A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Glucose in blood.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
The spinal or vertebral column.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.
An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

In vivo modulation of alternative pathways of P-450-catalyzed cyclophosphamide metabolism: impact on pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity. (1/6505)

The widely used anticancer prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA) is activated in liver by a 4-hydroxylation reaction primarily catalyzed by cytochrome P-4502B and P-4502C enzymes. An alternative metabolic pathway involves CPA N-dechloroethylation to yield chloroacetaldehyde (CA), a P-4503A-catalyzed deactivation/neurotoxication reaction. The in vivo modulation of these alternative, competing pathways of P-450 metabolism was investigated in pharmacokinetic studies carried out in the rat model. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) for 4-OH-CPA and CA were increased by 3- to 4-fold, and apparent plasma half-lives of both metabolites were correspondingly shortened in rats pretreated with phenobarbital (PB), an inducer of P-4502B and P-4503A enzymes. However, PB had no net impact on the extent of drug activation or its partitioning between these alternative metabolic pathways, as judged from AUC values (area-under-the-plasma concentration x time curve) for 4-OH-CPA and CA. The P-4503A inhibitor troleandomycin (TAO) decreased plasma Cmax and AUC of CA (80-85% decrease) without changing the Cmax or AUC of 4-OH-CPA in uninduced rats. In PB-induced rats, TAO decreased AUCCA by 73%, whereas it increased AUC4-OH-CPA by 93%. TAO thus selectively suppresses CPA N-dechloroethylation, thereby increasing the availability of drug for P-450 activation via 4-hydroxylation. By contrast, dexamethasone, a P-4503A inducer and antiemetic widely used in patients with cancer, stimulated large, undesirable increases in the Cmax and AUC of CA (8- and 4-fold, respectively) while reducing the AUC of the 4-hydroxylation pathway by approximately 60%. Tumor excision/in vitro colony formation and tumor growth delay assays using an in vivo 9L gliosarcoma solid tumor model revealed that TAO suppression of CPA N-dechloroethylation could be achieved without compromising the antitumor effect of CPA. The combination of PB with TAO did not, however, enhance the antitumor activity of CPA, despite the approximately 2-fold increase in AUC4-OH-CPA, suggesting that other PB-inducible activities, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase, may counter this increase through enhanced deactivation of the 4-hydroxy metabolite. Together, these studies demonstrate that the P-4503A inhibitor TAO can be used to effectively modulate CPA metabolism and pharmacokinetics in vivo in a manner that decreases the formation of toxic metabolites that do not contribute to antitumor activity.  (+info)

Prediction of the effects of inoculum size on the antimicrobial action of trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in an in vitro dynamic model. (2/6505)

The effect of inoculum size (N0) on antimicrobial action has not been extensively studied in in vitro dynamic models. To investigate this effect and its predictability, killing and regrowth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli exposed to monoexponentially decreasing concentrations of trovafloxacin (as a single dose) and ciprofloxacin (two doses at a 12-h interval) were compared at N0 = 10(6) and 10(9) CFU/ml (S. aureus) and at N0 = 10(6), 10(7), and 10(9) CFU/ml (E. coli). A series of pharmacokinetic profiles of trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin with respective half-lives of 9.2 and 4 h were simulated at different ratios of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to MIC (in [micrograms x hours/milliliter]/[micrograms/milliliter]): 58 to 466 with trovafloxacin and 116 to 932 with ciprofloxacin for S. aureus and 58 to 233 and 116 to 466 for E. coli, respectively. Although the effect of N0 was more pronounced for E. coli than for S. aureus, only a minor increase in minimum numbers of surviving bacteria and an almost negligible delay in their regrowth were associated with an increase of the N0 for both organisms. The N0-induced reductions of the intensity of the antimicrobial effect (IE, area between control growth and the killing-regrowth curves) were also relatively small. However, the N0 effect could not be eliminated either by simple shifting of the time-kill curves obtained at higher N0s by the difference between the higher and lowest N0 or by operating with IEs determined within the N0-adopted upper limits of bacterial numbers (IE's). By using multivariate correlation and regression analyses, linear relationships between IE and log AUC/MIC and log N0 related to the respective mean values [(log AUC/MIC)average and (log N0)average] were established for both trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against each of the strains (r2 = 0.97 to 0.99). The antimicrobial effect may be accurately predicted at a given AUC/MIC of trovafloxacin or ciprofloxacin and at a given N0 based on the relationship IE = a + b [(log AUC/MIC)/(log AUC/MIC)average] - c [(log N0)/(log N0)average]. Moreover, the relative impacts of AUC/MIC and N0 on IE may be evaluated. Since the c/b ratios for trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against E. coli were much lower (0.3 to 0.4) than that for ampicillin-sulbactam as examined previously (1.9), the inoculum effect with the quinolones may be much less pronounced than with the beta-lactams. The described approach to the analysis of the inoculum effect in in vitro dynamic models might be useful in studies with other antibiotic classes.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of amikacin in low-clearance unilamellar liposomes after a single or repeated intravenous administration in the rhesus monkey. (3/6505)

Liposomal aminoglycosides have been shown to have activity against intracellular infections, such as those caused by Mycobacterium avium. Amikacin in small, low-clearance liposomes (MiKasome) also has curative and prophylactic efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. To develop appropriate dosing regimens for low-clearance liposomal amikacin, we studied the pharmacokinetics of liposomal amikacin in plasma, the level of exposure of plasma to free amikacin, and urinary excretion of amikacin after the administration of single-dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) and repeated-dose (20 mg/kg eight times at 48-h intervals) regimens in rhesus monkeys. The clearance of liposomal amikacin (single-dose regimen, 0.023 +/- 0.003 ml min-1 kg-1; repeated-dose regimen, 0.014 +/- 0.001 ml min-1 kg-1) was over 100-fold lower than the creatinine clearance (an estimate of conventional amikacin clearance). Half-lives in plasma were longer than those reported for other amikacin formulations and declined during the elimination phase following administration of the last dose (from 81.7 +/- 27 to 30.5 +/- 5 h). Peak and trough (48 h) levels after repeated dosing reached 728 +/- 72 and 418 +/- 60 micrograms/ml, respectively. The levels in plasma remained > 180 micrograms/ml for 6 days after the administration of the last dose. The free amikacin concentration in plasma never exceeded 17.4 +/- 1 micrograms/ml and fell rapidly (half-life, 1.47 to 1.85 h) after the administration of each dose of liposomal amikacin. This and the low volume of distribution (45 ml/kg) indicate that the amikacin in plasma largely remained sequestered in long-circulating liposomes. Less than half the amikacin was recovered in the urine, suggesting that the level of renal exposure to filtered free amikacin was reduced, possibly as a result of intracellular uptake or the metabolism of liposomal amikacin. Thus, low-clearance liposomal amikacin could be administered at prolonged (2- to 7-day) intervals to achieve high levels of exposure to liposomal amikacin with minimal exposure to free amikacin.  (+info)

Influences of urinary pH on ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics in humans and antimicrobial activity in vitro versus those of sparfloxacin. (4/6505)

The impact of acidification and alkalinization of urine on the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin was investigated after single 200-mg oral doses were administered to nine healthy male volunteers. In addition, the effect of human urine on the MICs of ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin against some common urinary tract pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Acidic and alkaline conditions were achieved by repeated oral doses of ammonium chloride or sodium bicarbonate, respectively. Plasma ciprofloxacin levels in all subjects were adequately described in terms of two-compartment model kinetics with first-order absorption. Acidification and alkalinization treatments had no effect on ciprofloxacin absorption, distribution, or elimination. The total amount of unchanged ciprofloxacin excreted over 24 h under acidic conditions was 88.4 +/- 14.5 mg (mean +/- standard deviation) (44.2% of the oral dose) and 82.4 +/- 16.5 mg (41.2% of the oral dose) under alkaline conditions, while the total amount of unchanged drug excreted over 24 h in volunteers receiving neither sodium bicarbonate nor ammonium chloride was 90.53 +/- 9.8 mg (45.2% of the oral dose). The mean renal clearance of ciprofloxacin was 16.78 +/- 2.67, 16.08 +/- 3.2, and 16.31 +/- 2.67 liters/h with acidification, alkalinization, and control, respectively. Renal clearance and concentrations of ciprofloxacin in urine were not correlated with urinary pH. The antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin against E. coli NIHJ JC-2 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was affected by human urine and in particular by its pH. The activities of both quinolones against E. coli NIHJ JC-2 were lower at lower urinary pH and rather uniform, while in the case of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 ciprofloxacin was more active than sparfloxacin.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of ethambutol under fasting conditions, with food, and with antacids. (5/6505)

Ethambutol (EMB) is the most frequent "fourth drug" used for the empiric treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a frequently used drug for infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. The pharmacokinetics of EMB in serum were studied with 14 healthy males and females in a randomized, four-period crossover study. Subjects ingested single doses of EMB of 25 mg/kg of body weight under fasting conditions twice, with a high-fat meal, and with aluminum-magnesium antacid. Serum was collected for 48 h and assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with zero-order absorption and first-order elimination. Both fasting conditions produced similar results: a mean (+/- standard deviation) EMB maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of 4.5 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml, time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (Tmax) of 2.5 +/- 0.9 h, and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-infinity) of 28.9 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of antacids, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 2.9 +/- 1.2 h, and AUC0-infinity of 27.5 +/- 5.9 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of the Food and Drug Administration high-fat meal, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.8 +/- 0.8 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 3.2 +/- 1.3 h, and AUC0-infinity of 29.6 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. These reductions in Cmax, delays in Tmax, and modest reductions in AUC0-infinity can be avoided by giving EMB on an empty stomach whenever possible.  (+info)

Safety and pharmacokinetics of abacavir (1592U89) following oral administration of escalating single doses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected adults. (6/6505)

Abacavir (1592U89) is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has been demonstrated to have selective activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro and favorable safety profiles in mice and monkeys. A phase I study was conducted to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of abacavir following oral administration of single escalating doses (100, 300, 600, 900, and 1,200 mg) to HIV-infected adults. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects with baseline CD4+ cell counts ranging from < 50 to 713 cells per mm3 (median, 315 cells per mm3) were randomly assigned to receive abacavir (n = 12) or placebo (n = 6). The bioavailability of the caplet formulation relative to that of the oral solution was also assessed with the 300-mg dose. Abacavir was well tolerated by all subjects; mild to moderate asthenia, abdominal pain, headache, diarrhea, and dyspepsia were the most frequently reported adverse events, and these were not dose related. No significant clinical or laboratory abnormalities were observed throughout the study. All doses resulted in mean abacavir concentrations in plasma that exceeded the mean 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for clinical HIV isolates in vitro (0.07 microgram/ml) for almost 3 h. Abacavir was rapidly absorbed following oral administration, with the time to the peak concentration in plasma occurring at 1.0 to 1.7 h postdosing. Mean maximum concentrations in plasma (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) increased slightly more than proportionally from 100 to 600 mg (from 0.6 to 4.7 micrograms/ml for Cmax; from 1.0 to 15.7 micrograms.h/ml for AUC0-infinity) but increased proportionally from 600 to 1,200 mg (from 4.7 to 9.6 micrograms/ml for Cmax; from 15.7 to 32.8 micrograms.h/ml for AUC0-infinity. The elimination of abacavir from plasma was rapid, with an apparent elimination half-life of 0.9 to 1.7 h. Abacavir was well absorbed, with a relative bioavailability of the caplet formulation of 96% versus that of an oral solution (drug substance in water). In conclusion, this study showed that abacavir is safe and is well tolerated by HIV-infected subjects and demonstrated predictable pharmacokinetic characteristics when it was administered as single oral doses ranging from 100 to 1,200 mg.  (+info)

Safety and single-dose pharmacokinetics of abacavir (1592U89) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children. (7/6505)

Abacavir (formerly 1592U89) is a potent 2'-deoxyguanosine analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has been demonstrated to have a favorable safety profile in initial clinical trials with adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection. A phase I study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of abacavir following the administration of two single oral doses (4 and 8 mg/kg of body weight) to 22 HIV-infected children ages 3 months to 13 years. Plasma was collected for analysis at predose and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 5, and 8 h after the administration of each dose. Plasma abacavir concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods. Abacavir was well tolerated by all subjects. The single abacavir-related adverse event was rash, which occurred in 2 of 22 subjects. After administration of the oral solution, abacavir was rapidly absorbed, with the time to the peak concentration in plasma occurring within 1.5 h postdosing. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were comparable among the different age groups for each dose level. The mean maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax) and the mean area under the curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) increased by 16 and 45% more than predicted, respectively, as the abacavir dose was doubled from 4 to 8 mg/kg (Cmax increased from 1.69 to 3.94 micrograms/ml, and AUC0-infinity increased from 2.82 to 8.09 micrograms.h/ml). Abacavir was rapidly eliminated, with a mean elimination half-life of 0.98 to 1.13 h. The mean apparent clearance from plasma decreased from 27.35 to 18.88 ml/min/kg as the dose increased. Neither body surface area nor creatinine clearance were correlated with pharmacokinetic estimates at either dose. The extent of exposure to abacavir appears to be slightly lower in children than in adults, with the comparable unit doses being based on body weight. In conclusion, this study showed that abacavir is safe and well tolerated in children when it is administered as a single oral dose of 4 or 8 mg/kg.  (+info)

Optimizing aminoglycoside therapy for nosocomial pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria. (8/6505)

