to 932 with ciprofloxacin for S. aureus and 58 to 233 and 116 to 466 for E. coli, respectively. Although the effect of N0 was more pronounced for E. coli than for S. aureus, only a minor increase in minimum numbers of surviving bacteria and an almost negligible delay in their regrowth were associated with an increase of the N0 for both organisms. The N0-induced reductions of the intensity of the antimicrobial effect (IE, area between control growth and the killing-regrowth curves) were also relatively small. However, the N0 effect could not be eliminated either by simple shifting of the time-kill curves obtained at higher N0s by the difference between the higher and lowest N0 or by operating with IEs determined within the N0-adopted upper limits of bacterial numbers (IE's). By using multivariate correlation and regression analyses, linear relationships between IE and log AUC/MIC and log N0 related to the respective mean values [(log AUC/MIC)average and (log N0)average] were established for both trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against each of the strains (r2 = 0.97 to 0.99). The antimicrobial effect may be accurately predicted at a given AUC/MIC of trovafloxacin or ciprofloxacin and at a given N0 based on the relationship IE = a + b [(log AUC/MIC)/(log AUC/MIC)average] - c [(log N0)/(log N0)average]. Moreover, the relative impacts of AUC/MIC and N0 on IE may be evaluated. Since the c/b ratios for trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against E. coli were much lower (0.3 to 0.4) than that for ampicillin-sulbactam as examined previously (1.9), the inoculum effect with the quinolones may be much less pronounced than with the beta-lactams. The described approach to the analysis of the inoculum effect in in vitro dynamic models might be useful in studies with other antibiotic classes.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of amikacin in low-clearance unilamellar liposomes after a single or repeated intravenous administration in the rhesus monkey. (3/6505)

Liposomal aminoglycosides have been shown to have activity against intracellular infections, such as those caused by Mycobacterium avium. Amikacin in small, low-clearance liposomes (MiKasome) also has curative and prophylactic efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. To develop appropriate dosing regimens for low-clearance liposomal amikacin, we studied the pharmacokinetics of liposomal amikacin in plasma, the level of exposure of plasma to free amikacin, and urinary excretion of amikacin after the administration of single-dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) and repeated-dose (20 mg/kg eight times at 48-h intervals) regimens in rhesus monkeys. The clearance of liposomal amikacin (single-dose regimen, 0.023 +/- 0.003 ml min-1 kg-1; repeated-dose regimen, 0.014 +/- 0.001 ml min-1 kg-1) was over 100-fold lower than the creatinine clearance (an estimate of conventional amikacin clearance). Half-lives in plasma were longer than those reported for other amikacin formulations and declined during the elimination phase following administration of the last dose (from 81.7 +/- 27 to 30.5 +/- 5 h). Peak and trough (48 h) levels after repeated dosing reached 728 +/- 72 and 418 +/- 60 micrograms/ml, respectively. The levels in plasma remained > 180 micrograms/ml for 6 days after the administration of the last dose. The free amikacin concentration in plasma never exceeded 17.4 +/- 1 micrograms/ml and fell rapidly (half-life, 1.47 to 1.85 h) after the administration of each dose of liposomal amikacin. This and the low volume of distribution (45 ml/kg) indicate that the amikacin in plasma largely remained sequestered in long-circulating liposomes. Less than half the amikacin was recovered in the urine, suggesting that the level of renal exposure to filtered free amikacin was reduced, possibly as a result of intracellular uptake or the metabolism of liposomal amikacin. Thus, low-clearance liposomal amikacin could be administered at prolonged (2- to 7-day) intervals to achieve high levels of exposure to liposomal amikacin with minimal exposure to free amikacin.  (+info)

Influences of urinary pH on ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics in humans and antimicrobial activity in vitro versus those of sparfloxacin. (4/6505)

The impact of acidification and alkalinization of urine on the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin was investigated after single 200-mg oral doses were administered to nine healthy male volunteers. In addition, the effect of human urine on the MICs of ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin against some common urinary tract pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Acidic and alkaline conditions were achieved by repeated oral doses of ammonium chloride or sodium bicarbonate, respectively. Plasma ciprofloxacin levels in all subjects were adequately described in terms of two-compartment model kinetics with first-order absorption. Acidification and alkalinization treatments had no effect on ciprofloxacin absorption, distribution, or elimination. The total amount of unchanged ciprofloxacin excreted over 24 h under acidic conditions was 88.4 +/- 14.5 mg (mean +/- standard deviation) (44.2% of the oral dose) and 82.4 +/- 16.5 mg (41.2% of the oral dose) under alkaline conditions, while the total amount of unchanged drug excreted over 24 h in volunteers receiving neither sodium bicarbonate nor ammonium chloride was 90.53 +/- 9.8 mg (45.2% of the oral dose). The mean renal clearance of ciprofloxacin was 16.78 +/- 2.67, 16.08 +/- 3.2, and 16.31 +/- 2.67 liters/h with acidification, alkalinization, and control, respectively. Renal clearance and concentrations of ciprofloxacin in urine were not correlated with urinary pH. The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin against E. coli NIHJ JC-2 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was affected by human urine and in particular by its pH. The activities of both quinolones against E. coli NIHJ JC-2 were lower at lower urinary pH and rather uniform, while in the case of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 ciprofloxacin was more active than sparfloxacin.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of ethambutol under fasting conditions, with food, and with antacids. (5/6505)

Ethambutol (EMB) is the most frequent "fourth drug" used for the empiric treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a frequently used drug for infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. The pharmacokinetics of EMB in serum were studied with 14 healthy males and females in a randomized, four-period crossover study. Subjects ingested single doses of EMB of 25 mg/kg of body weight under fasting conditions twice, with a high-fat meal, and with aluminum-magnesium antacid. Serum was collected for 48 h and assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with zero-order absorption and first-order elimination. Both fasting conditions produced similar results: a mean (+/- standard deviation) EMB maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of 4.5 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml, time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (Tmax) of 2.5 +/- 0.9 h, and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-infinity) of 28.9 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of antacids, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 2.9 +/- 1.2 h, and AUC0-infinity of 27.5 +/- 5.9 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of the Food and Drug Administration high-fat meal, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.8 +/- 0.8 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 3.2 +/- 1.3 h, and AUC0-infinity of 29.6 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. These reductions in Cmax, delays in Tmax, and modest reductions in AUC0-infinity can be avoided by giving EMB on an empty stomach whenever possible.  (+info)

Safety and pharmacokinetics of abacavir (1592U89) following oral administration of escalating single doses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected adults. (6/6505)

Abacavir (1592U89) is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has been demonstrated to have selective activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro and favorable safety profiles in mice and monkeys. A phase I study was conducted to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of abacavir following oral administration of single escalating doses (100, 300, 600, 900, and 1,200 mg) to HIV-infected adults. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects with baseline CD4+ cell counts ranging from < 50 to 713 cells per mm3 (median, 315 cells per mm3) were randomly assigned to receive abacavir (n = 12) or placebo (n = 6). The bioavailability of the caplet formulation relative to that of the oral solution was also assessed with the 300-mg dose. Abacavir was well tolerated by all subjects; mild to moderate asthenia, abdominal pain, headache, diarrhea, and dyspepsia were the most frequently reported adverse events, and these were not dose related. No significant clinical or laboratory abnormalities were observed throughout the study. All doses resulted in mean abacavir concentrations in plasma that exceeded the mean 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for clinical HIV isolates in vitro (0.07 microgram/ml) for almost 3 h. Abacavir was rapidly absorbed following oral administration, with the time to the peak concentration in plasma occurring at 1.0 to 1.7 h postdosing. Mean maximum concentrations in plasma (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) increased slightly more than proportionally from 100 to 600 mg (from 0.6 to 4.7 micrograms/ml for Cmax; from 1.0 to 15.7 micrograms.h/ml for AUC0-infinity) but increased proportionally from 600 to 1,200 mg (from 4.7 to 9.6 micrograms/ml for Cmax; from 15.7 to 32.8 micrograms.h/ml for AUC0-infinity. The elimination of abacavir from plasma was rapid, with an apparent elimination half-life of 0.9 to 1.7 h. Abacavir was well absorbed, with a relative bioavailability of the caplet formulation of 96% versus that of an oral solution (drug substance in water). In conclusion, this study showed that abacavir is safe and is well tolerated by HIV-infected subjects and demonstrated predictable pharmacokinetic characteristics when it was administered as single oral doses ranging from 100 to 1,200 mg.  (+info)

Safety and single-dose pharmacokinetics of abacavir (1592U89) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children. (7/6505)

Abacavir (formerly 1592U89) is a potent 2'-deoxyguanosine analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has been demonstrated to have a favorable safety profile in initial clinical trials with adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection. A phase I study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of abacavir following the administration of two single oral doses (4 and 8 mg/kg of body weight) to 22 HIV-infected children ages 3 months to 13 years. Plasma was collected for analysis at predose and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 5, and 8 h after the administration of each dose. Plasma abacavir concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods. Abacavir was well tolerated by all subjects. The single abacavir-related adverse event was rash, which occurred in 2 of 22 subjects. After administration of the oral solution, abacavir was rapidly absorbed, with the time to the peak concentration in plasma occurring within 1.5 h postdosing. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were comparable among the different age groups for each dose level. The mean maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax) and the mean area under the curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) increased by 16 and 45% more than predicted, respectively, as the abacavir dose was doubled from 4 to 8 mg/kg (Cmax increased from 1.69 to 3.94 micrograms/ml, and AUC0-infinity increased from 2.82 to 8.09 micrograms.h/ml). Abacavir was rapidly eliminated, with a mean elimination half-life of 0.98 to 1.13 h. The mean apparent clearance from plasma decreased from 27.35 to 18.88 ml/min/kg as the dose increased. Neither body surface area nor creatinine clearance were correlated with pharmacokinetic estimates at either dose. The extent of exposure to abacavir appears to be slightly lower in children than in adults, with the comparable unit doses being based on body weight. In conclusion, this study showed that abacavir is safe and well tolerated in children when it is administered as a single oral dose of 4 or 8 mg/kg.  (+info)

Optimizing aminoglycoside therapy for nosocomial pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria. (8/6505)

Nosocomial pneumonia is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality and leads to increases in lengths of hospital stays and institutional expenditures. Aminoglycosides are used to treat patients with these infections, but few data on the doses and schedules required to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes exist. We analyzed aminoglycoside treatment data for 78 patients with nosocomial pneumonia to determine if optimization of aminoglycoside pharmacodynamic parameters results in a more rapid therapeutic response (defined by outcome and days to leukocyte count resolution and temperature resolution). Cox proportional hazards, Classification and Regression Tree (CART), and logistic regression analyses were applied to the data. By all analyses, the first measured maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/MIC predicted days to temperature resolution and the second measured Cmax/MIC predicted days to leukocyte count resolution. For days to temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution, CART analyses produced breakpoints, with an 89% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.7 and an 86% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.5, respectively. Logistic regression analyses predicted a 90% probability of temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution by day 7 if a Cmax/MIC of > or = 10 is achieved within the first 48 h of aminoglycoside therapy. Aggressive aminoglycoside dosing immediately followed by individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring would ensure that Cmax/MIC targets are achieved early in therapy. This would increase the probability of a rapid therapeutic response for pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria and potentially decreasing durations of parenteral antibiotic therapy, lengths of hospitalization, and institutional expenditures, a situation in which both the patient and the institution benefit.  (+info)

will occur with equal frequency, and therefore all such points will be modes (local frequency maxima) of the distribution. On the other hand, though, if the middle part of the trapezoid is not completely flat, or if one or both of the side ramps are not perfectly linear, then the trapezoidal distribution in question is a generalized trapezoidal distribution,[1][2] and more complicated and context-dependent rules may apply. The side ramps of a trapezoidal distribution are not required to be symmetric in the general case, just as the sides of trapezoids in geometry are not required to be symmetric. Special cases of the trapezoidal distribution include the uniform distribution (with ...
Maximum plasma concentration at steady state during dosing interval (Css,max), time to maximum concentration at steady state during dosing interval (tss,max), minimum plasma concentration at steady state during dosing interval (Css,min), area under the plasma concentration time curve from zero to time of the last quantifiable concentrations [AUC(0-t)], area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to the end of the dosing interval (AUCτ); average plasma concentration during the dosing interval (Css,av), fluctuation index (FI ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of the blood sampling site on time-concentration drug profiles following intravenous or buccal drug administration. AU - Hedges, A. R.. AU - Pypendop, Bruno H. AU - Shilo, Y.. AU - Stanley, Scott D. AU - Ilkiw, Jan. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the sampling site on the drug concentration-time profile, following intravenous or buccal (often called oral transmucosal) drug administration. Buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) was administered IV or buccally to six cats. Blood samples were collected from the carotid artery and the jugular and medial saphenous veins for 24 h following buprenorphine administration. Buprenorphine concentration-time data were examined using noncompartmental analysis. Pharmacokinetic parameters were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, applying the Bonferroni correction. Significance was set at P , 0.05. Following IV administration, no difference among the sampling sites was found. Following buccal ...
