A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ A with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the URINARY BLADDER and UTERUS.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.
Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
The consumption of edible substances.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.
Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.
An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Peptides derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) which can stimulate MELANOCYTES or CORTICOTROPHS. Melanocortins include ACTH; ALPHA-MSH; and other peptides such as BETA-MSH and GAMMA-MSH, derived from other fragments of POMC. These peptides act through a variety of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS to control different functions including steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis, feeding, and skin pigmentation.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cell surface proteins that bind neuropeptide Y with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.
Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.
Methods used to label and follow the course of NEURAL PATHWAYS by AXONAL TRANSPORT of injected NEURONAL TRACT-TRACERS.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH; GAMMA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.
A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
A neuropeptide that is highly homologous to GALANIN. It is produced by proteolytic processing of a larger protein that is unrelated to prepro-galanin and preferentially binds to GALANIN-2 RECEPTOR.
Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin B (neurokinin beta, neuromedin K) over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-3 (NK-3) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. They have been found in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues.
A neuropeptide of 29-30 amino acids depending on the species. Galanin is widely distributed throughout the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and INTESTINES. There are various subtypes of GALANIN RECEPTORS implicating roles of galanin in regulating FOOD INTAKE; pain perception; memory; and other neuroendocrine functions.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A narrow cleft inferior to the CORPUS CALLOSUM, within the DIENCEPHALON, between the paired thalami. Its floor is formed by the HYPOTHALAMUS, its anterior wall by the lamina terminalis, and its roof by EPENDYMA. It communicates with the FOURTH VENTRICLE by the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT, and with the LATERAL VENTRICLES by the interventricular foramina.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.
Transmembrane proteins that recognize and bind GHRELIN, a potent stimulator of GROWTH HORMONE secretion and food intake in mammals. Ghrelin receptors are found in the pituitary and HYPOTHALAMUS. They belong to the family of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the respiratory system.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that have specificity for MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. There are several subtypes of melanocortin receptors, each having a distinct ligand specificity profile and tissue localization.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Small, nonspecific nerve cells scattered in the periventricular GRAY MATTER, separating the medial part of the thalamus from the EPENDYMA of the THIRD VENTRICLE. The group includes the paraventricular nucleus, paratenial nucleus, reuniens nucleus, rhomboidal nucleus, and subfascular nucleus.
Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Abstaining from all food.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
A genus of bioluminescent marine invertebrates in the family Renillidae, order Pennatulacea, class ANTHOZOA. It contains Renilla LUCIFERASE which oxidizes coelenterazine resulting in LUMINESCENCE.
A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A group of related plant alkaloids that contain the BERBERINE heterocyclic ring structure.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
The delivery of a drug into a fluid-filled cavity of the brain.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.

Antagonistic effects of extract from leaves of ginkgo biloba on glutamate neurotoxicity. (1/497)

AIM: To determine whether the extract of leaves of Ginkgo biloba L (EGb) and several active constituents of EGb have protective effects against glutamate (Glu)-induced neuronal damage. METHODS: Microscopy and image analysis of nucleus areas in the arcuate nuclei (AN) of mice were made. The neuronal viability in primary cultures from mouse cerebral cortex was assessed using MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] staining and the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) of single neuron was measured using Fura-2. RESULTS: EGb (2.5 mg.L-1) and its constituent ginkgolide B (Gin B, 2 mg.L-1) protected the neuronal viability against Glu-induced injury, and prevented the Glu-induced elevation in [Ca2+]i. EGb (3-10 mg.kg-1) attenuated the decrease of nucleus areas in arcuate nuclei induced by Glu (1 g.kg-1, s.c.). CONCLUSION: EGb and Gin B prevent neurons from Glu neurotoxicity through reduction of the rise in [Ca2+]i.  (+info)

Multiple neuropeptide Y receptors regulate K+ and Ca2+ channels in acutely isolated neurons from the rat arcuate nucleus. (2/497)

We examined the effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and related peptides on Ca2+ and K+ currents in acutely isolated neurons from the arcuate nucleus of the rat. NPY analogues that activated all of the known NPY receptors (Y1-Y5), produced voltage-dependent inhibition of Ca2+ currents and activation of inwardly rectifying K+ currents in arcuate neurons. Both of these effects could occur simultaneously in the same cells. In some cells, activation of Y4 NPY receptors also caused oscillations in [Ca2+]i. NPY hyperpolarized arcuate neurons through the activation of a K+ conductance and increased the spike threshold. Molecular biological studies indicated that arcuate neurons possessed all of the previously cloned NPY receptor types (Y1, Y2, Y4, and Y5). Thus activation of multiple types NPY receptors on arcuate neurons can regulate both Ca2+ and K+ conductances leading to a reduction in neuronal excitability and a suppression of neurotransmitter release.  (+info)

Analgesia-producing mechanism of processed Aconiti tuber: role of dynorphin, an endogenous kappa-opioid ligand, in the rodent spinal cord. (3/497)

The analgesia-producing mechanism of processed Aconiti tuber was examined using rodents whose nociceptive threshold was decreased by loading repeated cold stress (RCS). The antinociceptive effect of processed Aconiti tuber (0.3 g/kg, p.o.) in RCS-loaded mice was antagonized by pretreatment with a kappa-opioid antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (10 mg/kg, s.c.), and was abolished by an intrathecal injection of anti-dynorphin antiserum (5 microg). The Aconiti tuber-induced antinociception was inhibited by both dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and a dopamine D2 antagonist, sulpiride (10 mg/kg, i.p.), in RCS-loaded mice, and it was eliminated by both an electric lesion of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (HARN) and a highly selective dopamine D2 antagonist, eticlopride (0.05 microg), administered into the HARN in RCS-loaded rats. These results suggest that the analgesic effect of processed Aconiti tuber was produced via the stimulation of kappa-opioid receptors by dynorphin released in the spinal cord. It was also shown that dopamine D2 receptors in the HARN were involved in the expression of the analgesic activity of processed Aconiti tuber.  (+info)

STZ-induced diabetes decreases and insulin normalizes POMC mRNA in arcuate nucleus and pituitary in rats. (4/497)

Effects of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and insulin on opioid peptide gene expression were examined in rats. In experiment 1, three groups were administered STZ (75 mg/kg ip single injection). Two groups were killed at either 2 or 4 wk. In the third group, insulin treatment (7.0 IU/kg x 1 day for 3 wk) was initiated 1 wk after STZ injection. STZ induced hyperphagia and reduced weight gain. Insulin decreased food intake and increased body weight relative to diabetes. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in arcuate nucleus (Arc) and pituitary decreased in diabetes and normalized after insulin treatment. Prodynorphin (proDyn) mRNA increased in diabetes and normalized in the pituitary after insulin but not in the Arc. Diabetes did not alter proenkephalin (proEnk) expression in the Arc or pituitary, nor dynorphin A1-17 or beta-endorphin in paraventricular nucleus (PVN). alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) peptide levels were decreased in the PVN and normalized following insulin treatment. Diabetes increased Arc neuropeptide Y mRNA, and insulin suppressed this increase. In experiment 2, insulin (2.5 IU/kg sc) daily for 1 wk in normal rats increased Arc POMC mRNA, but not proDyn and proEnk mRNA. These results suggest that Arc POMC expression and PVN alpha-MSH peptide levels decrease in diabetes. Also, insulin may influence Arc and pituitary POMC activity in neurons that regulate energy metabolism.  (+info)

Expression of preproopiomelanocortin mRNA and preprodynorphin mRNA in brain of spontaneously hypertensive rats. (5/497)

AIM: To compare the expressions of prepropiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA and preprodynorphin (PPD) mRNA between 16-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). METHODS: The expression of POMC mRNA and PPD mRNA were detected with nonradioactive in situ hybridization by digoxigenin-labeled RNA probe. RESULTS: POMC mRNA mainly was expressed in arcuate nucleus, compared with WKY, SHR had higher level of POMC mRNA (542). PPD mRNA was found in hippocampus, hypothalamus, central gray, nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and thoracic spinal cord (T4-T6). Compared with WKY, PPD mRNA level of SHR decreased in dentate gyrus (2342), NTS (381), and medial preoptic area (467); no difference was observed in arcuate nucleus (263), thoracic spinal cord (750-1800) and CA1, CA2, CA3 of hippocampus (1674, 2014, 2626). CONCLUSION: Increase of POMC mRNA in arcuate nucleus and decrease of PPD mRNA in dentate gyrus of SHR may be associated with the genesis of spontaneous hypertension.  (+info)