Nosocomial pneumonia is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality and leads to increases in lengths of hospital stays and institutional expenditures. Aminoglycosides are used to treat patients with these infections, but few data on the doses and schedules required to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes exist. We analyzed aminoglycoside treatment data for 78 patients with nosocomial pneumonia to determine if optimization of aminoglycoside pharmacodynamic parameters results in a more rapid therapeutic response (defined by outcome and days to leukocyte count resolution and temperature resolution). Cox proportional hazards, Classification and Regression Tree (CART), and logistic regression analyses were applied to the data. By all analyses, the first measured maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/MIC predicted days to temperature resolution and the second measured Cmax/MIC predicted days to leukocyte count resolution. For days to temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution, CART analyses produced breakpoints, with an 89% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.7 and an 86% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.5, respectively. Logistic regression analyses predicted a 90% probability of temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution by day 7 if a Cmax/MIC of > or = 10 is achieved within the first 48 h of aminoglycoside therapy. Aggressive aminoglycoside dosing immediately followed by individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring would ensure that Cmax/MIC targets are achieved early in therapy. This would increase the probability of a rapid therapeutic response for pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria and potentially decreasing durations of parenteral antibiotic therapy, lengths of hospitalization, and institutional expenditures, a situation in which both the patient and the institution benefit.  (+info)