The purpose of this study is to investigate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships of CPX-351 (Vyxeos,a novel formulation of Cytarabine and
A method of nerve therapy for treating nerves by electrical stimulation characterized by using pulses of a trapezoidal waveform such that the waveform, as viewed from a positive electrode has a flat positive potential with a negative pip that is a point made by convergence of the sides with no flat or curved portion. The therapy is carried out by contacting a patients skin with a pair of electrodes such that the positive electrode is orientated nearest the brain via the nerves conducting channels. The pulses with a trapezoidal waveform occur at a frequency selected within the range of 60 to 250 cycles per second, preferably within the range of 100 to 150 cycles per second with a peak to peak voltage of 55v or less (e.g., 19 to 25 volts.) These pulses are each defined as a pulse having a flat top portion with leading and trailing side portions which slope away from the top portion as the electrical potential drops toward the zero axis and proceeds into the negative pip.
The plasma concentration-time data observed in our study are similar to those observed in two preliminary reports describing the pharmacokinetics of orally administered nafithromycin in healthy subjects (17, 18). The mean ± SD Cmax of nafithromycin after the first dose of 800 mg in our study was 1.015 ± 0.314 mg/liter (at a mean time to Cmax [Tmax] of 3.97 h), whereas the reported range of mean Cmax values after a single dose was 0.932 to 1.207 mg/liter (at mean Tmax ranging from 3.88 to 4.0 h). Our observed value for the AUC from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞) after the first dose (12.89 ± 3.77 mg · h/liter) was consistent with the values observed in subjects who received a single 800-mg dose in the fasted (12.49 mg · h/liter) or fed (14.85 mg · h/liter) state or on the first day (AUC0-24, 11.99 mg · h/liter) of a multiple-dose study. Previously reported data provided evidence that the plasma exposure of nafithromycin was only mildly increased by food (AUC and Cmax were ...
Plasma drug concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters, including volume of the central compartment (Vc/F), elimination rate constant (Ke), half-life (t1/2), apparent oral clearance (CL/F), and area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC ...
I am trying to do Automatic Sensor Setup from Trapezoidal mode. It seems t work just fine in Sinusoidal mode, and the motors run very smooth/quiet in...
Trapezoidal Shaped Flip Top Meeting Table. 25mm Melamine Tops With A Robust Silver Steel Frame. Can Be Flipped From A Horizontal To Vertical Position. Tables
Abstract , References , Similar Articles , Additional Information Abstract: An interesting property of the midpoint rule and the trapezoidal rule, which is expressed by the so-called Hermite-Hadamard inequalities, is that they provide one-sided approximations to the integral of a convex function. We establish multivariate analogues of the Hermite-Hadamard inequalities and obtain access to multivariate integration formulae via convexity, in analogy to the univariate case. In particular, for simplices of arbitrary dimension, we present two families of integration formulae which both contain a multivariate analogue of the midpoint rule and the trapezoidal rule as boundary cases. The first family also includes a multivariate analogue of a Maclaurin formula and of the two-point Gaussian quadrature formula; the second family includes a multivariate analogue of a formula by P.C. Hammer and of Simpsons rule. In both families, we trace out those formulae which satisfy a Hermite-Hadamard inequality. As ...
with: known body length in adults more than 8 mm; cephalic plate trapezoidal, with posterior part wider than anterior part ( Figs 29BView FIGURE 29, 31BView FIGURE 31); forcipular tergite elongated, trapezoidal ( Figs 29BView FIGURE 29, 31BView FIGURE 31); denticle of tarsungulum relatively short and positioned close to mid-length of tarsungulum ( Figs 29CView FIGURE 29, 31DView FIGURE 31); distal denticle of trochanteroprefemur and denticle of femur distinctly spaced ( Figs 29CView FIGURE 29, 31DView FIGURE 31).. Recorded specimens: a single specimen, ♂.. Distribution. Brazil-Paraná: Foz do Iguaçu ( Silvestri 1909a, 1909b).. Description of holotype. Male (MCSG Vase type).. Entire body: length 8, maximum width 0.2. Cephalic plate: trapezoidal, with posterior margin 1.5 times as wide as anterior margin; length 0.33 and maximum width (near posterior margin) 0.24 (length/width ratio 1.37). Antenna: length 0.56, 1.7 times as long as cephalic plate; AA II-XIII length/width ratio 0.44-0.95; LAA ...
Twenty chemotherapy-naive patients with ovarian carcinoma received 1, 5, 10, or 15 µg/kg/day (five patients per dose step) of recombinant human interleukin 3 (rhIL-3) over 7 days after carboplatin/cyclophosphamide in Cycles 1 and 3. Patients received rhIL-3 by continuous i.v. infusion or once daily s.c. injection in Cycle 1 and the alternate route in Cycle 3. Plasma rhIL-3 samples were obtained once daily on Days 1 to 6 and serially over a 24-h period on Day 7 for pharmacokinetic assessment of s.c. and i.v. administered rhIL-3 in 16 and 17 patients, respectively. Concentrations were assayed by a time-resolved fluorescence sandwich immunoassay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived by noncompartmental methods. Mean steady-state concentrations during continuous i.v. infusion ranged from 117 pg/ml) 1 µg/kg/day) to 2217 pg/ml (15 µg/kg/day) and were linearly related to dose (r = 0.87, P , 0.001). When dose normalized, the mean steady-state concentrations were comparable at all doses. The ...
The plasma concentration-time profiles of EFV after oral dosing to rats were notable in that the concentrations at 40- and 160-mg/kg doses exhibited plateaus of about 4 and 16 μM, which were sustained for periods of 1 and 3 h, respectively. A 16-fold increase in the dose caused an AUC increase of about 70-fold (Table 2). These features coupled with the reduced plasma clearance after the high i.v. dose were suggestive of saturation of metabolism and possibly prolongation of absorption (Lin, 1994; Kwan, 1997) of EFV at the higher doses. The possibility of the prolonged absorption of EFV was further explored in rats. [14C]PEG-4000 was used as a nonabsorbable, nonmetabolizable macromolecular probe (Parlesak et al., 1994; Wiklund et al., 1984; Cortot et al., 1975; Krag et al., 1975) for investigating its transit time through the gastrointestinal tract, with and without pretreatment of animals with EFV. The results showed that PEG passed through the stomach rapidly in the control rats, and that most ...
Midostaurin exhibits time-dependent pharmacokinetics with an initial increase in minimum concentrations (Cmin) that reach the highest Cmin concentrations during the first week followed by a decline to a steady-state after approximately 28 days. The pharmacokinetics of the CGP62221 showed a similar trend. The plasma concentrations of CGP52421 continued to increase after one month of treatment.. The highest Cmin and steady-state of midostaurin, CGP62221, and CGP52421 were similar when RYDAPT was administered with food at a dose of 50 mg twice daily or 100 mg twice daily.. Absorption The time to maximal concentrations (Tmax) occurred between 1 to 3 hours post dose in the fasted state.. Effect of Food Midostaurin exposure, represented by area under the curve over time to infinity (AUCinf), increased 1.2-fold when RYDAPT was coadministered with a standard meal (457 calories, 50 g fat, 21 g proteins, and 18 g carbohydrates) and 1.6-fold when coadministered with a high-fat meal (1007 calories, 66 g ...
Purpose: This study determined the range of tolerable doses, clinical safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary evidence of clinical activity following once or twice daily administration of lapatinib in patients with solid malignancies.. Experimental Design: Cancer patients (n = 81) received oral doses of lapatinib ranging from 175 to 1,800 mg once daily or 500 to 900 mg twice daily. Clinical assessments of safety and antitumor activity were recorded and blood was sampled for pharmacokinetic assessments. The effect of a low-fat meal on lapatinib pharmacokinetics was assessed in a subset of patients.. Results: Lapatinib was well tolerated, such that dose escalation was limited at 1,800 mg once daily only by pill burden. Twice-daily dosing was implemented to further explore tolerability, and was limited by diarrhea to 500 mg twice daily. The most commonly reported adverse events with once-daily dosing were diarrhea (48%), nausea (40%), rash (40%), and fatigue (38%) and with twice-daily dosing were ...
View Notes - ConcentrationandSolubility from CHEM 100 at BYU. Concentration vs. Solubility From http:/www.iit.edu/~smile/ Therese Donatello 7929 Elm Grove Dr. Elmwood Park IL 60635 Archbishop Weber
The principle objective of this proposal is to develop a high resolution, high detection efficiency positron emission tomography (PET) detector with depth-of-in...
This phase Ib/IIa study is evaluating the addition of birinapant in subjects with chronic Hepatitis B who are currently receiving anti-viral therapy with either
Definite Integrals. Riemann Sums and Trapezoidal Rule. Why all this work? Why learn integration?. We are now going to look to find the numerical value of any curve f(x) from a to b, bounded by the x axis. (Fig 1) Slideshow 6242366 by finn-ayala
This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the considerable decrease in the clearance of I during chronic dosing was due to the formation of an inhibitory methylenedioxyaryl metabolite complex with the P450s that metabolize the compound. In support of this, a small amount of the P450-metabolite complex was formed in dogs within 24 h after a single dose of I, whereas considerably more of the complex was found after 14 days of treatment. Since the study design enabled the determination of the plasma pharmacokinetics of I and the formation of a P450-metabolite complex from the same animals, it was possible to evaluate the correlation between these two parameters. Although there was a 30-fold variation in the plasma AUC or clearance of Ibetween animals and a 12-fold variation in the amount of the liver P450-metabolite complex formed between dogs, there was a positive correlation between these pharmacokinetic parameters and the amount of the P450-metabolite complex formed in the livers of ...
Issue July - September-2020 | Quarterly published in print and online Inventi Rapid/Impact: Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacodynamics publishes high quality unpublished as well as high impact pre-published research and reviews catering to the needs of researchers and professionals. This journal focuses on all areas of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drug substances and products including drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and application of pharmacokinetics principles for effective management of drugs. Articles from the areas such as drug action, clinical pharmacokinetics, drug metabolites, dosage form evaluation in animals and humans, bioavailabilty studies, scaling from animals to humans, and in vitro and in vivo correlations are also welcome.
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I am trying to understand some things related to elliptic curves and finite flat group schemes but I am a little bit confused.. Let $A$ be a supersingular elliptic curve over an algebraically closed field $K$ of characteristic $p$. Let $F: A \rightarrow A^{(p)}$ be the Frobenius isogeny. Then $\ker F$ is as a finite flat group scheme over $K$ isomorphic to $\alpha_p$, the kernel of the Frobenius on $\mathbb{G}_a$.. Now lets look at $F^2: A \rightarrow A^{(p^2)}$.. ...
There are an infinite number of parabolas through any two given points, but only one through three given points. If we find a parabola through three consecutive points \((x_i,f(x_i))\text{,}\) \((x_{i+1},f(x_{i+1}))\text{,}\) \((x_{i+2},f(x_{i+2}))\) on the curve, it should be quite close to the curve over the whole interval \([x_i,x_{i+2}]\text{,}\) as in Figure 2.6.3. If we divide the interval \([a,b]\) into an even number of subintervals, we can then approximate the curve by a sequence of parabolas, each covering two of the subintervals. For this to be practical, we would like a simple formula for the area under one parabola, namely, the parabola through \((x_i,f(x_i))\text{,}\) \((x_{i+1},f(x_{i+1}))\text{,}\) and \((x_{i+2},f(x_{i+2}))\text{.}\) That is, we should attempt to write down the parabola \(y=ax^2+bx+c\) through these points and then integrate it, and hope that the result is fairly simple. Although the algebra involved is messy, this turns out to be possible. The algebra is well ...
My son Evan was diagnosed with idiopathic infantile scoliosis at the age of 6 months (4-01-03). At the time of diagnosis he had a 38 degree left thoracic curve measuring from t4 to t8. A MRI revealed no abnormalities. We are currently being treated by an orthopedic surgeon at Chidrens Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. His decision was to watch the curve over a period of a few months. After taking a series of x-rays over a 5 month period the curve had shown no change. At this time
If you want the curve to start inside the letter and continue outside, create the whole curl or swirl that you want , then position the curve over the letters where you want it, cut it where it intersects the letter outline and paste the portion which comes inside the lettering first, then paste the portion outside taking care the curve looks continuous. Do not squash the curl/swirl while working as you will loose continuity. ...
DogBooksOnline have recently started selling the Wicked Hound Recurve Sports Collar on their website. This is a collar designed by Kirsty Cumming, a vet and top Australian agility competitor and trainer, specifically for performance dogs. It features contoured sides to allow more freedom of movement through the shoulder and avoids pressure points on the neck. Her plan was to design a collar that provided proper tracheal support for dogs when they are running or pulling rather than the normal strap collar that has a 3 x load increase on the top edge when a dog is exerting pressure. The stiffer the collar, the higher the point of pressure, which inevitably leads to throat damage.. Several years were spent testing materials and working on digital modelling to perfect the design. The result is a collar that has a broad front that tapers and curves over the dogs shoulder to direct load back to the handler holding the lead. Thus, the worlds first ergonomic collar, made from military grade cordura, ...
