Area Postrema: A small, rounded eminence on each side of the FOURTH VENTRICLE, which receives nerve fibers from the SOLITARY NUCLEUS; SPINAL CORD; and adjacent areas of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA. The area postrema lies outside the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and its functions include acting as an emetic chemoreceptor.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Fourth Ventricle: An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.Estradiol Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of estradiol.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.ShrewsVagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Subfornical Organ: A structure, situated close to the intraventricular foramen, which induces DRINKING BEHAVIOR after stimulation with ANGIOTENSIN II.Methiothepin: A serotonin receptor antagonist in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM used as an antipsychotic.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Oncogene Proteins v-fos: Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Neuromyelitis Optica: A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS; MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE; demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions in the OPTIC NERVES and SPINAL CORD; and presence of specific autoantibodies to AQUAPORIN 4.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.ArabinoseNeurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel alpha Subunits: The pore-forming subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. They form tetramers in CELL MEMBRANES.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Genes, fos: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Receptors, Glucagon: Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.Glucagon-Like Peptides: Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Pneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Thoracostomy: Surgical procedure involving the creation of an opening (stoma) into the chest cavity for drainage; used in the treatment of PLEURAL EFFUSION; PNEUMOTHORAX; HEMOTHORAX; and EMPYEMA.Maxillary Osteotomy: Surgery of the upper jaw bone usually performed to correct upper and lower jaw misalignment.Microtomy: The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Glucose Solution, Hypertonic: Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Persistent Vegetative State: Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Prenatal Injuries: Damages to the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN or the FETUS before BIRTH. Damages can be caused by any factors including biological, chemical, or physical.Euthanasia, Passive: Failing to prevent death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy by the withdrawal or withholding of life-prolonging treatment.Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Performance Anxiety: Anxiety related to the execution of a task. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Epidural Abscess: Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)Mastoid: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Sympathetic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from sympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers use norepinephrine as transmitter, except for those innervating eccrine sweat glands (and possibly some blood vessels) which use acetylcholine. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.Urotensins: Teleost hormones. A family of small peptides isolated from urophyses of bony fishes. They have many different physiological effects, including long-lasting hypotensive activity and have been proposed as antihypertensives. There are at least four different compounds: urotensin I, urotensin II, urotensin III, and urotensin IV.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.

Effect of 6-hydroxydopamine treatment in the area postrema on morphine-induced emesis in ferrets. (1/46)

To investigate the role of catecholamine release in emesis, we examined the effects of pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OH-DA) administered into the area postrema in morphine-induced emesis in ferrets. In the 6-OH-DA pre-treated animals, the latency to the first emetic response induced by morphine hydrochloride (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) was significantly prolonged and the number of retches and emetic episodes was markedly reduced. In the medulla oblongata, the levels of dopamine and homovanilic acid were reduced by 6-OH-DA pretreatment. These results suggest that catecholamine release in the medulla oblongata, mainly dopamine release, may play an important role in morphine-induced emesis in ferrets.  (+info)

Role of the area postrema in angiotensin II modulation of baroreflex control of heart rate in conscious mice. (2/46)

This study reports the effects of angiotensin II (ANG II), arginine vasopression (AVP), phenylephrine (PE), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on baroreflex control of heart rate in the presence and absence of the area postrema (AP) in conscious mice. In intact, sham-lesioned mice, baroreflex-induced decreases in heart rate due to increases in arterial pressure with intravenous infusions of ANG II were significantly less than those observed with similar increases in arterial pressure with PE (slope: -3.0 +/- 0.9 vs. -8.1 +/- 1.5 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1)). Baroreflex-induced decreases in heart rate due to increases in arterial pressure with intravenous infusions of AVP were the same as those observed with PE in sham animals (slope: -5.8 +/- 0.7 vs. -8.1 +/- 1.5 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1)). After the AP was lesioned, the slope of baroreflex inhibition of heart rate was the same whether pressure was increased with ANG II, AVP, or PE. The slope of the baroreflex-induced increases in heart rate due to decreases in arterial blood pressure with SNP were the same in sham- and AP-lesioned animals. These results indicate that, similar to other species, in mice the ability of ANG II to acutely reset baroreflex control of heart rate is dependent on an intact AP.  (+info)

Glucagon-like peptide-1-responsive catecholamine neurons in the area postrema link peripheral glucagon-like peptide-1 with central autonomic control sites. (3/46)

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released from the gut is an incretin that stimulates insulin secretion. GLP-1 is also a brain neuropeptide that has diverse central actions, including inhibition of food and water intake, gastric emptying, and stimulation of neuroendocrine responses characteristic of visceral illness. Both intravenous and intracerebroventricular administration of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists increase blood pressure and heart rate and induce Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in autonomic regulatory sites in the rat brain. The area postrema (AP) is a circumventricular organ and has been implicated in processing visceral sensory information. GLP-1Rs are densely expressed in the AP, and peripheral GLP-1R agonists induce Fos-IR in AP neurons to a greater degree than intracerebroventricular administration. Because the AP lacks a blood-brain barrier, we hypothesized that the AP is a key site for peripheral GLP-1 to activate central autonomic regulatory sites. In this study, we found that many tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing neurons in the AP expressed GLP-1Rs and Fos-IR after intravenous GLP-1R agonists. Furthermore, intravenous but not intracerebroventricular GLP-1R agonists induced TH transcription in the AP in vivo. In addition, GLP-1R agonists directly activated TH transcription in an in vitro cell system. Finally, we found that GLP-1-responsive TH neurons in the AP innervate autonomic control sites, including the parabrachial nucleus, nucleus of solitary tract, and ventrolateral medulla. These findings suggest that catecholamine neurons in the AP link peripheral GLP-1 and central autonomic control sites that mediate the diverse neuroendocrine and autonomic actions of peripheral GLP-1.  (+info)

Roles of substance P and NK(1) receptor in the brainstem in the development of emesis. (4/46)

The emetic response is primarily a protective reflex occurring in a wide variety of vertebrates in response to the ingestion of toxic compounds. The role of the nuclei in the brainstem, including the area postrema, nucleus tractus solitarius, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and the central pattern generator for vomiting, as well as the involvement of the abdominal visceral innervation relevant to the emetic reflex, have all been discussed by many researchers. The introduction of serotonin 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonists into clinical practice allowed for a dramatic improvement in the management of vomiting. However, vomiting still remains a significant problem. The mechanism of the emetic response is even more complicated than was first thought. This review attempts to bring together some of the evidence suggesting the roles of substance P and its receptor, neurokinin NK(1) receptor, in the brainstem nuclei in the development of emesis. Accordingly, NK(1)-receptor antagonists might represent novel drugs for the management of major types of emesis.  (+info)

Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol selectively acts on CB1 receptors in specific regions of dorsal vagal complex to inhibit emesis in ferrets. (5/46)

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy, receptor specificity, and site of action of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an antiemetic in the ferret. THC (0.05-1 mg/kg ip) dose-dependently inhibited the emetic actions of cisplatin. The ED50 for retching was approximately 0.1 mg/kg and for vomiting was 0.05 mg/kg. A specific cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor antagonist SR-141716A (5 mg/kg ip) reversed the effect of THC, whereas the CB2 receptor antagonist SR-144528 (5 mg/kg ip) was ineffective. THC applied to the surface of the brain stem was sufficient to inhibit emesis induced by intragastric hypertonic saline. The site of action of THC in the brain stem was further assessed using Fos immunohistochemistry. Fos expression induced by cisplatin in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX) and the medial subnucleus of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), but not other subnuclei of the NTS, was significantly reduced by THC rostral to obex. At the level of the obex, THC reduced Fos expression in the area postrema and the dorsal subnucleus of the NTS. The highest density of CB1 receptor immunoreactivity was found in the DMNX and the medial subnucleus of the NTS. Lower densities were observed in the area postrema and dorsal subnucleus of the NTS. Caudal to obex, there was moderate density of staining in the commissural subnucleus of the NTS. These results show that THC selectively acts at CB1 receptors to reduce neuronal activation in response to emetic stimuli in specific regions of the dorsal vagal complex.  (+info)