Distribution of estrogen receptor-beta messenger ribonucleic acid in the male sheep hypothalamus. (6/497)

As a first step in determining possible influences of the newly discovered estrogen receptor (ER)-beta on reproduction, we have localized mRNA for ER-beta within the male sheep hypothalamus using in situ hybridization and a rat ER-beta cRNA probe. Highest amounts of hybridization signal were observed in the preoptic area (POA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, and supraoptic nucleus. Relatively moderate amounts of hybridization signal were observed in the retrochiasmatic area (RCH), anterior hypothalamic area, dorsomedial hypothalamus, and lateral hypothalamus. Only a low level of hybridization signal was observed in the ventromedial hypothalamus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and arcuate nucleus. The presence of ER-beta mRNA in several areas of the male sheep hypothalamus suggests multiple functions for this receptor. The distribution of ER-beta in the ovine hypothalamus was similar to that described for the rat, suggesting a high degree of functional conservation across species. A role for ER-beta in influencing reproduction is suggested by its presence in the POA and RCH, regions of the hypothalamus that control reproduction.  (+info)

Pre- and postsynaptic actions of opioid and orphan opioid agonists in the rat arcuate nucleus and ventromedial hypothalamus in vitro. (7/497)

1. Using whole-cell patch clamp recording from neurones in an in vitro slice preparation, we have examined opioid- and orphanin FQ (OFQ)-mediated modulation of synaptic transmission in the rat arcuate nucleus and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). 2. Application of OFQ activated a Ba2+-sensitive and inwardly rectifying K+ conductance in approximately 50 % of arcuate nucleus neurones and approximately 95 % of VMH neurones. The OFQ-activated current was blocked by the nociceptin antagonist [Phe1Psi(CH2NH)Gly2]-nociceptin(1-13) NH2 (NCA), a peptide that on its own exhibited only weak agonist activity at high concentrations (> 1 microM). Similar current activation was observed with the mu agonist DAMGO but not delta (DPDPE) or kappa (U69593) agonists. 3. In arcuate nucleus neurones, DAMGO (1 microM), U69593 (1 microM) and OFQ (100 nM to 1 microM) but not DPDPE (1 microM) were found to depress the amplitude of electrically evoked glutamatergic postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and decrease the magnitude of paired-pulse depression, indicating that opioid receptors were located presynaptically. 4. In VMH neurones, DAMGO strongly depressed the EPSC amplitude in all cells examined. DAMGO decreased the magnitude of paired-pulse depression, indicating that mu receptors were located presynaptically. U69593 weakly depressed the EPSC while OFQ and DPDPE had no effect. 5. In VMH neurones, DAMGO depressed the frequency of miniature EPSCs (-58 %) in the presence of tetrodotoxin and Cd2+ (100 microM), suggesting that the actions of mu receptors could be mediated by an inhibition of the synaptic vesicle release process downstream of Ca2+ entry. 6. The data presented show that presynaptic modulation of excitatory neurotransmission in the arcuate nucleus occurs through mu, kappa and the orphan opioid ORL-1 receptors while in the VMH presynaptic modulation only occurs through mu opioid receptors. Additionally, postsynaptic mu and ORL-1 receptors in both the arcuate nucleus and VMH modulate neuronal excitability through activation of a K+ conductance.  (+info)

Expression of the Huntington's disease gene is regulated in astrocytes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of postpartum rats. (8/497)

Huntington's disease (HD) is one of a number of neurodegenerative disorders caused by expansion of polyglutamine-encoding CAG repeats within specific genes. Huntingtin, the protein product of the HD gene, is widely expressed in neural and nonneural human and rodent tissue. The function of the wild-type or mutated form of huntingtin is currently unknown. We have observed that relative to naive and male animals, huntingtin protein was significantly increased in the arcuate nucleus of postpartum rats. Using an oligonucleotide probe, in situ and Northern blot hybridization confirmed the expression of huntingtin mRNA. Quantification of the in situ hybridization signal in the arcuate nucleus revealed an approximate sevenfold increase in the expression of huntingtin mRNA in postpartum, lactating animals compared with naive female or male animals. Emulsion autoradiography and immunohistochemistry revealed that the cells with elevated huntingtin expression had a stellate conformation that morphologically resembled astrocytes. Dual label immunofluorescence immunohistochemistry demonstrated the colocalization of huntingtin and glial fibrillary acidic protein in these cells, confirming that they were astrocytes. Astrocytes expressing huntingtin were consistently found in close apposition to neuronal soma, suggesting interactions between these cell types. During the perinatal and postnatal period, the hypothalamus undergoes alterations in metabolic function. Our results support the idea of glia-induced metabolic changes in the hypothalamus. These results provide the first demonstration of naturally occurring changes in the expression of the Huntington's disease gene in the brain and suggest that huntingtin may play an important role in the processes that regulate neuroendocrine function.  (+info)