With over 20 sizes in right and left hand versions, Roton offers the most complete Trapezoidal lead screw products made in the USA. Total Solar Eclipse - On Monday, Aug, all of North America will be treated to an eclipse of the sun. of parallel paths and after effects roto brush calculate forward N is the speed of the DC Motor. There does not appear to be any way to replace the brush twines if they break or wear down; it looks like Id need to purchase another brush head (which I think I saw for sale on Amazon). Effects Of Force On An Object. Find after effects roto brush calculate forward and study online flashcards and class notes at home or on your phone. after effects roto brush calculate forward 47% of those users who reviewed Alli reported a positive effect, while 34% reported a negative effect. Contact us today!. &0183;&32;How to Use Our Free calculate iOS 14 Icons. Please consult your doctor if you experience any of the side effects below and ask for his or her tips to complement the ...
We report the fabrication and characterization of a new polarization converter for InGaAsP-InP photonic integrated circuits. The converter consists of two right trapezoidal sections with the angled sidewalls etched wetly. The converters show a greatly improved tolerance to variations of the fabrication, an averaged efficiency of polarization conversion of 99.8% and a loss of about 0.7 dB at a wavelength of 1.535 μm.. © 2013 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Biochemistry, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics - The section of Biochemistry, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics part contains threads and po
Biochemistry, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics - The section of Biochemistry, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics part contains threads and po
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of oral midazolam limited sampling strategies to predict area under the concentration time curve (AUC) during cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A baseline, inhibition and induction or activation. AU - Ma, J. D.. AU - Nguyen, E. T.. AU - Tsunoda, S. M.. AU - Greenberg, H. E.. AU - Gorski, J. C.. AU - Penzak, S. R.. AU - Lee, L. S.. PY - 2010/12. Y1 - 2010/12. N2 - A previous study reported a 2-and 3-timepoint limited sampling strategy (LSS) model accurately predicted oral midazolamarea under the concentration time curve (AUC), and thus cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity. Objective: This study evaluated whether the LSS models predict midazolam AUC during CYP3A baseline, inhibition and induction/activation. Materials and methods: Plasma midazolam concentrations from 106 healthy adults from 6 published studies were obtained where oral midazolam was co-administered alone or with ketoconazole, double-strength grapefruit juice, Ginkgo biloba extract, pleconaril, or rifampin. Observed and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Limited Sampling Strategies Based on Healthy Volunteers for Monitoring of Ertapenem in Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. AU - van Rijn, S P. AU - Zuur, M A. AU - van Altena, R. AU - Akkerman, O W. AU - Proost, J H. AU - de Lange, W C M. AU - Kerstjens, H A M. AU - Touw, D J. AU - van der Werf, T S. AU - Kosterink, J G W. AU - Alffenaar, J W C. N1 - Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.. PY - 2017/4. Y1 - 2017/4. N2 - Ertapenem is a broad-spectrum carbapenem antibiotic whose activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is being explored. Carbapenems have antibacterial activity when the plasma concentration exceeds the MIC at least 40% of the time (40% T-MIC). To assess the 40% T-MIC in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients, a limited sampling strategy was developed using a population pharmacokinetic model based on data for healthy volunteers. A two-compartment population pharmacokinetic model was developed with ...
1 mm internal diameter, 5 μL; Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). For elution, a linear gradient was applied: CH3CN-H2O (40:60, v/v) to CH3CN-H2O (95:5, v/v) for 10 min. The flow rate was 0.3 mL/min. Mass spectra were acquired in a positive mode using nitrogen gas at a temperature of 300°C, flow rate of 10 L/min, nebulizer pressure of INK1197 20 psi, quadruple temperature of 30°C, and capillary voltage of 4000 V. The precursor-product ion pairs monitored were. 969→789 for ginsenoside Rd and 409→238 for the internal standard (amlodipine). The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and time to reach maximum drug concentration (Tmax) for ginsenoside Rd were estimated directly from the plasma concentration-time profiles. Area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve (AUC) was calculated by using the log-linear trapezoidal rule for the total period and extrapolated to infinity. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA; IBM SPSS version 20.0; IBM ...
Antimicrobials are among the most important and commonly prescribed drugs in the management of critically ill patients and beta-lactams are the most common antibiotic class used. Critically ill patients pathophysiological factors lead to altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of beta-lactams. A comprehensive bibliographic search in PubMed database of all English language articles published from January 2000 to December 2017 was performed, allowing the selection of articles addressing the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of beta-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients. In critically ill patients, several factors may increase volume of distribution and enhance renal clearance, inducing high intra- and inter-patient variability in beta-lactam concentration and promoting the risk of antibiotic underdosing. The duration of infusion of beta-lactams has been shown to influence the fT | minimal inhibitory concentration and an improved beta-lactam pharmacodynamics profile may be obtained by
Read the Clinical Chemistry Journals July 2010 Clinical Case Study and student discussion. A 24-year-old woman with advanced Hodgkin disease received the standard dosing protocol for busulfan/cyclophosphamide before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)1 from a matched unrelated donor. The target area under the plasma concentration vs time curve (AUC) for busulfan was set at 950 μmol · L−1 · min−1, near the low end of the therapeutic interval of 900-1350 μmol · L−1 · min−1. The patients body mass index (BMI) was 45.5 kg/m2 (height, 170.2 cm; weight, 132.0 kg), so the dose was based on the patients ideal body weight. The patient received 2-hour intravenous infusions of busulfan every 6 h for 4 days (16 doses total). The patient was concurrently prescribed multiple medications, including an immunosuppressant, an antiviral, an antifungal, an antidepressant, an anxiolytic, a β-blocker, and a muscle relaxant, as well as antibiotics, warfarin, opioids, and antiepileptic
Background: Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) is a pharmacokinetic parameter that represents general contact with a medication. EMBASE databases had been researched using the conditions anti-infective realtors limited sampling optimum sampling sparse sampling AUC monitoring Neratinib abbreviated AUC abbreviated sampling and Bayesian. The reference lists of retrieved articles manually were searched. Included research had been classified regarding to modified requirements from the united states Preventive Services Job Force. Outcomes: Twenty research met the addition criteria. Six from the research (concerning didanosine zidovudine nevirapine ciprofloxacin efavirenz and nelfinavir) had been classified as offering level I proof 4 research (concerning vancomycin didanosine lamivudine and lopinavir-ritonavir) offered level II-1 proof 2 research (concerning saquinavir and ceftazidime) provided level II-2 evidence and 8 studies (involving ciprofloxacin nelfinavir vancomycin ...
Anlotinib is a novel multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is designed to primarily inhibit VEGFR2/3, FGFR1-4, PDGFR α/β, c-Kit, and Ret. We aimed to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of anlotinib in patients with advanced refractory solid tumors. Anlotinib (5-16 mg) was orally administered in patients with solid tumor once a day on two schedules: (1) four consecutive weeks (4/0) or (2) 2-week on/1-week off (2/1). Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed in all patients. Twenty-one patients were further enrolled in an expanded cohort study on the recommended dose and schedule. Preliminary tumor response was also assessed. On the 4/0 schedule, dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was grade 3 hypertension at 10 mg. On the 2/1 schedule, DLT was grade 3 hypertension and grade 3 fatigue at 16 mg. Pharmacokinetic assessment indicated that anlotinib had long elimination half-lives and significant accumulation during multiple oral doses. The 2/1 schedule was selected, with 12 mg once
Interaction of a drug with other drugs and dietary supplements is becoming an emerging issue for patients and health insurance authorities due to awareness of adverse drug event. In this study, we examined the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), one of the most popular dietary supplements, on the pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline in rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline changed significantly when the drug was administered after five consecutive days of pretreatment with CoQ10. Time to reach maximum plasma concentration of theophylline delayed when the drug was administered after the pretreatment with CoQ10. Maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve of theophylline were about two-fold increased and other pharmacokinetic parameters such as half-life and volume of distribution were also changed significantly. Therefore, although CoQ10 is generally considered a safe dietary supplement, it appears that patients on theophylline therapy should use caution when they take ...
Seven healthy volunteers showing a fourteenfold range in steady-state plasma concentrations on oral alprenolol (200 mg b.i.d.) were investigated by administration of 5 mg of the drug intravenously and then 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg as single oral doses. The rank order for individual steady-state plasma concentrations was the same as that for the relative bioavailability of the 200 mg dose. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve showed a nonlinear increase with the dose. As the relative availability was a good predictor of steady state while clearance after intravenous administration was not, it was concluded that differences in first-pass elimination markedly contribute to the interindividual variability in steady state plasma concentrations. After pentobarbital treatment, the area under the plasma concentration curve of the 200 mg dose was decreased to 32% and 59% of the pretreatment values in two subjects, but there was no change in the plasma half-life of alprenolol. This indicates
Mean steady-state plasma concentration-time profiles are shown in Figure 1. Pharmacokinetic parameters are summarized in Table 2. There was no period or sequence effect for any ATV parameter (AUC0-24, P = 0.25; Cmax, P = 0.46; Cmin, P = 0.91; Tmax, P = 0.84) or RAL parameter (AUC0-24, P = 0.12; Cmax, P = 0.35; Cmin, P = 0.19; Tmax, P = 0.47). Both ATV and RAL demonstrated considerable pharmacokinetic variability (Table 2). The 90% CIs of Cmin GMR (q24h/q12h) for both ATV and RAL were outside the prespecified equivalence interval of 0.80-1.25 [1.30 (90% CI: 1.08 to 1.58) and 0.48 (90% CI: 0.31 to 0.75), respectively], demonstrating nonequivalence between q12h and q24h dosages. We observed significant between-strategy differences for ATV AUC0-24 [GMR 0.76 (90% CI: 0.59 to 0.98)] and RAL Cmax [GMR 1.99 (90% CI: 1.50 to 2.63)]. RTV pharmacokinetic parameters are summarized in Table 2; there was no period effect for any parameter (AUC0-12, P = 0.10; Cmin, P = 0.31; Cmax, P = 0.45; Tmax, P = 0.86 ...
BioAssay record AID 236679 submitted by ChEMBL: Maximum plasma concentration in rat after oral administration at 10 mg/kg dosage.
PURPOSE: Metarrestin is a first-in-class small molecule clinical candidate capable of disrupting the perinucleolar compartment, a subnuclear structure unique to metastatic cancer cells. This study aims to define the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of metarrestin and the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of metarrestin-regulated markers. METHODS: PK studies included the administration of single or multiple dose of metarrestin at 3, 10, or 25 mg/kg via intravenous (IV) injection, gavage (PO) or with chow to wild-type C57BL/6 mice and KPC mice bearing autochthonous pancreatic tumors. Metarrestin concentrations were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacodynamic assays included mRNA expression profiling by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR for KPC mice. RESULTS: Metarrestin had a moderate plasma clearance of 48 mL/min/kg and a large volume of distribution of 17 L/kg at 3 mg/kg IV in C57BL/6 mice. The oral bioavailability after single-dose (SD) treatment was , 80%. In KPC mice treated with SD 25 mg/kg PO, plasma ...
Antibiotic dose is important in determining serum area-under-the-curve (AUC) and peak serum concentration (Cmax), as well as the time the serum concentration remains over the pathogen minimum inhibitory concentration (T,MIC). However, dose is not the sole determinant of these factors; they are modified by absorption, clearance, and frequency of dosing. It is difficult to relate dose to clinical outcome in humans, but pharmacodynamic parameters (AUC/MIC, Cmax/MIC, or T,MIC) have been related to clinical and bacteriological efficacy or emergence of resistance to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides, and β-lactams.. ...
We measured hair and plasma concentrations of isoniazid among sixteen children with tuberculosis who underwent personal or video-assisted directly observed therapy and thus had 100% adherence. This study therefore defined typical isoniazid exposure parameters after two months of treatment among fully-adherent patients in both hair and plasma (plasma area under the concentration-time curve, AUC, estimated using pharmacokinetic data collected 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours after drug administration). We found that INH levels in hair among highly-adherent individuals did not correlate well with plasma AUC or trough concentrations, suggesting that each measure may provide incremental and complementary information regarding drug exposure in the context of TB treatment ...
Comparison of the plasma pharmacokinetic parameters following the 1st and 5th daily doses of 500 mg intravenous azithromycin showed only an 8% increase in Cmax but a 61% increase in AUC24 reflecting a threefold rise in C24 trough levels.. Following single-oral doses of 500 mg azithromycin (two 250 mg capsules) to 12 healthy volunteers, Cmax, trough level, and AUC24 were reported to be 0.41 mcg/mL, 0.05 mcg/mL, and 2.6 mcg∙h/mL, respectively. These oral values are approximately 38%, 83%, and 52% of the values observed following a single 500-mg I.V. 3-hour infusion (Cmax: 1.08 mcg/mL, trough: 0.06 mcg/mL, and AUC24: 5.0 mcg∙h/mL). Thus, plasma concentrations are higher following the intravenous regimen throughout the 24-hour interval.. Distribution The serum protein binding of azithromycin is variable in the concentration range approximating human exposure, decreasing from 51% at 0.02 mcg/mL to 7% at 2 mcg/mL.. Tissue concentrations have not been obtained following intravenous infusions of ...