will occur with equal frequency, and therefore all such points will be modes (local frequency maxima) of the distribution. On the other hand, though, if the middle part of the trapezoid is not completely flat, or if one or both of the side ramps are not perfectly linear, then the trapezoidal distribution in question is a generalized trapezoidal distribution,[1][2] and more complicated and context-dependent rules may apply. The side ramps of a trapezoidal distribution are not required to be symmetric in the general case, just as the sides of trapezoids in geometry are not required to be symmetric. Special cases of the trapezoidal distribution include the uniform distribution (with ...
Maximum plasma concentration at steady state during dosing interval (Css,max), time to maximum concentration at steady state during dosing interval (tss,max), minimum plasma concentration at steady state during dosing interval (Css,min), area under the plasma concentration time curve from zero to time of the last quantifiable concentrations [AUC(0-t)], area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to the end of the dosing interval (AUCτ); average plasma concentration during the dosing interval (Css,av), fluctuation index (FI ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of the blood sampling site on time-concentration drug profiles following intravenous or buccal drug administration. AU - Hedges, A. R.. AU - Pypendop, Bruno H. AU - Shilo, Y.. AU - Stanley, Scott D. AU - Ilkiw, Jan. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the sampling site on the drug concentration-time profile, following intravenous or buccal (often called oral transmucosal) drug administration. Buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) was administered IV or buccally to six cats. Blood samples were collected from the carotid artery and the jugular and medial saphenous veins for 24 h following buprenorphine administration. Buprenorphine concentration-time data were examined using noncompartmental analysis. Pharmacokinetic parameters were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, applying the Bonferroni correction. Significance was set at P , 0.05. Following IV administration, no difference among the sampling sites was found. Following buccal ...
The purpose of this study is to investigate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships of CPX-351 (Vyxeos,a novel formulation of Cytarabine and
A method of nerve therapy for treating nerves by electrical stimulation characterized by using pulses of a trapezoidal waveform such that the waveform, as viewed from a positive electrode has a flat positive potential with a negative pip that is a point made by convergence of the sides with no flat or curved portion. The therapy is carried out by contacting a patients skin with a pair of electrodes such that the positive electrode is orientated nearest the brain via the nerves conducting channels. The pulses with a trapezoidal waveform occur at a frequency selected within the range of 60 to 250 cycles per second, preferably within the range of 100 to 150 cycles per second with a peak to peak voltage of 55v or less (e.g., 19 to 25 volts.) These pulses are each defined as a pulse having a flat top portion with leading and trailing side portions which slope away from the top portion as the electrical potential drops toward the zero axis and proceeds into the negative pip.
The plasma concentration-time data observed in our study are similar to those observed in two preliminary reports describing the pharmacokinetics of orally administered nafithromycin in healthy subjects (17, 18). The mean ± SD Cmax of nafithromycin after the first dose of 800 mg in our study was 1.015 ± 0.314 mg/liter (at a mean time to Cmax [Tmax] of 3.97 h), whereas the reported range of mean Cmax values after a single dose was 0.932 to 1.207 mg/liter (at mean Tmax ranging from 3.88 to 4.0 h). Our observed value for the AUC from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞) after the first dose (12.89 ± 3.77 mg · h/liter) was consistent with the values observed in subjects who received a single 800-mg dose in the fasted (12.49 mg · h/liter) or fed (14.85 mg · h/liter) state or on the first day (AUC0-24, 11.99 mg · h/liter) of a multiple-dose study. Previously reported data provided evidence that the plasma exposure of nafithromycin was only mildly increased by food (AUC and Cmax were ...
Plasma drug concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters, including volume of the central compartment (Vc/F), elimination rate constant (Ke), half-life (t1/2), apparent oral clearance (CL/F), and area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC ...
I am trying to do Automatic Sensor Setup from Trapezoidal mode. It seems t work just fine in Sinusoidal mode, and the motors run very smooth/quiet in...
German Trapezoidal Violin Flight Case, Gewa, c. 1970 for sale in auction. Auction Number 3490T, Lot Number 1006. Bid on similar items for sale at auction
Trapezoidal Shaped Flip Top Meeting Table. 25mm Melamine Tops With A Robust Silver Steel Frame. Can Be Flipped From A Horizontal To Vertical Position. Tables
Abstract , References , Similar Articles , Additional Information Abstract: An interesting property of the midpoint rule and the trapezoidal rule, which is expressed by the so-called Hermite-Hadamard inequalities, is that they provide one-sided approximations to the integral of a convex function. We establish multivariate analogues of the Hermite-Hadamard inequalities and obtain access to multivariate integration formulae via convexity, in analogy to the univariate case. In particular, for simplices of arbitrary dimension, we present two families of integration formulae which both contain a multivariate analogue of the midpoint rule and the trapezoidal rule as boundary cases. The first family also includes a multivariate analogue of a Maclaurin formula and of the two-point Gaussian quadrature formula; the second family includes a multivariate analogue of a formula by P.C. Hammer and of Simpsons rule. In both families, we trace out those formulae which satisfy a Hermite-Hadamard inequality. As ...
with: known body length in adults more than 8 mm; cephalic plate trapezoidal, with posterior part wider than anterior part ( Figs 29BView FIGURE 29, 31BView FIGURE 31); forcipular tergite elongated, trapezoidal ( Figs 29BView FIGURE 29, 31BView FIGURE 31); denticle of tarsungulum relatively short and positioned close to mid-length of tarsungulum ( Figs 29CView FIGURE 29, 31DView FIGURE 31); distal denticle of trochanteroprefemur and denticle of femur distinctly spaced ( Figs 29CView FIGURE 29, 31DView FIGURE 31).. Recorded specimens: a single specimen, ♂.. Distribution. Brazil-Paraná: Foz do Iguaçu ( Silvestri 1909a, 1909b).. Description of holotype. Male (MCSG Vase type).. Entire body: length 8, maximum width 0.2. Cephalic plate: trapezoidal, with posterior margin 1.5 times as wide as anterior margin; length 0.33 and maximum width (near posterior margin) 0.24 (length/width ratio 1.37). Antenna: length 0.56, 1.7 times as long as cephalic plate; AA II-XIII length/width ratio 0.44-0.95; LAA ...
Twenty chemotherapy-naive patients with ovarian carcinoma received 1, 5, 10, or 15 µg/kg/day (five patients per dose step) of recombinant human interleukin 3 (rhIL-3) over 7 days after carboplatin/cyclophosphamide in Cycles 1 and 3. Patients received rhIL-3 by continuous i.v. infusion or once daily s.c. injection in Cycle 1 and the alternate route in Cycle 3. Plasma rhIL-3 samples were obtained once daily on Days 1 to 6 and serially over a 24-h period on Day 7 for pharmacokinetic assessment of s.c. and i.v. administered rhIL-3 in 16 and 17 patients, respectively. Concentrations were assayed by a time-resolved fluorescence sandwich immunoassay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived by noncompartmental methods. Mean steady-state concentrations during continuous i.v. infusion ranged from 117 pg/ml) 1 µg/kg/day) to 2217 pg/ml (15 µg/kg/day) and were linearly related to dose (r = 0.87, P , 0.001). When dose normalized, the mean steady-state concentrations were comparable at all doses. The ...
The plasma concentration-time profiles of EFV after oral dosing to rats were notable in that the concentrations at 40- and 160-mg/kg doses exhibited plateaus of about 4 and 16 μM, which were sustained for periods of 1 and 3 h, respectively. A 16-fold increase in the dose caused an AUC increase of about 70-fold (Table 2). These features coupled with the reduced plasma clearance after the high i.v. dose were suggestive of saturation of metabolism and possibly prolongation of absorption (Lin, 1994; Kwan, 1997) of EFV at the higher doses. The possibility of the prolonged absorption of EFV was further explored in rats. [14C]PEG-4000 was used as a nonabsorbable, nonmetabolizable macromolecular probe (Parlesak et al., 1994; Wiklund et al., 1984; Cortot et al., 1975; Krag et al., 1975) for investigating its transit time through the gastrointestinal tract, with and without pretreatment of animals with EFV. The results showed that PEG passed through the stomach rapidly in the control rats, and that most ...
Midostaurin exhibits time-dependent pharmacokinetics with an initial increase in minimum concentrations (Cmin) that reach the highest Cmin concentrations during the first week followed by a decline to a steady-state after approximately 28 days. The pharmacokinetics of the CGP62221 showed a similar trend. The plasma concentrations of CGP52421 continued to increase after one month of treatment.. The highest Cmin and steady-state of midostaurin, CGP62221, and CGP52421 were similar when RYDAPT was administered with food at a dose of 50 mg twice daily or 100 mg twice daily.. Absorption The time to maximal concentrations (Tmax) occurred between 1 to 3 hours post dose in the fasted state.. Effect of Food Midostaurin exposure, represented by area under the curve over time to infinity (AUCinf), increased 1.2-fold when RYDAPT was coadministered with a standard meal (457 calories, 50 g fat, 21 g proteins, and 18 g carbohydrates) and 1.6-fold when coadministered with a high-fat meal (1007 calories, 66 g ...
Purpose: This study determined the range of tolerable doses, clinical safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary evidence of clinical activity following once or twice daily administration of lapatinib in patients with solid malignancies.. Experimental Design: Cancer patients (n = 81) received oral doses of lapatinib ranging from 175 to 1,800 mg once daily or 500 to 900 mg twice daily. Clinical assessments of safety and antitumor activity were recorded and blood was sampled for pharmacokinetic assessments. The effect of a low-fat meal on lapatinib pharmacokinetics was assessed in a subset of patients.. Results: Lapatinib was well tolerated, such that dose escalation was limited at 1,800 mg once daily only by pill burden. Twice-daily dosing was implemented to further explore tolerability, and was limited by diarrhea to 500 mg twice daily. The most commonly reported adverse events with once-daily dosing were diarrhea (48%), nausea (40%), rash (40%), and fatigue (38%) and with twice-daily dosing were ...
View Notes - ConcentrationandSolubility from CHEM 100 at BYU. Concentration vs. Solubility From http:/www.iit.edu/~smile/ Therese Donatello 7929 Elm Grove Dr. Elmwood Park IL 60635 Archbishop Weber
The principle objective of this proposal is to develop a high resolution, high detection efficiency positron emission tomography (PET) detector with depth-of-in...
This phase Ib/IIa study is evaluating the addition of birinapant in subjects with chronic Hepatitis B who are currently receiving anti-viral therapy with either
Definite Integrals. Riemann Sums and Trapezoidal Rule. Why all this work? Why learn integration?. We are now going to look to find the numerical value of any curve f(x) from a to b, bounded by the x axis. (Fig 1) Slideshow 6242366 by finn-ayala
This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the considerable decrease in the clearance of I during chronic dosing was due to the formation of an inhibitory methylenedioxyaryl metabolite complex with the P450s that metabolize the compound. In support of this, a small amount of the P450-metabolite complex was formed in dogs within 24 h after a single dose of I, whereas considerably more of the complex was found after 14 days of treatment. Since the study design enabled the determination of the plasma pharmacokinetics of I and the formation of a P450-metabolite complex from the same animals, it was possible to evaluate the correlation between these two parameters. Although there was a 30-fold variation in the plasma AUC or clearance of Ibetween animals and a 12-fold variation in the amount of the liver P450-metabolite complex formed between dogs, there was a positive correlation between these pharmacokinetic parameters and the amount of the P450-metabolite complex formed in the livers of ...
Issue July - September-2020 | Quarterly published in print and online Inventi Rapid/Impact: Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacodynamics publishes high quality unpublished as well as high impact pre-published research and reviews catering to the needs of researchers and professionals. This journal focuses on all areas of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drug substances and products including drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and application of pharmacokinetics principles for effective management of drugs. Articles from the areas such as drug action, clinical pharmacokinetics, drug metabolites, dosage form evaluation in animals and humans, bioavailabilty studies, scaling from animals to humans, and in vitro and in vivo correlations are also welcome.
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I am trying to understand some things related to elliptic curves and finite flat group schemes but I am a little bit confused.. Let $A$ be a supersingular elliptic curve over an algebraically closed field $K$ of characteristic $p$. Let $F: A \rightarrow A^{(p)}$ be the Frobenius isogeny. Then $\ker F$ is as a finite flat group scheme over $K$ isomorphic to $\alpha_p$, the kernel of the Frobenius on $\mathbb{G}_a$.. Now lets look at $F^2: A \rightarrow A^{(p^2)}$.. ...
There are an infinite number of parabolas through any two given points, but only one through three given points. If we find a parabola through three consecutive points \((x_i,f(x_i))\text{,}\) \((x_{i+1},f(x_{i+1}))\text{,}\) \((x_{i+2},f(x_{i+2}))\) on the curve, it should be quite close to the curve over the whole interval \([x_i,x_{i+2}]\text{,}\) as in Figure 2.6.3. If we divide the interval \([a,b]\) into an even number of subintervals, we can then approximate the curve by a sequence of parabolas, each covering two of the subintervals. For this to be practical, we would like a simple formula for the area under one parabola, namely, the parabola through \((x_i,f(x_i))\text{,}\) \((x_{i+1},f(x_{i+1}))\text{,}\) and \((x_{i+2},f(x_{i+2}))\text{.}\) That is, we should attempt to write down the parabola \(y=ax^2+bx+c\) through these points and then integrate it, and hope that the result is fairly simple. Although the algebra involved is messy, this turns out to be possible. The algebra is well ...
My son Evan was diagnosed with idiopathic infantile scoliosis at the age of 6 months (4-01-03). At the time of diagnosis he had a 38 degree left thoracic curve measuring from t4 to t8. A MRI revealed no abnormalities. We are currently being treated by an orthopedic surgeon at Chidrens Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. His decision was to watch the curve over a period of a few months. After taking a series of x-rays over a 5 month period the curve had shown no change. At this time
Im going to review the 2020 roadmap categories for the year one by one to see what has shifted but first a quick aside about a potential white swan, i.e. a positive tail event, in this case a feature that could significantly alter the growth curve of protocol volume. The success of Curve over the last six months has been pretty astounding even to the most bullish defi advocates, but it is still somewhat hindered by the fact that each curve pool is isolated to one asset class. So e.g. you can trade $5m of USDC into sUSD in one trade on chain, or $2m of sBTC into WBTC via 1inch, but you cant trade $10m USDC into $10m renBTC, because there isnt a shared asset in each pool that can be used to bridge them. Except… sBTC and sUSD are essentially the same asset due to their ability to be converted with zero slippage at the current oracle price. They can, therefore potentially be used as a bridge between the two pools. This combined with an sETH:WETH pool, would provide something that is currently ...
If you want the curve to start inside the letter and continue outside, create the whole curl or swirl that you want , then position the curve over the letters where you want it, cut it where it intersects the letter outline and paste the portion which comes inside the lettering first, then paste the portion outside taking care the curve looks continuous. Do not squash the curl/swirl while working as you will loose continuity. ...
DogBooksOnline have recently started selling the Wicked Hound Recurve Sports Collar on their website. This is a collar designed by Kirsty Cumming, a vet and top Australian agility competitor and trainer, specifically for performance dogs. It features contoured sides to allow more freedom of movement through the shoulder and avoids pressure points on the neck. Her plan was to design a collar that provided proper tracheal support for dogs when they are running or pulling rather than the normal strap collar that has a 3 x load increase on the top edge when a dog is exerting pressure. The stiffer the collar, the higher the point of pressure, which inevitably leads to throat damage.. Several years were spent testing materials and working on digital modelling to perfect the design. The result is a collar that has a broad front that tapers and curves over the dogs shoulder to direct load back to the handler holding the lead. Thus, the worlds first ergonomic collar, made from military grade cordura, ...