17 beta-Estradiol inhibits angiotensin II activation of area postrema neurons. (6/46)

It is well established that the area postrema, as a circumventricular organ, is susceptible to modulation by circulating hormones and peptides. Furthermore, activation of the area postrema has been shown to modulate central neurons involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function and blood pressure. In particular, the vasoactive peptide angiotensin II (ANG II) has been shown to inhibit baroreflex regulation of heart rate and increase sympathetic outflow and blood pressure via activation of area postrema neurons. Estrogen is thought to protect against hypertension in both humans and animal models and has been shown in a number of systems to alter the effects of ANG II. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of estrogen on ANG II activation of area postrema neurons. In this study, the effects of ANG II and KCl on fura 2-measured cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) responses in cultured area postrema neurons in the presence and absence of 12-h exposure to 100 nM 17 beta-estradiol (E2) were evaluated. In neurons incubated in control vehicle media, 50 nM ANG II increased [Ca2+]i by 92 +/- 12%. In neurons preincubated with 100 nM E2, ANG II increased [Ca2+]i by only 68 +/- 11%, for a total inhibition of the ANG II-evoked response of 24%. Coapplication of the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI-182,780 did not inhibit the effects of E2. In the same cells in which the effects of E2 on ANG II-evoked responses were tested, the effects of incubation in E on the depolarization-induced increased [Ca2+2]i due to 60 mM KCl were also tested. Incubation of the cells with 100 nM E increased the KCl-evoked [Ca2+2]i response, and this response was blocked by ICI-182,780. These results suggest that in the area postrema, estrogen may utilize multiple pathways to modulate neural activity and responses to ANG II.  (+info)

Role of the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) in pacemaker activity in area postrema neurons of rat brain slices. (7/46)

To clarify the functional properties of the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) as a pacemaker current in area postrema neurons, whole-cell recordings were made in visually identified cells in rat brain slices. The activation of Ih was identified in approximately 62 % of area postrema neurons tested. The cells displaying Ih showed a depolarizing "sag" in responses to hyperpolarizing current injection in current-clamp mode. The reversal potential for the Ih was -36 mV, and this was shown to depend on the external concentration of Na+ and K+ ions. Extracellular Cs+ ions (2 mM) and ZD7288 (100 microM), a potent selective Ih channel antagonist, blocked Ih and induced a membrane potential hyperpolarization, suggesting the sustained activation of Ih near the resting potential and a contribution from Ih to membrane potential maintenance at more depolarized levels. In contrast, extracellular Ba2+ ions caused a depolarization of the membrane potential, suggesting the blockade of inward rectifier K+ currents. ZD7288 decreased the spontaneous discharge rate by prolonging the slow depolarization between two spikes, with minimal effect on the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization or action potential waveforms. Ih stabilized the latency of rebound action potentials. Ih was weakly activated by external 8-bromoadenosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate (1 mM) or forskolin (50-100 microM), indicating that the Ih channel subtypes in area postrema cells could be modulated by intracellular cAMP. Our findings indicate that Ih contributes to the subthreshold membrane and firing properties of rat area postrema neurons and may regulate their resting membrane potential and firing patterns.  (+info)

Effect of intracarotid administration of adrenomedullin on the spontaneous electrical activity of area postrema neurons in sino-aortic denervated rats. (8/46)

To observe the effect of intracarotid administration of adrenomedullin (AM) on the spontaneous electrical activity of area postrema (AP) neurons, 78 spontaneous active units were recorded from 63 sino-aortic denervated Sprague-Dawley rats using extracellular recording technique. The results obtained are as follows. (1) Following intracarotid administration of AM (0.3 nmol/kg), the discharge rate of 47 out of 78 units increased markedly from 2.99+/-0.24 to 4.79+/-0.29 spikes/s (P<0.001), 20 units decreased from 3.24+/-0.46 to 1.97+/-0.37 spikes/s (P<0.001), and the remaining 11 showed no response. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) did not change throughout the experimentation. (2) Pretreatment with intracarotid administration of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist CGRP8-37 (3 nmol/kg) did not change the effects of AM. (3) Following intracarotid injection of NO precursor L-arginine (30 mg/kg), the excitatory effect of AM was attenuated. The above results indicate that AM can excite spontaneous electrical activity of AP neurons, this effect is not mediated by calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor but may be attenuated by NO precursor L-arginine.  (+info)

*Area postrema

The area postrema acts to directly monitor the chemical status of the organism. Lesions of the area postrema are sometimes ... Damage to the area postrema, caused primarily by lesioning or ablation, prevents the normal functions of the area postrema from ... The CTZ was anatomically located in the area postrema of the medulla oblongata. The area postrema had been anatomically ... the area postrema induces vomiting to prevent further intoxication. The high density of dopamine receptors in the area postrema ...

*Chemoreceptor trigger zone

The CTZ is located within the area postrema, which is on the floor of the fourth ventricle and is outside of the blood-brain ... Neurons in the CTZ, and area postrema in general, actually have two types of receptors: those at the surface of the neuron and ... PDE4 mRNAs are transcribed more in the area postrema and the CTZ than anywhere else in the brainstem. The PDE4 degrades the ... This suggests that the neurons that express H-channels in the CTZ and area postrema are involved in nausea and the emetic ...

*Circumventricular organs

The area postrema also has integrative capacities that enable it to send major and minor efferents to sections of the brain ... However, it is known that the area postrema is the locus, or site, of the chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting. It functions ... The sensory organs include the area postrema (AP), the subfornical organ (SFO) and the vascular organ of lamina terminalis. ... Lavezzi A. M.; Mecchia D.; Matturri L. (2012). "Neuropathology of the Area Postrema in Sudden Intrauterine and Infant Death ...

*Maria Carmela Lico

Menescal De Oliveira, L; Lico, M. C. (1977). "Pain modulation in the adrenergically stimulated area postrema in the alert ... including the area postrema, the caudate and the medial forebrain bundle. After James Reston, while accompanying Richard Nixon ... "Inhibition of the response to pain by the action of serotonin and carbachol topically applied to the area postrema of conscious ... an area which, at the Instituto, was under the leadership of Miguel Rolando Covian. Since Covian had recently moved to the ...

*Subfornical organ

Other circumventricular organs are the area postrema in the brainstem and the OVLT. The OVLT and SFO are both interconnected ... Gross PM (1991). "Morphology and physiology of capillary systems in subregions of the subfornical organ and area postrema". Can ... Conversely, the rostral and caudal areas have lower capillary density and are mostly made of nerve fibers with fewer neurons ... Recent study has focused on the SFO as an area particularly important in the regulation of energy. The observation that ...

*Thirst

The area postrema and nucleus tractus solitarii signal to the subfornical organ and to the lateral parabrachial nucleus. The ... These project to the area postrema and nucleus tractus solitarii in the brain. Because sodium is also lost from the plasma in ... Arterial baroreceptors sense a decreased arterial pressure, and signals to the central nervous system in the area postrema and ... Cardiopulmonary receptors sense a decreased blood volume, and signal to area postrema and nucleus tractus solitarii as well. ...