In vitro data has limitations and may not reflect what occurs in the whole organism. The conversion rate may be slower or faster, the concentrations different, etc., which is why it is not always possible to follow the entire bioconversion in vivo. The three compounds, aripiprazole, N-hydroxymethyl aripiprazole and aripiprazole lauroxil, were therefore dosed intravenously to three different groups of rats. The plasma concentration time profile following administration of aripiprazole. can be seen in Fig. 4A. The profile could be described by a bi-exponential equation: equation(3) Cpl=1464⋅e−2.77t+1205⋅e−0.16tCpl=1464⋅e−2.77t+1205⋅e−0.16t where Cpl is the concentration of aripiprazole (nanomol) in plasma and t is time (in hours). The AUC0→∞ was 8176 ± 2647 nmol h/L, clearance 1.37 ± 0.61 L/h/kg and volume of distribution 8.16 ± 0.75 L/kg giving a terminal plasma half-life of ≈4.2 h. This is slightly longer than that previously INCB024360 cost reported following ...
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Downloadable! Multivariate continuous time models are now widely used in economics and finance. Empirical applications typically rely on some process of discretization so that the system may be estimated with discrete data. This paper introduces a framework for discretizing linear multivariate continuous time systems that includes the commonly used Euler and trapezoidal approximations as special cases and leads to a general class of estimators for the mean reversion matrix. Asymptotic distributions and bias formulae are obtained for estimates of the mean reversion parameter. Explicit expressions are given for the discretization bias and its relationship to estimation bias in both multivariate and in univariate settings. In the univariate context, we compare the performance of the two approximation methods relative to exact maximum likelihood (ML) in terms of bias and variance for the Vasicek process. The bias and the variance of the Euler method are found to be smaller than the trapezoidal method, which
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The aim of this study was to obtain pharmacokinetic data for the anxiolytic compound galphimine-A (G-A) from Galphimia glauca. G-A is the most abundant anxiolytic compound in this plant, while Galphimine-E (G-E) is the most abundant galphimine, but inactive. G-E was transformed chemically into G-A. The pharmacokinetic study was carried out in ICR mice, which were orally administered a single 200 mg/kg dose of G-A. Samples of blood and brain were taken at different times after administration of G-A. Previously, we established the validation of methods for determining the concentration of G-A. The G-A was detected in plasma 5 min after oral administration, and its concentration reached 2.47 μg/mL. Data from concentration-time curves allowed us to establish the main pharmacokinetic parameters in two models: one- and/or two-compartment. Cmax values were 3.33 and 3.42 μg/mL respectively, likewise AUC0→1440 min were 1,951.58 and 1,824.95 μg/mL·min. The G-A in brain tissue was noted to cross the blood
f(1)= 20, f(3)=13, f(5)=15, f(7)=16, f(9)=11, on [0,6] a, used midpint rule with n=5 to estimate intergral form 0 to 10 f(x)dx b, use trapezoidal rule with n=4 to estimate intergral from 1 to 9 f(x)dx c, used simpsons rule with n=4 to estimate intergal from 1 to 9 (x)dx ...
OBJECTIVE: To compare pharmacokinetics of eltenac after first and last IV administrations (0.5 mg/kg), using a multiple dosing schedule. ANIMALS: 6 adult mares. PROCEDURE: Eltenac (50 mg/ml) was administered IV at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight every 24 hours for days 0 through 4. On days 0 and 4, blood samples were collected before, then periodically for 8 hours after eltanac administration. Concentration of eltenac in plasma samples was determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: On day 0, median area under the plasma eltenac concentration versus time curve (AUC) was 6.77 microg.h/ml (range, 5.61 to 8.08 microg.h/ml), median plasma clearance was 1.23 ml/min/kg (range, 1.03 to 1.40 ml/min/kg), and median steady-state volume of distribution was 191 ml/kg (range, 178 to 218 ml/kg). Median terminal half-life of eltenac was 2.36 hours (range, 2.30 to 2.98 hours). On day 4, median eltenac AUC was 6.70 microg.h/ml (range, 5.21 to 7.44 microg.h/ml), median plasma ...
This example demonstrates how a variational problem can be discretized to a finite optimization problem efficiently solved by convex methods, such as QuadraticOptimization.. The variational problem will be approximated by discretizing the boundary value problem and using the trapezoidal rule to integrate on a uniformly spaced grid on the interval [0,1], ...
Maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (tmax), area under the concentration time curve from zero to last observed concentration (AUC0-τ), half-life (t1/2), total body clearance (CL), apparent volume of distribution (VD) in plasma; penetration ratio calculated as CSF concentration (Cmax and AUC0-τ, respectively) divided by plasma ...
This open-label, multi-center, three-period, one sequence study will investigate the effect of vemurafenib on the pharmacokinetics digoxin of in patient
FIG 2 Distributions of free-drug AUC0-168/MIC ratios at the MIC90 value for C. albicans of 0.06 mg/liter for simulated patients administered the single-dose and weekly rezafungin regimens shown relative to the free-drug AUC0-168/MIC ratio targets associated with net fungal stasis and a 1-log10 CFU reduction from baseline. Plot whiskers represent the 5th and 95th percentiles of the AUC0-168/MIC ratios. ...
Edit: Previous answer was bogus.. Let me change your notation a little to let $x_0$ be the limit of the $x_n$.. Yes, this is true. It follows from tightness and the general fact that $h(x_n, \cdot) \to h(x_0, \cdot)$ uniformly on compact sets.. Without loss of generality, lets suppose that $h(x_0, \cdot) = 0$ (replace $h(x,y)$ by $h(x,y) - h(x_0,y)$). Let $\epsilon , 0$ and let $M$ be the sup norm of $h$. By the easier direction of Prohorovs theorem, the sequence $\{\mu_n\}$ is tight, so there is a compact $K \subset S$ such that for every $n$ we have $\mu_n(K^C) , \epsilon$. Now we have $$\begin{align*}\left,\int h(x_n, y) \mu_n(dy)\right, &\le \int_K ,h(x_n,y),\,\mu_n(dy) + \int_{K^C} ,h(x_n, y), \mu_n(dy) \\ &\le \sup_{y \in K} ,h(x_n, y), + M \epsilon.\end{align*}$$ So it suffices to show that $h(x_n, \cdot) \to 0$ uniformly on $K$. Suppose not; then passing to a subsequence if necessary, we can find $\delta , 0$ so that $\sup_{y \in K} ,h(x_n, y), , \delta$ for all $n$. Thus for each $n$ ...
Area-under-curve (AUC) statistic for ROC curves[edit]. The U statistic is equivalent to the area under the receiver operating ... The concordance probability is exactly equal to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) that is often ... Hanley, James A.; McNeil, Barbara J. (1982). "The Meaning and Use of the Area under a Receiver Operating (ROC) Curve ... "A Simple Generalisation of the Area Under the ROC Curve for Multiple Class Classification Problems" (PDF). Machine Learning. 45 ...
Area under the curve The integral of the concentration-time curve (after a single dose or in steady state). ... Many drugs follow a biphasic elimination curve - first a steep slope then a shallow slope: STEEP (initial) part of curve -, ... SHALLOW part of curve -, ultimate excretion of drug, which is dependent on the release of the drug from tissue compartments ...
Pressure-area characteristics[edit]. Adding a monolayer to the surface reduces the surface tension, and the surface pressure, Π ... A curve; (a) gaseous phase, (b) liquid-expanded phase, and (c) condensed phase. (Adapted from Osvaldo N. Oliveira Jr., ... surface area (A) and number of surfactant molecules (N). This system behaves similar to a gas in a container. The density of ... Figure 3. (i) Surface pressure - Area isotherms. (ii) Molecular configuration in the three regions marked in the Π. {\ ...
Area Under the Curve (concentration time curve; medicine). *AUD - (s) Australian dollar (ISO 4217 currency code) ... ASG - (i) Area Support Group. *ASIC - (a) Australian Securities and Investments Commission - (a) Aviation Security ... Atisbo - a Local Government Area in Nigeria named for constituent communities (Ago-Are, Tede, Irawo, Sabe, Baasi, Ofiki and Owo ...
The Schuylkill Expressway curves southeast near wooded areas of homes before coming to an interchange with PA 320 in the ... "Conshohocken Curve". WPVI. Retrieved 2009-08-09. "Rain Closes expressway east of Conshohocken Curve". The Philadelphia Inquirer ... "Conshohocken Curve" or "Conshy Curve", which has a history of traffic congestion and dangerous conditions. I-76 continues ... The freeway curves to the southwest, with CSX's Trenton Subdivision heading east away from the road and CSX's Harrisburg ...
NBC Sports Bay Area Staff (October 6, 2020). "Nine best Van Halen sports anthems ranked, in Eddie's memory". NBCSports.com. ... "Winnipeg Jets pick Jump by Van Halen as new goal song". Illegal Curve. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. ...
The contestants main requirement is that they come from the Bay Area, otherwise the organizer notes "we have gay women who ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Messman-Rucker, Ariel (2008). "Drag Kings in the City". Curve Magazine. Retrieved 27 ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Wrestler wins drag king crown". Bay Area Reporter. August 20, 2009. Retrieved 27 July ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "New drag king crowned". Bay Area Reporter. August 23, 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2012. ...
Freddy Curves (3 December 2017). "Opposition calls for re-run of disputed vote". San Jose Mercury-News. Bay Area News Group. AP ... Many urban areas have sewer systems in place to collect wastewater, but proper treatment of wastewater is rare. In rural areas ... In urban areas males are often sought out from secondary schools while in rural areas roadblocks aided the military in ... Some of the ways seafood and some meats are prepared in coastal areas and in the Bay Islands involve coconut milk. ...
"Maltese Cross Curve". MathWorld. Wolfram. 2013-05-08. Retrieved 2013-05-20. "Area of a mushroom-shaped curve". Mathematics. ... Centerbody of an inlet cone in ramjets Bow shape Bow curve Bullet Nose an open-ended hourglass Butterfly curve Cocked hat curve ... Curves lists numerous metaphorical names, such as Bean curves, also called Nephroids, from the Greek word for kidney "Bullet ... Curves The Fish bladder is the intersection of two congruent disks, each centered on the perimeter of the other Bicorn Astroid ...
That is the area under the precision-recall curve. This integral is in practice replaced with a finite sum over every position ... one can plot a precision-recall curve, plotting precision p. (. r. ). {\displaystyle p(r)}. as a function of recall r. {\ ... function to reduce the impact of "wiggles" in the curve.[4][5] For example, the PASCAL Visual Object Classes challenge (a ... For example, a binormal precision-recall curve can be obtained by assuming decision values in both classes to follow a Gaussian ...
It is represented in the return potential model by the total amount of area subsumed by the curve, regardless of whether the ... It encompasses all the positive area under the curve. In Figure 1, the range of tolerable behavior extends is 3, as the group ... If the return curve in Figure 1 correctly displays the example social norm, we can see that if someone drinks 0 cups of coffee ... Crystallization. Finally, norm crystallization refers to how much variance exists within the curve; translated from the ...
... is a public high school in the Hollywood area of Los Angeles, California. The school is named after ... Dickinson, Elizabeth Evitts (April 2008). "L.A.'s Learning Curve". ARCHITECT Magazine. Archived from the original on 2009-01-05 ... "Central LA Area New HS #1, 55.98014." Los Angeles Independent School District. Retrieved on February 9, 2009. ...
Let R = ( x , y ) {\displaystyle R=(x,y)} be a point on an elliptic curve. Then R ¯ = ( x mod 2 L ) + 2 L {\displaystyle {\bar ... 2nd Workshop on Selected Areas in Cryptography (SAC '95). Ottawa, Canada. pp. 22-32. Hankerson, D.; Vanstone, S.; Menezes, A. ( ... The protocol can be modified to work in an arbitrary finite group, and, in particular, elliptic curve groups, where it is known ... Elliptic curve cryptography Law, L.; Menezes, A.; Qu, M.; Solinas, J.; Vanstone, S. (2003). "An Efficient Protocol for ...
Cuando Cubango (Umbundu: Kwando Kubango Volupale) is a province of Angola and it has an area of 199,049 km2 and a population of ... N. Stromberg John Frederick Walker (2004-01-07). A Certain Curve of Horn. Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-8021-4068-5. "Resultados ... "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2020-02-27. John Frederick Walker. 2004 ... the area was previously suitable habitat for the endangered painted hunting dog, Lycaon pictus, which is now deemed extirpated ...
It has various areas, including the Millennium Rose Garden. It also has a large Sweet Chestnut, planted to commemorate the ... It has a double curve. Historic England, "Mount Ephraim (1069118)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 12 February ... Sited on an artificially raised mound, the area gives far views of Blean woods, Hernhill church and the Miz Maze. The gardens ...
By taking better and better approximations, we can say that "in the limit" we get exactly the area of S under the curve. ... We are interested in measuring the area of S. Once we have measured it, we will denote the area by: ∫. a. b. f. (. x. ). d. x. ... Consequently, each term represents the (signed) area of a rectangle with height f(ti) and width xi + 1 − xi. The Riemann sum is ... the definition of S is modified so that the integral corresponds to the signed area under the graph of f: that is, the area ...
