Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Skin DiseasesSkin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Skin, Artificial: Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Skin UlcerEpidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Product Line Management: Management control systems for structuring health care delivery strategies around case types, as in DRGs, or specific clinical services.Skin Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the skin.Staphylococcal Skin Infections: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Skin Diseases, Viral: Skin diseases caused by viruses.Skin Cream: A water-soluble medicinal preparation applied to the skin.Financial Audit: An examination, review and verification of all financial accounts.Skin Physiological Processes: Biological activities and functions of the SKIN.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Mice, Hairless: Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Hospital Restructuring: Reorganization of the hospital corporate structure.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Insurance Selection Bias: Adverse or favorable selection bias exhibited by insurers or enrollees resulting in disproportionate enrollment of certain groups of people.Skin Diseases, Parasitic: Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Keratosis: Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.Office Automation: Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.Insurance Pools: An organization of insurers or reinsurers through which particular types of risk are shared or pooled. The risk of high loss by a particular insurance company is transferred to the group as a whole (the insurance pool) with premiums, losses, and expenses shared in agreed amounts.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Sunscreening Agents: Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.United StatesFibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Rats, Hairless: Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.Insurance Benefits: Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Mice, Inbred C57BLBlister: Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Management Audit: Management review designed to evaluate efficiency and to identify areas in need of management improvement within the institution in order to ensure effectiveness in meeting organizational goals.Lawyers: Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Selectins: Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.Sunburn: An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.National Health Insurance, United StatesSkin Manifestations: Dermatologic disorders attendant upon non-dermatologic disease or injury.Langerhans Cells: Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Dermatitis, Contact: A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Outsourced Services: Organizational activities previously performed internally that are provided by external agents.Water Loss, Insensible: Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.Emollients: Oleagenous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents.Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Medical Savings Accounts: Tax-exempt trusts or custodial accounts established by individuals with financial institutions for saving money for future medical expenses.Deductibles and Coinsurance: Cost-sharing mechanisms that provide for payment by the insured of some portion of covered expenses. Deductibles are the amounts paid by the insured under a health insurance contract before benefits become payable; coinsurance is the provision under which the insured pays part of the medical bill, usually according to a fixed percentage, when benefits become payable.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Dermatology: A medical specialty concerned with the skin, its structure, functions, diseases, and treatment.Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Dermatitis, Occupational: A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.Dermatitis, Irritant: A non-allergic contact dermatitis caused by prolonged exposure to irritants and not explained by delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Consultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Intradermal Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Utilization Review: An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Radiodermatitis: A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Hospitals, Proprietary: Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.Hyperpigmentation: Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.Mice, Inbred BALB COintments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Pigmentation DisordersKeratosis, Actinic: White or pink lesions on the arms, hands, face, or scalp that arise from sun-induced DNA DAMAGE to KERATINOCYTES in exposed areas. They are considered precursor lesions to superficial SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.ArchivesIrritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Soft Tissue Infections: Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Skin Diseases, Papulosquamous: A group of dermatoses with distinct morphologic features. The primary lesion is most commonly a papule, usually erythematous, with a variable degree of scaling on the surface. Plaques form through the coalescing of primary lesions.