*Viral meningitis

Increased cranial pressure from viral meningitis stimulates the area postrema, which causes nausea and vomiting. Photophobia is ...

*Brain abscess

This elevation similarly stimulates the medullary vomiting center and area postrema, leading to morning vomiting. Other ...

*Cortical cooling

Wang, Y., & Chambers, K. C. (2001). The role of the dura in conditioned taste avoidance induced by cooling the area postrema of ... The vPS lies adjacent to the pMS, and these areas were previously surmised to receive networks from other visual areas. ... when primary visual cortical areas 17 and 18 are removed at birth, the neural functions of these areas are redistributed across ... Each device can cool a range of tissue areas from less than 10 mm3 to 75 mm3. Although it may be considered a hassle to have to ...

*Nausea

The CTZ is located in the area postrema in the floor of the fourth ventricle within the brain. This area is outside the blood ... These areas are activated by elevated intracranial pressure, irritation of the meninges (i.e. blood or infection), and extreme ... Central nervous system (CNS): Stimuli can affect areas of the CNS including the cerebral cortex and the limbic system. ...

*Lateral hypothalamus

... area postrema, and dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is colocalized on orexinergic projection neurons ... a recent study demonstrated that the area postrema and nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) are necessary for orexin- ... In addition to the histaminergic nucleus, the orexin system also projects onto the ventral tegmental area dopamine nucleus, ... Orexin neurons with cell bodies in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and posterior hypothalamus (PH) project throughout the ...

*Ondansetron

... are present both peripherally on vagal nerve terminals and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of the area postrema. ...

*Vascular organ of lamina terminalis

... and area postrema). OVLT capillaries do not have a blood brain barrier, and so neurons in this region can respond to osmotic ... and the area postrema in the brainstem. The OVLT, median eminence, and subfornical organ are interconnected with the median ...

*Amylin

These actions, which are mostly carried out via a glucose-sensitive part of the brain stem, the area postrema, may be over- ...

*5-HT3 antagonist

... and the area postrema itself. Serotonin is released by the enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine in response to ... a subtype of serotonin receptor found in terminals of the vagus nerve and in certain areas of the brain. With the notable ... on responses to injection of a neurokinin agonist into the ventral tegmental area of the rat brain". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 138 (2 ...

*Catecholamine

... to the area postrema and from a nucleus in the dorsal region of the solitary tract. Dopamine is the first catecholamine ... is largely produced in neuronal cell bodies in two areas of the brainstem: the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra ...

*Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase

... to the area postrema and from a nucleus in the dorsal region of the solitary tract. PNMT's normal function and defects are ...

*Acepromazine

Its action at the chemoreceptor trigger zone (in the area postrema) and the solitary nucleus (in the medulla oblongata) allow ...

*Granulocyte

MCs can be located in various areas, such as the pituitary stalk, the pineal gland, the area postrema, the choroid plexus, ... Both of these mechanisms allow blood-clotting elements to be delivered to the infected area (this begins the recovery process ... suggests areas of importance for novel therapy research. Increasing evidence also indicates that MCs participate in ...

*Ingestive behaviors

Signals from the tongue, stomach, small intestine and liver are received by the area postrema and nucleus of the solitary tract ...

*Index of anatomy articles

... granulation arbor vitae archicerebellum archicortex archipallium archistriatum arcuate line arcuate nucleus area postrema ... Waldeyer's ring Wernicke's area Wharton's duct Wharton's jelly white matter withdrawal reflex wrist xiphoid process zona ... retina retinaculum retinal artery retinotopic retrobulbar neuritis retrogastric area retromandibular vein Retromolar space ... brain stem brainstem branchia branchiomeric musculature breast bregma bridging veins broad ligament of the uterus Broca's area ...

*Autonomic nervous system

The nTS also receives input from a nearby chemosensory center, the area postrema, that detects toxins in the blood and the ... Those are then subdivided into other areas and are also linked to ANS subsystems and nervous systems external to the brain. The ... The sympathetic division emerges from the spinal cord in the thoracic and lumbar areas, terminating around L2-3. The ...

*Defensive vomiting

Area postrema, the part of the brain that controls vomiting Chemoreceptor trigger zone, the part of the area postrema that ...

*Vasopressin receptor 1A

... area postrema and nucleus of the solitary tract. Although vasopressin cell and fibre distribution patterns are highly conserved ... anterior hypothalamic area, arcuate nucleus, lateral habenula, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra (pars compacta), ... oxytocin antagonist (OTA) at birth has sexually dimorphic effects in prairie voles later on in life in various areas of the ... Avpr1a is present in the lateral septum, neocortical layer IV, hippocampal formation, amygdalostriatal area, bed nucleus of the ...

*Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

... subsequent cycles when antiemetics have failed in earlier cycles Emesis is a defense mechanism controlled by the area postrema ...