With over 20 sizes in right and left hand versions, Roton offers the most complete Trapezoidal lead screw products made in the USA. Total Solar Eclipse - On Monday, Aug, all of North America will be treated to an eclipse of the sun. of parallel paths and after effects roto brush calculate forward N is the speed of the DC Motor. There does not appear to be any way to replace the brush twines if they break or wear down; it looks like Id need to purchase another brush head (which I think I saw for sale on Amazon). Effects Of Force On An Object. Find after effects roto brush calculate forward and study online flashcards and class notes at home or on your phone. after effects roto brush calculate forward 47% of those users who reviewed Alli reported a positive effect, while 34% reported a negative effect. Contact us today!. &0183;&32;How to Use Our Free calculate iOS 14 Icons. Please consult your doctor if you experience any of the side effects below and ask for his or her tips to complement the ...
We report the fabrication and characterization of a new polarization converter for InGaAsP-InP photonic integrated circuits. The converter consists of two right trapezoidal sections with the angled sidewalls etched wetly. The converters show a greatly improved tolerance to variations of the fabrication, an averaged efficiency of polarization conversion of 99.8% and a loss of about 0.7 dB at a wavelength of 1.535 μm.. © 2013 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Biochemistry, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics - The section of Biochemistry, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics part contains threads and po
Biochemistry, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics - The section of Biochemistry, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics part contains threads and po
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of oral midazolam limited sampling strategies to predict area under the concentration time curve (AUC) during cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A baseline, inhibition and induction or activation. AU - Ma, J. D.. AU - Nguyen, E. T.. AU - Tsunoda, S. M.. AU - Greenberg, H. E.. AU - Gorski, J. C.. AU - Penzak, S. R.. AU - Lee, L. S.. PY - 2010/12. Y1 - 2010/12. N2 - A previous study reported a 2-and 3-timepoint limited sampling strategy (LSS) model accurately predicted oral midazolamarea under the concentration time curve (AUC), and thus cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity. Objective: This study evaluated whether the LSS models predict midazolam AUC during CYP3A baseline, inhibition and induction/activation. Materials and methods: Plasma midazolam concentrations from 106 healthy adults from 6 published studies were obtained where oral midazolam was co-administered alone or with ketoconazole, double-strength grapefruit juice, Ginkgo biloba extract, pleconaril, or rifampin. Observed and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Limited Sampling Strategies Based on Healthy Volunteers for Monitoring of Ertapenem in Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. AU - van Rijn, S P. AU - Zuur, M A. AU - van Altena, R. AU - Akkerman, O W. AU - Proost, J H. AU - de Lange, W C M. AU - Kerstjens, H A M. AU - Touw, D J. AU - van der Werf, T S. AU - Kosterink, J G W. AU - Alffenaar, J W C. N1 - Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.. PY - 2017/4. Y1 - 2017/4. N2 - Ertapenem is a broad-spectrum carbapenem antibiotic whose activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is being explored. Carbapenems have antibacterial activity when the plasma concentration exceeds the MIC at least 40% of the time (40% T-MIC). To assess the 40% T-MIC in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients, a limited sampling strategy was developed using a population pharmacokinetic model based on data for healthy volunteers. A two-compartment population pharmacokinetic model was developed with ...
1 mm internal diameter, 5 μL; Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). For elution, a linear gradient was applied: CH3CN-H2O (40:60, v/v) to CH3CN-H2O (95:5, v/v) for 10 min. The flow rate was 0.3 mL/min. Mass spectra were acquired in a positive mode using nitrogen gas at a temperature of 300°C, flow rate of 10 L/min, nebulizer pressure of INK1197 20 psi, quadruple temperature of 30°C, and capillary voltage of 4000 V. The precursor-product ion pairs monitored were. 969→789 for ginsenoside Rd and 409→238 for the internal standard (amlodipine). The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and time to reach maximum drug concentration (Tmax) for ginsenoside Rd were estimated directly from the plasma concentration-time profiles. Area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve (AUC) was calculated by using the log-linear trapezoidal rule for the total period and extrapolated to infinity. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA; IBM SPSS version 20.0; IBM ...
Antimicrobials are among the most important and commonly prescribed drugs in the management of critically ill patients and beta-lactams are the most common antibiotic class used. Critically ill patients pathophysiological factors lead to altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of beta-lactams. A comprehensive bibliographic search in PubMed database of all English language articles published from January 2000 to December 2017 was performed, allowing the selection of articles addressing the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of beta-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients. In critically ill patients, several factors may increase volume of distribution and enhance renal clearance, inducing high intra- and inter-patient variability in beta-lactam concentration and promoting the risk of antibiotic underdosing. The duration of infusion of beta-lactams has been shown to influence the fT | minimal inhibitory concentration and an improved beta-lactam pharmacodynamics profile may be obtained by
Read the Clinical Chemistry Journals July 2010 Clinical Case Study and student discussion. A 24-year-old woman with advanced Hodgkin disease received the standard dosing protocol for busulfan/cyclophosphamide before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)1 from a matched unrelated donor. The target area under the plasma concentration vs time curve (AUC) for busulfan was set at 950 μmol · L−1 · min−1, near the low end of the therapeutic interval of 900-1350 μmol · L−1 · min−1. The patients body mass index (BMI) was 45.5 kg/m2 (height, 170.2 cm; weight, 132.0 kg), so the dose was based on the patients ideal body weight. The patient received 2-hour intravenous infusions of busulfan every 6 h for 4 days (16 doses total). The patient was concurrently prescribed multiple medications, including an immunosuppressant, an antiviral, an antifungal, an antidepressant, an anxiolytic, a β-blocker, and a muscle relaxant, as well as antibiotics, warfarin, opioids, and antiepileptic
Background: Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) is a pharmacokinetic parameter that represents general contact with a medication. EMBASE databases had been researched using the conditions anti-infective realtors limited sampling optimum sampling sparse sampling AUC monitoring Neratinib abbreviated AUC abbreviated sampling and Bayesian. The reference lists of retrieved articles manually were searched. Included research had been classified regarding to modified requirements from the united states Preventive Services Job Force. Outcomes: Twenty research met the addition criteria. Six from the research (concerning didanosine zidovudine nevirapine ciprofloxacin efavirenz and nelfinavir) had been classified as offering level I proof 4 research (concerning vancomycin didanosine lamivudine and lopinavir-ritonavir) offered level II-1 proof 2 research (concerning saquinavir and ceftazidime) provided level II-2 evidence and 8 studies (involving ciprofloxacin nelfinavir vancomycin ...
Anlotinib is a novel multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is designed to primarily inhibit VEGFR2/3, FGFR1-4, PDGFR α/β, c-Kit, and Ret. We aimed to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of anlotinib in patients with advanced refractory solid tumors. Anlotinib (5-16 mg) was orally administered in patients with solid tumor once a day on two schedules: (1) four consecutive weeks (4/0) or (2) 2-week on/1-week off (2/1). Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed in all patients. Twenty-one patients were further enrolled in an expanded cohort study on the recommended dose and schedule. Preliminary tumor response was also assessed. On the 4/0 schedule, dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was grade 3 hypertension at 10 mg. On the 2/1 schedule, DLT was grade 3 hypertension and grade 3 fatigue at 16 mg. Pharmacokinetic assessment indicated that anlotinib had long elimination half-lives and significant accumulation during multiple oral doses. The 2/1 schedule was selected, with 12 mg once
Interaction of a drug with other drugs and dietary supplements is becoming an emerging issue for patients and health insurance authorities due to awareness of adverse drug event. In this study, we examined the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), one of the most popular dietary supplements, on the pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline in rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline changed significantly when the drug was administered after five consecutive days of pretreatment with CoQ10. Time to reach maximum plasma concentration of theophylline delayed when the drug was administered after the pretreatment with CoQ10. Maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve of theophylline were about two-fold increased and other pharmacokinetic parameters such as half-life and volume of distribution were also changed significantly. Therefore, although CoQ10 is generally considered a safe dietary supplement, it appears that patients on theophylline therapy should use caution when they take ...
Seven healthy volunteers showing a fourteenfold range in steady-state plasma concentrations on oral alprenolol (200 mg b.i.d.) were investigated by administration of 5 mg of the drug intravenously and then 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg as single oral doses. The rank order for individual steady-state plasma concentrations was the same as that for the relative bioavailability of the 200 mg dose. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve showed a nonlinear increase with the dose. As the relative availability was a good predictor of steady state while clearance after intravenous administration was not, it was concluded that differences in first-pass elimination markedly contribute to the interindividual variability in steady state plasma concentrations. After pentobarbital treatment, the area under the plasma concentration curve of the 200 mg dose was decreased to 32% and 59% of the pretreatment values in two subjects, but there was no change in the plasma half-life of alprenolol. This indicates
Mean steady-state plasma concentration-time profiles are shown in Figure 1. Pharmacokinetic parameters are summarized in Table 2. There was no period or sequence effect for any ATV parameter (AUC0-24, P = 0.25; Cmax, P = 0.46; Cmin, P = 0.91; Tmax, P = 0.84) or RAL parameter (AUC0-24, P = 0.12; Cmax, P = 0.35; Cmin, P = 0.19; Tmax, P = 0.47). Both ATV and RAL demonstrated considerable pharmacokinetic variability (Table 2). The 90% CIs of Cmin GMR (q24h/q12h) for both ATV and RAL were outside the prespecified equivalence interval of 0.80-1.25 [1.30 (90% CI: 1.08 to 1.58) and 0.48 (90% CI: 0.31 to 0.75), respectively], demonstrating nonequivalence between q12h and q24h dosages. We observed significant between-strategy differences for ATV AUC0-24 [GMR 0.76 (90% CI: 0.59 to 0.98)] and RAL Cmax [GMR 1.99 (90% CI: 1.50 to 2.63)]. RTV pharmacokinetic parameters are summarized in Table 2; there was no period effect for any parameter (AUC0-12, P = 0.10; Cmin, P = 0.31; Cmax, P = 0.45; Tmax, P = 0.86 ...
BioAssay record AID 236679 submitted by ChEMBL: Maximum plasma concentration in rat after oral administration at 10 mg/kg dosage.
PURPOSE: Metarrestin is a first-in-class small molecule clinical candidate capable of disrupting the perinucleolar compartment, a subnuclear structure unique to metastatic cancer cells. This study aims to define the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of metarrestin and the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of metarrestin-regulated markers. METHODS: PK studies included the administration of single or multiple dose of metarrestin at 3, 10, or 25 mg/kg via intravenous (IV) injection, gavage (PO) or with chow to wild-type C57BL/6 mice and KPC mice bearing autochthonous pancreatic tumors. Metarrestin concentrations were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacodynamic assays included mRNA expression profiling by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR for KPC mice. RESULTS: Metarrestin had a moderate plasma clearance of 48 mL/min/kg and a large volume of distribution of 17 L/kg at 3 mg/kg IV in C57BL/6 mice. The oral bioavailability after single-dose (SD) treatment was , 80%. In KPC mice treated with SD 25 mg/kg PO, plasma ...
Antibiotic dose is important in determining serum area-under-the-curve (AUC) and peak serum concentration (Cmax), as well as the time the serum concentration remains over the pathogen minimum inhibitory concentration (T,MIC). However, dose is not the sole determinant of these factors; they are modified by absorption, clearance, and frequency of dosing. It is difficult to relate dose to clinical outcome in humans, but pharmacodynamic parameters (AUC/MIC, Cmax/MIC, or T,MIC) have been related to clinical and bacteriological efficacy or emergence of resistance to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides, and β-lactams.. ...
We measured hair and plasma concentrations of isoniazid among sixteen children with tuberculosis who underwent personal or video-assisted directly observed therapy and thus had 100% adherence. This study therefore defined typical isoniazid exposure parameters after two months of treatment among fully-adherent patients in both hair and plasma (plasma area under the concentration-time curve, AUC, estimated using pharmacokinetic data collected 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours after drug administration). We found that INH levels in hair among highly-adherent individuals did not correlate well with plasma AUC or trough concentrations, suggesting that each measure may provide incremental and complementary information regarding drug exposure in the context of TB treatment ...
Comparison of the plasma pharmacokinetic parameters following the 1st and 5th daily doses of 500 mg intravenous azithromycin showed only an 8% increase in Cmax but a 61% increase in AUC24 reflecting a threefold rise in C24 trough levels.. Following single-oral doses of 500 mg azithromycin (two 250 mg capsules) to 12 healthy volunteers, Cmax, trough level, and AUC24 were reported to be 0.41 mcg/mL, 0.05 mcg/mL, and 2.6 mcg∙h/mL, respectively. These oral values are approximately 38%, 83%, and 52% of the values observed following a single 500-mg I.V. 3-hour infusion (Cmax: 1.08 mcg/mL, trough: 0.06 mcg/mL, and AUC24: 5.0 mcg∙h/mL). Thus, plasma concentrations are higher following the intravenous regimen throughout the 24-hour interval.. Distribution The serum protein binding of azithromycin is variable in the concentration range approximating human exposure, decreasing from 51% at 0.02 mcg/mL to 7% at 2 mcg/mL.. Tissue concentrations have not been obtained following intravenous infusions of ...
In vitro data has limitations and may not reflect what occurs in the whole organism. The conversion rate may be slower or faster, the concentrations different, etc., which is why it is not always possible to follow the entire bioconversion in vivo. The three compounds, aripiprazole, N-hydroxymethyl aripiprazole and aripiprazole lauroxil, were therefore dosed intravenously to three different groups of rats. The plasma concentration time profile following administration of aripiprazole. can be seen in Fig. 4A. The profile could be described by a bi-exponential equation: equation(3) Cpl=1464⋅e−2.77t+1205⋅e−0.16tCpl=1464⋅e−2.77t+1205⋅e−0.16t where Cpl is the concentration of aripiprazole (nanomol) in plasma and t is time (in hours). The AUC0→∞ was 8176 ± 2647 nmol h/L, clearance 1.37 ± 0.61 L/h/kg and volume of distribution 8.16 ± 0.75 L/kg giving a terminal plasma half-life of ≈4.2 h. This is slightly longer than that previously INCB024360 cost reported following ...
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Downloadable! Multivariate continuous time models are now widely used in economics and finance. Empirical applications typically rely on some process of discretization so that the system may be estimated with discrete data. This paper introduces a framework for discretizing linear multivariate continuous time systems that includes the commonly used Euler and trapezoidal approximations as special cases and leads to a general class of estimators for the mean reversion matrix. Asymptotic distributions and bias formulae are obtained for estimates of the mean reversion parameter. Explicit expressions are given for the discretization bias and its relationship to estimation bias in both multivariate and in univariate settings. In the univariate context, we compare the performance of the two approximation methods relative to exact maximum likelihood (ML) in terms of bias and variance for the Vasicek process. The bias and the variance of the Euler method are found to be smaller than the trapezoidal method, which
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The aim of this study was to obtain pharmacokinetic data for the anxiolytic compound galphimine-A (G-A) from Galphimia glauca. G-A is the most abundant anxiolytic compound in this plant, while Galphimine-E (G-E) is the most abundant galphimine, but inactive. G-E was transformed chemically into G-A. The pharmacokinetic study was carried out in ICR mice, which were orally administered a single 200 mg/kg dose of G-A. Samples of blood and brain were taken at different times after administration of G-A. Previously, we established the validation of methods for determining the concentration of G-A. The G-A was detected in plasma 5 min after oral administration, and its concentration reached 2.47 μg/mL. Data from concentration-time curves allowed us to establish the main pharmacokinetic parameters in two models: one- and/or two-compartment. Cmax values were 3.33 and 3.42 μg/mL respectively, likewise AUC0→1440 min were 1,951.58 and 1,824.95 μg/mL·min. The G-A in brain tissue was noted to cross the blood