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Forehead: The part of the face above the eyes.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Great BritainKeratoacanthoma: A benign, non-neoplastic, usually self-limiting epithelial lesion closely resembling squamous cell carcinoma clinically and histopathologically. It occurs in solitary, multiple, and eruptive forms. The solitary and multiple forms occur on sunlight exposed areas and are identical histologically; they affect primarily white males. The eruptive form usually involves both sexes and appears as a generalized papular eruption.Health Facility Merger: The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Skin Diseases, Vascular: Skin diseases affecting or involving the cutaneous blood vessels and generally manifested as inflammation, swelling, erythema, or necrosis in the affected area.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Scleroderma, Localized: A term used to describe a variety of localized asymmetrical SKIN thickening that is similar to those of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA but without the disease features in the multiple internal organs and BLOOD VESSELS. Lesions may be characterized as patches or plaques (morphea), bands (linear), or nodules.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Group Practice: Any group of three or more full-time physicians organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of health care services, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Orbital Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Mice, Inbred SENCAR: Mice selectively bred for hypersusceptibility to two-stage chemical skin carcinogenesis. They are also hypersusceptible to UV radiation tumorigenesis with single high-dose, but not chronic low-dose, exposures. SENCAR (SENsitive to CARcinogenesis) mice are used in research as an animal model for tumor production.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Dermoscopy: A noninvasive technique that enables direct microscopic examination of the surface and architecture of the SKIN.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Dermatitis, Exfoliative: The widespread involvement of the skin by a scaly, erythematous dermatitis occurring either as a secondary or reactive process to an underlying cutaneous disorder (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, etc.), or as a primary or idiopathic disease. It is often associated with the loss of hair and nails, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and pruritus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.Monkey Diseases: Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
  • These are dead skin cells that have hardened into little balls inside the pores and become inflamed," says Dr. Fusco. (wsfa.com)
  • Pores are minimised and superficial dead skin cells are gently removed to reveal fresh growth and your skin will be rejuvenated with this rich formula that has been enhanced with essential nutrients for the skin. (skinstore.com)
  • Better than a typical cream as it helps to draw out the impurities in the pores to the surface while the antioxidant oils cleanse, and heal into the dermis layers of skin. (nutricareplus.com)
  • This one amazing skin care product is proven to address the appearance of multiple concerns at once, including: wrinkles, discoloration, texture, pores, and aging or loose skin. (articlealley.com)
  • An exfoliating treatment without abrasion or down time that reveals fresh, refined skin and removes surface skin cells to rejuvenate the skin on the back.A lactic, Beta-Salicylic, or Glycolic professional-grade peel will loosen the top layer of the dermis, promote cell renewal and prevent plugged pores. (secure-booker.com)
  • Hydrogen Peroxide derivatives actively purify, clarify and decongest the skin to diminish impurities and clogged pores, brighten complexion and fade hyper-pigmentation, and restore vitality to devitalized skin. (shopstyle.com)
  • The Mushroom extract included in the formula immediately regulates and balances the skin, visibly reducing pores and providing it with an even, matte appearance. (shopstyle.com)
  • Enriched with Soy peptide extract, this formula firms the upper eyelids for eyes that look redefined and wider, as if opened up. (brownthomas.com)
  • Sciote Peptide+Defense Firming Eye Creme is a gentle but potent eye cream for anyone who wants a powerhouse item to reduce wrinkles, fine lines and dark circles. (truthinaging.com)
  • And after 30 global patents and 25 years of scientific study including DNA skin cancer prevention and numerous clinical trials comes a re-engineered formula that includes peptide power and patented NIA-114. (hubpages.com)
  • Uplift is a daily anti-aging treatment for the eyes featuring a new skin-firming peptide, a rare Moroccan extract and an unprecedented liposomal preparation. (prleap.com)
  • Founded in 2004, HydroPeptide is recognized as the leading peptide-based anti-aging cosmeceutical line and is the winner of over 30 coveted beauty awards to date. (prleap.com)