*Muscovy duck

It was noted that in other parts of the world, chickens were more susceptible to such infections than in the study area, but it ... 3 (Tomus tertius ac postremus) (2nd ed.). Bologna ("Bononia"): Nicolò Tebaldini. Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F. (2006). " ...
To address the neural mediation of the eating-inhibitory effect of circulating glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), we investigated the effects of 1) intra-fourth ventricular infusion of the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-9 or 2) area postrema lesion on the eating-inhibitory effect of intrameal hepatic portal vein (HPV) GLP-1 infusion in adult male rats. To evaluate the physiological relevance of the observed effect we examined 3) the influence of GLP-1 on flavor acceptance in a 2-bottle conditioned flavor avoidance test, and 4) measured active GLP-1 in the HPV and vena cava (VC) in relation to a meal and in the VC after HPV GLP-1 infusion. Intrameal HPV GLP-1 infusion (1 nmol/kg body weight-5 min) specifically reduced ongoing meal size by almost 40% (P , .05). Intra-fourth ventricular exendin-9 (10 μg/rat) itself did not affect eating, but attenuated (P , .05) the satiating effect of HPV GLP-1. Area postrema lesion also blocked (P , .05) the eating-inhibitory effect of HPV GLP-1. Pairing ...
While the regulation of energy homeostasis by amylin is already well-characterized, emerging data suggest that amylin is also crucial for the development of neural pathways in the hypothalamus and caudal hindbrain (area postrema, AP; nucleus tractus solitarius, NTS). Exciting new findings demonstrate crucial amylin-leptin interactions in altering the activity of specific hypothalamic and AP neurons, and a role for amylin as a novel class of leptin sensitizers which enhance leptin signaling in both leptin-sensitive and -resistant individuals, in part by stimulating IL-6 production by hypothalamic microglia. This review summarizes these findings and provides a hypothetical framework for future studies to elucidate the mechanisms by which amylin and leptin act individually and as co-conspirators to alter energy homeostasis and neuronal development. ...
Ablation of the areas postrema in 10 dogs caused a highly significant reduction in the pressor response to intravenous infusions of angiotensin yet was without significant effect on the pressor response to intravenous infusions of noradrenaline. The reduction in the pressor response to angiotensin is almost certainly due to abolition of the specific central autonomic effects of the hormone which are dependent on the integrity of the areas postrema. It is suggested that this central effect also contributes to the cardiovascular response to endogenous angiotensin.. ...
The results reported here confirm that cells derived from the bone marrow can migrate into the brains of adult mice. Furthermore, we have found that this migration is rapid, with numerous cells present by the third day after transplant. These new cells are distributed throughout the brain, and appear to reside within the parenchyma, because perfusion with PBS does not remove them. Occasional donor marrow-derived cells were found in association with vascular structures. Moreover, densities of donor cells in the parenchyma paralleled the capillary density of a given region. For instance, cortex, with fewer capillaries, had a lower cell density than the more vascularized choroid plexus. Regions with a higher capillary density, such as the area postrema, also had the highest density of marrow-derived cells within the parenchyma.. Double-labeling analyses show that at least some bone marrow-derived cells acquire microglial antigenic markers. However, we also observed many cells positively labeled by ...
Affiliation:北海道大学,歯学研究科(研究院),助教, Research Field:Functional basic dentistry,Morphological basic dentistry, Keywords:パッチクランプ,嘔吐,悪心,脳スライス,最後野,ヒスチジン,rats,化学受容性嘔吐誘発域,味覚嫌悪学習,area postrema, # of Research Projects:3, # of Research Products:48
Looking for online definition of area postrema in the Medical Dictionary? area postrema explanation free. What is area postrema? Meaning of area postrema medical term. What does area postrema mean?
A small, rounded eminence on each side o … * A small, rounded eminence on each side of the FOURTH VENTRICLE, which receives nerve fibers from the SOLITARY NUCLEUS; SPINAL CORD; and adjacent areas of the MEDULLA. The area postrema lies outside the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and its functions include acting as an emetic chemoreceptor. (MSH) * one of the ventricular organs, a highly vascular mound of tissue along the margin of the caudal part of the fourth ventricle; consists of many large capillaries, many glial, and some small nerve cells; receives fibers directly from the vagal and glossopharyngeal nerves; its efferent fibers go directly to the nucleus solitarius and the parabrachial nuclei and indirectly to other areas; it lies outside of the blood brain barrier and appears to function as a chemoreceptor trigger zone for emesis. (CSP) emoreceptor trigger zone for emesis. (CSP) ...
Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog marketed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Besides lowering blood glucose, liraglutide also reduces body weight. It is not fully understood how liraglutide induces weight loss or to what degree liraglutide acts directly in the brain. Here, we determined that liraglutide does not activate GLP-1-producing neurons in the hindbrain, and liraglutide-dependent body weight reduction in rats was independent of GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) in the vagus nerve, area postrema, and paraventricular nucleus. Peripheral injection of fluorescently labeled liraglutide in mice revealed the presence of the drug in the circumventricular organs. Moreover, labeled liraglutide bound neurons within the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and other discrete sites in the hypothalamus. GLP-1R was necessary for liraglutide uptake in the brain, as liraglutide binding was not seen in ...
1. Borison HL, Wang SC. Physiology and pharmacology of vomiting. Pharmacol Rev 1953; 5:193-230. 2. Alvarez WC. Reverse peristalsis in the bowel, a precursor of vomiting. JAMA 1925; 85:1051-1054. 3. Borison HL, Wang SC. Further Studies on the Vomiting Center. Federation Proceedings 1950; 9:14-15. 4. Goldberg SL. The afferent paths of nerves involved in the vomiting reflex induced by distension of the isolated pyloric pouch. Am J Physiol 1931; 99:156- 5. Borison HL. Area postrema - chemoreceptor circumventricular organ of the medulla-oblongata. Prog Neurobiol 1989; 32:351-390. 6. Henzi I, Walder B, Tramèr MR. Metoclopramide in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Br J Anaesth 1999; 83:761-771. 7. Kranke P, Morin AM, Roewer N, Eberhart LH. Dimenhydrinate for prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2002; 46:238-44. 8. ...
The methods of preparing the brainstem slices and the identification of NTS neurons have been described previously (Baptista et al., 2005a,b, 2007). Briefly, 25- to 35-d-old Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were anesthetized with isoflurane (abolition of the foot pinch withdrawal reflex) before being killed by administration of a bilateral pneumothorax. After removal, the brainstem was glued to the platform of a vibratome, and three to four coronal slices (300 μm thick) were cut starting from the caudal area postrema and moving rostrally. The slices were incubated at 30 ± 1°C in Krebs solution (in mm: 126 NaCl, 25 NaHCO3, 2.5 KCl, 1.2 MgCl2, 2.4 CaCl2, 1.2 NaH2PO4, and 5 dextrose, maintained at pH 7.4 by bubbling with 95% O2-5% CO2) bubbled with 95% O2/5% CO2 for 60-90 min before use. A single slice was then transferred to a perfusion chamber (volume, 500 μl; Michigan Precision Instruments, Parma, MI), kept in place with a nylon mesh, and maintained at 35 ± 1°C by perfusion with warmed ...
With the advent of more intensive glucose management, hypoglycemia has emerged as a primary limitation in the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes. It is now recognized that the increased incidence of hypoglycemia derives not only from imperfect insulin replacement but also from impaired counterregulation and hypoglycemic unawareness (1). The latter two observations have led to a renewed interest in the mechanisms underlying hypoglycemic detection. As a result of intensive research over the past decade, the traditional hypothalamocentric model of glucose sensing has been replaced with one emphasizing a widespread neural network involving numerous aspects of the central nervous system, as well as peripheral sensory input. Thus, in addition to the ventromedial hypothalamus, the paraventricular hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract, and dorsal motor nucleus all appear to play important roles (2,3). In the periphery, important glucose sensors have been ...
Numerous systems in the body produce signals to induce vomiting. Some of these systems include the cerebral cortex, vestibular system, and GI tract. Additionally, the Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone (CTZ), located in the area postrema on the floor of the fourth ventricle, is not protected by a true blood-brain barrier and is therefore exposed to toxins and neurotransmitters in the blood. The signals that these systems send are organized into the action of emesis by the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the medulla.. Metoclopramide is a D2 receptor antagonist as well as 5-HT3 antagonist and 5-HT4 agonist. Through its anti-dopaminergic and anti-serotonergic effects, it blocks the communication between the CTZ and NTS and thereby acts as an potent antiemetic. Additionally, its antagonist effect on dopamine receptors combined with its agonistic effects on 5-HT4 receptors yield increased GI motility and contractility. Given these pharmacologic effects, metoclopramide can be used as both an antiemetic ...