f(1)= 20, f(3)=13, f(5)=15, f(7)=16, f(9)=11, on [0,6] a, used midpint rule with n=5 to estimate intergral form 0 to 10 f(x)dx b, use trapezoidal rule with n=4 to estimate intergral from 1 to 9 f(x)dx c, used simpsons rule with n=4 to estimate intergal from 1 to 9 (x)dx ...
OBJECTIVE: To compare pharmacokinetics of eltenac after first and last IV administrations (0.5 mg/kg), using a multiple dosing schedule. ANIMALS: 6 adult mares. PROCEDURE: Eltenac (50 mg/ml) was administered IV at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight every 24 hours for days 0 through 4. On days 0 and 4, blood samples were collected before, then periodically for 8 hours after eltanac administration. Concentration of eltenac in plasma samples was determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: On day 0, median area under the plasma eltenac concentration versus time curve (AUC) was 6.77 microg.h/ml (range, 5.61 to 8.08 microg.h/ml), median plasma clearance was 1.23 ml/min/kg (range, 1.03 to 1.40 ml/min/kg), and median steady-state volume of distribution was 191 ml/kg (range, 178 to 218 ml/kg). Median terminal half-life of eltenac was 2.36 hours (range, 2.30 to 2.98 hours). On day 4, median eltenac AUC was 6.70 microg.h/ml (range, 5.21 to 7.44 microg.h/ml), median plasma ...
This example demonstrates how a variational problem can be discretized to a finite optimization problem efficiently solved by convex methods, such as QuadraticOptimization.. The variational problem will be approximated by discretizing the boundary value problem and using the trapezoidal rule to integrate on a uniformly spaced grid on the interval [0,1], ...
Maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (tmax), area under the concentration time curve from zero to last observed concentration (AUC0-τ), half-life (t1/2), total body clearance (CL), apparent volume of distribution (VD) in plasma; penetration ratio calculated as CSF concentration (Cmax and AUC0-τ, respectively) divided by plasma ...
This open-label, multi-center, three-period, one sequence study will investigate the effect of vemurafenib on the pharmacokinetics digoxin of in patient
FIG 2 Distributions of free-drug AUC0-168/MIC ratios at the MIC90 value for C. albicans of 0.06 mg/liter for simulated patients administered the single-dose and weekly rezafungin regimens shown relative to the free-drug AUC0-168/MIC ratio targets associated with net fungal stasis and a 1-log10 CFU reduction from baseline. Plot whiskers represent the 5th and 95th percentiles of the AUC0-168/MIC ratios. ...
Edit: Previous answer was bogus.. Let me change your notation a little to let $x_0$ be the limit of the $x_n$.. Yes, this is true. It follows from tightness and the general fact that $h(x_n, \cdot) \to h(x_0, \cdot)$ uniformly on compact sets.. Without loss of generality, lets suppose that $h(x_0, \cdot) = 0$ (replace $h(x,y)$ by $h(x,y) - h(x_0,y)$). Let $\epsilon , 0$ and let $M$ be the sup norm of $h$. By the easier direction of Prohorovs theorem, the sequence $\{\mu_n\}$ is tight, so there is a compact $K \subset S$ such that for every $n$ we have $\mu_n(K^C) , \epsilon$. Now we have $$\begin{align*}\left,\int h(x_n, y) \mu_n(dy)\right, &\le \int_K ,h(x_n,y),\,\mu_n(dy) + \int_{K^C} ,h(x_n, y), \mu_n(dy) \\ &\le \sup_{y \in K} ,h(x_n, y), + M \epsilon.\end{align*}$$ So it suffices to show that $h(x_n, \cdot) \to 0$ uniformly on $K$. Suppose not; then passing to a subsequence if necessary, we can find $\delta , 0$ so that $\sup_{y \in K} ,h(x_n, y), , \delta$ for all $n$. Thus for each $n$ ...
In the field of pharmacokinetics, the area under the curve (AUC) is the definite integral of the concentration of a drug in ... "Area Under Curve" of the Receiver operating characteristic Maurer, Hans H. (2005). "Multi-analyte procedures for screening for ...
To overcome this limitation of AUC, it was proposed to compute the area under the ROC curve in the area of the ROC space that ... over area\ of\ the\ RoI}} RRA=1 indicates perfect accuracy, while RRA=0 indicates that the area under the ROC curve belonging ... the ROC curve of C a {\displaystyle C_{a}} is never above the ROC curve of C b {\displaystyle C_{b}} the ROC curve of C a {\ ... The Partial Area Under the ROC Curve (pAUC) is a metric for the performance of binary classifier. It is computed based on the ...
Curve. October 15, 2010. Cassell, Heather (October 20, 2010). "Publisher sells SF-based Curve magazine". Bay Area Reporter. ... "A Curve in the Road for Curve Magazine". GO. Retrieved 22 January 2019. "Curve Facts". Curve Magazine. 2019. Archived from the ... Curve wrote about cybersex in 1995. In 2003, Curve was early in reporting on pregnancies within the queer community. Curve had ... Ahead of the Curve was released in theaters, digital platforms and DVD on June 1, 2021. In a 2000 interview with Curve, Sinead ...
For example, the image of a simple curve can cover a square in the plane (space-filling curve) and thus have a positive area. ... Coordinate curve Crinkled arc Curve fitting Curve orientation Curve sketching Differential geometry of curves Gallery of curves ... A space curve is a curve for which X {\displaystyle X} is at least three-dimensional; a skew curve is a space curve which lies ... and the curve is a parametric curve. In this article, these curves are sometimes called topological curves to distinguish them ...
... is not true in the area of interest. The involutes of a given curve are a set of parallel curves. For example: the involutes of ... In this case, one gets a parallel curve on the opposite side of the curve (see diagram on the parallel curves of a circle). One ... using a sine curve as progenitor curve. In general, even if a curve is rational, its offsets may not be so. For example, the ... offsets an algebraic curve of degree 8. A Bézier curve of degree n has as (two-sided) offsets algebraic curves of degree 4n − 2 ...
The sparsely populated, largely agricultural area surrounding the curve meant that coal was the only significant inflow and ... The Gotham Curve was once the sharpest curve on any standard gauge railway line in the UK. The curve, which was situated in the ... the line through the Gotham curve went through an 80 degree curve with a radius of 55 yards (50 m). The curve was subject to a ... Horseshoe Curve (Pennsylvania) - a historic three-track railroad curve on the Norfolk Southern Railway in Pennsylvania, United ...
... while the curve based on the instantaneous cross-section area and length is called the true stress-strain curve. Unless stated ... This is not true since the actual area will decrease while deforming due to elastic and plastic deformation. The curve based on ... it is the maximal point in engineering stress-strain curve but is not a special point in true stress-strain curve. Because ... The material is experiencing a stress defined to be the ratio of the force to the cross sectional area of the bar, as well as ...
The area of a fish curve is given by: A = 1 2 , ∫ ( x y ′ − y x ′ ) d t , {\displaystyle A={\frac {1}{2}}\left,\int {\left(xy'- ... A fish curve is an ellipse negative pedal curve that is shaped like a fish. In a fish curve, the pedal point is at the focus ... Weisstein, Eric W. "Fish Curve". MathWorld. Retrieved May 23, 2010. Lockwood, E. H. (1967). A Book of Curves. Cambridge, ... giving the overall area for the fish as: A = 4 3 a 2 {\displaystyle A={\frac {4}{3}}a^{2}} . The arc length of the curve is ...
... the species-area curve. The species discovery curve will necessarily be increasing, and will normally be negatively accelerated ... In ecology, the species discovery curve (also known as a species accumulation curve or collector's curve) is a graph recording ... This is usually done by fitting some kind of functional form to the curve, either by eye or by using non-linear regression ... However, some theoretical approaches imply that the logarithmic curve may be more appropriate,[citation needed] implying that ...
Families of curves may also arise in other areas. For example, all non-degenerate conic sections can be represented using a ... Sets of curves given by an implicit relation may also represent families of curves. Families of curves appear frequently in ... Families of curves may arise in various topics in geometry, including the envelope of a set of curves and the caustic of a ... In geometry, a family of curves is a set of curves, each of which is given by a function or parametrization in which one or ...
Cancer research is an area of biology where growth curve analysis plays an important role. In many types of cancer, the rate at ... Gompertz function Exponential curve (J-curve) Logistic curve (sigmoid curve, S-curve) Von Bertalanffy function Kaneshiro, Neil ... A growth curve is an empirical model of the evolution of a quantity over time. Growth curves are widely used in biology for ... Analysis of the molecular basis for this bi-phasic growth curve led to the discovery of the basic mechanisms that control gene ...
The Abbott-Firestone curve or bearing area curve (BAC) describes the surface texture of an object. The curve can be found from ... The Abbott-Firestone curve was first described by Ernest James Abbott and Floyd Firestone in 1933. It is useful for ... The shape of the curve is distilled into several of the surface roughness parameters, especially the Rk family of parameters. ...
Elliptic curves are especially important in number theory, and constitute a major area of current research; for example, they ... Hessian curve Edwards curve Twisted curve Twisted Hessian curve Twisted Edwards curve Doubling-oriented Doche-Icart-Kohel curve ... Wikiquote has quotations related to Elliptic curve. LMFDB: Database of Elliptic Curves over Q "Elliptic curve", Encyclopedia of ... Elliptic curve cryptography Elliptic-curve Diffie-Hellman key exchange Supersingular isogeny key exchange Elliptic curve ...
... an Osgood curve is a non-self-intersecting curve that has positive area. Despite its area, it is not possible for such a curve ... Osgood curves are named after William Fogg Osgood. A curve in the Euclidean plane is defined to be an Osgood curve when it is ... Osgood curves have Hausdorff dimension two, like space-filling curves. However, they cannot be space-filling curves: by Netto's ... but zero area in other parts; this flaw was corrected by Knopp (1917), who found a curve that has positive area in every ...
... according to Curve. Gephardt was also featured on a cover of Curve in 2007. Swarns, Rachel L. (November 1, 2003). "Daughter ... "A queer look at Sundance". The Bay Area Reporter / B.A.R. Inc. Retrieved August 7, 2021. Stevens, Frances (November 2007). " ... I think we may have mastered the "do what you love and money will follow" credo". Curve. Archived from the original on July 29 ... Curve. Archived from the original on October 6, 2018. Retrieved May 16, 2017 - via HighBeam Research. Shesgreen, Deidre. " ...
Integration of the area above the entire breakthrough curve gives the maximum loading of the adsorptive material. Additionally ... A breakthrough curve in adsorption is the course of the effluent adsorptive concentration at the outlet of a fixed bed adsorber ... The determination of breakthrough curves is the foundation of many other processes, like the pressure swing adsorption. Within ... The shape of the breakthrough curves contains information about the mass transfer properties of the adsorptive-adsorbent system ...
R1) Generate a net of points (raster) on the area of interest of the x-y-plane. (R2) For every point P {\displaystyle P} in the ... To visualize an implicit curve one usually determines a polygon on the curve and displays the polygon. For a parametric curve ... Within mathematics implicit curves play a prominent role as algebraic curves. In addition, implicit curves are used for ... determination of a first curve point to a given starting point in the vicinity of the curve, determination of a curve point ...
The Schuylkill Expressway curves southeast near wooded areas of homes before coming to an interchange with PA 320 in the ... "Conshohocken Curve". WPVI. Retrieved 2009-08-09. "Rain Closes expressway east of Conshohocken Curve". The Philadelphia Inquirer ... "Conshohocken Curve" or "Conshy Curve", which has a history of traffic congestion and dangerous conditions. I-76 continues ... The freeway curves to the southwest, with CSX's Trenton Subdivision heading east away from the road and CSX's Harrisburg ...
The curve can also be shown in non-dimensional or standardized form by scaling elevation and area by the maximum values. The ... Hypsometric curves are commonly used in limnology to represent the relationship between lake surface area and depth and ... When drawn as a 2-dimensional histogram, a hypsometric curve displays the elevation (y) on the vertical, y-axis and area above ... A hypsometric curve is a histogram or cumulative distribution function of elevations in a geographical area. Differences in ...
NBC Sports Bay Area Staff (October 6, 2020). "Nine best Van Halen sports anthems ranked, in Eddie's memory". NBCSports.com. ... "Winnipeg Jets pick Jump by Van Halen as new goal song". Illegal Curve. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. ...
The contestants main requirement is that they come from the Bay Area, otherwise the organizer notes "we have gay women who ... Messman-Rucker, Ariel (2008). "Drag Kings in the City". Curve Magazine. Retrieved 27 July 2012. "Wrestler wins drag king crown ... "New drag king crowned". Bay Area Reporter. August 23, 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2012. ... ". Bay Area Reporter. August 20, 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2012. Chun, Kimberly (August 11, 2011). "S.F. Drag King Contest a ...
"Cultural Exchange and the Transformation of Jamaican Patois in the Greater Toronto Area" (PDF). Curve Carleton.{{cite web}}: ... In MLE, however, the (s) is not used except to refer to a group of guys.[citation needed] "6ix" (slang term for both the area ... It is spoken specifically within the Greater Toronto Area and inner-city Toronto, generally by young, working-class people, in ... area, or neighbourhood)[citation needed] "Fam" (short for "family" but generally used to refer to a "friend") "Gyal" (girl) " ...
"Cultural Exchange and the Transformation of Jamaican Patois in the Greater Toronto Area" (PDF). Curve Carleton. Alozzi, Raneem ...
The runoff curve number is based on the area's hydrologic soil group, land use, treatment and hydrologic condition. References ... The lower the curve number, the more permeable the soil is. As can be seen in the curve number equation, runoff cannot begin ... The runoff curve number (also called a curve number or simply CN) is an empirical parameter used in hydrology for predicting ... Discharge and Runoff Calculator Curve Number Calculator Online Free Curve Number Calculator Introduction to SCS Runoff Curve ...
The 1st equal areas cubic is the locus of a point X such that area of the cevian triangle of X equals the area of the cevian ... Cayley-Bacharach theorem, on the intersection of two cubic plane curves Twisted cubic, a cubic space curve Elliptic curve Witch ... The 2nd equal areas cubic is the locus of X such that the area of the cevian triangle of XY equals the area of the cevian ... A non-singular plane cubic defines an elliptic curve, over any field K for which it has a point defined. Elliptic curves are ...
It is found in marshy areas of north-eastern Argentina, south-eastern Brazil, and Uruguay. It occupies a similar ecological ... The curve-billed reedhaunter is placed in the monotypic genus Limnornis. The superficially similar straight-billed reedhaunter ... The curve-billed reedhaunter (Limnornis curvirostris) is a species of bird in the family Furnariidae. ... is sometimes also included in Limnornis, but evidence suggests it is closer to Cranioleuca spinetails than it is to the curve- ...
In 2000, the Burnaby Mountain Conservation Area was formed, which includes the land under the Harry Jerome Sports Centre. The ... Walker, Ian (10 May 2008). "Steep Learning Curve". The Vancouver Sun. Postmedia Network Inc. Archived from the original on 17 ... "Item 1 - Burnaby Mountain Conservation Area Management Plan". Burnaby City Council. Archived from the original on 17 April 2015 ...
For such curves, if both sides of the curve have infinite area, then the evolved curve remains smooth and singularity-free for ... For a simple closed curve, the area enclosed by the curve shrinks, at the constant rate of 2π units of area per unit of time, ... As the points of any smooth simple closed curve move in this way, the curve remains simple and smooth. It loses area at a ... However, if one side of an unbounded curve has finite area, and the curve has finite total absolute curvature, then its ...
Cliftonville was an area of Hove which was developed speculatively as a "fashionable neighbourhood" in the mid-19th century. ... The curve includes a 535-yard (489 m) tunnel. The line, which is also known as the Cliftonville Spur, was named in reference to ... Cliftonville Curve is a short railway that links the West Coastway Line to the Brighton Main Line between Hove and Preston Park ... Construction of the curve allowed trains to travel between the Brighton Main Line and the West Coastway Line without having to ...
Map of area showing route of Halton Curve North Cheshire Rail Users Group Network Rail Document mention Halton curves. ... "Ride the Halton Curve on 4 June! …". Mid Cheshire Railway Lines. 22 May 2011. Halton Curve Campaign Archived 2011-08-09 at the ... Halton Curve (now formally known as the Frodsham Single Line) is a short bi-directional railway line which links the Chester- ... 18.75m Halton Curve rail relaunch delayed by six months because of 'lack of trains'". Liverpool Echo. 24 September 2018. "1B16 ...
With the same parameters, the area of the stadium is A = π r 2 + 2 r a = r ( π r + 2 a ) {\displaystyle A=\pi r^{2}+2ra=r(\pi r ... However, unlike some other ovals such as the ellipses, it is not an algebraic curve because different parts of its boundary are ... All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2022, Piecewise-circular curves). ... Huang, Pingliang; Pan, Shengliang; Yang, Yunlong (2015). "Positive center sets of convex curves". Discrete & Computational ...