Enhancement of Melanocortin-4 Receptor (MC4R) and Constancy of Kiss1 mRNAs Expression in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus in a Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rat
In peripheral tissues, insulin signaling involves activation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) enzyme system. In the hypothalamus, insulin functions with leptin as an afferent adiposity signal important for the regulation of body fat stores and hepatic glucose metabolism. To test the hypothesis that hypothalamic insulin action involves intracellular PI3K signaling, we used histochemical and biochemical methods to determine the effect of insulin on hypothalamic IRS-PI3K activity. Here, we report that insulin induces tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and IRS-1 and -2, increases binding of activated IRS-1 and -2 to the regulatory subunit of PI3K, and activates protein kinase B/Akt, a downstream target of PI3K. Using an immunohistochemical technique to detect PI 3,4,5-triphosphate, the main product of PI3K activity, we further demonstrate that in the arcuate nucleus, insulin-induced PI3K activity occurs preferentially within cells that ...
For the first time we have identified a nonsteroidal compound, STX, which selectively targets the mER and is more potent than E2 in activating a membrane delimited pathway in hypothalamic arcuate neurons. STX is fully efficacious in ERα and ERβ knock-out mice and has no proliferative effects on reproductive organs, yet it is effective in reducing the weight gain associated with hypoestrogenic states. Although we found that other arcuate neurons express this mER signaling pathway (Qiu et al., 2003), this pathway is involved in heterologous desensitization of the μ-opioid (autoreceptor) and GABAB receptors in POMC neurons and therefore would play a critical role in dictating the level of excitability POMC neurons. These neurons appear to be the critical relay neurons in the melanocortin pathway, and their activity ultimately dictates the level of excitability in feeding circuits (Saper et al., 2002; Jobst et al., 2004; Cone, 2005).. Presently, we have characterized an mER that is Gq-coupled ...
Acta Physiologica Sinica Melatonin attenuates the intensity of β-endorphin immunoreactivity in the arcuate nucleus of rat hypothalamus 2000 Issue 0371-0874
Recently, the orphan G-protein coupled receptor 83 (GPR83) was identified as a new participant in body weight regulation. This receptor is highly expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and is regulated in response to nutrient availability. Gpr83 knock-out mice are protected from diet-induced obesity. Moreover, in a previous study, we designed and characterized several artificial constitutively activating mutations (CAMs) in GPR83. A particular CAM was located in the extracellular N-terminal domain (eNDo) that is highly conserved among GPR83 orthologs. This suggests the contribution of this receptor part into regulation of signaling, which needed a more detailed investigation. In this present study, therefore, we further explored the role of the eNDo in regulating GPR83-signaling and demonstrate a proof-of-principle approach in that deletion mutants are characterized by a strong increase in basal Gq/11-mediated signaling, whilst none of the additionally characterized signaling pathways (Gs, Gi,
TY - JOUR. T1 - GLP-1R signaling directly activates arcuate nucleus kisspeptin action in brain slices but does not rescue luteinizing hormone inhibition in ovariectomized mice during negative energy balance. AU - Heppner, Kristy M.. AU - Baquero, Arian F.. AU - Bennett, Camdin M.. AU - Lindsley, Sarah R.. AU - Kirigiti, Melissa A.. AU - Bennett, Baylin. AU - Bosch, Martha A.. AU - Mercer, Aaron J.. AU - Ronnekleiv, Oline. AU - True, Cadence. AU - Grove, Kevin. AU - Smith, M (Susan). PY - 2017/1/5. Y1 - 2017/1/5. N2 - Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are key components of the hypothalamic-pituitarygonadal axis, as they regulate the basal pulsatile release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). ARC Kiss1 action is dependent on energy status, and unmasking metabolic factors responsible for modulating ARC Kiss1 neurons is of great importance. One possible factor is glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an anorexigenic neuropeptide produced by brainstem ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The arcuate nucleus as a primary site of satiety effect of leptin in rats. AU - Satoh, Noriko. AU - Ogawa, Yoshihiro. AU - Katsuura, Goro. AU - Hayase, Minoru. AU - Tsuji, Tetsuo. AU - Imagawa, Keiichi. AU - Yoshimasa, Yasunao. AU - Nishi, Shigeo. AU - Hosoda, Kiminori. AU - Nakao, Kazuwa. PY - 1997/4/10. Y1 - 1997/4/10. N2 - The obese (ob) gene encodes a fat cell-derived circulating satiety factor (leptin) that is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. In the present study, we examined effects of i.c.v. injection of recombinant human leptin on food intake and body weight gain in rats. We also studied effects of direct microinjections of leptin into the arcuate nucleus (Arc), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), and lateral hypothalamus (LH). A single i.c.v. injection of recombinant human leptin (0.25-2.0 μg/rat) reduced significantly and dose-dependently food intake and body weight gain in rats. Microinjections (0.125-0.5 μg/site) into the bilateral Arc, VMH, and LH ...
The aim was to examine the impact of lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation on expression of mRNA for cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and its ligands in CNS areas of relevance for feeding controls and metabolism. Lipopolysaccharide effects on plasma levels of TSH and CART peptides were also examined. Lipopolysaccharide (150-200 μg/mouse) was injected in C57BL/6J mice and tissue and plasma samples taken after 24 h. To establish if plasma increase in CART peptide levels were prostanoid dependent, indomethacin was given via the drinking water beginning 48 h prior to LPS. We evaluated mRNA expression for CART, TSHR, TSHβ, and thyrostimulin in brain and pituitary extracts. Plasma levels of TSH, CARTp, and serum amyloid P component were analyzed by ELISA. Lipopolysaccharide suppressed TSHR mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus and the pituitary. CART mRNA expression was reduced in the arcuate nucleus but elevated in the pituitary of mice
The study explored effects of brexpiprazole (partial D2/5-HT1A agonist, 5-HT2A and α1B/2C-adrenoceptor antagonist) in rats exposed to predator scent stress (PSS), a proposed model of PTSD-like phenotype. Brexpiprazole (3.0mg/kg, PO), escitalopram (5.0mg/kg, IP) and their combination were administered twice daily for 14 days, starting 14 days after exposure to PSS or sham-PSS, shortly after a situational stress reminder. One day after last treatment behavioral responsivity was assessed. Brexpiprazole+escitalopram-treated rats spent more time in open arms, entered open arms more often and exhibited a lower anxiety index in the elevated plus maze than vehicle-treated, PSS-exposed rats ...
Sanathara NM, Moreas J, Mahavongtrakul M, Sinchak K. Estradiol upregulates progesterone receptor and orphanin FQ colocalization in arcuate nucleus neurons and opioid receptor-like receptor-1 expression in proopiomelanocortin neurons that project to the medial preoptic nucleus in the female rat. Neuroendocrinology. 2014;100(2-3):103-18. PMCID: 4225187 ...
Within the hypothalamus, an important role can be attributed to the ARC nucleus, which contains two important populations of cells with antagonistic effects on food intake (7). The first consists of appetite-stimulating cells that express two orexigenic peptides: NPY, an agonist of NPY receptors, and Agouti-related protein (AgRP), the antagonist of the melanocortin receptors (types 3 [MC3-R] and 4 [MC4-R]). These cells project to different hypothalamic nuclei, such as the ventromedial nucleus (VMN), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and the LHA (Fig. 3), which in turn are linked to centers regulating appetite and energy expenditure (7,88). It was mentioned earlier that some of these cells express both GK and GLUT2 and, thus, may be capable of directly monitoring nutrient homeostasis via measurement of plasma glucose levels. A second population of ARC neurons produces the anorectic peptide α-MSH, an end product of POMC processing (89), and the cocaine/amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) ...
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The arcuate nucleus mediates GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide-dependent weight lossLiraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog marketed for the tr
A new study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation reveals that activation of an enzyme, glucokinase, in a region of the hypothalamus called the arcuate nucleus specifically increases glucose uptake.
Hormonal satiety signals secreted by the gut play a pivotal role in the physiological control of appetite. However, therapeutic exploitation of the gut-brain axis requires greater insight into the interaction of gut hormones with CNS circuits of appetite control. Using the manganese ion (Mn2+) as an activity-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, we showed an increase in signal intensity (SI) in key appetite-regulatory regions of the hypothalamus, including the arcuate, paraventricular, and ventromedial nuclei, after peripheral injection of the orexigenic peptide ghrelin. Conversely, administration of the anorexigenic hormone peptide YY3-36 caused a reduction in SI. In both cases, the changes in SI recorded in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus preceded the effect of these peptides on food intake. Intravenous Mn2+ itself did not significantly alter ghrelin-mediated expression of the immediate early gene product c-Fos, nor did it cause abnormalities of behavior or metabolic ...
Sárvári, Miklós and Kalló, Imre and Hrabovszky, Erik and Solymosi, Norbert and Liposits, Zsolt (2017) Ovariectomy Alters Gene Expression of the Hippocampal Formation in Middle-Aged Rats. Endocrinology, 158 (1). pp. 69-83. ISSN 0013-7227 (print), 1945-7170 (online) Vastagh, Csaba and Rodolosse, Annie and Solymosi, Norbert and Liposits, Zsolt (2016) Altered Expression of Genes Encoding Neurotransmitter Receptors in GnRH Neurons of Proestrous Mice. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 10. pp. 1-16. ISSN 1662-5102, ESSN: 1662-5102 Molnár, Csilla and Sárvári, Miklós and Vastagh, Csaba and Maurnyi, Csilla and Fekete, Csaba and Liposits, Zsolt and Hrabovszky, Erik (2016) Altered gene expression profile of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of male mice suggests profound developmental changes in peptidergic signaling. NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY. ISSN 0028-3835 (In Press) Bálint, Flóra and Liposits, Zsolt and Farkas, Imre (2016) Estrogen Receptor Beta and 2-arachidonoylglycerol Mediate the Suppressive ...