The organization of the central neuronal circuitry that produces vomiting was explored by mapping the distribution of c-fos protein (Fos)-like immunoreactivity (FLI) as a monitor of functional activity. The brainstem and spinal cord were examined in cats administered multiple emetic drugs (cisplatin, lobeline, protoveratrine, naloxone, apomorphine) or control saline injections. Some animals were decerebrated, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated to avoid possible Fos expression induced by sensory feedback or fluid depletion during vomiting. Fictive vomiting was identified in these animals by a characteristic pattern of respiratory muscle nerve (phrenic and abdominal) coactivation. Tissues were immunoprocessed using an antibody raised against amino acids 1-131 of Fos and the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method. Enhanced nuclear FLI was observed in experimental animals along portions of the sensorimotor emetic reflex arc, including the nodose ganglia, area postrema, nuclei of the solitary ...
The cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a frequent and severe condition in cancer patients. Currently, no pharmacological treatment is approved for the therapy of CACS. Centrally, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is expressed in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and is implicated in malaise, nausea and food aversion. The NTS is reciprocally connected to brain sites implicated in the control of energy balance including the area postrema (AP), which mediates CACS in certain tumour models. Given the role of GLP-1 as a mediator of anorexia under acute sickness conditions, we hypothesized that brainstem GLP-1 signalling might play a role in the mediation of CACS ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Yes! sex matters. T2 - Sex, the brain and blood pressure. AU - Hay, Meredith. AU - Xue, Baojian. AU - Johnson, Alan Kim. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The role of the brain in hypertension between the sexes is known to be important especially with regards to the effects of circulating sex hormones. A number of different brain regions important for regulation of sympathetic outflow and blood pressure express estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). Estradiol, acting predominantly via the ERα, inhibits angiotensin II activation of the area postrema and subfornical organ neurons and inhibits reactive oxygen generation that is required for the development of Angiotensin II-induced neurogenic hypertension. Estradiol activation of ERβ within the paraventricular nucleus and the rostral ventral lateral medulla inhibits these neurons and inhibits angiotensin II, or aldosterone induced increases in sympathetic outflow and hypertension. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms ...
N-acetyl-4-aminoantipyrine and sulfaguanidine slowly penetrate the cerebrospinal fluid and the brain proper, but enter the water space of the adenohypophysis, the neurohypophysis, the area postrema and the intercolumnar tubercle almost as readily as they penetrate the water space of liver and muscle. These results indicate that the blood-brain barrier does not exist in these brain regions.. ...
Posted on May 11, 2015 By Ilia Elenkov Neuroendocrine Immunology News. A recent study published in Hypertension demonstrates that cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α acting at the level of the subfornical organ induce the expression of inflammatory and excitatory mediators that subsequently drive sympathetic nervous system activation. The subfornical organ (SFO), a highly vascularized structure is a circumventricular organ that lacks […] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fos expression in brain stem nuclei of pregnant rats after hydralazine- induced hypotension. AU - Curtis, Kathleen. AU - Cunningham, J. Thomas. AU - Heesch, Cheryl M.. PY - 1999/8/1. Y1 - 1999/8/1. N2 - Fos and dopamine β-hydroxylase immunoreactivity were evaluated in the brain stems of 21-day pregnant and virgin female rats injected with either hydralazine (HDZ; 10 mg/kg iv) or vehicle. HDZ produced significant hypotension in both groups, although baseline blood pressure was lower in pregnant rats (96 ± 2.5 mmHg) than in virgin female rats (121 ± 2.8 mmHg). There were no differences in Fos immunoreactivity in the brain stems of pregnant and virgin female rats after vehicle treatment. HDZ-induced hypotension significantly increased Fos expression in both groups; however, the magnitude of the increases differed in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVL), the area postrema (AP), and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL). Fos expression after HDZ in pregnant rats was augmented ...
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory CNS syndrome distinct from multiple sclerosis (MS) that is associated with serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies (AQP4-IgG). Prior NMO diagnostic criteria required optic nerve and spinal cord involvement but more restricted or more extensive CNS involvement may occur. The International Panel for NMO Diagnosis (IPND) was convened to develop revised diagnostic criteria using systematic literature reviews and electronic surveys to facilitate consensus. The new nomenclature defines the unifying term NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD), which is stratified further by serologic testing (NMOSD with or without AQP4-IgG). The core clinical characteristics required for patients with NMOSD with AQP4-IgG include clinical syndromes or MRI findings related to optic nerve, spinal cord, area postrema, other brainstem, diencephalic, or cerebral presentations. More stringent clinical criteria, with additional neuroimaging findings, are required for diagnosis of ...
Consistent with previous studies,2,7,20 subcutaneous infusion of Ang II caused a dose-related increase in BP. Water intake was also higher in Ang II hypertensive rats, likely from the effects of circulating Ang II on AT1 receptors in circumventricular organs of the lamina terminalis (LT) that lack a blood-brain barrier, such as the subfornical organ (SFO).21. In contrast to absent effects in normal rats,11-13 infusion of candesartan or kynurenate in the PVN lowered BP in rats after subcutaneous Ang II for 2 weeks. These findings are consistent with other models of chronic sympathetic hyperactivity9,11,12 and indicate that increased glutamate and AT1-receptor activation in the PVN contributes to the maintenance of elevated BP from a chronic increase in circulating Ang II. Angiotensinergic and glutamatergic sympathoexcitatory pathways between the LT and PVN likely contribute to these effects of circulating Ang II. Regions in the circumventricular organs of the LT, that is, SFO and organum ...
Our laboratory has been focused on understanding how inflammation, and in particular, the adaptive immune response contributes to hypertension. Several years ago, we found that T cells are essential for the development of hypertension. We have shown that various hypertensive stimuli, including angiotensin II, norepinephrine and DOCA-salt cause activation of T cells and leads to their accumulation in the perivascular fat and kidneys. Our data indicate that T cell-derived cytokines such as IL-17 and TNF-a enhance vasoconstriction and sodium retention, leading to the hypertensive phenotype. Central signals derived from the circumventricular organs contribute to T cell activation, and manipulation of signals from this region affect T cell activation and the eventual elevation in blood pressure caused by angiotensin II. We are attempting to understand mechanisms involved in T cell activation in response to hypertensive stimuli. We have recently shown that gamma-ketoaldehydes, or isoketals adduct to ...
α-MSH overexpression in the nucleus tractus solitarius decreases fat mass and elevates heart rate.: The POMC pathway is involved in the regulation of energy and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vagal afferent fibres determine the oxytocin-induced modulation of gastric tone. AU - Holmes, Gregory M.. AU - Browning, Kirsteen N.. AU - Babic, Tanja. AU - Fortna, Samuel R.. AU - Coleman, F. Holly. AU - Travagli, R. Alberto. PY - 2013/6/1. Y1 - 2013/6/1. N2 - Oxytocin (OXT) inputs to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC; nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and area postrema) decrease gastric tone and motility. Our first aim was to investigate the mechanism(s) of OXT-induced gastric relaxation. We demonstrated recently that vagal afferent inputs modulate NTS-DMV synapses involved in gastric and pancreatic reflexes via group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Our second aim was to investigate whether group II mGluRs similarly influence the response of vagal motoneurons to OXT. Microinjection of OXT in the DVC decreased gastric tone in a dose-dependent manner. The OXT-induced gastric relaxation was enhanced following bethanechol and ...