This has led to a higher learning curve than other comparable tools. It is one thing to know what all the nodes do - but the ... Houdini covers all the major areas of 3D production, including these: Modeling - All standard geometry entities including ... Polygons, (Hierarchical) NURBS/Bézier Curves/Patches & Trims, Metaballs Animation - Keyframed animation and raw channel ...
A driveway curves around from High Street to it. The house itself is a 21-foot (6.4 m) cubical steel frame structure on a ... Three steps lead down from the south side to the living area, which occupies the bulk of the first-floor space and the greatest ... Its completion in 1934 opened up the neighborhood around it, an area known as Uniontown, to subdivision and development. ...
The curve on the gradation graph is very steep, and occupies a small range of the aggregate. Gap gradation A gap gradation ... The large sieving area enables the sieving of large amounts of sample, for example as encountered in the particle-size analysis ... The curve is horizontal in the medium size range on the gradation graph. Open gradation An open gradation refers an aggregate ... On the gradation graph, it appears as a curve that is horizontal in the small size range. Rich gradation A rich gradation ...
... from the coastal areas of Africa to the discovery of Brazil and the ocean routes to the Far East. Although the period of this ... sometimes consisting of three or more convex curves multiple pillars eight-sided capitals lack of symmetry conical pinnacles ...
Because the ears extend from the sides of the head to gather sound waves, they have a high skin surface-area-to-volume ratio, ... This frequency dependence is reflected in the use of the A-weighting curve to describe the decibel level of an exposure (dB A ... His patent was for improved ear protectors, which he and his local employees manufactured in the Farmington area for nearly 60 ... According to OSHA, hearing aids should not be used in areas with dangerous noise levels. However, OSHA allows for the ...
... "learning curve" and the "forgetting curve" After more than 40 years of silence, William H. Flood gave an interview to the New ... and that the area should be part of a Greater Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian Empire prepared to go to war with Serbia, which ...
... while the curve at the bottom acts as an in-fill for the area underneath the array that would otherwise be neglected Spiral ... Sound intensity is the acoustic power per unit area, and it decreases as the surface area increases since the acoustic power is ... Since the surface area of the curved surface of a cylinder = 2π r h, where r is the radius and h is the height, every doubling ... Since the surface area of a sphere = 4π r² where r is the radius, every doubling of the radius results in a four-fold increase ...
SR 269 turns north in the downtown area and SR 82 continues east along Webb Road East through residential areas. The road ... The road runs through a mix of farm fields and woods with some homes and curves to the north, winding through more rural land. ... The highway then bends back to the northwest and heads through more rural areas with a few homes. The road turns north and then ... The road continues through rural areas before it enters Bell Buckle, where it becomes Webb Road West and passes a mix of fields ...
First the lower curve of the "P" was excised, making it read "rs", and later it was modified again by removing the "Cu" and "o ... Each matrix had the denomination cut into the solid areas: "Dos Ps", "Tres Ps", "Cuato Ps" [sic] and "Cinco Ps". From these the ...
Kampos and Onia follow the curve of the bay for approximately 2 kilometres. The name Kefalos is often used for this area as ...
In the early years, ABC TV had been using Lissajous curves with its initials, ABC TV, inside it as fillers in-between programs ... with other stations being established in state capitals and regional areas in the following years. In the 1960s and 1970s, the ... After concerns in some sections of the media that the 43-year-old Lissajous curve brand was to disappear completely, ABC ... After concerns in some sections of the media that the 43-year-old Lissajous curve logo was to disappear completely, ABC ...
The utility's area spans 4,100 square miles (10,600 square kilometers). SDG&E employs about 5,000 people. In 2004, the ... Peter Maloney (April 19, 2016). "SDG&E 'ahead of the curve' to meet California's 50% RPS with help from storage". Utility Dive ... and it is unknown why safeguards did not keep the outage limited to the Yuma area. By Friday morning on the 9th, power had been ... APS Works to Restore Service to Customers in Yuma Area Archived March 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, APS News Release, ...
The avifauna of the Palestine region is unusually rich for so small an area. Henry B. Tristram, who identified much of the ... short wings and long pointed bills which curve downwards. Cream-coloured courser (Cursorius cursor) Collared pratincole ( ... "Wadi Gaza one of the Important Bird areas in Gaza Strip". Palestine Wildlife Society. Archived from the original on 2011-08-25 ... The types of avifauna are not equally diffused over the whole area. The Palearctic species are found largely near the coast of ...
The concurrency ends as the White Pole Road curves to the southwest while Iowa 25 turns to the north. Continuing north through ... "Area Attractions". Whitepoleroad.com. White Pole Road Development Corporation. Archived from the original on February 20, 2012 ... the rolling hills of Guthrie County, Iowa 25 eases to the west through a series of S curves which aligns the road with 5th ...
Curves that do not overlap represent disjoint sets, which have no elements in common. Two curves that overlap represent sets ... The correct equation must include this unshaded area shown in boldface: "No Y is Z and ALL X is Y: therefore No X is Z" has the ... Each curve divides the plane into two regions or "zones": the interior, which symbolically represents the elements of the set, ... Areas are shaded to indicate that they contain no elements. Henri Milne -Edwards's (1844) diagram of relationships of ...
At Byers, US 36 heads eastward on its own as a separate rural highway, while the I-70/US 40/US 287 overlap curves to the ... US 36 enters Boulder on four-lane-wide 28th Street, where it serves the city's main shopping area. On the north side of Boulder ... Returning to Colfax Avenue east of Denver, the first part of I-70 in that area opened in 1961-1962, bypassing Watkins and ... Leaving the Boulder shopping district, US 36 crosses Boulder Creek and passes through the University of Colorado campus area as ...
The Proserpine area was first settled from the 1860s and agriculture became the main industry. An initial attempt at sugar cane ... Smaller in scale than on the exterior, the edges of the slab also curve upwards, pierced with regularly spaced square holes. ... The church is fronted by a lawn area with recent garden beds along the footpath. A gravel driveway runs along the eastern side ... Much of the present-day Proserpine town area occupies land formerly part of the plantation site. A stable sugar-growing ...
The Landstuhl-Kusel railway branches off in the west and turns on a broad curve almost at a right angle to the north. ... To the north is an industrial area. The western part of the station is bridged by state route 363. The Mannheim-Saarbrücken ... The northern and southeastern station areas served the loading of coal. There was a long loading ramp southwest of today's ... which was to be used primarily for transporting coal from Saar area to the Rhine. The line ran from Bexbach to the west via ...
The road gradually curves to the northeast, passing by brief wooded areas on its way into the hamlet of Catharine, where NY 228 ... Outside of Mecklenburg, the road crosses more rural areas in the town of Hector as it heads generally northeastward along ... Here, the valley and NY 228 curve northeastward, following Taughannock Creek through eastern Schuyler County. The route remains ... crossing nearby railroad tracks and entering a more pronounced rural area north of town. ...
The area covered by the drainage basin is for the most part undeveloped or protected, especially its source. In fact, 77% of ... then the southwest by forming two large curves until the confluence of the Cassian River (coming from the west); 10.4 ... The surface of the Jacques-Cartier River (except the rapids areas) is usually frozen from the beginning of December to the end ... This natural highway was used among others by Jesuit missionaries to reach the Lac Saint-Jean area during the 17th century. ...
The bulk aerodynamic formula for the rate of heat input per unit area at the surface, Q i n : k {\displaystyle Q_{in:k}} , is ... are curve-fit constants. When A = 28.2 {\displaystyle A=28.2} , B = 55.8 {\displaystyle B=55.8} , and C = 0.1813 {\displaystyle ... the total rate of net energy production per unit surface area is given by W i n = T s − T o T s ( C k ρ , u , Δ k + C d ρ , u ... The rate of energy loss per unit surface area from surface friction, W o u t {\displaystyle W_{out}} , is given by W o u t = C ...
It is a straight-line measure, not measured over the curve of the body. Standard length measurements are used with Teleostei ( ... These data are used in many areas of ichthyology, including taxonomy and fisheries biology. Standard length (SL) is the length ...
The learning curve is short and the long-term play life is moderate. Taking cues from Beetle Adventure Racing, Hot Wheels is ... Instead, the tracks are a mix of real-life terrain, industrial areas and other random places. If the designers had truly wanted ...
A typical train consists of a compression area, propane condenser area, and methane and ethane areas. The largest LNG train in ... As recently as 2003, it was common to assume that this was a "learning curve" effect and would continue into the future. But ... Many formulae include an S-curve, where the price formula is different above and below a certain oil price, to dampen the ... A number of scientists including Michael Faraday, James Joule, and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) did experiments in this area. ...
The joint line continues north along the CSX Railroad until it curves to the east on an elevated bridge adjacent to the ... Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. May 22, 2019. Retrieved March 6, 2020. "Metro stations on Blue/Yellow lines to ... Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. March 19, 2012. Rush Plus is designed to ease crowding, improve the commuting ... 3) Maps and images of the area near the former route of the Rosslyn Connecting Railroad at the Arlington Cemetery Station of ...
The plane was later able to exit the area of turbulence and land safely at Hong Kong International Airport. In Hong Kong, the ... during which time Koni began to curve westward. However, moderate wind shear conditions returned the following day, weakening ... The precursor to Koni developed as an area of deep convection within an active monsoon trough well south of Guam on July 12. ... Severe Tropical Storm Koni, known in the Philippines as Tropical Storm Gilas, caused moderate damage to areas of China and ...
Within the conservation area is a cottage that was built sometime before 1771 for Queen Charlotte by her husband George III. It ... The minimalist-styled bridge is designed as a sweeping double curve of black granite. The sides of the bridge are formed of ... The compost heap is in an area of the gardens not accessible to the public, but a viewing platform, made of wood which had been ... The conservatory has an area of 4,499 square metres (48,430 sq ft; 0.4499 ha; 1.112 acres). As it is designed to minimize the ...
The paper claimed that the SqueezeNAS neural networks outperform the speed-accuracy tradeoff curve of Google's MobileNetV3 ... and drivable area identification. To accomplish this, Carver uses three neural networks which run in parallel. While running in ...
... tunnel in the Brookland area. At the point where the railroad curves to the southwest, the freeway would continue south and ... In 1968, the U.S. National Capital Planning Commission released an updated Major Transportation Plan for the D.C. area which ... Tunnels would be constructed in the vicinity of Montgomery College, and the freeway would be depressed in the Brookland area. ... paralleling the B&O railroad corridor as far as the Brookland area, where it would have entered a 3/4-mile tunnel south of ...
And in polar coordinates I wont say were finding the area under a curve, but really in this example right over here we have a ... How do I know exactly which function to integrate first when asked about the area enclosed between two curves ? In order to get ... Voiceover] We now have a lot of experience finding the areas under curves when were dealing with things in rectangular ... And what I wanna do in this video is come up with a general expression for this area in blue. This area that is bounded, I ...
Homework Statement Find the area under the cosine curve y=cosx from x=0 to x=b, where 0 is less than b is less than or equal to ... Suggested for: Definite integrals and areas under the curve Find the area under the curve ... Find the area under the cosine curve y=cosx from x=0 to x=b, where 0 is less than b is less than or equal to pi/2.. Homework ... Area=the limit as n approaches infinity of Sn. Substituting x=b/n, Sn=(b/n)[sin(b/2)*cos((n+1)b/2n)]/sin(b/2n). Now, this is ...
The Beveridge curve for the euro area and for the five largest euro area countries ... curve and the B C curve via the matching function. Figure A.1 shows the w - θ space that includes the job creation condition J ... The Beveridge curve for the United States has not shown large outward shifts such as those in the euro area. Diamond and Şahin[ ... The euro area labour market through the lens of the Beveridge curve. Publications Loading…. ...
This activity explores the concept of the solution to a definite integral as the area under a curve. ... Be able to use the graphing calculator to find the area bounded by a curve and the x-axis through the calculators integration ... This activity explores the concept of the solution to a definite integral as the area under a curve. ... to access secure areas of the TI site, or to manage your configured cookie preferences).. Always On. ...
Search of: Area Under Curve AND plasma concentration AND decay AND Pfizer - Modify Search. Expert Search ...
... Biometrics ... This paper presents a nonparametric approach to the analysis of areas under correlated ROC curves, by using the theory on ... curve. The curve is constructed by varying the cutpoint used to determine which values of the observed variable will be ... When two or more empirical curves are constructed based on tests performed on the same individuals, statistical analysis on ...
How to find the area between a curve and a line using integration, examples and step by step solutions, A Level Maths ... C2 Integration - Areas above + below curves. This video shows how to find areas above and below curve, this is typical of an ... C2 Integration - area between and curve and a line. Example:. 1. The diagram shows a sketch of part of the curve with equation ... Find the area of the region bounded by the curve and the line.. 2. The diagram shows a sketch of part of the curve with ...
... we will estimate the area under a curve by forming trapeziums from the x axis. ... Estimate the area under a curve. In this lesson, we will estimate the area under a curve by forming trapeziums from the x axis. ... Estimate the area under a curve. Key Stage 4,. Maths,. Further graphs (Gradients/Area of curves) ... Estimate the area under a curve. Dont worry if you get a question wrong! Forgetting is an important step in learning. We will ...
... and Interpolation section of options for simple logistic regression is to generate an ROC curve and to calculate the area under ... section of options for simple logistic regression is to generate an ROC curve and to calculate the area under this curve (AUC ... Learn more about interpreting AUC. The results for the area under the ROC curve that Prism reports include: ...
Learn how to find the area under the standard normal curve using the standard normal distribution table ... Area under the standard normal curve. Learn how to calculate the area under the standard normal curve. This is an important ... Find the area between z = 1.32 and z = 2.54. This area is shown in green. Notice that area from z = 0 to z = 1.32 plus area in ... Because the normal curve is symmetric about the mean, the area from z = -1.32 to z = 0 is the same as the area from z = 0 to z ...
Euro area banks interest rate risk exposure to level, slope and curvature swings in the yield curve * Print ... Euro area banks interest rate risk exposure to level, slope and curvature swings in the yield curve Discussion paper 24/2017: ... In the press area, you will find press releases, speeches, guest contributions and interviews with Bundesbank Executive Board ...
... dc.contributor.advisor. ... Calibration of Runoff Curve Numbers and Rational Runoff Coefficients for the Kansas Metropolitan Area. ... area streamflow data and recommends changes to the current Section 5600 storm-drainage design criteria for the Kansas City area ... The runoff curve number (CN) and the rational runoff coefficient (C) for undeveloped land are key inputs to common methods for ...
Curves and corners are separately encoded by neurons clustered into functional domains in macaque V4. ... A) Cell map of curve/corner index (CVCNI). Positive CVCNI indicates preference for curves over corners and vice versa. Curve- ... Using a large range of contour feature stimuli including bars, curves, and corners (Figure 1A), we scanned a large area (3.4 × ... where MaxRespcurve is the neurons maximum response to curve stimuli and MaxRespother is the neurons maximum response to other ...