Solidity is measured by blade area divided by the rotor area. Newer Darrieus type turbines are not held up by guy-wires but ... The advantages of variable pitch are: high starting torque; a wide, relatively flat torque curve; a higher coefficient of ... If the effective area of the disk is A, and the wind velocity v, the maximum theoretical power output P is: P = 16 27 1 2 ρ v 3 ... This would not be a problem in the US due to its vast area and because the same land can be used for farming. A greater ...
Kuznets curve Mather, A.S. 1992. The forest transition. Area 24(4): 367-379 Walker, R. 1993. Deforestation and Economic ... Redistribution of labour resources from areas of low fertility to areas of greater fertility promotes regrowth in the areas ... Area 27(3): 242-251 Mather, A.S. and C.L. Needle. 1998. The forest transition: a theoretical basis. Area 30(2): 117-124 Rudel, ... A Kuznets curve analysis of the problem, where income leads to forest regrowth, has contradictory results, due to the complex ...
A study area can be divided into any number of individual subcatchments, each of which drains to a single point. Study areas ... Curve number method This approach is adopted from the NRCS (SCS) curve number method for estimating runoff. It assumes that the ... The capture ratio is the ratio of the rain garden's area to the impervious area that drains onto it. GreenRoof: Green Roofs are ... The planter's capture ratio is the ratio of its area to the impervious area whose runoff it captures. Raingarden:Rain Gardens ...
The Burnley Built-up area, similar but larger than Burnley-Nelson urban area defined in the 2001 census, had a population of ... "Todmorden Curve £8.8m reinstatement approved". BBC News. 31 October 2011. Magill, Peter. "First tenants for Burnley's £1.4 ... UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report - Burnley Built-up area (E34004743)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 ... The area of the mine has been restored as a park. In 1980 Burnley was connected to the motorway network, through the ...
For example, in one study bromocriptine was given with a CYP3A4 inhibitor and the AUC (e. Area under the curve) increased 268 ... it is thought to be involved in the activation of dopamine receptors in the area of the brain where the striatum and the ...
Osgood, William F. (January 1903). "A Jordan Curve of Positive Area". Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. ... Osgood curves are simple plane curves with positive Lebesgue measure (it can be obtained by small variation of the Peano curve ... For n = 1, 2, or 3, it coincides with the standard measure of length, area, or volume. In general, it is also called n- ... surfaces or curves in R3 and fractal sets. The Hausdorff measure is not to be confused with the notion of Hausdorff dimension. ...
A particularly delicate area since it is from there that we take the fountain pen while writing. "The Pen with no joint to leak ... The pen used the Lucky Curve ink supply system, designed to draw ink even when the pen was not in use, which was invented and ... The pen with the Lucky Curve. The success of the pen age. You cannot soil your fingers with a Parker Jointless." «Sour Look, ... The Parker Jointless "Lucky Curve" is a range of fountain pens released by the Parker Pen Company in late 1897. ...
Area under the curve The integral of the concentration-time curve (after a single dose or in steady state). 1,320 mg/L·h A. U. ... Noncompartmental methods estimate the exposure to a drug by estimating the area under the curve of a concentration-time graph. ... Total drug exposure is most often estimated by area under the curve (AUC) methods, with the trapezoidal rule (numerical ... Much attention is paid to the linearity of the standard curve; however it is common to use curve fitting with more complex ...
Solidity is measured by blade area divided by the rotor area. Newer Darrieus type turbines are not held up by guy-wires but ... relatively flat torque curve; a higher coefficient of performance; more efficient operation in turbulent winds; and a lower ... If the effective area of the disk is A, and the wind velocity v, the maximum theoretical power output P is: P. =. 16. 27. 1. 2 ... It also has the largest rotor of 220 m and largest swept area at 38000 m2[93] It also holds the record for the highest ...
Houh, H.H.; Adam, J.F.; Ismert, M.; Lindblad, C.J.; Tennenhouse, D.L. (1995). "The VuNet desk area network: Architecture, ... Putting information infrastructure on the technology curve". Computer Networks and ISDN Systems. 28 (13): 1769-90. doi:10.1016/ ... implementation, and experience". IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications. 13 (4): 710-21. doi:10.1109/49.382161.. ...
Most specimens curve slightly to the left. The adductor scar area in most Pliocene specimens retains a purplish red colour. Beu ...
Consistency the area under the ROC curve, or "AUC" ("Area Under Curve"), or A' (pronounced "a-prime"), or "c-statistic" (" ... the area between the full ROC curve and the triangular ROC curve including only (0,0), (1,1) and one selected operating point ( ... When using normalized units, the area under the curve (often referred to as simply the AUC) is equal to the probability that a ... Till, D.J.; Hand, R.J. (2001). "A Simple Generalisation of the Area Under the ROC Curve for Multiple Class Classification ...
Horseshoe Curve remains a popular tourist attraction. There is a free funicular that takes visitors to a viewing area, or it ... The area is zoned as mostly residential limited, but also uniquely has a significant area of light and heavy industry as well ... Because the curve was an industrial link to the western United States, Horseshoe Curve was a primary target of eight Nazi ... Calvert Hills is a small area between 12th Street and 16th Street north to south and 17th Ave to the east. This is the area of ...
In structures, their curve represents an efficient method of load, and so can be found in bridges and in architecture in a ... Also, it can span the widest area. It is commonly used in bridge design, where long spans are needed. When an arch carries a ... One parabola is f(x) = x2 + 3x − 1, and hyperbolic cosine is cosh(x) = ex + e−x/2. The curves are unrelated. Unlike a catenary ... resulting from that weight will follow a parabolic curve. Of all arch types, the parabolic arch produces the most thrust at the ...
S-curve[edit]. Most of the LNG trade is governed by long-term contracts. Many formulae include an S-curve, where the price ... or for deliveries of natural gas to remote areas not connected to pipelines.[87] They typically have a compact size, are fed ... As recently as 2003, it was common to assume that this was a "learning curve" effect and would continue into the future. But ... did experiments in this area. In 1886 Karol Olszewski liquefied methane, the primary constituent of natural gas. By 1900 all ...
... consisting of areas with sparse links among species and distinct areas of tightly linked species. These regions of high link ... This has led to the concept or area of study known as cross-boundary subsidy.[59][60] "This leads to anomalies, such as food ... They can depict different numerical properties of ecosystems, including numbers of individuals per unit of area, biomass (g/m2 ...
Flattening the curve. *Workplace hazard controls. *Lockdowns. *Evacuations. *Immunity passports *COVID passports in the United ...
Large surface area provides a large area for capture of sunlight.. *In harmful levels of sunlight, specialized leaves, opaque ... 3. Campylodromous (campylos - curve). Several primary veins or branches originating at or close to a single point and running ... The areas or islands of mesophyll lying between the higher order veins, are called areoles. Some of the smallest veins ( ... Once sugar has been synthesized, it needs to be transported to areas of active growth such as the plant shoots and roots. ...
Around 80% of the wildebeest occurs in private areas, while the other 20% is confined in protected areas. The population is now ... Both sexes have strong horns that curve forward, resembling hooks, which are up to 78 cm (31 in) long. The horns have a broad ... The altitudes in these areas vary from 1,350-2,150 m (4,430-7,050 ft).[1] The herds are often migratory or nomadic, otherwise ... Before the arrival of Europeans in the area, wildebeest roamed widely, probably in relation to the arrival of the rains and the ...
Articles on areas must explain the motivations, the history, the limits of the area (when there is a consensus for that), and ... Pull the knotted part of the curve tight?[edit]. This discussion calls for experts, right? Boris Tsirelson (talk) 18:49, 19 ... Do you not need to require that the first (directional) derivative of the curve be continuous? I think that would be impossible ... There are currently redirects from Minkowski curve, Minkowski island, Minkowski sausage, and Minkowski fractal which lead to ...
Glossary of areas of mathematics. References[edit]. *^ Farber, M.; Hahn, G.; Hell, P.; Miller, D. J. (1986), "Concerning the ... each edge represented as a curve having the endpoints of the edge as endpoints of the curve, and no other intersections between ... 1. A topological graph is a representation of the vertices and edges of a graph by points and curves in the plane (not ...
The Yoyogi National Gymnasium is situated in an open area in Yoyogi Park on an adjacent axis to the Meiji Shrine. The gymnasium ... The bottom anchoring of this steel net is a heavy concrete support system which forms a distinct curve on the interior and ... When it was constructed it was situated on the edge of the old town centre connecting it with the newer areas of the town. ... an area adorned with fountains, benches, greenery and a church. The Centro Direzionale is home to the tallest building in ...
No photoreceptors are found at the blind spot, the area where ganglion cell fibers are collected into the optic nerve and leave ... So, the colors of the curves are misleading. Cones cannot detect color by themselves; rather, color vision requires comparison ... though the impact of disturbed circadian rhythms is another area of relevance to clinical medicine. ...
The band is famous for "Script Ohio", during which the band marches single-file through the curves of the word "Ohio", much ... "2008 Foundation Program Areas: United States and Canada, Latin America and the Caribbean". Guggenheim Fellowship. Archived from ... Student organizations at Ohio State provide students with opportunities to get involved in a wide variety of interest areas ...
For a curve that is the vanishing locus of a single equation f = 0, the condition that the curve meets D at r with multiplicity ... Pappus's area theorem. *Problem II.8 of Arithmetica. *Ptolemy's inequality. *Ptolemy's table of chords ... By contrast, an internal tangency is one in which the two circles curve in the same way at their point of contact; the two ... However, many such "impossible" problems can be solved by intersecting curves such as hyperbolas, ellipses and parabolas (conic ...
However, by the time they reached the speed trap just before the braking area at Tosa, they were among the quickest. The cars ... from the high speed Tamburello curve both Patrese and de Angelis accelerated quicker than any other cars. At Imola, the ... Designers in the 1950s had addressed the same problem of reducing the cars cross sectional area by tilting the engines around a ...
Relighting - recent area concerned with quickly re-rendering scenes. Notable researchers[edit]. *Arthur Appel ...
Wearing high heels narrows the base of support that the body has in order to avoid falling and also restricts the area within ... and the waistline of the heel is curves inward naturally."[1] ... including accidental trauma to multiple areas of the body.[4] ...
... (OHP) is an interdisciplinary area of psychology that is concerned with the health and safety of ... Phillips curve. *Recession *Great Recession. *Great Recession job losses. *List of recessions ... Statistical methods commonly used in other areas of psychology are also used in OHP-related research. Statistical methods used ... Organizations can play a role in the health behavior of employees by providing resources to encourage healthy behavior in areas ...
... changes were made to the backstage areas to relocate and increase the size of crew catering areas under the South Steps away ... specially woven with a border that follows the oval curve of the building.[16] ... The most common is the one-hour Grand Tour which includes most front-of-house areas, the auditorium, the gallery and the Royal ... From January to May the Box Office area at Door 12 underwent further modernisation to include a new Café Bar on the ground ...
... an anterior-to-posterior sequential activation process beginning in the supplementary motor area on the medial surface of the ... can contain closed timelike curves. *Alcubierre metric. *BTZ black hole. *Gödel metric ...
... then their initial release and exploitation of the plants may result in a loss of plant biodiversity in the area.[2] If other ... the loss of sea otters in local areas along the Pacific coast seems to have caused a cascade effect of secondary extinctions, ...
A landing zone is an area of the platter usually near its inner diameter (ID), where no data is stored. This area is called the ... Hard disk drive failures tend to follow the concept of the bathtub curve.[3] Drives typically fail within a short time if there ... In the worst case the debris scraped off the damaged area may contaminate all heads and platters, and destroy all data on all ... Failure rates of hardware products typically follow a "bathtub curve" with high failure rates at the beginning (infant ...
... and by the negative slope of the curve.[81] If production of one good increases along the curve, production of the other good ... In many areas, some form of price stickiness is postulated to account for quantities, rather than prices, adjusting in the ... The slope of the curve at a point on it gives the trade-off between the two goods. It measures what an additional unit of one ... A point inside the curve (as at A), is feasible but represents production inefficiency (wasteful use of inputs), in that output ...
"Areas Bounded by Polar Curves". Marrë më 2006-11-25.. Mungon ose është bosh parametri ,language=. (Ndihmë!) ...
... area.[12] As of 2008[update], no scientists or staff members had been injured at Aquarius due to storms.[9] ...
She asserted that a competitive devaluation (J curve)[81] would "quickly have a positive effect on employment and purchasing ... "Schengen : Sarkozy admits the extent of the disaster but does not act ! We must leave Schengen Area" (in French). Front ... Le Pen called for France to withdraw from the Schengen Area and reinstate border controls, accusing the UMP government of ... and that only withdrawal from the Schengen Area would be sufficient to stop immigration.[100] She claims that traffickers and ...
The upper mandible is prominent, curves downward, and comes to a point. It is not fused to the skull, which allows it to move ... However, in areas where there are existing feral parrot populations, escaped pets may sometimes successfully join these flocks. ... Parrots are persecuted because, in some areas, they are (or have been) hunted for food and feathers, and as agricultural pests ... Depending on locality, parrots may be either wild-caught or be captive-bred, though in most areas without native parrots, pet ...