The aim was to examine the impact of lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation on expression of mRNA for cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and its ligands in CNS areas of relevance for feeding controls and metabolism. Lipopolysaccharide effects on plasma levels of TSH and CART peptides were also examined.Lipopolysaccharide (150-200 μg/mouse) was injected in C57BL/6J mice and tissue and plasma samples taken after 24 h. To establish if plasma increase in CART peptide levels were prostanoid dependent, indomethacin was given via the drinking water beginning 48 h prior to LPS. We evaluated mRNA expression for CART, TSHR, TSHβ, and thyrostimulin in brain and pituitary extracts. Plasma levels of TSH, CARTp, and serum amyloid P component were analyzed by ELISA.Lipopolysaccharide suppressed TSHR mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus and the pituitary. CART mRNA expression was reduced in the arcuate nucleus but elevated in the pituitary of ...
I firmly believe that the medical system is not managing end of life care with compassion and recognition of patients `right to choose a dignified and peaceful death if quality of life is lost and this has been recorded in an advance care directive whilst of sound mind. I find it very difficult to believe that anyone with an ounce of compassion can deny those who have lost quality of life be it degeneration or terminal illness the right to make a choice for a dignified and peaceful death provided this has been documented in an advance care directive whilst of sound mind.. When the end is nigh, it is best to avoid hospital; the health system is geared to actively treating patients, not to recognize the dying.. I would like to have a tattoo on my chest If I should lose quality of life please let me die with dignity. There are thousands of patients in hospitals and nursing homes with no quality of life lingering on indefinitely awaiting the blessing of death to release them from their ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estradiol protects proopiomelanocortin neurons against insulin resistance. AU - Qiu, Jian. AU - Bosch, Martha A.. AU - Meza, Cecilia. AU - Navarro, Uyen Vy. AU - Nestor, Casey C.. AU - Wagner, Edward J.. AU - Ronnekleiv, Oline. AU - Kelly, Martin. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - Insulin resistance is at the core of the metabolic syndrome, and men exhibit a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome than women in early adult life, but this sex advantage diminishes sharply when women reach the postmenopausal state. Because 17β-estradiol (E2) augments the excitability of the anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of E2 against insulin resistance in POMC neurons from diet-induced obese (DIO) female and male mice. The efficacy of insulin to activate canonical transient receptor potential 5 (TRPC5) channels and depolarize POMC neurons was significantly reduced in DIO male mice but not in DIO female mice. However, the insulin ...
Arcuate nucleus agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play a central role in feeding and are under complex regulation by both homeostatic hormonal and nutrient signals and hypothalamic neuronal pathways. Feeding may also be influenced by environmental cues, sensory inputs, and other behaviors, implying the involvement of higher brain regions. However, whether such pathways modulate feeding through direct synaptic control of AgRP neuron activity is unknown. Here, we show that nociceptin-expressing neurons in the anterior bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (aBNST) make direct GABAergic inputs onto AgRP neurons. We found that activation of these neurons inhibited AgRP neurons and feeding. The activity of these neurons increased upon food availability, and their ablation resulted in obesity. Furthermore, these neurons received afferent inputs from a range of upstream brain regions as well as hypothalamic nuclei. Therefore, aBNST GABAergic nociceptin neurons may act as a gateway to feeding behavior ...
Arcuate nucleus agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play a central role in feeding and are under complex regulation by both homeostatic hormonal and nutrient signals and hypothalamic neuronal pathways. Feeding may also be influenced by environmental cues, sensory inputs, and other behaviors, implying the involvement of higher brain regions. However, whether such pathways modulate feeding through direct synaptic control of AgRP neuron activity is unknown. Here, we show that nociceptin-expressing neurons in the anterior bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (aBNST) make direct GABAergic inputs onto AgRP neurons. We found that activation of these neurons inhibited AgRP neurons and feeding. The activity of these neurons increased upon food availability, and their ablation resulted in obesity. Furthermore, these neurons received afferent inputs from a range of upstream brain regions as well as hypothalamic nuclei. Therefore, aBNST GABAergic nociceptin neurons may act as a gateway to feeding behavior ...
Arcuate nucleus agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play a central role in feeding and are under complex regulation by both homeostatic hormonal and nutrient signals and hypothalamic neuronal pathways. Feeding may also be influenced by environmental cues, sensory inputs, and other behaviors, implying the involvement of higher brain regions. However, whether such pathways modulate feeding through direct synaptic control of AgRP neuron activity is unknown. Here, we show that nociceptin-expressing neurons in the anterior bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (aBNST) make direct GABAergic inputs onto AgRP neurons. We found that activation of these neurons inhibited AgRP neurons and feeding. The activity of these neurons increased upon food availability, and their ablation resulted in obesity. Furthermore, these neurons received afferent inputs from a range of upstream brain regions as well as hypothalamic nuclei. Therefore, aBNST GABAergic nociceptin neurons may act as a gateway to feeding behavior ...
PWS is frequently associated with a constant, extreme, ravenous, insatiable appetite, which persists no matter how much the patient eats, often resulting in morbid obesity. Caregivers need to strictly limit the patients access to food, usually by installing locks on refrigerators and on all closets and cabinets where food is stored.[20] It is the most common genetic cause of morbid obesity in children.[21] Currently, no consensus exists as to the cause for this symptom, although genetic abnormalities in chromosome 15 disrupt the normal functioning of the hypothalamus.[15] Given that the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus regulates many basic processes, including appetite, a link may well exist. In the hypothalamus of people with PWS, nerve cells that produce oxytocin, a hormone thought to contribute to satiety, have been found to be abnormal. People with PWS have high ghrelin levels, which are thought to directly contribute to the increased appetite, hyperphagia, and obesity seen in this ...
Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog marketed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Besides lowering blood glucose, liraglutide also reduces body weight. It is not fully understood how liraglutide induces weight loss or to what degree liraglutide acts directly in the brain. Here, we determined that liraglutide does not activate GLP-1-producing neurons in the hindbrain, and liraglutide-dependent body weight reduction in rats was independent of GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) in the vagus nerve, area postrema, and paraventricular nucleus. Peripheral injection of fluorescently labeled liraglutide in mice revealed the presence of the drug in the circumventricular organs. Moreover, labeled liraglutide bound neurons within the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and other discrete sites in the hypothalamus. GLP-1R was necessary for liraglutide uptake in the brain, as liraglutide binding was not seen in ...
The nitric oxide (NO) producing enzyme inducible NO synthase isoform (iNOS) is strongly upregulated under inflammatory conditions in the arcuate nucleus, a hypothalamic key structure for the control of food intake and energy balance. This project aims to prove the concept that a pharmacological blockade of iNOS attenuates anorexia and associated disease symptoms induced by the proinflammatory endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also analyzed the association between LPS-induced anorexia and pSTAT3-formation in the arcuate nucleus and in hindbrain feeding centers (AP/NTS region). pSTAT3 is a cytokine dependent transcription factor, which is suggested to control iNOS expression. Findings and conclusions: NO contributes to LPS-induced anorexia because anorexia is attenuated by the specific iNOS-inhibitor 1400W. In addition, 1400W treatment also ameliorates other LPS-induced symptoms (e.g. adipsia, fever, inactivity). LPS treatment induces a time-dependent pSTAT3 formation in the ARC and the ...
Looking for online definition of proopiomelanocortin deficiency in the Medical Dictionary? proopiomelanocortin deficiency explanation free. What is proopiomelanocortin deficiency? Meaning of proopiomelanocortin deficiency medical term. What does proopiomelanocortin deficiency mean?
The protein fragment nesfatin-1 was recently implicated in the control of food intake. Central administration of this fragment results in anorexia and reduced body weight gain, whereas antisense or immunological nesfatin-1 antagonism causes increased food intake and overweight. Nesfatin-1 is derived from the precursor nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). To identify the neurocircuitry underpinning the catabolic effects of NUCB2/nesfatin-1, we have used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to map the distribution of this protein and its mRNA in the rat CNS and performed double-labeling experiments to localize its expression to functionally defined neuronal populations. These experiments confirm previous observations but also present several novel NUCB2 cell populations. Both NUCB2 mRNA and nesfatin-like immunoreactivity was most concentrated in the hypothalamus, in the supraoptic, paraventricular, periventricular and arcuate nuclei and the lateral hypothalamic area/perifornical region. Additionally, ...