This Demonstration plots the change the relative change the rate of change and the relative rate of change of the area under ... blue plot and the area over orange plot the receiver operating characteristic ROC curve of a diagnostic test as the uncertainty ... is the area under an ROC curve and. is the area over the ROC curve for an uncertainty of measurement , the changes and are ... the area under an ROC curve is used as an index of the diagnostic accuracy of the respective test. The area under the curve ...
How to find the area under the curve in Excel in simple steps, with examples & short video. Hundreds of definitions and ... How to Find the Area Under Curve in Excel. What is an "Area Under the Curve?". The area under a curve is the area between the ... The area function can calculate an area (a) above the curve (b) below the curve or (c) both above and below.. A couple of very ... "Area under a curve" image created at Desmos.com.. CITE THIS AS:. Stephanie Glen. "Area Under the Curve Excel, Graphs: Find in ...
We also offer Free Delivery in our Metro area for orders over $500.00. Give us a call if you are out of our delivery area. ... The Dakine Pickup Pad DLX Curve is made to fit the curved shape and back-up camera location of late-model, full-size Dodge, and ... This item is eligible for delivery in select areas. View available options in checkout. ...
We can relate to it in mathematics with the area under a curve. It is important to compute the area under curves plotted on a ... Well learn about the use of Integral for computing the Area under curves. ... the Area under an umbrella is the area that is protected from getting drenched. ... Definition of Area Under Curves. The area A under the curve f(x) bounded by x = a and x = b is given by: $$ {A = \int_{a}^{b} f ...
Items in CURVE are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. They are made available with ... Please contact curve@carleton.ca with any concerns, questions or feedback. Sitemap available here. ... CURVE - Carleton University Research Virtual Environment A service of Carleton University Library ...
Water Resources Mission Area - Headquarters USGS Headquarters. 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive. Reston, VA 20192. United States ... Application of dimensionless sediment rating curves to predict suspended-sediment concentrations, bedload, and annual sediment ... Application of dimensionless sediment rating curves to predict suspended-sediment concentrations, bedload, and annual sediment ... completed a study to evaluate the use of dimensionless sediment rating curves (DSRCs) to accurately predict suspended-sediment ...
Serving the Greater Phoenix and Scottsdale Metropolitan Area - Scottsdale, AZ Haven Express @ Keller Williams Arizona Realty ... Shawn, that would definitely be a curve ball, and so glad the surgeries removed the cancer, and hope it never returns. You have ...
The Curve is located in the NACs R8 district, and will consist of a built-up area of 18%, which stands at less than the ... Boulos added that the company plans to deliver the compound by the end of 2023, with unit areas ranging from 80 sqm to 320 sqm ... Cornerstone introduces The Curve project at Cityscape exhibition. Companys project, located at NAC, comes with nine-year ... Additionally, the company is offering a long and balanced payment plan for The Curve project units of up to nine years, which ...
Shaded area: Some epi curves have a shaded area labeled "Illnesses that began during this time may not yet be reported." This ... An epidemic curve, also known as an epi curve, shows the number of illnesses in an outbreak over time. During an ongoing ... Analyzing Epi Curves. An epi curve provides key information about an outbreak, including how quickly it is growing, what type ... This epi curve shows a total of 1,127 illnesses in this outbreak, one of the largest Salmonella outbreaks in the past 50 years ...
Shaded areas are 95% confidence intervals. from publication: Effect of Acute Seawater Temperature Increase on the Survival of a ... Kaplan-Meier survival curves for unfed gnathiids per temperature treatment. ... Lizard Island Research Station; Kaplan-Meier survival curves for unfed gnathiids per temperature treatment. Shaded areas are 95 ... Kaplan-Meier survival curves for unfed gnathiids per temperature treatment. Shaded areas are 95% confidence intervals./,,/a,. ...
This is the current state of the art for elliptic curves. Motivated by the fact that Jacobians of hyperelliptic curves of genus ... Improvements by Elkies and Atkin lead to an even faster method for elliptic curves, known as the SEA algorithm. ... Schoofs algorithm is a standard method for counting points on elliptic curves defined over finite fields of large ... two have recently been found to be good alternatives to elliptic curves in cryptography, we investigate the possibility of ...
Area Under the Curve ASCEND was a randomized trial of natalizumab vs placebo in secondary progressive MS. It had a fixed ... In the latest "area under the curve" (AUC) analysis, natalizumab was associated with a 77% reduction in the 9 Hole Peg Test ...
... delivery of web content that based on self-identified area of interests. ... Emerging Infections: Getting Ahead of the Curve On This Page Early History of Infectious Diseases 19th Century Discoveries Lead ... We cannot overstate the role of behavioral science in our effort to get ahead of the curve with emerging infections. Having the ... Clearly, broader coalitions are needed, and communication must improve if we are to get ahead of the curve. This new periodical ...
Posts about Area Under Curve written by Michelle ... Area Under Curve. Area Under the Curve. Calculating the Area ... Area Under the Curve Follow Blog via Email. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new ... by MichellePosted in Area Under Curve, Data Step, GPLOT, LAG, PROCs1 Comment ... The presentation explains the process of … Continue reading Area Under the Curve ...
Barbara E. Hernandez / NBC Bay Area:. No Home Button for Apple iPhone or iPad? ... Next-Gen BlackBerry Curve Leaks Too, NFC Included. Ross Miller / Engadget:. BlackBerry Curve Apollo leak provides image, ... BlackBerry Apollo to be the Next Curve, Also Has NFC?. Phone Arena:. Latest upcoming BlackBerry Curve model breaks cover & ... First look: BlackBerry Curve Apollo with 7.2Mbps HSPA, NFC. Nick Marshall / Electricpig.co.uk:. BlackBerry Apollo adds NFC to ...
Binance Coin Revives Its Bullish Strength Above $290; Will Bulls Defend This Area?. November 25, 2022. ... Curve DAO to launch a stablecoin. The CRV worth has been in a powerful bullish momentum up to now few days as traders transfer ... Curve DAO worth is hovering after the builders introduced that they are going to launch a brand new stablecoin that may assist ... Curve rally accelerated after the community introduced that itll launch a brand new stablecoin. It rose to a excessive of $ ...
Area under the curve (AUC, in px2): Area between the actual movement and the perfect line (deviations towards the opposing ... The circular area at the bottom represents the starting area; the two on the top left and top right represent the target areas ... Upon clicking or touching the screen within the starting area, the starting area disappeared, and two target areas appeared ( ... Area under the curve. Movements showed significantly greater spatial deviations for current incompatible trials (8519 px2) than ...
  • From 1 January to 4 July 2022, 6027 laboratory confirmed cases of monkeypox and three deaths have been reported to WHO from 59 countries/territories/areas in five WHO Regions (African Region, Region of the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean Region, European Region, Western Pacific Region) (Table 1). (who.int)
  • When a test is based on an observed variable that lies on a continuous or graded scale, an assessment of the overall value of the test can be made through the use of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. (nih.gov)
  • This Demonstration plots the change, the relative change, the rate of change and the relative rate of change of the area under (blue plot) and the area over (orange plot) the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of a diagnostic test as the uncertainty of measurement increases from 0 to a user-defined upper bound. (wolfram.com)
  • Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves and Uncertainty of Measurement' from the Wolfram Demonstrations Project-A Wolfram Web Resource. (wolfram.com)
  • An Area Under the Receiver-Operator Curve (AUC) Metric is a classifier performance measure based on the area of an ROC curve . (gabormelli.com)
  • Wikipedia, 2015) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Receiver_operating_characteristic#Area_under_the_curve Retrieved:2015-7-18. (gabormelli.com)
  • They use a computer and GPS receiver to create a boundary around each field known as a geofence, and they can program DOT to avoid obstacles such as utility poles, wet areas, and ditches to within less than an inch of accuracy. (therecord.com)
  • Sensitivity, specificity, DOR (diagnostic odds ratio), LR ± (positive and negative likelihood ratio) and AUC (area under receiver operating characteristic-curve) were summarized with a bivariate model. (nih.gov)
  • The Meaning of the Area under a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve. (bvsalud.org)
  • Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate WC, WHpR, WHtR and NC as screening indices for overweight and obesity as categorized by body mass index centiles. (who.int)
  • Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were constructed based on the scores of the reading and writing tasks. (bvsalud.org)
  • Develop intuition for the area enclosed by polar graph formula. (khanacademy.org)
  • What does the area inside a polar graph represent (kind of like how Cartesian graphs can represent distance, amounts, etc. (khanacademy.org)
  • This question is on areas under a graph using integration methods. (onlinemathlearning.com)
  • The area under a curve is the area between the line of a graph (which is often curved) and the x-axis. (statisticshowto.com)
  • Find the area under curve in Excel for the graph below, from x = 1 to x = 6. (statisticshowto.com)
  • Before beginning the discussion, it should be quite clear that it makes sense to talk about the area under a curve only when you have a graph of that curve . (toppr.com)
  • It is evident from the graph that the area below the curve is actually unbounded! (toppr.com)
  • Calculate the graph indicate the rest of confirmatory factor analysis using symmetry and software that require no matter how do relatively speaking, and critique of writing the curve table? (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • If you build the Riemann sum rectangle between the graph and the axis and calculate its vertical side as the upper function minus the lower (or right minus left if you use horizontal rectangles) you will always get the correct integral for the area. (teachingcalculus.com)
  • The Graph view shades the region under the curve, and the Infobox on the left displays the calculated area under the curve. (dummies.com)
  • The angle of attack and CL are related and can be found using a Velocity Relationship Curve Graph (see Chart B below). (nasa.gov)
  • Use the Velocity Relationship Curve Graph chart below, Chart B, to find the appropriate CL from the given angle of attack. (nasa.gov)
  • Exclusive: Next-generation BlackBerry Curve appears, brings specs with it - That BlackBerry 8520 feeling a bit outdated? (techmeme.com)
  • Well, we might have just what you've been waiting for - the next generation BlackBerry Curve. (techmeme.com)
  • RIM's BlackBerry line up is diverse, like any other smartphone range, and their entry-level version is the BlackBerry Curve. (brighthub.com)
  • Compare the BlackBerry Curve 9310 and Samsung T159 below. (wirefly.com)
  • We pit the BlackBerry Curve 9310 vs Samsung T159 so that you can see which device matches your needs. (wirefly.com)
  • The BlackBerry Curve 9310 is a smartphone that has the power of BlackBerry in the familiar BlackBerry form but with new. (wirefly.com)
  • This epi curve shows a total of 1,127 illnesses in this outbreak, one of the largest Salmonella outbreaks in the past 50 years. (cdc.gov)
  • The clinical presentation of monkeypox cases associated with this outbreak has been atypical, as many cases in newly-affected areas are not presenting with the classically described clinical picture for monkeypox (fever, swollen lymph nodes, followed by centrifugal rash). (who.int)
  • This area can be interpreted as the probability that z assumes a value between 0 and 1.32. (basic-mathematics.com)
  • Calibrated curve numbers decrease slightly with decreasing annual exceedance probability. (ku.edu)
  • Since probability that curve of people scored compared to. (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • So without even the areas of under the table and columns and a probability distribution from it. (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • The Area Under the ROC curve is the probability that a classifier will be more confident that a randomly chosen positive example is actually positive than that a randomly chosen negative example is positive. (gabormelli.com)
  • An epidemic curve, also known as an epi curve, shows the number of illnesses in an outbreak over time. (cdc.gov)
  • Unadjustedand adjusted TPRs are then assessed step-wise with reference to the epidemic curve and thecumulative numbers of cases and tests. (who.int)
  • Basin lag times and times of concentration were computed with the new calibrated equations for the Kansas City area developed by the University of Kansas (McEnroe et al. (ku.edu)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Amikacin: Area under curve for once daily dose and its correlation with plasma concentration at six hours post infusion. (who.int)
  • At present the recommended dose is once daily and the recommended monitoring parameters are the area under concentration time curve and the six-hour (range 146-180) for the area under curve and 6.79 milligrams per liter (range 5.6-7.9) for the six-hour plasma concentration post-infusion. (who.int)
  • The correlation of the area under curve and the six-hour plasma concentration post-infusion was reported in a linear equation with significance. (who.int)
  • After single i.p. injections of TRZ or KET in separate groups of control mice, brain concentrations of TRZ exceeded those in serum [brain/serum area under the concentration curve (AUC) ratio, 5.0], whereas brain/serum AUC ratios for KET were approximately 0.5. (aspetjournals.org)
  • AUC, area under the concentration curve. (aspetjournals.org)
  • As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (bvsalud.org)
  • Area under plasma concentration-time curve. (who.int)
  • This was the final lesson in the unit Further graphs (Gradients/Area of curves) . (thenational.academy)
  • Third, aggregate measures of labour market tightness and efficiency are used in a standard wage Phillips curve equation to measure their marginal impact. (europa.eu)
  • In figure 2, the curve C has equation y = 6x - x 2 and the line L has equation y = 2x. (onlinemathlearning.com)
  • Figure 2 shows a sketch pf part of the curve with equation y = 10 + 8x + x 2 - x 3 . (onlinemathlearning.com)
  • 1. The diagram shows a sketch of part of the curve with equation y = x(4 - x) and the line with equation y = x. (onlinemathlearning.com)
  • Sometimes it is not quite so obvious what the equation of either the top or bottom curve is. (astarmathsandphysics.com)
  • Find the area under the cosine curve y=cosx from x=0 to x=b, where 0 is less than b is less than or equal to pi/2. (physicsforums.com)
  • This video shows how to find areas above and below curve, this is typical of an exam situation. (onlinemathlearning.com)
  • Find the area of the region bounded by the curve and the line. (onlinemathlearning.com)
  • Find the area of the shaded region OAC. (onlinemathlearning.com)
  • A portion of the table is reproduced below to show how to find the area. (basic-mathematics.com)
  • You just need to find the area under the normal curve between z = -1.32 and z = 0. (basic-mathematics.com)
  • To find the area from z = 0 to z = 2.54, use the table to see that it is equal to .4945. (basic-mathematics.com)
  • In the press area, you will find press releases, speeches, guest contributions and interviews with Bundesbank Executive Board members as well as further press materials. (bundesbank.de)
  • When tested with hexagonal-segment stimuli, we find that stimulus smoothness is the cardinal difference between curve and corner selectivity in V4. (elifesciences.org)
  • Drawing the Normal curve and shading the desired area helps one to know how to find the desired area. (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • Unlike distributions is between one but if you find a table of areas under the normal curve in data have a standard normal. (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • An easy to find these types of the mean for different ranges of interest you the entire area under the table areas of normal curve and confident in psychology and stddev value. (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • In this page area between two curves we are going to see example problems to understand how to find area between curves. (onlinemath4all.com)
  • For that let us find point of intersection of two curves. (onlinemath4all.com)
  • How To Find Area Under A Normal Curve? (blurtit.com)
  • These values are checked in area table to find the value of area under the curve. (blurtit.com)
  • How To Find The Area Of A Polygon? (blurtit.com)
  • Can You Find The Following Area Under The Standard Normal Curve Between Z+-1.88 And Z=2.10? (blurtit.com)
  • Then find the area of all the parts and in the end add up all the answers. (blurtit.com)
  • Find the area under the normal distribution curve between z = -1.34 and z = 2.95? (blurtit.com)
  • Can You Find The Area Under The Standard Normal Curve? (blurtit.com)
  • A. From a table of values, we find that the area from 0 to .94 is .32639, so the area from -Infinity. (blurtit.com)
  • Can You Find The Percent Of Total Area Between Z = -2.49 And Z = 1.19 Under A Normal Curve That Is? (blurtit.com)
  • Area of a sphere = 4(pi)r^2You need the radius of the star to find the surface area. (blurtit.com)
  • You can also automatically find the curve of best fit by performing a regression. (dummies.com)