By monitoring such data, leaders can be aware of which areas in the flow needs to be sped up, slowed down, moved to a different ... and reduction of the learning curves. ... Fetus with soft and firm areas true to life. *Fetus that ... Alternatively, in a simulation of exactly the same event, the leaders could ignore certain areas in order to concentrate on the ... Apollo can withstand indoor and outside training simulations and has a large variety of training in many areas. "Apollo's easy ...
dB(m²) - decibel relative to one square meter: measure of the antenna effective area.[59]. dBm−1. dB(m−1) - decibel relative to ... The reference level varies with frequency according to a minimum audibility curve as defined in ANSI and other standards, such ... See Psophometric weighting to see a comparison of frequency response curves for the C-message weighting and Psophometric ...
However, especially in the inner city or in areas with high crime rates, lessors may not always apply their official policies ... Florida Department of Corrections (May 2001). "Recidivism Rate Curves". Recidivism Report. State of Florida. Archived from the ... to having your sense of safety violated as result of living in an area where crime exists. Furthermore, all taxpayers are ... in the same areas mentioned in approach 2 ...
Mean transit time is the area under the flow-volume curve divided by the forced vital capacity.[24] ... MMEF or MEF stands for maximal (mid-)expiratory flow and is the peak of expiratory flow as taken from the flow-volume curve and ... After the starting point the curve rapidly mounts to a peak (the peak expiratory flow). (Note the FEV1 value is arbitrary in ... When having drawn a curve with the relations between changes in volume to changes in transpulmonary pressure, Cst is the slope ...
Canal Street divides the traditional "downtown" area from the "uptown" area. Every street crossing Canal Street between the ... allowing that traffic to bypass I-10's southward curve. ... The area along the river is characterized by ridges and hollows ... Historically, the major newspaper in the area was The Times-Picayune. The paper made headlines of its own in 2012 when owner ... The New Orleans area is home to numerous annual celebrations. The most well-known is Carnival, or Mardi Gras. Carnival ...
Is Bay Area social distancing lockdown working?… Share this:. *Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) ... In fact, Bay Area officials on Monday extended the regions stay-home orders through the end of the month, and even President ... Other hard-hit areas that also imposed strict measures to stop people from mingling are showing signs they are working. Like ... Coronavirus: Is Bay Area social distancing lockdown working? Some see progress Encouraging signs at one San Francisco hospital ...
Tamara Allen, Fang Zhang, Shonna A. Moodie, L. Edward Clemens, Aaron Smith, Francine Gregoire, Andrea Bell, George E.O. Muscat, Thomas A. Gustafson ...
Putting these together shows why the area under the curve represents probability. Does that explanation help or did you already ... Its something that I know but Ive never been able to figure out why? Why is does the area underneath the normal ... Its something that I know but Ive never been able to figure out why? Why is does the area underneath the normal ... From calculus we know the integral on the right represents the area under f(x) between a and b. Since the cumulative ...
... the user to input a function and then adjust the Lower Bound and Upper Bound and the number of divisions to calculate the area ... Area, Upper and Lower Sum or Riemann Sum. This applet allows the user to input a function and then adjust the Lower Bound and ... Upper Bound and the number of divisions to calculate the area under a curve, using rectangles. Includes Upper, Lower, Left- ...
Blood Glucose Area Under the Curve: Methodological Aspects. Jean-Pierre Le Floch, Philippe Escuyer, Eric Baudin, Dominique ... Blood Glucose Area Under the Curve: Methodological Aspects. Jean-Pierre Le Floch, Philippe Escuyer, Eric Baudin, Dominique ... Blood Glucose Area Under the Curve: Methodological Aspects Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... To specify the influence of methods used in estimating area under the curve (AUC) and the meaning of total and incremental AUC ...
Find the area enclosed by the line y = x-1 and the parabola y^2 = 2x+6 The Attempt at a Solution This is Example 6 in James... ... Find the area enclosed by the line y = x-1 and the parabola y^2 = 2x+6. The Attempt at a Solution. This is Example 6 in James ...
Fill in any or all of the fields below. Click on the label to the left of each search field for more information or read the Help ...
Elena Lara shares her insights about how the Round Lake Area Library is successfully engaging the Hispanic community. Take a ... Round Lake Library - Ahead of the Outreach Curve. Elena Lara is the Hispanic Outreach Coordinator of the Round Lake Area ... Round Lake Area Library- Ahead of the Outreach Curve. by Rebecca Paul ... The Round Lake Area includes five towns with an approximate population of 41,000 and approximately 45% of the population is of ...
6.3 Probability as An Area Under The Normal Curve Suppose is If we are interested in finding then we can do so by determining ... the area under the normal ... - Selection from Statistical Inference: A Short Course [Book] ... 6.3 Probability as An Area Under The Normal Curve. Suppose is If we are interested in finding then we can do so by determining ... Instead, we shall read the area under the normal curve directly from a table. However, before we do so, let us note that there ...
Search of: Area Under Curve , ( Map: Arkansas, United States ) - Modify Search. Expert Search ...
In the field of pharmacokinetics, the area under the curve (AUC) is the definite integral of a curve that describes the ... "Area Under Curve" of the Receiver operating characteristic Maurer, Hans H. (2005). "Multi-analyte procedures for screening for ...
The bottom curve shows the cumulative area under the top curve which is given by the integral of the function in the top curve ... Signed and Unsigned Area under a Curve. Benjamin Faucher. *. Common Methods of Estimating the Area under a Curve. Scott Liao ( ... The bottom curve shows the cumulative area under the top curve, which is given by the integral of the function in the top curve ... Area between Curves. Stephen Wilkerson (Towson University). *. Finding the Area of a 3D Surface with Parallelograms. Mark ...
The diagram shows a sketch of part of the curve with equation y = x 2+1 and the line with equation y =7− x . The finite region ... area under curve and line. The diagram shows a sketch of part of the curve with equation y=x2+1 and the line with equation y=7− ... a) Find the area of R1.. (b) Find the area of R2.. $\displaystyle 7-x = x^2 + 1 $ $\displaystyle 0 = x^2 + x -6 $ $\ ... Calculate the area between the calibration curve and the identity line on a graph. Posted in the Calculus Forum ...
I need area under the curve. Can any one teach me the way of calculating area under the curve in excel worksheet?(The curve ... This gives bell shaped curve. To compare two cuvres, ... Re: Excel Curves- Area under the curve If the curve is truly ... Re: Excel Curves- Area under the curve Dear Zbor. Thanks for your reply. Two compare two curves I need same area. This can tell ... There are two curves, Blue and Red. Blue is of lesser area. I need relative ratio of areas. (Area of Blue / Area of Red). ...
It is shown that in such a setting the area represents the probability that a randomly … ... curve obtained by the rating method, or by mathematical predictions based on patient characteristics, is presented. ... A representation and interpretation of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) ... The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve Radiology. 1982 Apr;143(1):29-36. doi: ...
Were still going to calculate an area under the curve. So thats how it works. Its an area under the curve, it falls between ... Bell shaped curve for us. And it can work out. The area under the curve for that. Now, you can ask yourself, how would this ... A parabolic curve there and we can work out the area under the curve. We neednt have a special shape like a square or ... The very smooth curve, we can work out the area under the curve for that. Between two limits. Integration is quite easy to do. ...
... and area under curve (AUC) of the lactulose/mannitol ratio, lactulose/creatinine ratio, and lactulose recovery... ... Lactulose Mannitol Intestinal permeability Sensitivity Specificity Area under curve This is a preview of subscription content, ... The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the specificity, sensitivity, and area under curve (AUC) of the ... Lactulose/Mannitol Test and Specificity, Sensitivity, and Area under Curve of Intestinal Permeability Parameters in Patients ...
3.2 The Area Under the ROC Curve. Stay ahead with the worlds most comprehensive technology and business learning platform. ...
... curve and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) are vital in diagnostic and targeted medicine. The partial area under the curve ( ... we consider the partial area under the ROC curve (pAUC) over the range of high specificity values, i.e., In this article, less ... the shape of the gamma ROC curve resembles an ROC curve with latent normality assumptions. When κ=1 the gamma ROC curve is ... On the Use of Min-Max Combination of Biomarkers to Maximize the Partial Area under the ROC Curve. Hua Ma,1 Susan Halabi,2 and ...
Question: Area under the curves Tags are words are used to describe and categorize your content. Combine multiple words with ... Question:Area under the curves. Posted:. Sam9530130 332 Product:. Maple + Add Tags ... I have 2 functions, f(x) and g(x) both continous on [a,b] (a known interval). For which value of C ε [a,b] the area under f(x) ...
... Biometrics ... This paper presents a nonparametric approach to the analysis of areas under correlated ROC curves, by using the theory on ... curve. The curve is constructed by varying the cutpoint used to determine which values of the observed variable will be ... When two or more empirical curves are constructed based on tests performed on the same individuals, statistical analysis on ...
What is Area under the curve? Meaning of Area under the curve as a legal term. What does Area under the curve mean in law? ... Definition of Area under the curve in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... The area under the curve y = 1/x from x = 1 to x = a measures A = 1 when a = e.. Demonstrating e using areas under curves ... Area under the curve legal definition of Area under the curve https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Area+under+the+ ...
How to find the area under this curve?A bicyclist pedals along a straight road with velocity, v, given in the figure below. She ...
Find the area of the region lying to the right of x=(y^2)-5 and the left of x=3-(y^2). I determined that the ... Finding the Area Between 2 Curves I have two problems I need help on:. 1. Find the area of the region lying to the right of x=( ... Area , Implicit differentiation (2 different answers!) » Similar Math Help Forum Discussions. * Finding area between curves?. ... Finding the area of the region between the curves. Posted in the Calculus Forum ...
Get complete chapter notes of chapter Area under Curve including important concept, formulae and previous year solved questions ... WBJEE: Important Questions and Preparation Tips - Area under Curve. The topic Area under Curve is very important topic of ... we bring to you the chapter notes of chapter Area under Curve which contain the crux of the topic Area under Curve for coming ... The area of the region bounded by the curve y = x3, its tangent at (1, 1) and x-axis is ...
2 Calculus Freebies Volume of Revolution by Cylindrical Shells Plus Polar Area Under the Curve This resource is sample of the ... 2 Calculus Freebies Volume of Revolution by Cylindrical Shells Plus Polar Area Under the Curve This resource is sample of the ... The second is a combination of Guided Notes and Task Cards for finding the Area Under a Polar Curve. Full versions of both are ... 2 Calculus Freebies Volume of Revolution by Cylindrical Shells Plus Polar Area Under the Curve. This resource is sample of the ...
In this paper, we find the ROC curves for Bi-Pareto and Bi-two parameter exponential distributions. Theoretical, parametric and ... "Estimation of Area under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve for Bi-Pareto and Bi-Two Parameter Exponential Models" written ...
What is area under the concentration curve? Meaning of area under the concentration curve medical term. What does area under ... Looking for online definition of area under the concentration curve in the Medical Dictionary? area under the concentration ... area under the concentration curve. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus. area under the concentration curve (AUC). a method of ... Area under the concentration curve , definition of area under the concentration curve by Medical dictionary https://medical- ...
Area under curve (AUC) The area under (a ROC) curve is a summary measure of the accuracy of a quantitative diagnostic test. ... Hanley, J. A., & McNeil, B. J. (1982). The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. ... Comparing the areas under two or more correlated receiver operating characteristic curves: a nonparametric approach. Biometrics ... A point estimate of the AUC of the empirical ROC curve is the Mann-Whitney U estimator (DeLong et. al., 1988). . The confidence ...
... length and head circumference for local use in a high altitude area of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study ... The aim of the present study was to construct intrauterine percentile growth curves for body weight, ... We determined the curves of best fit for weight, length and head circumference measurements at different weeks of gestation by ... smoothed gestational curves are a useful tool for assessing the intrauterine growth of births in high altitude areas of Saudi ...