Cao et al. investigated the effect of enriched housing environments on tumor growth (see also Kappeler and Meaney). Mice living in enriched environments (EE mice) developed fewer, smaller, and slower-growing tumors when subcutaneously injected with B16 melanoma cells than control mice in standard group housing. In addition, EE mice showed altered serum concentrations of various circulating factors, such as increased adiponectin and decreased leptin concentrations. Sera from EE mice inhibited the in vitro proliferation of B16 melanoma cells, an effect also seen with sera from control mice pretreated with a neutralizing antibody directed against leptin. Gene expression analysis of nuclei in the hypothalamus revealed that the abundance of the mRNA encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was higher in the arcuate nuclei of EE mice compared with that in control mice. Overexpression of BDNF in the hypothalamus resulted in decreased serum leptin concentrations and smaller tumors, whereas ...
Health,...Kisspeptin spurs healthy ovulation researchers explain ...TUESDAY March 17 (HealthDay News) -- A hormone called kisspeptin may ...The study included 10 women who were not menstruating and were inferti...The women who received kisspeptin had a 48-fold increase in LH and a 1...,Hormone,Might,Help,Restore,Female,Fertility,,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
The Aborted Arc trope as used in popular culture. When a Story Arc disappears off the face of the storyline without warning, never to be heard from again.
Looking for online definition of dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus in the Medical Dictionary? dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus explanation free. What is dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus? Meaning of dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus medical term. What does dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus mean?
The pulsatile nature of GH release is apparently regulated by alternating sequential changes in two hypothalamic hormones, GH releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin. Entrainment of this pulsatility appears to involve GH-mediated negative feedback. Recently a new receptor involved in GH release was cloned. Activation of this receptor by GH-releasing peptides and MK-0677 initiates and amplifies GH pulsatility and is associated with increased Fos immunoreactivity and electrical activity in GHRH containing arcuate neurons. We show that pretreating mice with GH blocks activation of these neurons by MK-0677. Similarly, octreotide inhibited the action of MK-0677. To determine whether this GH-mediated negative feedback on GHRH neurons was direct, or by GH stimulation of somatostatin release from periventricular neurons, we selectively inactivated the gene for one of the five specific somatostatin receptor subtypes (subtype 2). In the knockout mice, both GH and octreotide failed to inhibit MK-0677 ...
Agouti-related protein (AgRP), also called agouti-related peptide, is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron. It is synthesised only in neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing cell bodies located in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus. AgRP is co-expressed with NPY and acts to increase appetite and decrease metabolism and energy expenditure. It is one of the most potent and long-lasting of appetite stimulators. In humans, the agouti-related peptide is encoded by the AGRP gene. AgRP is a paracrine signalling molecule made up of 112 amino acids (the gene product of 132 amino acids is processed by removal of the N-terminal 20-residue signal peptide domain). It was independently identified by two teams in 1997 based on its sequence similarity with agouti signalling peptide (ASIP), a protein synthesised in the skin that controls coat colour. AgRP is approximately 25% identical to ASIP. The murine homologue of AgRP consists of 111 amino acids (precursor is 131 ...
Ardrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), beta-endorphin and the melanotropins (MSHs) are all derived from a single large precursor molecule, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) by individual processing through a series of co- and post-translational modifications. Although the primary site of synthesis is in the pituitary, POMC-derived peptides have been identified in various tissues, notably the brain (see refs 6, 7 for review). A major question concerning brain POMC is whether it is synthesized within the central nervous system (CNS) itself or whether it is taken up from plasma flowing in a retrograde fashion from the pituitary. POMC peptides have been detected immunohistochemically and biochemically in the medial basal hypothalamus, the amygdala and throughout the brain stem. POMC peptide-containing cell bodies have been identified only in two cell groups, however, principally in the periarcuate region of the hypothalamus and to a lesser extent in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius. These and other observations
The nucleustractus solitarius (NTS) receives dense terminations from cranial visceral afferents, including those from the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Although the NTS integrates peripheral satiety signals and relays this signal to central feeding centers, little is known about which NTS neurons are involved or what mechanisms are responsible. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are good candidates for GI integration, because disruption of the POMC gene leads to severe obesity and hyperphagia. Here, we used POMC- enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic mice to identify NTS POMC neurons. Intraperitoneal administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) induced c-fos gene expression in NTS POMC-EGFP neurons, suggesting that they are activated by afferents stimulated by the satiety hormone. We tested the synaptic relationship of these neurons to visceral afferents and their modulation by CCK and opioids using patch recordings in horizontal brain slices. Electrical activation of the solitary tract (ST)
article{957131c7-5da4-4ef9-89f1-411e13214787, abstract = {,p,The progesterone metabolite, allopregnanolone (AlloP), is a GABA,sub,A,/sub, receptor modulating steroid and is known to have orexigenic and pro-obesity effects. The neurobiological mechanisms underpinning these effects are most likely due to enhanced GABAergic signaling in the lateral arcuate nucleus (ARC) and medial paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Inspired by the finding that GABAergic signaling is also important for the orexigenic effects of the circulating hormone, ghrelin, we sought to determine the extent to which AlloP (one of the most potent endogenous GABA,sub,A,/sub,-receptor modulators) operates alongside ghrelin to enhance food intake. Male rats with ad libitum access to standard chow were injected intravenously with AlloP and/or ghrelin, alone or in combination. The intake of the standard chow was greater after AlloP 1 mg/kg together with ghrelin 30 μg/kg than with 30 μg/kg ghrelin alone. Food intake ...
Follicular development and ovulation are suppressed during lactation in various mammalian species, mainly due to the suppression of pulsatile GnRH/LH secretion. Metastin (kisspeptin-54), a KiSS-1 gene product, is an endogenous ligand for GPR54, a G-protein-coupled receptor, and suggested to play a critical role in regulating the gonadal axis. The present study therefore aims to determine whether metastin (kisspeptin-54)-GPR54 signaling in discrete brain areas is inhibited by the suckling stimulus that causes suppression of LH secretion in lactating rats. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the KiSS-1 mRNA level was significantly lower in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)-median eminence region in lactating ovariectomized (OVX) and estrogen-treated OVX rats than in nonlactating controls. KiSS-1 mRNA in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus was kept at a low level in both lactating and nonlactating rats despite estrogen treatment. GPR54mRNAlevels were significantly lower in lactating than nonlactating ...
According to the study by The TsimTsoum Institute, Krakow, Silesia, Poland, increased sympathetic activity, with increased secretion of catecholamine, cortisol, and serotonin can cause oxidative stress, which may damage the arcuate nucleus as well as the hypothalamus and macrophages, and the liver may release pro-inflammatory cytokines. These, in conjunction with an underlying deficiency in long chain PUFA, may damage the arcuate nucleus as well as neuropeptide-Y and pro-opiomelanocortin neurons and insulin receptors in the brain, especially during fetal life, infancy, and childhood, resulting in their dysfunction(32 ...
Although central nervous system has been implicated in glucocorticoid-induced fat mass gain, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of our current study was to investigate the possible involvement of hypothalamic serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) in glucocorticoid-increased adiposity. It is well-known that SGK1 expression is induced by acute glucocorticoid treatment, interestingly, we found its expression was decreased in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, including POMC neurons, following chronic dexamethasone (Dex) treatment. To study a role of SGK1 in POMC neurons, mice with development or adult-onset SGK1 deletion in POMC neurons (PSKO) were then produced. As observed in Dex-treated mice, PSKO mice exhibited increased adiposity and decreased energy expenditure. Consistently, mice overexpressing constitutively active SGK1 in POMC neurons (PSOE) had the opposite phenotype and prevented from Dex-increased adiposity. Finally, Dex decreased hypothalamic ...
One of the main actions of ghrelin, which attracted the interest of researchers mainly due to its possible therapeutic potential, is its orexigenic action. It is recognized that ghrelin transmits hunger signals from the periphery to the central nervous system. Thus, it enhances appetite, increases food intake and reduces energy consumption, with consequent weight gain(41). The discovery of GOAT, enzyme responsible for ghrelin acylation(11) was a step forward in understanding the role played by acyl-modification in the physiology of ghrelin. The GOAT-ghrelin system acts as a nutrient sensor informing the body of the presence of nutrients(42). The central site of ghrelin action is the hypothalamus (mainly the arcuate nucleus, with increased expression of NPY and AgRP orexigenic peptide), where ghrelin and leptin exert antagonistic effects, the two molecules being in competitive interaction(43,44). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that ghrelin is involved in meal initiation/promotion of food ...