  • We analyse the importance of these two concepts for wage developments using a simple version of the search and matching model, where unemployment, wages and vacancies are jointly determined and the Beveridge curve features prominently. (europa.eu)
  • This question is on the area between a curve and a line using integration. (onlinemathlearning.com)
  • This entry was posted in Integration , Integration Applications and tagged application , area , area between curves , Jan. , Riemann sum by Lin McMullin . (teachingcalculus.com)
  • Indian outsourcers say they are moving up the value curve, from primarily software coding and maintenance to new areas such as IT consulting, systems integration, infrastructure management, package implementation and product development. (computerworld.com)
  • This LearningCheck™ document is a good review of how to calculate the area under the normal curve given certain scenarios. (ti.com)
  • One option Prism provides in the Classification and Interpolation section of options for simple logistic regression is to generate an ROC curve and to calculate the area under this curve (AUC). (graphpad.com)
  • Learn how to calculate the area under the standard normal curve. (basic-mathematics.com)
  • Calculate the area under standard normal curve between two points. (mathworks.com)
  • It is also common to calculate the Area Under the ROC Convex Hull (ROC AUCH = ROCH AUC) as any point on the line segment between two prediction results can be achieved by randomly using one or other system with probabilities proportional to the relative length of the opposite component of the segment. (gabormelli.com)
  • Use the Integral tool to display the area under a curve. (dummies.com)
  • A negative score in the z-table and respresent the area under the bell curve to the. (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • The bell curve : intelligence and class structure in American life / Richard J. Herrnstein, Charles Murray. (who.int)
  • This document describes the calibration of these inputs with Kansas City-area streamflow data and recommends changes to the current Section 5600 storm-drainage design criteria for the Kansas City area. (ku.edu)
  • Quantitation is based on peak area ratios interpolated against a six-point aqueous calibration curve. (cdc.gov)
  • The runoff curve number (CN) and the rational runoff coefficient (C) for undeveloped land are key inputs to common methods for estimating flood quantiles. (ku.edu)
  • Coefficient alpha and the curve to take a single point where can take an easy. (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • The Dakine Pickup Pad DLX Curve is made to fit the curved shape and back-up camera location of late-model, full-size Dodge, and Ford tailgates. (nowbikes-fitness.com)
  • The full shape of the epi curve is clear only after the outbreak is over. (cdc.gov)
  • Because area under a histogram describes what part of the data lies in any region, and we could figure out the exact number here. (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • Curve rally accelerated after the community introduced that it'll launch a brand new stablecoin. (astaga.com)
  • Curve DAO worth is hovering after the builders introduced that they are going to launch a brand new stablecoin that may assist to facilitate funds within the ecosystem. (astaga.com)
  • Curve DAO's stablecoin launch comes at a time when many different decentralised platforms are launching their very own cash. (astaga.com)
  • Curve Finance founder Michael Egorov shared the stablecoin project whitepaper and mathematical formulas on his GitHub account. (newstextarea.com)
  • The Tangent tool can be used to draw a tangent line to the curve. (dummies.com)
  • By using numerical methods it is possible to associate the resulting curve with a tangent, which can be projected from historical data to estimate potential undiscovered reserves. (searchanddiscovery.com)
  • Single-cell resolution imaging confirmed that curve- or corner-selective neurons were spatially clustered into such domains. (elifesciences.org)
  • Enter your free to analyze errors in the area from various points along the curve the table? (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • Analyze→Curve Fit. (dummies.com)
  • In this lesson, we will estimate the area under a curve by forming trapeziums from the x axis. (thenational.academy)
  • We also saw that in the lesson about standard normal distribution that the area in red plus the area in blue is equal to 0.5. (basic-mathematics.com)
  • Narrow roadway with minimal shoulder in a curve. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are the author, please login to your Author Area where you can update all of your links and other information. (readersfavorite.com)
  • When two or more empirical curves are constructed based on tests performed on the same individuals, statistical analysis on differences between curves must take into account the correlated nature of the data. (nih.gov)
  • I know that there simply are cultural differences between the French and the British in the child-rearing area which complicate the business of handing over our kids to their care. (wheretoskiandsnowboard.com)
  • Although the synthetic and original data yielded overall nearly the same results, there were exceptions that included an odds ratio on either side of the null in multivariable analyses (0.97 vs 1.01) and differences in the magnitude of epidemic curves constructed for zip codes with low population counts. (jmir.org)
  • The tunnel tracks curve around to the other side of the peninsula and follows the "coastline" to points south. (railpictures.net)
  • I had been delivering freight of all kinds to the Tacoma area for years and never did know that there was a long railroad tunnel there. (railpictures.net)
  • You could also talk about areas under curves of higher dimensions but you'll encounter such problems only when you do some higher studies, for example - the umbrella we just talked about! (toppr.com)
  • Schoof's algorithm is a standard method for counting points on elliptic curves defined over finite fields of large characteristic, and it was extended by Pila to higher-dimensional abelian varieties. (edu.au)
  • The Curve 9380 is also being aimed more towards higher end, entry-level consumers, which is an interesting choice. (brighthub.com)
  • The SVM model showed the areas under the curve of 0.731 in the external datasets, which is higher than those of the ANN model (0.729) and the screening score model (0.712), respectively. (hindawi.com)
  • Higher independence to work in any cooking area. (teka.com)
  • Snow clearing in residential areas starts only after higher priority areas have been completed. (fortsask.ca)
  • However, the quantitative implications for wages differ only marginally from those of the standard Phillips curve approach. (europa.eu)
  • Overall, labour market efficiency provides an important qualitative margin of labour market functioning that is not captured in standard wage Phillips curve specifications. (europa.eu)
  • Table Z Areas under the standard normal curve negative Z Second decimal place in z 009 00 007 006 005 004 003 002 001 000 z 00000 39. (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • Standard normal curve areas under a normally distributed data have to figure out how well. (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • Round to four decimal places as needed 1 Tables of Areas under the Normal Curve use TI 34 Not the Table TABLE V Standard Normal Distribution. (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • When mean = 0 and Sd = 1, normal distribution change into standard normal distribution and curve is known as standard normal curve. (blurtit.com)
  • Second, we look at the information content behind market tightness and job matching efficiency to analyse the euro area labour market and its cyclical conditions. (europa.eu)
  • These cookies perform functions like remembering presentation options or choices and, in some cases, delivery of web content that based on self-identified area of interests. (cdc.gov)
  • nodeType":"document","data":{},"content":[{"nodeType":"paragraph","data":{},"content":[{"nodeType":"text","value":"The WHO coronavirus (COVID-19) dashboard presents official daily counts of COVID-19 cases, deaths and vaccine utilisation reported by countries, territories and areas. (who.int)
  • marks":[],"data":{}}]},{"nodeType":"paragraph","data":{},"content":[{"nodeType":"text","value":"The designations employed and the presentation of these materials do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of WHO concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. (who.int)
  • Motivated by the fact that Jacobians of hyperelliptic curves of genus two have recently been found to be good alternatives to elliptic curves in cryptography, we investigate the possibility of applying the improvements of Elkies and Atkin to Pila's point counting algorithm for such varieties. (edu.au)
  • The results of this analysis facilitate the evaluation of investment alternatives for future exploration focusing the activity into areas that still have remaining potential. (searchanddiscovery.com)
  • This paper presents a nonparametric approach to the analysis of areas under correlated ROC curves, by using the theory on generalized U-statistics to generate an estimated covariance matrix. (nih.gov)
  • Combining cortical population responses with single-neuron analysis, our results reveal that curves and corners are encoded by neurons clustered into functional domains in V4. (elifesciences.org)
  • These types of problems fall under the category of the analysis of area under curves, which is going to be our topic of discussion right now. (toppr.com)
  • In the latest "area under the curve" (AUC) analysis, natalizumab was associated with a 77% reduction in the 9 Hole Peg Test time score, reflecting improved finger dexterity. (medscape.com)
  • Problems in the analysis of growth and linear curves. (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • Here to item analysis of areas under the table. (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • Use of this three-step analysis and its potential use in guidingpublic health interventions are demonstrated for selected countries and subnational areas of the WorldHealth Organization South-East Asia Region, together with the Republic of Korea as a reference. (who.int)
  • In fact, as the plots of this Demonstration show, the relative change, the rate of change and the relative rate of change of the area over an ROC curve versus the uncertainty of measurement are greater than the absolute value of the respective measures of the area under the ROC curve for the same populations. (wolfram.com)
  • To the best of the author's knowledge, measures of the area over the ROC curve versus the uncertainty of measurement have not been discussed in the literature except for [2]. (wolfram.com)
  • Any time for analyzing repeated measures the areas. (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • and (3) determining geospatial and temporal COVID-19-related measures and outcomes, and constructing their epidemic curves. (jmir.org)
  • Thus, the average annual loss in different scenarios was estimated, considering the cost-benefit of mitigation measures proposed in the drainage master plan of São Carlos city, evaluating the uncertainties of the use of one-dimensional hydraulic-hydrological models to obtain flood heights and to quantify the direct and indirect damages of this area of study. (usp.br)
  • In aggregate, these watersheds have physical characteristics that are similar to those of undeveloped land and urban open space in the Kansas City area. (ku.edu)
  • For antenatal care and childbirth, families in urban and rural areas are not always accompanied by qualified health personnel, thus compromising the well-being and future of the child. (who.int)
  • I'm happy to say we've been ahead of the curve in addressing this issue with our community partners. (mynewsletterbuilder.com)
  • When you're driving you make those decisions about what areas to avoid while you're in the cab, but now you have to plan ahead. (therecord.com)
  • Cyber-security is still a relatively new area of specialization for automakers, but it's one they need to take seriously to ensure they are ahead of the curve. (darkreading.com)
  • The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, completed a study to evaluate the use of dimensionless sediment rating curves (DSRCs) to accurately predict suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs), bedload, and annual sediment loads for selected rivers and streams in Minnesota based on data collected during 2007 through 2013. (usgs.gov)
  • A contract to evaluate LiDAR sensing technology to estimate dispersion distances of float coal dust and assess adequacies of rock dust coverage over large areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Mankiw and Reis (2001a) have proposed a "sticky-information"-based Phillips curve (SIPC) to address some of the concerns with the "sticky-price"-based new Keynesian Phillips curve. (bankofcanada.ca)
  • Recent research on the new Phillips curve (NPC) (e.g. (bankofcanada.ca)
  • Due to COVID and geographical challenges, GPS Trackit partnered with Learning Curve Consultants to determine the best way to deploy platform enhancements to over 4,000 customers. (lc-consultants.com)
  • The underlying intuition behind the negatively sloped curve is that as vacancies (vacant job positions) increase, the number of people unemployed decreases. (europa.eu)
  • Governor Gavin Newsom reported that California is both stretching and flattening the curve, and the increases in case numbers are moderate rather than severe due to social distancing practices. (combatcovid.org)
  • Choose a few data points on the x-axis under the curve (use a formula, if you have one) and list these values in Column A in sequence, starting from Row 1. (statisticshowto.com)
  • Ensure that the first and last data points chosen on the curve are its starting and ending points respectively. (statisticshowto.com)
  • If it begins to snow again while crews are working on residential streets, they go back to clearing the priority areas before picking back up where they left off in the residential area. (fortsask.ca)
  • Santa Clara County Health Officer Dr. Sara Cody claims that the Bay Area has averted a crisis, and although the disruption may last for a long time, everyone who needs care is receiving it. (combatcovid.org)
  • along the curve, which reflects a decrease in market tightness. (europa.eu)
  • What part a normally distributed random variable is some variability in tables to estimate of areas under a in both of where can use to vary by an accumulation starting from st. (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • In this article we look at the euro area labour market using the framework underlying the Beveridge curve, which captures the negative relationship between the unemployment rate and the job vacancy rate. (europa.eu)
  • The area under the curve decreases as the uncertainty of measurement of the diagnostic test increases [1]. (wolfram.com)
  • Runoff curve numbers and rational runoff coefficients for undeveloped land were calibrated to give the best possible estimates of flood quantiles. (ku.edu)
  • The curve numbers were calibrated so that the Baseline UH Method yields the same peak flows as regional flood-frequency equations. (ku.edu)
  • The efficiency of the matching process, and thus the position of the Beveridge curve in relation to the origin, depends on a number of factors. (europa.eu)
  • Simple and dependable data collection and estimation techniques are needed to generate hydraulic and water-quality information for areas where data are unavailable or difficult to collect. (usgs.gov)
  • This is a very interesting topic, but it is still a method of data collection that is not much used in some areas. (researchgate.net)
  • The data speeds were decent, but there are no 4G capabilities on the latest Curve. (brighthub.com)
  • It's no suprise that the call quality, data and battery performance were decent as RIM seems to have that area well covered. (brighthub.com)
  • Machine learning is an area of artificial intelligence research, which uses statistical methods for data classification. (hindawi.com)
  • Use the Model tool to manually determine the curve of best fit for the data. (dummies.com)
  • Using public historical data (IHS: 1907-2013) and applying the Creaming Curve method, it is possible to describe hydrocarbon potential in the Colombian productive basins. (searchanddiscovery.com)
  • and with posterior data, with the use of data in loco in the study area. (usp.br)
  • Another important area of focus is machine learning and data science. (feedburner.com)
  • The Downtown San Diego Partnership, a downtown business group, counted a record 1,706 homeless residents staying downtown and areas just outside it on a single night last month. (voiceofsandiego.org)
  • By the cre exam called as a linux distribution of areas the table, x is certainly possible to another useful and whatnot in. (givingtreeyoga.org)
  • An ROC curve is a plot of the sensitivity of a test versus 1-specificity. (wolfram.com)
  • The difference in the severity of the impacts between cities like New York and the Bay Area underscores the importance of enacting a proactive, versus a reactive, response. (combatcovid.org)
  • The diagonal curve shows the cumulative distribution. (av8n.com)
  • The cumulative curve slices through the bullseye in the center of the plot. (av8n.com)
  • Uncertainty of Measurement and Areas Over and Under the ROC Curves' from the Wolfram Demonstrations Project-A Wolfram Web Resource. (wolfram.com)
  • Now we are ready to discuss the formal definition for the area under curves. (toppr.com)
  • Psychiatric disorders in America : the epidemiologic catchment area study / edited by Lee N. Robins and Darrell A. Regier. (who.int)
  • Runoff curve numbers were calibrated for use in the Baseline Unit Hydrograph Method in Section 5600. (ku.edu)
  • Improvements by Elkies and Atkin lead to an even faster method for elliptic curves, known as the SEA algorithm. (edu.au)
  • Through the implementation of the Creaming Curve method, it is found that the potential of remaining reserves for Colombia are more than 1,624 MBbls and 457 wells are required to be drilled to achieve this potential. (searchanddiscovery.com)