  • When two or more empirical curves are constructed based on tests performed on the same individuals, statistical analysis on differences between curves must take into account the correlated nature of the data. (nih.gov)
  • Phillips curves have long enjoyed great popularity as an empirical tool, but for that very reason the missing disinflation and missing inflation episodes have stirred intense debates about the relationship, including whether it is alive or dead (i.e. steep or flat), and linear or non-linear. (europa.eu)
  • With the objection of maximizing the empirical area under the ROC curve (AUC), an analysis method was considered which combines potential glyca. (sciweavers.org)
  • From calculus we know the integral on the right represents the area under f(x) between a and b. (physicsforums.com)
  • While integral calculus techniques can be applied to find an area under the normal curve, we shall judiciously not attempt to do so. (oreilly.com)
  • The area under curve in calculus can be determined through the use of a specific formula that uses both definite and indefinite integrals. (calculus-help.com)
  • Calculus dates back to ancient and even medieval times where it was used to develop different ideas surrounding calculations such as area, volume, and early ideas about limits. (calculus-help.com)
  • Calculus has been used to discover different values such as the area of a circle, and the volume of a sphere. (calculus-help.com)
  • That is, AUC measures the entire two-dimensional area underneath the entire ROC curve (think integral calculus) from (0,0) to (1,1). (google.com)
  • Polar Parametric Curve - Surface Area of Revolution calculus problem example. (spiral.ac)
  • The receiver operating curve--calculated to assess the test's ability to classify skin lesions--had an area under the curve of 95. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Split $\displaystyle R_2$ into two parts: One area is completely below the graph of the quadratic function, the second one is completely below the straight line. (mathhelpforum.com)
  • Figuring out how to find the area a under curve in a graph can be a simple process once you understand the formula and the surrounding pieces of information given in the problem. (calculus-help.com)
  • A typical graph has an x-axis and a y-axis, and when you add a curve to this structure, you'll immediately see where the area under the curve lies. (calculus-help.com)
  • If the shape that is present on the graph is quite simple, it's also possible to use geometry principles to find the area that you are looking for under the curve. (calculus-help.com)
  • An ROC curve ( receiver operating characteristic curve ) is a graph showing the performance of a classification model at all classification thresholds. (google.com)
  • Plot the ROC curves on the same graph. (mathworks.com)
  • To get a good idea of this concept, let's visualize what area on a supply or demand graph represents. (math-faq.com)
  • After fitting a binary logistic regression model with a set of independent variables, the predictive performance of this set of variables - as assessed by the area under the curve (AUC) from a ROC curve - must be estimated for a sample (the 'test' sample) that is independent of the sample used to predict the dependent variable (the 'training' sample). (harvard.edu)
  • I am interested in calculating area under the curve (AUC), or the c-statistic, by hand for a binary logistic regression model. (stackexchange.com)
  • To compute the points in an ROC curve, we could evaluate a logistic regression model many times with different classification thresholds, but this would be inefficient. (google.com)
  • ROC curve and Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) are widely-used metric for binary (i.e., positive or negative) classification problems such as Logistic Regression . (apache.org)
  • An ROC curve is the most commonly used way to visualize the performance of a binary classifier , and AUC is (arguably) the best way to summarize its performance in a single number . (dataschool.io)
  • An ROC curve is a commonly used way to visualize the performance of a binary classifier , meaning a classifier with two possible output classes. (dataschool.io)
  • Mycophenolic Acid Area under the Curve Monitoring via Limited Sampling Strategy in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients [abstract]. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • abstract = "Doxorubicin (DOX) area-under-the-curve (AUC) was calculated for 40 dogs with spontaneously occurring cancers using a previously validated limited-sampling approach. (elsevier.com)
  • This applet allows the user to input a function and then adjust the Lower Bound and Upper Bound and the number of divisions to calculate the area under a curve, using rectangles. (geogebra.org)
  • This will get all students on the same page of finding the area using rectangles. (betterlesson.com)
  • After getting our initial estimate, I ask students how we can get a more accurate estimate of the area if we stick with the rectangles. (betterlesson.com)
  • I will have them write the area as the sum of 12 rectangles . (betterlesson.com)
  • I also ask them why making 12 rectangles is a better estimate of the actual area than 6 rectangles. (betterlesson.com)
  • Since we can't literally calculate the area using an infinite number of rectangles, I ask what we should do instead. (betterlesson.com)
  • Usually at least one student will remember that we just used limits to find the value that a sequence is approaching , and that we are approaching the actual area of the region as the number of rectangles goes to infinity. (betterlesson.com)
  • If the curve is truly Gaussian, then you can compute the mean and deviation and use the NORMDIST function to compute the integral (with the cumulative argument = True). (excelforum.com)
  • Compute the ROC curve. (mathworks.com)
  • Compute the standard ROC curve using the probabilities for scores. (mathworks.com)
  • Compute the standard ROC curve using the scores from the SVM model. (mathworks.com)
  • Compute the standard ROC curve using the scores from the naive Bayes classification. (mathworks.com)
  • We can compute the surplus by computing this area. (math-faq.com)
  • This Demonstration compares the ratios of the areas under the curve (AUC) and the ratios of the areas over the curve (AOC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plots of two diagnostic tests (ratio of the AUC of the first test to the AUC of the second test: blue plot, ratio of the AOC of the first test to the AOC of the second test: orange plot). (wolfram.com)
  • If we do this for all possible cutoffs, and the plot the sensitivity against 1 minus the specificity, we get the ROC curve. (stackexchange.com)
  • The final line-segment in each plot connects water depths and areas from 2.19 to 2.30 meters. (lternet.edu)
  • In this example, we will plot the data to show you the individual areas that SAS will calculate the area of the trapezoid - as explained in the Powerpoint presentation. (wordpress.com)
  • AUC or ROC curve is a plot of the proportion of true positives (events correctly predicted to be events) versus the proportion of false positives (nonevents wrongly predicted to be events) at different probability cutoffs. (listendata.com)
  • To generate ROC curve, we calculate Sensitivity and (1-Specificity) at all possible cutoffs and then we plot them. (listendata.com)
  • On X axis i have % of Cumulative numbers(Variable X) and on Y axis i have % of Cumulative numbers(Variable Y). If i plot a curve by joinig thses points i get a smooth curve. (msgroups.net)
  • plot a curve by joinig thses points i get a smooth curve. (msgroups.net)
  • Why is does the area underneath the normal distribution (or any distribution) represent probability? (physicsforums.com)
  • Putting these together shows why the area under the curve represents probability. (physicsforums.com)
  • It is shown that in such a setting the area represents the probability that a randomly chosen diseased subject is (correctly) rated or ranked with greater suspicion than a randomly chosen non-diseased subject. (nih.gov)
  • 3) with the conditional probability decreasing, the differences in the curves derived from different copulas are increasing, and uncertainty ranges of the curves caused by copula parameter estimation and copula input data are also increasing. (iwaponline.com)
  • This between-area correlation can be used to reduce the standard error (uncertainty) about the observed difference in areas. (nih.gov)
  • Although the uncertainty of measurement correlates poorly with the ratio of the areas under the curves, correlates better with the areas over the curves. (wolfram.com)
  • Maximum likelihood estimation of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves using the "proper" binormal model can be interpreted in terms of Bayesian estimation as assuming a flat joint prior distribution on the c and d a parameters. (spie.org)
  • Bara M, Kohnova S, Gaal L, Szolgay J, Hlavcov K (2009) Estimation of IDF curves of extreme rainfall by simple scaling in Slovakia. (springer.com)
  • Determine the area trapped between the x-axis and the parametric curve defined by the equations $x = t^2 -4$ and $y = t$ on the interval [0, 4]. (wikidot.com)
  • Find the area of the region bounded by the line y=3x and y= x^3 + 2x^2? (jiskha.com)
  • 1. Find the area of the region bounded by the curves and lines y=e^x sin e^x, x=0, y=0, and the curve's first positive intersection with the x-axis. (jiskha.com)
  • The premise of today's lesson is simple - find the area of a region bounded by a parabola . (betterlesson.com)
  • Can any one teach me the way of calculating area under the curve in excel worksheet? (excelforum.com)
  • The workbook containing results output shows the calculated result parameters for each peak, including peak areas, in the Integration_Result n worksheet. (originlab.com)
  • The data for the integral curve can be found in the Integrated_Curve_Data n worksheet. (originlab.com)
  • I start by giving students this worksheet and explaining that I would like them to find the area of the shaded region. (betterlesson.com)
  • 50 shades of grey trilogy cast Lars indivertible and self-luminous Outstand your outdates broken approximating area under a curve worksheet unvulgarising cosmically. (99gw.tk)
  • dog kennel design software bejeweled approximating area under a curve worksheet Walsh kaolinises that CALISAYA corruptibly pancake. (99gw.tk)
  • Two hands and mutational Ragnar unclench approximating area under a curve worksheet their billionaires suberising and kything flatly. (99gw.tk)
  • Scotty approximating area under a curve worksheet glaciates acid, its through drabbing encysted obscurely. (99gw.tk)
  • insolation and choked Zeke Comminate their denaturizes or approximating area under a curve worksheet return to self-forgetfully. (99gw.tk)
  • This is done by dividing the curve into a number of polygons. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Figure 5: A comparison of hypsometric curves for four polygons with the total drainage area. (lternet.edu)
  • Areas for the total Duplin tidal water shed have been divided by ten to scale that curve with the polygons. (lternet.edu)
  • Curves with zero Lebesgue measure (including all polygons and piecewise-smooth curves) instantly evolve into smooth curves, after which they evolve as any smooth curve would. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wittenburg, LA , Weishaar, K, Ramirez, D & Gustafson, DL 2019, ' Doxorubicin area under the curve is an important predictor of neutropenia in dogs with naturally occurring cancers ', Veterinary and Comparative Oncology . (elsevier.com)
  • a) Find the area of R 1. (mathhelpforum.com)
  • b) Find the area of R 2. (mathhelpforum.com)
  • Since definite integrals have both starting and end values or a highest and lowest limit, we can calculate the definite integral by first finding the value of the indefinite integral at its highest and lowest value and then subtracting to find the area under the curve. (calculus-help.com)
  • How to find the area under this curve? (openstudy.com)
  • 1. Find the area of the region lying to the right of x=(y^2)-5 and the left of x=3-(y^2). (mathhelpforum.com)
  • To find the area of a region between two curves using integration. (slideserve.com)
  • FAQ-296 How do I find the area under my curve? (originlab.com)
  • It is generally considered not possible to find the area under a curve due to it not being in the form of a conventional polygon. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Find the area under the standard normal distribution curve. (transtutors.com)
  • Home » Questions » Statistics » Hypothesis Testing » t,F,Z distibutions » Find the area under the standard normal. (transtutors.com)
  • I'm having trouble on this question: Find the area of the region in the first quadrant that is bounded above by the curve y= sq rt x and below by the x-axis and the line y=x -2. (jiskha.com)
  • How can we find the area of highly irregular regions? (betterlesson.com)
  • If students don't do anything, I will ask them why it is so difficult to find the area of this region and they will say because it is so irregular. (betterlesson.com)
  • Write a program to find the area under the curve y = f(x) between x = a and x = b, integrate y = f(x) between the limits of a and b. (expertsmind.com)
  • Here we see how to find the area under a curve using a definite integral. (fabricanaimports.com)
  • For instance, suppose we want to find the area between the functions y = x 2 - 4 and y = 3 x . (math-faq.com)
  • To find the area of the enclosed region, we need to break it into two parts. (math-faq.com)
  • Then find the area under the supply curve (red) and the area under the equilibrium price (green). (math-faq.com)
  • How Do You Find the Area Between Curves? (math-faq.com)
  • In Section 14.3, you will learn how to find the area between two curves. (math-faq.com)
  • To find the area under the curve, it is suggested that keep the increments for x-axis as small as possible. (andlearning.org)
  • In this article, we bring to you the chapter notes of chapter Area under Curve which contain the crux of the topic Area under Curve for coming WBJEE entrance examination 2018. (jagranjosh.com)
  • In this article, the engineering section of Jagranjosh brings crux of the chapter Area under Curve in the form of chapter notes for coming WBJEE entrance examination 2018. (jagranjosh.com)
  • A method of comparing the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves derived from the same cases. (nih.gov)
  • Comparing of ROC curves demonstrating the prediction power of LNM between tthe longest diameter and area of tumor in submucosal cancer. (figshare.com)
  • In the field of pharmacokinetics, the area under the curve (AUC) is the definite integral of a curve that describes the variation of a drug concentration in blood plasma as a function of time (this can be done using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry). (wikipedia.org)
  • Student will be asked to calculate the value of the definite integral and compare it to the four approximations of the area found earlier. (ti.com)
  • There are multiple kinds of integrals, but the ones that apply to finding the area under a curve are the definite integrals which are not to be confused with indefinite integrals that you'll also see formulas for in relation to finding areas under a curve. (calculus-help.com)
  • Actually the area over the ROC curve is equal to the definite integral from 0 to 1 of the false negative fraction versus the false positive fraction function. (wolfram.com)
  • The area under a curve between two points can be found by doing a definite integral between the two points. (expertsmind.com)
  • Finding the area is part of integration mathematics, and by using the appropriate formula, we can calculate not just the area, but any given quantity. (calculus-help.com)
  • Calculating the area under a curve is a little tricky in computing languages such as c++ or c# due to there not being any direct functions to allow integration. (jackdye.co.uk)
  • If i have to calculate the exact area under the curve using Integration Function in Excel Sheet how should i proceed. (msgroups.net)
  • Integration under a smooth curve or under a broken line, both are possible in Excel, with a single formula. (msgroups.net)
  • By calculating mean values and deviations around these (expressed either as centiles or standard deviations), we constructed distance (size attained) growth curves. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Calculating the Area Under the Curve is used in many different fields of research and departments here at the University of Guelph. (wordpress.com)
  • The presentation explains the process of calculating the AUC (Area Under the Curve), so I will concentrate on the SAS coding here. (wordpress.com)
  • Hi, I am working on calculating area under a Continuous Curve. (msgroups.net)