  • The biomimetic tri amino acids peptide inhibits the production of progerins (cell aging markers/mutated proteins that accelerate entry in senescence of the cells) and reinforces skin architecture. (miamiherald.com)
  • Although there is no standard for establishing a gluten-free designation for topical skin care products, independent laboratory testing confirms that this formula surpasses the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) ingestible standards and can therefore be considered gluten-free. (dermalogica.com)
  • Sisleÿa L'Intégral Anti-Age Eye and Lip Contour Cream is the anti-ageing skin care product specialised for the eye and lip contour areas. (brownthomas.com)
  • The next generation of advanced age-defying skin care is here. (marykay.com)
  • From "transparent" tanning to formulas that mimic high-quality skin care products, these are the newest self-tanner formulas that will take your skin from dry and pale to hydrated and sun-kissed in next to no time. (newbeauty.com)
  • I wish more skin care products came with an application process like this one. (totalbeauty.com)
  • A well- and much-reviewed product can skyrocket sales, something especially true for the site's beauty and skin care offerings. (stylecaster.com)
  • Discovering the skin care line that works best for you is like finding the brand of jeans that are perfect for your body: It's only a slight exaggeration to say that it's a life-transforming experience. (wsfa.com)
  • Read on to find out how to winter-proof your skin care routine. (wsfa.com)
  • Inspired by the latest esthetic dermatology techniques, this is a reshaping, densifying and lifting care product that imitates lipofilling and thermal skin tightening. (shopstyle.com)
  • For your personal health and safety, we recommend always purchasing your skin care products through authorized resellers like LovelySkin. (lovelyskin.com)
  • Luxurious anti-winkle + firming care from L'Oreal Paris. (clicks.co.za)
  • So, if you are looking for the cutting edge quick fixes for everything from puffy eyes to firming eye wrinkles, for incorporating a great eye cream in your everyday anti aging skin care regimen, you have come to the right place. (hubpages.com)
  • Complete care for mature male skin. (nivea.co.uk)
  • That's why we make eco-ethical skin care. (iherb.com)
  • PCA SKIN is a leading innovator in the development of highly effective professional treatments and daily care products. (skinstore.com)
  • Their vision is to improve people's lives by providing results-oriented skin care solutions for the health of your unique skin. (skinstore.com)
  • PCA SKIN pairs leading professional treatments with advanced daily care to provide effective solutions to all skin concerns: aging, acne, discoloration, sensitive skin, and preventative care. (skinstore.com)
  • PCA SKIN was founded in 1990 by an aesthetician and developed by a dermatologist to create this innovative brand with effective professional treatments and daily care products. (skinstore.com)
  • You should consult with a health care professional before starting any skin or facial regiment or if you have or suspect you might have a skin problem. (lifecellskin.com)
  • Our products are hypoallergenic and paraben free always promoting healthy, soft and safe skin care to all our customers. (lifecellskin.com)
  • Start getting the benefits from using LifeCell skin care products today. (lifecellskin.com)
  • Do you want an easy skin care routine? (bioelements.com)
  • It's hard to find the motivation to maintain a lengthy skin care routine when there is so much else you could be doing with your time. (bioelements.com)
  • Often people will skip their routine altogether to save time, sleeping in their makeup, not cleansing their face in the morning and not taking proper care of their skin. (bioelements.com)
  • For the sake of great skin, break the cycle by streamlining your skin care routine. (bioelements.com)
  • Plus, throwing out old and useless skin care products will save you time by allowing you to quickly grab what you need, instead of hunting through a plethora of products. (bioelements.com)
  • It's crucial to know what is important to you to achieve an easy skin care routine that is still effective. (bioelements.com)
  • Often, the key to an easy skin care routine is finding high quality multi-tasking formulas. (bioelements.com)
  • Sephora and QVC both have reputations for providing some of the most advanced skin care products in the world to consumers," said Frederic Stoeckel, General Manager of Solazyme Health Sciences. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • This skin care line is not tested on animals, and is made in the USA. (prlog.org)
  • Looking for the best value in beauty and skin care , Health Chemist has some of the best pricing and widest selection of natural cosmetics and skin care as well as hair care products. (healthchemist.co.nz)
  • This is when our anti-aging skin care regime becomes even more important. (ponds.com)
  • Moisturizing has become one of the main tenets of skin care. (ponds.com)
  • I want you to know that there has finally been a breakthrough in skin care that is giving everyone who tries it real results that they can see and feel. (articlealley.com)