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): GnRH a neurohormone consisting of 10 amino acids that is produced in the arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. GnRH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the two gonadotropins...
摘要 Ghrelin作为一种具有特殊功能的能量调控因子,在能量代谢平衡以及生殖调控研究中被广泛关注,然而其在小鼠性周期变化过程中发挥调控的机制尚不明确。本研究通过腹腔注射ghrelin研究其对小鼠性周期不同阶段采食量及血清中雌二醇浓度的影响,并运用免疫荧光技术鉴定了ghrelin与弓状核(arcuate nucleus,ARC)区域分布的α型雌二醇受体(estrogen receptor α,ERα)神经元之间的共表达情况。结果表明,ghrelin(50 μg·kg-1)注射后的2 ...
We also found that glucose sensing by POMC neurons became defective in obese mice on a high-fat diet, suggesting that loss of glucose sensing by neurons has a role in the development of type 2 diabetes ...
Peripheral and hypothalamic mechanisms underlying the hyperphagia of lactation have been investigated in sheep. Sheep were fed ad libitum and killed at 6 and 18 days of lactation; ad libitum-fed nonlactating sheep were killed as controls. Despite increased food intake, lactating ewes were in negative energy balance. Lactation decreased plasma leptin and adipose tissue leptin mRNA concentrations. OB-Rb gene expression, determined by in situ hybridization, was increased in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) at both stages of lactation. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) was increased by lactation in both the ARC and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), although increased gene expression in the DMH was only apparent at day 18 of lactation. Gene expression was decreased for cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the ARC and VMH and for proopiomelanocortin in ARC during lactation. Agouti-related peptide gene expression was increased in the ARC, and ...
Recent studies have implicated the orexin system as a critical regulator of sleep/wake states as well as feeding behavior and reward processes. Orexin deficiency results in narcolepsy in humans, dogs, and rodents, suggesting that the orexin system is particularly important for maintenance of wakefulness. In addition, orexin deficiency also cause abnormalities in energy homeostasis and reward systems. Orexin activates waking active monoaminergic and cholinergic neurons in the hypothalamus and brainstem regions to maintain a long, consolidated waking period. Orexin neurons receive abundant input from the limbic system. Orexin neurons also have reciprocal links with the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, which regulates feeding. Moreover, the responsiveness of orexin neurons to peripheral metabolic cues, such as leptin and glucose, suggest that these neurons have important role as a link between the energy homeostasis and vigilance states. Orexin neurons also have a link with the dopaminergic reward ...
Prolactin, Arcuate Nucleus, Brain, Cells, Gestation, Hypothalamus, Leptin, Leptin Receptor, Light, Mice, Mouse, Neurons, Nucleus Of The Solitary Tract, Populations, Pregnancy, Preoptic Area, Prolactin Receptors, Rodents, Transducer
These procedures were conducted as described previously (Ibrahim et al., 2003; Xu et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2008, 2009). Briefly, four 250 μm basal hypothalamic slices were cut on a vibratome and placed in an auxiliary chamber containing oxygenated aCSF. The slices were allowed to recover for 1-2 h in the auxiliary chamber. Thereafter, the arcuate nucleus and median eminence was microdissected and incubated in 10 ml of aCSF, pH 7.3, 300 mOsm, containing 1 mg/ml protease for ∼15 min at 37°C. The tissue was then washed four times in low-calcium CSF (1 mm CaCl2) and two times in aCSF. The cells were isolated by trituration with flame-polished Pasteur pipettes, dispersed onto a 60 mm glass-bottomed Petri dish, and perfused continuously with aCSF at a rate of 2.0 ml/min. The dispersed, bipolar or unipolar fluorescent cells were visualized using a Leitz inverted fluorescent microscope, patched, and then harvested with gentle suction to the pipette using the Xenoworks manipulator system (Sutter ...
First Kiss, Last Kiss, Best Kiss and Worst Kiss, from the edited h2g2, the Unconventional Guide to Life, the Universe and Everything
The present framework of radiological safety of occupational uncovered medical employees decreased the eye-lens equal dose restrict from 150 to 20 mSv…. ...
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The hormone kisspeptin essentially switches on the desire to reproduce and is thought to be responsible for the sexual appetite of young people.
학술논문검색사이트 KISS는 학술논문,연구논문,연구자료,학술지 등 다양한 자료를 서비스하며, 주제별, 등재별, 인용지수, 인기논문, 이슈논문 등 다양한 키워드의 논문을 제공하여 빠른 학술검색 및 인용이 가능하도록 서비스합니다.
학술논문검색사이트 KISS는 학술논문,연구논문,연구자료,학술지 등 다양한 자료를 서비스하며, 주제별, 등재별, 인용지수, 인기논문, 이슈논문 등 다양한 키워드의 논문을 제공하여 빠른 학술검색 및 인용이 가능하도록 서비스합니다.
학술논문검색사이트 KISS는 학술논문,연구논문,연구자료,학술지 등 다양한 자료를 서비스하며, 주제별, 등재별, 인용지수, 인기논문, 이슈논문 등 다양한 키워드의 논문을 제공하여 빠른 학술검색 및 인용이 가능하도록 서비스합니다.
학술논문검색사이트 KISS는 학술논문,연구논문,연구자료,학술지 등 다양한 자료를 서비스하며, 주제별, 등재별, 인용지수, 인기논문, 이슈논문 등 다양한 키워드의 논문을 제공하여 빠른 학술검색 및 인용이 가능하도록 서비스합니다.
학술논문검색사이트 KISS는 학술논문,연구논문,연구자료,학술지 등 다양한 자료를 서비스하며, 주제별, 등재별, 인용지수, 인기논문, 이슈논문 등 다양한 키워드의 논문을 제공하여 빠른 학술검색 및 인용이 가능하도록 서비스합니다.
학술논문검색사이트 KISS는 학술논문,연구논문,연구자료,학술지 등 다양한 자료를 서비스하며, 주제별, 등재별, 인용지수, 인기논문, 이슈논문 등 다양한 키워드의 논문을 제공하여 빠른 학술검색 및 인용이 가능하도록 서비스합니다.
Nesfatin/NUCB2 is expressed in the appetite-control hypothalamic nuclei such as paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus ... Nesfatin-1 immunopositive neurons are also located in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Nesfatin-1 immunoreactive neurons in the ARC ... Price, Christopher J.; Samson, Willis K.; Ferguson, Alastair V. (2008). "Nesfatin-1 inhibits NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus ... Nesfatin-1 immunoreactivity was also found in the brainstem nuclei such as nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and Dorsal ...
Leptin targets the receptors on the arcuate nucleus and suppresses the secretion of MCH and orexin. The arcuate nucleus also ...
... with de-inhibition of the pulse generator in the arcuate nucleus. This inhibition of the arcuate nucleus is an ongoing active ... The arcuate nucleus is affected and controlled by neuronal input from other areas of the brain and hormonal input from the ... The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is the driver of the reproductive system. It has neurons which generate and release ... Neurons of the arcuate nucleus secrete gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) into the blood of the pituitary portal system. An ...
Disinhibition of the GnRH pulse generator in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Secretion of estrogen by the ovaries in ...
The columella is extended, oblique, and arcuate. The operculum is oval, with a submarginal nucleus. The outside is convex, ...
... although it does share contiguous perivascular spaces with the adjacent hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, indicating a potential ... anatomical evidence exists for bidirectional communication between the median eminence and the arcuate and ventromedial nucleus ...
The circuit begins with an area of the hypothalamus, the arcuate nucleus, that has outputs to the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and ...
... forebrain sensor of peripheral cues that relays information about the availability of energy and storage is the arcuate nucleus ...
... tuberomammillary nucleus (the histamine projection nucleus), the arcuate nucleus, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus ... locus ceruleus noradrenergic nucleus, the serotonergic raphe nuclei, and cholinergic pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal ... nucleus ambiguus, solitary nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, pontine micturition center, ventral respiratory group, and ... histaminergic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN), serotonergic raphe nuclei, cholinergic laterodorsal and pedunculopontine nuclei ( ...
It has been found that the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, and dorsomedial nucleus are all involved in the presence of ... showing that their mating behaviour relies on the main olfactory system's communication to nuclei in the amygdala regions. ... role of the medial amygdaloid nucleus". Neuroscience. 78 (4): 1027-1035. doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(96)00629-X. ISSN 0306-4522. ...
... neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and somatostatin-containing neurons in the anterior periventricular nucleus of the ... The periventricular nucleus is a thin sheet of small neurons located in the wall of the third ventricle, a composite structure ... This nucleus has been shown to affect the release of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) in several ways. One way is its ... The periventricular nucleus has also been shown to have many neurons that express kisspeptin, which generates a surge in LH, ...
... the arcuate nucleus is a group of neurons located on the anterior surface of the medullary pyramids. These nuclei are the ... Arcuate nuclei are capable of chemosensitivity and have a proven role in the respiratory center controlling the breathing rate ... Diagram showing the course of the arcuate fibers. The formatio reticularis of the medulla oblongata, shown by a transverse ... They receive fibers from the corticospinal tract and send their axons through the anterior external arcuate fibers and ...
... two large nuclei namely the gracile nucleus and the cuneate nucleus can be found. The two nuclei receive the impulse from the ... The fibres of this decussation are called the internal arcuate fibres and are found at the superior aspect of the closed ... The sensory decussation or decussation of the lemnisci is a decussation or crossover of axons from the gracile nucleus and ... After the two tracts terminate upon these nuclei, the heavily myelinated fibres arise and ascend anteromedially around the ...
弓狀核(英文:Arcuate nucleus),或稱漏斗核[1],為下視丘內側基底部聚集的神經元,鄰近第三腦室和正中隆起。弓狀核包含許多重要神經元群,如:神經內分泌細胞、集中投射神經元等等。 ... nuclei(英语:List of thalamic nuclei). *paired: AN(英语:Anterior nuclei of thalamus) ... VP(英语