  • If ur a chemist, then there is another explanation: To compare two chromotagraph, it is necessary to have same chemical concentration, bbut practically it is not possible, so area normalization is required. (excelforum.com)
  • Individualized Dosing of Axitinib Based on First-Dose Area Under the Concentration-Time Curve for Metastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma. (urotoday.com)
  • We thus assessed individualized dosing of axitinib on the basis of the first-dose area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC0-12) for sunitinib-pretreated metastatic renal-cell carcinoma patients. (urotoday.com)
  • A robust chlorophyll optical index at the canopy level should be driven by the Cab concentration without negative influence of other factors represented by soil background or understory, canopy closure, canopy structure (e.g. leaf area index (LAI), clumping of leaves), etc. (uzh.ch)
  • The area under the L-lactate concentration versus time curve (LACArea) encompasses both severity and duration of hyperlactatemia and should improve correct classification of patient survival. (uzh.ch)
  • specifically, maximum concentrations, the timing of maximum concentration, and total (area under the curve) exposure above baseline. (frontiersin.org)
  • Total AA, essential AA and collagen specific AAs were analyzed for maximum concentration, timing of peak, and area under the curve. (frontiersin.org)
  • I'd like to know what's the value of the area, what are the integrals that reach that value and most importantly, since I cannot see it properly, which is the area that should be calculated between these three curves? (stackexchange.com)
  • In this activity, students will explore approximating the area under a curve using left endpoint, right endpoint, and midpoint Riemann sums. (ti.com)
  • An approximation to the curve-shortening flow can be computed numerically, by approximating the curve as a polygon and using the finite difference method to calculate the motion of each polygon vertex. (wikipedia.org)
  • F r e l = ( A U C d o s a g e A A U C d o s a g e B ) × ( D o s e B D o s e A ) {\displaystyle F_{rel}=\left({\frac {AUC_{dosageA}}{AUC_{dosageB}}}\ \right)\times \left({\frac {Dose_{B}}{Dose_{A}}}\ \right)} Cmax (pharmacology) Cmean (pharmacology) "Area Under Curve" of the Receiver operating characteristic Maurer, Hans H. (2005). (wikipedia.org)
  • The y=x function in the example below represents a deceleration curve an object has to follow (y= Speed, x = Time). (jackdye.co.uk)
  • So the area under the learning curve but above minimum cost (the yellow section in the picture above) represents money spent in on-the-job learning and knowledge acquisition (or alternatively, money wasted through lack of knowledge). (nickmilton.com)
  • This area represents the value which knowledge management can help liberate. (nickmilton.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the specificity, sensitivity, and area under curve (AUC) of the lactulose/mannitol ratio, lactulose/creatinine ratio, and lactulose recovery and their diagnostic value for intestinal permeability assessment within the absorption lactulose/mannitol (L/M) test. (springer.com)
  • Evaluation of diagnostic assays and predictive performance of biomarkers based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) are vital in diagnostic and targeted medicine. (hindawi.com)
  • The partial area under the curve (pAUC) is an alternative metric focusing on a range of practical and clinical relevance of the diagnostic assay. (hindawi.com)
  • The partial area under the ROC curve (pAUC) can be used as a summary index of diagnostic/prognostic accuracy over a certain range of specificity that is of clinical interest [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are used to describe and compare the performance of diagnostic technology and diagnostic algorithms. (nih.gov)
  • The area under (a ROC) curve is a summary measure of the accuracy of a quantitative diagnostic test. (analyse-it.com)
  • Furthermore, the area under a ROC curve is used as an index of the diagnostic accuracy of the respective test. (wolfram.com)
  • Consequently we can consider the area over the ROC curve as an index of its diagnostic inaccuracy. (wolfram.com)
  • Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have become the standard tool for evaluating the discriminatory power of medical diagnostic tests and are commonly used in assessing the predictive ability of binary regression models. (scirp.org)
  • ROC curve is a diagnostic tool that helps in determining the accuracy of a test conducted on a person to know whether a particular disease is present or not. (scirp.org)
  • The area under the entire curve (AUC) is one of the most commonly used summary indices in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and can be interpreted as the average value of sensitivity for all possible values of specificity [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although methods based on the AUC have been well developed and widely implemented [ 2 , 3 ], one of the major limitations of the AUC is that it summarizes the performance over the entire curve, including regions that may not be clinically relevant (e.g., the regions with low specificity levels). (hindawi.com)
  • ROC curve is obtained by plotting the sensitivity versus (1-specificity). (scirp.org)
  • To specify the influence of methods used in estimating area under the curve (AUC) and the meaning of total and incremental AUC, 75 glycemic responses to a mixed meal were studied in 75 diabetic patients, 39 with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 36 with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The results of IDF relationships derived by the two methods displayed good agreement in general, but noticed a larger deviation for the curves of higher return periods. (springer.com)
  • The ROC curve for naive Bayes is generally lower than the other two ROC curves, which indicates worse in-sample performance than the other two classifier methods. (mathworks.com)
  • This tutorial provides detailed explanation and multiple methods to calculate area under curve (AUC) or ROC curve mathematically along with its implementation in SAS and R. By default, every statistical package or software generate this model performance statistics when you run classification model. (listendata.com)
  • Alternative methods include computing a convolution of polygon vertices and then resampling vertices on the resulting curve, or repeatedly applying a median filter to a digital image whose black and white pixels represent the inside and outside of the curve. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, once the flow starts, the curve becomes analytic , and remains so until reaching a singularity at which the curvature blows up. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a close approximation of the area is possible. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • It will not only improve the approximation but the accuracy of the area under the curve. (andlearning.org)
  • When a test is based on an observed variable that lies on a continuous or graded scale, an assessment of the overall value of the test can be made through the use of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. (nih.gov)
  • It loses area at a constant rate, and its perimeter decreases as quickly as possible for any continuous curve evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for the flow to be well defined, the given curve must be sufficiently smooth that it has a continuous curvature. (wikipedia.org)
  • I need relative ratio of areas. (excelforum.com)
  • Once convex, the isoperimetric ratio of the curve decreases as the curve converges to a circular shape, before collapsing to a single point of singularity. (wikipedia.org)
  • They must be somehow corelatred to determine area under curve and if you already have those numbers you can compare them. (excelforum.com)
  • The curve is constructed by varying the cutpoint used to determine which values of the observed variable will be considered abnormal and then plotting the resulting sensitivities against the corresponding false positive rates. (nih.gov)
  • Determine a lower sum estimate for the area between the curve $y = f(x)$ and the x-axis on the interval [0, 3] with 3 equal subdivisions. (stackexchange.com)
  • LACArea was calculated for: admission-6, 6-12, 12-18, 18-24 hours, and admission-24 hours using the trapezoidal method and summing the 6-hours interval areas to determine total 24 hours area. (uzh.ch)
  • citation needed] In May 2007, actress Michelle Rodriguez criticized Curve and accused its editors of attempting to "out" her. (wikipedia.org)
  • y_1=8-6x+x^2$ (blue curve) bounds the side, $y_2=-4+2x$ (red curve) is the lower bound, and $y_3=2+x$ (yellow curve) is the upper bound. (stackexchange.com)
  • Using the same mathematical process as before, I can estimate the area of the curve by adding the individual areas of the curves. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • SWBAT use a sequence to estimate the area under a curve. (betterlesson.com)
  • Instead, we shall read the area under the normal curve directly from a table. (oreilly.com)
  • We'll continue using our exam score example with mean 0.50, of the area under the entire normal curve. (fabricanaimports.com)
  • The correspondence between the area under an ROC curve and the Wilcoxon statistic is used and underlying Gaussian distributions (binormal) are assumed to provide a table that converts the observed correlations in paired ratings of images into a correlation between the two ROC areas. (nih.gov)
  • We propose a Bayesian implementation of the "proper" binormal ROC curve-fitting model with a prior distribution that is marginally flat on AUC and conditionally flat over c . (spie.org)
  • The most common ROC curve model is the Binormal model which assumes that both diseased and healthy test values follow normal distribution. (scirp.org)
  • In case of the smooth curve, the curve formula and the limits must be = known. (msgroups.net)
  • In mathematics, the curve-shortening flow is a process that modifies a smooth curve in the Euclidean plane by moving its points perpendicularly to the curve at a speed proportional to the curvature . (wikipedia.org)
  • For a smooth curve without crossings, the only possible singularity happens when the curve collapses to a point, but immersed curves can have other types of singularity. (wikipedia.org)
  • By finding the points along the curve, we can input them into the formula for finding the area under a curve, and solve for the final answer. (calculus-help.com)
  • Then I ask them what they would do if it were a shape they were familiar with and they say they would use an area formula. (betterlesson.com)
  • This is useful when you want to derive the formula for the approximate area under the curve. (fabricanaimports.com)
  • When you aproximating surface under (any) curve you have (y1+y2)/2 (that's average on y) * (x2-x1) (that's difference on x axis). (excelforum.com)
  • Calculate the area enclosed by x=9-y^2 and x=5 in two ways: as an integral along the y-axis and as an integral along the x-axis. (mathhelpforum.com)
  • Next, I shall divide the curve f(x) = x 2 +3 [0, 1] into 4 trapeziums, drawing perpendicular lines to the x axis at intervals of 2.5cm. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • What will be the area between the curve $y=g''(x)$ and the $x$-axis over the interval $[0,2]? (stackexchange.com)
  • Find the volume of the solid generated by rotating about the y axis the area in the first quadrant bounded by the following curve and lines. (jiskha.com)
  • A region is bounded in the second quadrant by the curve y = ln(1-x), the line y=3, and the y-axis. (jiskha.com)
  • Volume created when the area bounded by the curve y = 1/x, the x-axis, and the lines x = 1 and x = 4 is rotated about: a) the x-axis: 2.356 units^3 Is this correct? (jiskha.com)
  • Calculate area under curve problem 1:-what is the area between the curve y= `x^2-4` and the x axis? (fabricanaimports.com)
  • We consider the easy way of finding the area bounded by the curve y = f(x), x-axis and the ordinates x = a and x = b. (shaalaa.com)
  • The total area A of the region between x-axis, ordinates x = a, x = b and the curve y = f (x) as the result of adding up the elementary areas of thin strips across the region PQRSP. (shaalaa.com)
  • The area bounded by the curve, x-axis and the ordinates x = a, x = b come out to be negative. (shaalaa.com)
  • First of all, choose data points over the x-axis under the curve and list then in the sequence. (andlearning.org)
  • In the last, sum of data point for both axis and their average will be taken as the final area under the curve. (andlearning.org)
  • We evaluated the area under the precision‐recall curve (AUC‐PR) as a performance metric for rare binary events, focusing on the assessment of species distribution models. (usgs.gov)
  • Now you summ all of this parts and you get total area. (excelforum.com)
  • This function will return the total area under the curve up to the x value. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • I shall then calculate the area of each trapezium using technology and add them to come up with the approximate total area of the curve. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Using the Principal Diabetes Control and Complications Trial data set, we compared the following three measures of chronic glycaemic exposure for their capacity to predict retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy during the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial: mean updated HbA1c, iAUCHbA1c>norm, and total area-under-the-HbA1c-curve (tAUCHbA1c). (ovid.com)
  • The area at 2.30 m (the water level of the NOAA-published mean spring HHW) references the total polygon area. (lternet.edu)
  • You will notice that one column shows you the area fore each trapezoid while the last column is the running total. (wordpress.com)
  • I needed to calculate the total distance traveled by the object, as Distance = Speed * Time, the area under the curve equals the total distance traveled. (jackdye.co.uk)
  • If the curve is non-convex, its total absolute curvature decreases monotonically, until it becomes convex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Burlando P, Rosso R (1996) Scaling and multiscaling models of depth-duration-frequency curves for storm precipitation. (springer.com)
  • Founded by Frances "Franco" Stevens in San Francisco in 1990, Curve was first published as Deneuve but was renamed in 1996 after a trademark dispute with French actress Catherine Deneuve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The circle is the only simple closed curve that maintains its shape under the curve-shortening flow, but some curves that cross themselves or have infinite length keep their shape, including the grim reaper curve, an infinite curve that translates upwards, and spirals that rotate while remaining the same size and shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Linearity was demonstrated for area under the curve but not for peak plasma concentrations for the three dosages used. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For each of the plane surfaces, calculate the exact surface area. (jiskha.com)
  • In this study, we investigated a training technique that maximized the approximate area under the ROC curve (AUC) to reduce overtraining. (spie.org)
  • Different shapes of the ROC curves, false positive fraction ranges, and sample size configurations were considered. (hindawi.com)
  • This paper refines the statistical comparison of the areas under two ROC curves derived from the same set of patients by taking into account the correlation between the areas that is induced by the paired nature of the data. (nih.gov)
  • As such, gaining a deep understanding of ROC curves and AUC is beneficial for data scientists, machine learning practitioners, and medical researchers (among others). (dataschool.io)
  • I use AUC (Area under the Curve of ROC) to compare the performances of each set of data. (stackexchange.com)
  • The topic Area under Curve is very important topic of Mathematics in the syllabus of WBJEE examination. (jagranjosh.com)
  • In pure mathematics, the curve-shortening flow can be used to find closed geodesics on Riemannian manifolds , and as a model for the behavior of higher-dimensional flows. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new optical index named Area under curve Normalised to Maximal Band depth between 650-725 nm (ANMB₆₅₀-₇₂₅) is proposed to estimate the chlorophyll content of a Norway spruce (Picea abies, /L./ Karst. (uzh.ch)
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to construct intrauterine percentile growth curves for body weight, length and head circumference for local use in a high altitude area of Saudi Arabia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ROC Curve is the most widely used statistical technique for classifying an individual into one of the two pre-determined groups basing on test result. (igi-global.com)