Cancer chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin, potently produce nausea and vomiting. Acute effects of these treatments are partly controlled by antiemetic drugs, but the delayed effects (|24 h), especially nausea, are more difficult to treat. It is unknown what brain pathways produce this delayed sickness. Our prior data show that brain Fos expression is increased for at least 48 h after cisplatin treatment in the rat, a nonvomiting species. Here, we extend these observations by using house musk shrews (Suncus murinus), a species with an emetic response. Compared with saline injection, cisplatin treatment (30 mg/kg ip) induced Fos expression in hindbrain areas known to play a role in the generation of emesis, the dorsal motor nucleus (DMN), the area postrema, and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), for up to 48 h. Cisplatin also stimulated Fos expression in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) of the midbrain and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) for at least 48 h after treatment. When animals
The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla oblongata that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with other structures in the vomiting center to initiate vomiting. The CTZ is located within the area postrema, which is on the floor of the fourth ventricle and is outside of the blood-brain barrier. It is also part of the vomiting center itself. The neurotransmitters implicated in the control of nausea and vomiting include acetylcholine, dopamine, histamine (H-1 receptor), substance P (NK-1 receptor), and serotonin (5-HT3 receptor). There are also opioid receptors present, which may be involved in the mechanism by which opiates cause nausea and vomiting. The blood brain barrier is not as developed here, therefore drugs such as dopamine which cannot normally enter the CNS may still stimulate the CTZ. The CTZ is in the medulla oblongata, which is phylogenetically the oldest part of the nervous system.[citation needed] Early lifeforms developed a ...
Hypoglycemic detection at the portal-mesenteric vein (PMV) appears mediated by spinal afferents and is critical for the counter-regulatory response (CRR) to slow-onset, but not rapid-onset, hypoglycemia. Since rapid-onset hypoglycemia induces Fos protein expression in discrete brain regions, we hypothesized that denervation of the PMV or lesioning spinal afferents would suppress Fos expression in the dorsal medulla during slow-onset hypoglycemia, revealing a central nervous system reliance on PMV glucosensors. Rats undergoing PMV deafferentation via capsaicin, celiac-superior mesenteric ganglionectomy (CSMG), or total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (TSV) were exposed to hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamps where glycemia was lowered slowly over 60-75 min. In response to hypoglycemia, control animals demonstrated a robust CRR along with marked Fos expression in the area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Fos expression was suppressed by 65-92% in ...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
Reaction of N-methyl-N-nitrosotoluene-p-sulfonamide (MNTS, 1) with 3,6-dibromocarbazole (2) in dry acetonitrile gave N-methyl-p-toluenesulfonamide (4) and N-nitroso-3,6-dibromocarbazole (5), whereas with the corresponding nitranion (3) gave N-(p-toluenesulfonyl)-3,6-dibromocarbazole (6). The results are rationalized in terms of direct nucleophilic substitution mechanism occurring on respective sites. The effects of solvents and added metal ions are also discussed.
Fos-IR was counted in ule cell layer of the MOB because previous work in the rat showed that Fos-IR was augmented in this layer after exposure to peppermint
We present recent clinical and diagnostic advances in spinal cord imaging. Because of the overlap of different pathologic entities, good knowledge of clinical information is necessary. Degenerative diseases of the spine can sometimes be misleading when the question of a possible tumor rises. The essentials of spinal cord tumors are discussed.. In patients with suspicion of demyelinating disease, the following considerations are of importance: multiple sclerosis (MS) should be differentiated from neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and AQP4 and MOG-antibodies should be searched for. There is a growing body of evidence that there is an overlap between NMOSD and acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM).. Acute transverse myelitis is often a diagnosis of exclusion after viral myelitis or autoimmune causes have been excluded. The involvement of specific areas can give an indication for the diagnosis, e.g., area postrema or conus medullaris. New MRI equipment enables more robust ...
P = .001).. How It Works. Palonosetron (available in single-agent form as Aloxi) is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that exhibits strong binding affinity for this receptor and little or no affinity for other receptors. 5-HT3 receptors are located on the nerve terminals of the vagus in the periphery and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of the area postrema.. Chemotherapeutic agents produce nausea and vomiting by stimulating the release of serotonin from the enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine. Serotonin then activates 5-HT3 receptors located on vagal afferents to initiate the vomiting reflex. Development of acute emesis depends on serotonin, and its 5-HT3 receptors have been shown to selectively stimulate the emetic response.. Netupitant is a selective antagonist of substance P/neurokinin 1 receptors. Delayed emesis is largely associated with substance P activation of tachykinin family neurokinin 1 receptors, distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Netupitant ...
Original observations, regarding the effects of exercise training on brain RAS, arise from this study. We described that exercise training does not change NTS AT1A mRNA receptor expression in hypertensive or normotensive rats but it completely normalizes the increased Aogen expression within this area in the SHR group. In addition, we showed in hypertensive rats that reduced Aogen mRNA density after training is correlated with arterial pressure fall and that training completely blocks the positive correlation between Aogen mRNA levels and MAP reduction or HR decrease observed in sedentary groups. We also confirmed that blunting effect of training on brain RAS overactivity (increased Aogen mRNA levels in the SHR group) is specific for dorsal brain stem areas involved in cardiovascular control as the NTS and area postrema.. The present results showing overactivity of the brain RAS in sedentary SHR (increased both Aogen and AT1A mRNA expression) confirmed previous observations on increased RAS ...
All DMV Forms Abstract: All DMV Forms Most forms are available at a all DMV offices. Forms are also available below to request or to download. If the form you need is either not listed or unable to be downloaded from the site, please e-mail us and we will mail you the form. If you want to access a form that can be downloaded, you must use the software called Adobe Acrobat Reader to view and print them. To get a free copy of the software, click Get Acrobat. See complete list of DMV Forms by number **NEW** ...
Canadean Spirits Strategies Congress, organized by the Arena International Events Group will take place from 31st October to the 1st November 2017 in London, United Kingdom.
The time period circumventricular organs refers back to the extremely-vascularized, specialised tissues dispersed principally alongside the midline of the ventricular procedure through the forebrain to your hindbrain, bordering the 3rd and 4th ventricles. The CVOs incorporate the pineal gland, median eminence, neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary), subfornical organ, space postrema, subcommissural organ, organum vasculosum in the lamina terminalis, along with the choroid plexus. The intermediate and neural lobes from the pituitary are sometimes provided and note the posterior pituitary releases neurohormones like oxytocin and vasopressin into your blood. The subcommissural organ contacts the third ventricle masking the posterior commissure. It comprises a posh of neurosecretory ependymal cells recognized check here to secrete a variety of glycoproteins into your CSF ...
Statutory Authority: RCW 28B.10.560 and 28B.50.140(10). WSR 19-12-006, § 132Z-116-020, filed 5/22/19, effective 6/22/19. Statutory Authority: RCW 28B.50.140. WSR 15-07-109, § 132Z-116-020, filed 3/18/15, effective 4/18/15. Statutory Authority: RCW 28B.50.140(10). WSR 02-11-048, § 132Z-116-020, filed 5/9/02, effective 6/9/02 ...
FISIOLOGI PERNAFASAN (Respirasi) Merupakan Fungsi Paru (Tractus Respiratorius) Mencakup 2 proses Pernafasan luar (ekstern...
Peptide hormones have important influences upon the hypothalamus, and to do so they must evade the blood-brain barrier. The hypothalamus is bounded in part by specialized brain regions that lack an effective blood-brain barrier; the capillary endothelium at these sites is fenestrated to allow free passage of even large proteins and other molecules. Some of these sites are the sites of neurosecretion - the neurohypophysis and the median eminence. However others are sites at which the brain samples the composition of the blood. Two of these sites, the subfornical organ and the OVLT (organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis) are so-called circumventricular organs, where neurons are in intimate contact with both blood and CSF. These structures are densely vascularized, and contain osmoreceptive and sodium-receptive neurons which control drinking, vasopressin release, sodium excretion, and sodium appetite. They also contain neurons with receptors for angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ...
c*nts or GTFO c*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nts or GTFOc*nt ...