... ventromedial nucleus AR: arcuate nucleus (associated with periventricular nucleus, which is not shown) LT: lateral nucleus PN: ... NucleiEdit. The hypothalamic nuclei include the following:[4][5][6]. List of nuclei, their functions, and the neurotransmitters ... Hypothalamic nuclei Symbols: AC: anterior commissure PO: preoptic nucleus SC: suprachiasmatic nucleus OC: optic chiasma TC: ... supraoptic nucleus TH: thalamus PV: paraventricular nucleus (not to be confused with periventricular nucleus, which is not ...
Gömöri-positive astrocytes are much more abundant within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and in the hippocampus than in ... "Composition of Gomori-positive inclusions in astrocytes of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus". Anatomical Record. 240 (3): 407- ... Modulation of synaptic transmission: In the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, rapid changes in astrocyte morphology have ... The blue material shows DNA visualized with DAPI stain, and reveals the nuclei of the astrocyte and other cells. Image courtesy ...
... α-MSH produced by neurons in the arcuate nucleus has important roles in the regulation of appetite (POMC neuron stimulation ... "Leptin activates anorexigenic POMC neurons through a neural network in the arcuate nucleus". Nature. 411 (6836): 480-4. doi: ... the anterior pituitary gland Melanotrope cells of the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland Neurons in the arcuate nucleus ...
Hewson AK, Tung LY, Connell DW, Tookman L, Dickson SL (December 2002). "The rat arcuate nucleus integrates peripheral signals ... by triggering receptors in the arcuate nucleus[35][36] that include the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related ... "Novel insight in distribution of nesfatin-1 and phospho-mTOR in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of rats". Peptides. 31 ... "Systemic administration of ghrelin induces Fos and Egr-1 proteins in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of fasted and fed rats". ...
Primary alveolar hypoventilation (Ondine's curse syndrome) in an infant without external arcuate nucleus: case report. „Bull ...
It is synthesised only in neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing cell bodies located in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus ... This hormone acts in the arcuate nucleus and inhibits the AgRP/NPY neuron from releasing orexigenic peptides. Ghrelin has ... mRNA in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of hyperphagic and obese tub/tub mice". Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 125 ... mRNA in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of hyperphagic and obese tub/tub mice". Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 125 ...
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) Neuroendocrine neurons of the Arcuate nucleus. *Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) ... Prolactin inhibiting hormone or PIH or Dopamine (DA) Dopamine neurons of the arcuate nucleus ... Somatostatin (SS; also GHIH, growth hormone-inhibiting hormone) Neuroendocrince cells of the Periventricular nucleus ...
The arcuate nucleus contains two distinct groups of neurons.[149] The first group coexpresses neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti- ... Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin. Leptin inhibits the NPY/AgRP group while stimulating ... the arcuate nucleus, that has outputs to the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), the brain's feeding ...
"Estrogen deficiency leads to apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus of male mice". ... which is regulated by the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.[27] ...
... s are released under the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the arcuate nucleus and preoptic ...
The arcuate nucleus (Arc). Kisspeptin-expressing neurons reside in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and the arcuate ... It is known to be found in specific nuclei and neurons.[9] ... nucleus, among others, and send projections into the MPOA, ...
The columella is arcuate, obliquely plicate, terminating in a strong anterior tooth. Species within the genus Rossiteria ... include: Rossiteria nucleolus (Pilsbry, 1903) Rossiteria nucleus (Philippi, 1849) Rossiteria pseudonucleolus Poppe, Tagaro & ...
"Composition of Gomori-positive inclusions in astrocytes of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus". Anatomical Record 240 (3): 407- ...
Although not only the SCN but also the arcuate nucleus (ARC), are involved in the Tb setting through afferents to the ... The median preoptic nucleus is located dorsal to the other three nuclei of the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus. The ... Activation of the median preoptic nucleus leads to stimulation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The afferents to this area ... When combined with lesions on other preoptic hypothalamic nuclei, however, damage to the median preoptic nucleus causes an ...
... have been found to rapidly induce lordosis through activation of GPER in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of female rats ... including the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus.[31][33] It is speculated that activation of GPER may be the ... cell nucleus. • cell projection. • mitochondrial membrane. • keratin filament. • dendritic shaft. • dendritic spine head. • ... Manavathi B, Kumar R (June 2006). "Steering estrogen signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus: two sides of the coin". ...
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, a part of the brain, is the main regulatory organ for the human appetite. Many brain ... neurons located in the arcuate nucleus.[8] Similarly, the hormones leptin and insulin suppress appetite through effects on AgRP ... The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is the area of the brain that coordinates neurotransmitter, opioid and endocannabinoid signals to ... Opioid receptor-related processes in the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum affect the palatability of foods.[10] ...
Leptin targets the receptors on the arcuate nucleus and suppresses the secretion of MCH and orexin. The arcuate nucleus also ...
... of the midbrain has been found at the level of the substantia nigra extended to the red nucleus and subthalamic nucleus, which ... These studies have also found that there are anatomical differences in the Rolandic operculum and arcuate fasciculus.[2] ... lesser amounts of white matter are found in the left inferior arcuate fasciculus connecting the temporal and frontal areas in ...
... the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, and ventromedial nucleus). Outside the brain, phentermine releases ... which is a cognitive process mediated primarily through several nuclei within the hypothalamus (in particular, ...
The GHRH neurones are located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, whereas the somatostatin cells involved in growth ... The cell bodies of the oxytocin and vasopressin neurons are in the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus, respectively ... hormone regulation are in the periventricular nucleus. These two neuronal systems project axons to the median eminence, where ...
... from which the neurons that populate the pariventricular and arcuate nuclei originate.[1] These neurons project to the ...
The nucleus ambiguus, which form the special visceral efferent.. *The dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and the inferior salivatory ... called the internal arcuate fibers or fasciculi, decussate from one side of the medulla to the other to form the medial ... They are caused by masses of gray matter known as the gracile nucleus and the cuneate nucleus. The soma (cell bodies) in these ... The basal plate neuroblasts will give rise to the motor nuclei.. *Alar plate neuroblasts give rise to: *The solitary nucleus, ...
Given that the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus regulates many basic processes, including appetite, a link may well exist. In the ...
... tuberomammillary nucleus (the histamine projection nucleus), the arcuate nucleus, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. ... nucleus ambiguus, solitary nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, pontine micturition center, ventral respiratory group, and ... the serotonergic raphe nuclei, and cholinergic pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus.[2][8] The ... histaminergic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN), serotonergic raphe nuclei, cholinergic laterodorsal and pedunculopontine nuclei ( ...
... s are released under the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the arcuate nucleus and preoptic ...
Talk:Anterior external arcuate fibers. *Talk:Anterior gray column. *Talk:Anterior hypothalamic nucleus ...
Oxytocin, most of which is released from the paraventricular nucleus in the hypothalamus. Oxytocin is one of the few hormones ... The magnocellular neurosecretory cells, of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei located in the hypothalamus, project axons ... the majority of which is released from the supraoptic nucleus in the hypothalamus. ...
延腦;弓狀核(英語:arcuate nucleus (medulla)). *延腦吻端腹中側(英語:Rostral ventromedial medulla) ... nuclei(英語:List of thalamic nuclei). *paired: AN(英語:Anterior nuclei of thalamus) ... VP(英語:Ventral posterior nucleus)/VPM(英語:Ventral posteromedial nucleus)/VPL(英語:Ventral posterolateral nucleus) ... 基底核的結構,在兩張腦的切面中展示。藍色:尾狀核(Caudate nucleus)、核殼(英語:putamen);綠色
Osteoclasts are large cells with multiple nuclei located on bone surfaces in what are called Howship's lacunae (or resorption ...
Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... sensory decussation/arcuate fibers (Posterior external arcuate fibers, Internal arcuate fibers) → Medial lemniscus/Trigeminal ... The medial globus pallidus acts to tonically inhibit the ventral lateral nucleus and ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus. ... The medial globus pallidus (or internal globus pallidus, GPi) is one of the output nuclei of the basal ganglia (the other being ...
Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... sensory decussation/arcuate fibers (Posterior external arcuate fibers, Internal arcuate fibers) → Medial lemniscus/Trigeminal ... pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → Superior olivary nuclei →. *midbrain: Lateral lemniscus → Inferior ... Dentate nucleus in Lateral hemisphere/pontocerebellum → SCP → Dentatothalamic tract → Thalamus (VL) → Motor cortex ...