  • In a world of half empty bottles of skin care products that didn't live up to all the hype, there's one that finally does! (articlealley.com)
  • The fact that the company of this amazing skin care product will let you try it risk free for 30 days is amazing, you can use every drop and return it for your money back if you don't fall in love with it. (articlealley.com)
  • This skin care product will be very easy to fall in love with because it provides results on a whole new level. (articlealley.com)
  • Before this product, the typical results an individual would notice from any skin care products in a 30 day period would be between 2-7%, this amazing new natural and botanical skin care creme has been clinically tested with the most state of the art facial scanning equipment, and has been proven to show results in the 50-70% range in a 30 day period. (articlealley.com)
  • Now what would be better than falling in love with this amazing skin care product and then finding out you can get it for Free. (articlealley.com)
  • on how so many people are sharing this amazing skin care product with everyone around them, and earning lots of extra money too. (articlealley.com)
  • Here's to your Skin Care and your Success, thank you, and God Bless. (articlealley.com)
  • That's why Volu-Firm ® Night Treatment With Retinol is one powerhouse skin care product. (marykay.ca)
  • So often, for whatever reason, a skin care product gets re-vamped or discontinued. (lancome-usa.com)
  • HydroPeptide creates the most innovative anti-aging skin care solutions. (prleap.com)
  • Q. You have just launched two new lines of anti-aging skin care products. (miamiherald.com)
  • The price range is $65-$150.Q. What led you to create your own skin care products, and when did you first enter that business? (miamiherald.com)
  • Every skin care regimen starts with thoroughly cleansing your skin. (forbes.com)
  • Spriulina maxia (sea algae) has been a well-kept secret in skin care for years. (rushprnews.com)
  • Lifts and tones jowls and the lower face either side of the mouth - builds bigger lips - neatens jawline - tones loose skin - increases circulation for smooth firm skin and the best skin care from the inside! (appbrain.com)
  • Following a simple anti-aging skin care regimen can keep your complexion looking fresh and youthful for years to come. (lovetoknow.com)
  • Taking care of yourself can help keep your skin healthy - even as you age. (lovetoknow.com)
  • Keeping your body well hydrated is a basic tenet of anti-aging skin care. (lovetoknow.com)
  • Many skin-care products claim they can firm and lift skin, but none of them work, at least not to the extent claimed. (beautypedia.com)
  • Replaces body lotions, moisturizers, dry skin lotions and body splashes. (trustedhealthproducts.com)
  • Be sure to exfoliate and shave, wax or laser within 24-hours prior to your tanning session.Do not apply moisturizers or other barriers to the skin after showering, prior to your tan.Wait a minimum of 4 hours after your tan to shower or perspire for best results.All shades are extremely natural and will fade. (secure-booker.com)
  • Regions of the upper inner bicep were treated with various commercial formulations including wrinkle reducers, firming films, and moisturizers. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • One of the most popular cosmetic procedures in the United States, Botox injections contain purified toxins which block muscle contractions under the skin, temporarily reducing or even erasing frown lines and wrinkles. (huffpost.com)
  • The targeted, clinical formula works instantly and overtime to visibly firm and tighten skin, correcting the appearance of deep facial lines and wrinkles while preventing new damage. (shopstyle.com)
  • This skin-soothing mask delivers an instant radiance boost as it works deeply to rid the skin of toxins and neutralize free radicals. (shopstyle.com)
  • If you eat plenty of vegetables, fruits, fibres, and drink sufficient amounts of water, not only will you be healthier, but your skin will radiate! (thebahamasweekly.com)
  • It also consists of sorghum juice, which tightens and smoothes the skin instantly for immediate lifting action as well as glycolic acid, which stimulates cell turnover. (miamiherald.com)
  • There's also coenzyme Q10, an antioxidant that helps neutralize harmful free radicals, one of the causes of aging. (truthinaging.com)
  • Stimulates skin cell regeneration, removes harmful free radicals for more youthful skin. (nutricareplus.com)
  • It's proven to deflect the sun with broad spectrum SPF protection-the first line of defense against skin-damaging UVA and UVB rays-while neutralizing free radicals with Idebenone, the most powerful antioxidant available today. (elizabetharden.com)
  • My XYY line employs an exclusive combination of nature and technology to fight stress and aging due to free radicals and external aggressors. (miamiherald.com)
  • The XYY face cream and eye cream both consist of an antioxidant tri-blend (made up of green tea, white tea, grape seed), which is extracted through a new, innovative and exclusive extraction process, providing 900 percent more potent antioxidant protection (compared to commercial teas) and 12 hours' protection against free radicals and skin aggressors. (miamiherald.com)