Area postrema - WikipediaArea postrema - Wikipedia

The area postrema acts to directly monitor the chemical status of the organism. Lesions of the area postrema are sometimes ... Damage to the area postrema, caused primarily by lesioning or ablation, prevents the normal functions of the area postrema from ... The CTZ was anatomically located in the area postrema of the medulla oblongata. The area postrema had been anatomically ... the area postrema induces vomiting to prevent further intoxication. The high density of dopamine receptors in the area postrema ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area_postrema

Category:Area postremaCategory:Area postrema

... and adjacent areas of the MEDULLA. The area postrema lies outside the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and its functions include acting as ... its efferent fibers go directly to the nucleus solitarius and the parabrachial nuclei and indirectly to other areas; it lies ...
more infohttp://neurolex.org/wiki/Special:Browse/:Category:Area-20postrema

Area postrema | definition of area postrema by Medical dictionaryArea postrema | definition of area postrema by Medical dictionary

... area postrema explanation free. What is area postrema? Meaning of area postrema medical term. What does area postrema mean? ... Looking for online definition of area postrema in the Medical Dictionary? ... Area postrema , definition of area postrema by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/area+ ... area postrema. Also found in: Wikipedia. ar·e·a po·stre·ma (AP), [TA] a small, elevated area in the lateral wall of the ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/area+postrema

Noradrenergic neurons of the area postrema mediate amylins hypophagic action  - Zurich Open Repository and ArchiveNoradrenergic neurons of the area postrema mediate amylin's hypophagic action - Zurich Open Repository and Archive

Circulating amylin inhibits food intake via activation of the area postrema (AP). The aim of this study was to identify the ... Circulating amylin inhibits food intake via activation of the area postrema (AP). The aim of this study was to identify the ... Download PDF Noradrenergic neurons of the area postrema mediate amylins hypophagic action. Item availability may be ... Noradrenergic neurons of the area postrema mediate amylins hypophagic action. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, ...
more infohttp://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/43764/

The human area postrema: clear-cut silhouette and variations shown in vivo in: Journal of Neurosurgery Volume 122 Issue 5 (2015)The human area postrema: clear-cut silhouette and variations shown in vivo in: Journal of Neurosurgery Volume 122 Issue 5 (2015)

Potes CSTurek VFCole RLVu CRoland BLRoth JD: Noradrenergic neurons of the area postrema mediate amylins hypophagic action. Am ... Potes CSTurek VFCole RLVu CRoland BLRoth JD: Noradrenergic neurons of the area postrema mediate amylins hypophagic action. Am ... Porzionato AMacchi VParenti ADe Caro R: The distribution of mast cells in the human area postrema. J Anat 204:141-1472004 ... Porzionato AMacchi VParenti ADe Caro R: The distribution of mast cells in the human area postrema. J Anat 204:141-1472004 ...
more infohttps://thejns.org/abstract/journals/j-neurosurg/122/5/article-p989.xml

The Neurocritic: Foreigner and the Area PostremaThe Neurocritic: Foreigner and the Area Postrema

Foreigner and the Area Postrema The area postrema (Miller & Leslie, 1994) is structure #9 in the figure below.. It has come to ... The area postrema (AP) has been implicated as a chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting (emesis) for over 40 years. The AP is ... Hence, the area postrema is not involved (unless listening to Foreigner, or even the act of imagining listening to Foreigner, ... Miller AD, Leslie RA (1994). The Area Postrema and Vomiting. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 15:301-320.. Brainstem credit: ...
more infohttp://neurocritic.blogspot.dk/2007/06/foreigner-and-area-postrema.html

area postrema 极后区; 最后区 - English-Chinese Medical Dictionary 英汉医学词典area postrema 极后区; 最后区 - English-Chinese Medical Dictionary 英汉医学词典

... area postrema 极后区; 最后区 and its variants in English, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese and Pinyin with audio ... area postrema 🔊 听. 1. 极后区 🔊 listen. [Simplified Chinese 简体]. jí hòu qū [Pinyin 拼音]. 極後區 [Traditional Chinese 繁體]. ✅ ...
more infohttp://esaurus.org/area-postrema/

In renovascular hypertension, TNF-α type-1 receptors in the area postrema mediate increases in cardiac and renal sympathetic...In renovascular hypertension, TNF-α type-1 receptors in the area postrema mediate increases in cardiac and renal sympathetic...

In renovascular hypertension, TNF-α type-1 receptors in the area postrema mediate increases in cardiac and renal sympathetic ... Has subject area * For 2008 4 Digit Code. * Cardiovascular Medicine and Haematology ...
more infohttps://findanexpert.unimelb.edu.au/display/publicationS1352977

4 Parts of the Brain Not Protected by the Blood Brain Barrier | LIVESTRONG.COM4 Parts of the Brain Not Protected by the Blood Brain Barrier | LIVESTRONG.COM

Area Postrema. The area postrema is not covered by the blood brain-barrier because it senses toxins in the blood that the other ... These areas include the posterior pituitary gland, pineal gland, the median eminence of the hypothalamus and the area postrema. ... The area postrema triggers nausea and vomiting to prevent further ingestion of toxins. ... Four areas of the brain are not protected by the blood-brain barrier. ...
more infohttps://www.livestrong.com/article/162348-4-parts-of-the-brain-not-protected-by-the-blood-brain-barrier/

The Neurocritic: June 2007The Neurocritic: June 2007

Foreigner and the Area Postrema The area postrema (Miller & Leslie, 1994) is structure #9 in the figure below.. It has come to ... The area postrema (AP) has been implicated as a chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting (emesis) for over 40 years. The AP is ... Hence, the area postrema is not involved (unless listening to Foreigner, or even the act of imagining listening to Foreigner, ... Miller AD, Leslie RA (1994). The Area Postrema and Vomiting. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 15:301-320.. Brainstem credit: ...
more infohttps://neurocritic.blogspot.com/2007/06/

Medullary Reflexes Flashcards by Chris Gothberg | BrainscapeMedullary Reflexes Flashcards by Chris Gothberg | Brainscape

How does the area postrema cause vomiting? - Stimulation of AP triggers reflex. - Signal projects to reticular formation. - ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/medullary-reflexes-1508239/packs/2251362

Distribution of pre-pro-glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor messenger RNAs in the rat central nervous system.  -...Distribution of pre-pro-glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor messenger RNAs in the rat central nervous system. -...

... area postrema; dorsal nucleus of the vagus; lateral reticular nucleus; and spinal cord. These studies, in addition to ... preoptic area; paraventricular, supraoptic, arcuate, and dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus; lateral habenula; zona incerta ... substantia innominata; posterior thalamic nuclei; ventral tegmental area; dorsal tegmental, posterodorsal tegmental, and ... as a satiety factor but also acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in anatomically and functionally distinct areas of ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9886047?dopt=Abstract

Orexins, orexigenic hypothalamic peptides, interact with autonomic, neuroendocrine and neuroregulatory systems | PNASOrexins, orexigenic hypothalamic peptides, interact with autonomic, neuroendocrine and neuroregulatory systems | PNAS

... area postrema; Aq, aqueduct; Arc, arcuate hypothalamic nucleus; CA1-3, fields CA1-3 of hippocampus; CG, central gray; CPu, ... 3 D and E). Orexin-containing nerve fibers were abundant in the lateral and posterior hypothalamic areas (Fig. 3 A-C), the ... Orexin-B-immunoreactive neurons are present in the same areas (C). Orexin-A immunoreactive neurons in the LH at high ... Orexin Signaling in the Ventral Tegmental Area Is Required for High-Fat Appetite Induced by Opioid Stimulation of the Nucleus ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/96/2/748

Distribution of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Protein and mRNA in the Normal Adult Rat CNS: Evidence for Anterograde...Distribution of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Protein and mRNA in the Normal Adult Rat CNS: Evidence for Anterograde...

7R), area postrema, inferior olive (Fig. 7L), and ventral tegmental nucleus (Fig.8L). As seen in Table 5, no cRNA hybridization ... AP, Area postrema;CG, central (periaqueductal) gray; DpG, superior colliculus, deep gray layer; DpMe, deep mesencephalic ... 1990) Widespread expression of BDNF but not NT3 by target areas of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Science 250:290-294. ... As seen in Table 3, BDNF-ir and mRNA were found in many areas of the thalamus and mesencephalon, with distinctions between ...
more infohttps://www.jneurosci.org/content/17/7/2295?ijkey=2b0dd470f627880fa2a02072daab655d266d6a8b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Plus itPlus it

AP, Area postrema; DMV, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus; TS, tractus solitarius. B, Bar graph showing the percentage of MTII- ... TS, Tractus solitarius; DMV, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus; AP, area postrema; IV, fourth ventricle. ... were cut starting from the caudal area postrema and moving rostrally. The slices were incubated at 30 ± 1°C in Krebs solution ... to the vagal motoneurons and medial to the tractus solitarius at levels spanning from the posterior tip of the area postrema to ...
more infohttps://www.jneurosci.org/content/28/19/4957

Frontiers | Brain Circuits Mediating the Orexigenic Action of Peripheral Ghrelin: Narrow Gates for a Vast Kingdom |...Frontiers | Brain Circuits Mediating the Orexigenic Action of Peripheral Ghrelin: Narrow Gates for a Vast Kingdom |...

AP, area postrema; ARC, arcuate nucleus; ME, median eminence; PVR, periventricular regions; 3V, third ventricle; 4V, fourth ... and the area postrema (AP), another important circumventricular organ (3, 12). In addition, ghrelin regulates appetite and some ... Thus, our data do not invalidate that ghrelin may act on other brain areas through slower mechanisms either after a sustained ... Direct ghrelin micro-injections, ranging from 10 to 800 pmol, in several brain areas potently increase food intake (6). Ghrelin ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2015.00044/full

Frontiers | Transcription factors define the neuroanatomical organization of the medullary reticular formation | Frontiers in...Frontiers | Transcription factors define the neuroanatomical organization of the medullary reticular formation | Frontiers in...

Most dorsal is the Lmx1b and Phox2b expressing Area Postrema (AP, Figures 2F, 4J). The AP includes several distinct ... Stein, M. K., and Loewy, A. D. (2010). Area postrema projects to FoxP2 neurons of the pre-locus coeruleus and parabrachial ... A1/C1, A1/C1 catecholaminergic group; A2/C2, A2/C2 catecholaminergic group; Ach, acetylcholine; AP, area postrema; Ascl1, ... Brodal, in his seminal description of the reticular formation, defined it as "those areas of the brain stem which are ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnana.2013.00007/full

Plus itPlus it

ap, Area postrema; c, central canal; cen, central subnucleus; com, commissural subnucleus; dm, dorsomedial subnucleus; dmnX, ... Fos expression at different rostrocaudal levels of nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) and in area postrema (AP) induced by control ... Distribution of Fos-positive neurons in dorsal vagal complex at rostrocaudal level of area postrema of rats intraduodenally ... and the NTS was divided into three regions relative to the area postrema (AP) for analysis: the NTS caudal to the AP (3-4 ...
more infohttp://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/274/6/R1725

Plus itPlus it

1981) Changes in salt intake after lesions of the area postrema and the nucleus of the solitary tract in rats. Brain Res. 211: ... Photomicrographs of coronal sections of nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS;A-D) and area postrema (AP; E andF) showing Fos- ... the area postrema (AP), the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) have been ... area postrema, and lateral parabrachial nucleus. On the other hand, particular parvocellular and magnocellular oxytocinergic ...
more infohttp://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/276/4/R1180

Dopamine Antagonists as Anti-Emetics and as Stimulants of Gastric Motility | SpringerLinkDopamine Antagonists as Anti-Emetics and as Stimulants of Gastric Motility | SpringerLink

H. L. Borison, Area postrema? Chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting - Is that all? Life Sei. 14:1807 (1974).CrossRefGoogle ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-4853-5_20

Sustained Activation of the Central Baroreceptor Pathway in Obesity Hypertension | HypertensionSustained Activation of the Central Baroreceptor Pathway in Obesity Hypertension | Hypertension

AP indicates area postrema; NTS, nucleus tractus solitarius; CVLM, caudal ventrolateral medulla; RVLM, rostral ventrolateral ... area postrema (AP), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and supraoptic nucleus (SON). Additionally, as a control for ... The area analyzed from these sections was the portion of the medial hypothalamus between the fornix and the third ventricle. ... An area of long-standing interest, but one of considerable uncertainty, concerns the potential impact of baroreflexes on ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/42/1/96

Molecular mechanisms of appetite and obesity: a role for brain AMPK | Clinical ScienceMolecular mechanisms of appetite and obesity: a role for brain AMPK | Clinical Science

area postrema; ARC, arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus; BAT, brown adipose tissue; BMP8B, bone morphogenetic protein 8B; CaMKK ... lateral hypothalamic area; LKB1, liver kinase B1; MCD, Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase; MO25, mouse protein 25; mTOR, mechanistic ... particularly in two areas of the brain, the hypothalamus and the hindbrain. Failure of this physiological response can lead to ...
more infohttp://www.clinsci.org/content/130/19/1697
  • Because the area postrema is located outside of the blood-brain barrier, peptide and other physiological signals in the blood have direct access to neurons of brain areas with vital roles in the autonomic control of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there were significant quantitative differences, the subnuclear distribution pattern of Fos-expressing neurons was not different for the three macronutrients and was largely localized to the medial, dorsomedial, and commissural subnuclei of the nucleus of the solitary tract and the area postrema. (physiology.org)
  • Numerous previous studies have indicated that the circumventricular organs (CVOs) of the lamina terminalis [the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) and the subfornical organ (SFO)] play key functions as humoral receptive areas in the arousal of salt appetite through their angiotensin- and osmosodium-sensitive neurons ( 18 , 40 , 41 ). (physiology.org)
  • Leptin influences the excitability of area postrema neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Neurons in the CTZ, and area postrema in general, actually have two types of receptors: those at the surface of the neuron and those that are located deeper down in the dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vomiting center of the brain refers to the groups of loosely organized neurons in the medulla that include the CTZ within the area postrema and the nucleus tractus solitarii. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, ghrelin regulates appetite and some rewarding aspects of eating by directly acting on the ventral tegmental area and other centers of the mesolimbic pathway, which also express GHSR-1A ( 13 , 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The area postrema is separated from the vagal triangle by the funiculus separans, a thin semitransparent ridge. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is excited by visceral afferent impulses (sympathetic and vagal) arising from the gastrointestinal tract and other peripheral trigger areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The afferent projections in the vagal and glossopharyngeal nerves conveying gustatory, baroreceptor, gastric, and hepatic osmosodium receptor influences terminate in these hindbrain areas. (physiology.org)
  • The area postrema is a critical homeostatic integration center for humoral and neural signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • T he Swedish anatomist Magnus Gustav Retzius (1842-1919) first defined the human area postrema (AP) in 1896 as a median spongy structure strategically positioned at the level of the Magendie foramen ( Fig. 1 ). (thejns.org)
  • prepro-orexin mRNA was restricted to the LH and adjacent areas, and its mRNA level up-regulated on fasting ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • An area of long-standing interest, but one of considerable uncertainty, concerns the potential impact of baroreflexes on sympathetic activity and arterial pressure in hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • We also attempted to estimate the extent to which other areas that are known to participate in the central regulatory circuit of sodium appetite were activated. (physiology.org)
  • Zona gatillo quimiorreceptora (ZGQ) que se localiza en el area postrema , en el suelo del cuarto ventriculo, donde recibe estimulos emetogenos tanto exogenos como endogenos gracias a sus capilares fenestrados que permiten el paso de sustancias a traves de la barrera hematoencefalica. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The widespread distribution of GLP-1R mRNA-containing cells strongly suggests that GLP-1 not only functions as a satiety factor but also acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in anatomically and functionally distinct areas of the central nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • Role of the area postrema in three putative measures of motion sickness in the rat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The area postrema (Miller & Leslie, 1994) is structure #9 in the figure below. (blogspot.dk)