Gömöri-positive astrocytes are much more abundant within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and in the hippocampus than in ... "Composition of Gomori-positive inclusions in astrocytes of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus". Anatomical Record. 240 (3): 407- ... Modulation of synaptic transmission: In the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, rapid changes in astrocyte morphology have ... The blue material shows DNA visualized with DAPI stain, and reveals the nuclei of the astrocyte and other cells. Image courtesy ...
Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... sensory decussation/arcuate fibers (Posterior external arcuate fibers, Internal arcuate fibers) → Medial lemniscus/Trigeminal ... Thalamic interneurons process sensory information and signal different regions of the thalamic nuclei. These nuclei extend to ... can be found only in principal sensory and motor relay nuclei, and in the pulvinar as well the asintralaminar nuclei. The PIR ...
Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... sensory decussation/arcuate fibers (Posterior external arcuate fibers, Internal arcuate fibers) → Medial lemniscus/Trigeminal ... The GPi acts to tonically inhibit the ventral lateral nucleus and ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus. As these two nuclei ... The GABAergic neurons send their axons to the ventral anterior nucleus (VA) and the ventral lateral nucleus (VL) in the dorsal ...
Arcuate nucleus of medulla. *Rostral ventromedial medulla. *Botzinger complex. *Pre-Bötzinger complex ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... sensory decussation/arcuate fibers (Posterior external arcuate fibers, Internal arcuate fibers) → Medial lemniscus/Trigeminal ... The medial vestibulospinal tract originates in the medial vestibular nucleus or Schwalbe's nucleus.[2] The Schwalbe's nucleus ...
Arcuate nucleus of medulla. *Rostral ventromedial medulla. *Botzinger complex. *Pre-Bötzinger complex ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... sensory decussation/arcuate fibers (Posterior external arcuate fibers, Internal arcuate fibers) → Medial lemniscus/Trigeminal ... Dentate nucleus in Lateral hemisphere/pontocerebellum → SCP → Dentatothalamic tract → Thalamus (VL) → Motor cortex ...
Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... sensory decussation/arcuate fibers (Posterior external arcuate fibers, Internal arcuate fibers) → Medial lemniscus/Trigeminal ... Dentate nucleus in Lateral hemisphere/pontocerebellum → SCP → Dentatothalamic tract → Thalamus (VL) → Motor cortex ... Interposed nucleus in Intermediate hemisphere/spinocerebellum → SCP → Reticular formation, or → Cerebellothalamic tract → Red ...
... specifically the ventromedial nucleus and arcuate nucleus. GSH-Rs are also expressed in other areas of the brain, including the ...
Insulin Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus. Kevin D. Niswender, Christopher D. ... Insulin Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus. Kevin D. Niswender, Christopher D. ... These findings support the hypothesis that the IRS-PI3K pathway is a mediator of insulin action in the arcuate nucleus and, ... Insulin Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
... and Constancy of Kiss1 mRNAs Expression in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus in a Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rat ... Expression of RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3) mRNA in dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and KiSS-1 mRNA in arcuate nucleus of ... This study was conducted to evaluate changes in MC4R and kiss1 genes expression in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the ... Increased litter size and suckling intensity inhibit KiSS-1 mRNA expression in rat arcuate nucleus. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014; ...
Acta Physiologica Sinica Melatonin attenuates the intensity of β-endorphin immunoreactivity in the arcuate nucleus of rat ... Melatonin attenuates the intensity of β-endorphin immunoreactivity in the arcuate nucleus of rat hypothalamus. YU Chang-Xi;WU ... Pattern adaptation of relay cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of binocular and monocular vision-deprived cats. WANG Wei; ... Modulation of circadian rhythm of discharges of suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons in rat hypothalamic slices by melatonin. ZHOU ...
This receptor is highly expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and is regulated in response to nutrient availability. ... This receptor is highly expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and is regulated in response to nutrient availability. ... This receptor is highly expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, and it has been demonstrated that hypothalamic ...
... the arcuate nucleus is a group of neurons located on the anterior surface of the medullary pyramids. These nuclei are the ... Arcuate nuclei are capable of chemosensitivity and have a proven role in the respiratory center controlling the breathing rate ... Diagram showing the course of the arcuate fibers. The formatio reticularis of the medulla oblongata, shown by a transverse ... They receive fibers from the corticospinal tract and send their axons through the anterior external arcuate fibers and ...
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH,[1] ARC,[2] or infundibular nucleus[2][3]) is an aggregation of ... "Arcuate nucleus" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... NPY/AgRP neurons and POMC/CART neurons make up two groups of neurons in the arcuate nucleus that are centrally involved in the ... The populations of neurons found in the arcuate nucleus are based on the hormones they secrete or interact with and are ...
Cone RD et al. (2001) The arcuate nucleus as a conduit for diverse signals relevant to energy homeostasis. Int J Obes Relat ... The arcuate nucleus is located in the mediobasal hypothalamus at the base of the brain, it lies on either side of the third ... The arcuate nucleus is a small part of the hypothalamus that plays an extremely important role in the regulation of hormone ... The arcuate nucleus contains some other neuronal cell types the function of which is still not fully known. In particular, it ...
Immunocytochemical observation of ghrelin-containing neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus.. Lu S1, Guan JL, Wang QP, Uehara K, ... was used to study the ultrastructure and synaptic relationships of ghrelin-containing neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus (ARC ...
Several hypothalamic nuclei including the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) have recently been shown ... Glucocorticoid receptors are highly expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus (ARC). As ... Glucocorticoid Signaling in the Arcuate Nucleus Modulates Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity. Chun-Xia Yi, Ewout Foppen, William ... Glucocorticoid Signaling in the Arcuate Nucleus Modulates Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity. Chun-Xia Yi, Ewout Foppen, William ...
... arcuate nucleus explanation free. What is arcuate nucleus? Meaning of arcuate nucleus medical term. What does arcuate nucleus ... Looking for online definition of arcuate nucleus in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to arcuate nucleus: Preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus. ar·cu·ate nu·cle·us. [TA] 1. Synonym(s): nucleus ... arcuate nucleus. A hypothalamic nucleus in the ventral wall of the third ventricle near the pituitary stalk. The arcuate ...
Species about Arcuate nucleus glutamatergic neurons modulate energy homeostasis ... You are here: Research Grants , R01 , DK , arcuate , nucleus , Arcuate nucleus glutamatergic neurons modulate energy ... arcuate nucleus*neurons*obesity*formal social control*homeostasis*attention*peptides*neuropeptides*glutamate receptors*play and ... The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in the brain acts like the information hub of energy balance, receiving information both from ...
Arcuate nucleus (medulla oblongata). Anatomy. The arcuate nuclei are situated on the anterior surface of the pyramids. They ... receive fibers from the cerebral cortex and send fibers via the anterior external arcuate fibers to the cerebellum. They may be ...
tdTomato-positive cells in the arcuate nucleus. A, Representative IHC images of tdTomato-positive cells in the arcuate nucleus ... suprachiasmatic nucleus; Arc, arcuate nucleus; V3, third ventricle; DMH, dorsal medial hypothalamus; DG, dentate gyrus; ECT, ... Electrophysiological properties of neurons from the arcuate nucleus in wild-type and P2rx4 tdTomato mice. A, B, Representative ... C, D, Representative traces for ATP-evoked and GABA-evoked currents recorded from arcuate nucleus neurons from wild-type mice ( ...
Arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus + Modification dateThis property is a special property in this wiki. 2 February 2015 00:11:10 + ... A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the ... arcuate periventricular nucleus +, Infundibular hypothalamic nucleus +, arcuate nucleus + Umlscui C0003741 + Categories. ...
The arcuate nucleus was located using a mouse brain stereotaxic atlas (Franklin and Paxinos, 1997). Neurons were visualized by ... 2001) Leptin activates anorexigenic POMC neurons through a neural network in the arcuate nucleus. Nature 411:480-484. ... 2000) Orexin A activates leptin-responsive neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Pflügers Arch 440:699-703. ... Coronal slices (250- to 300-μm-thick) containing the arcuate nucleus were cut with a Vibroslice (Campden Instruments, London, ...
Thus, the growth of NPY neurites from the arcuate nucleus (ARC) was impaired in the fetal brain by maternal obesity. The ... obesity and IL-6 lead to aberrant developmental gene expression and deregulated neurite growth in the fetal arcuate nucleus.. [ ... innervation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) compared with that for offspring of normal-weight controls. ...
Acupuncture stimulates β-endorphinergic and enkephalinergic fibers in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus (9), and ... A withdrawal-associated impairment in β-endorphin neurotransmission in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus is ... Acupuncture attenuates alcohol dependence through activation of endorphinergic input to the nucleus accumbens from the arcuate ... Acupuncture attenuates alcohol dependence through activation of endorphinergic input to the nucleus accumbens from the arcuate ...
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) mRNA expression is restricted to arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus in adult male rat brain ... GALP mRNA expression was detected only throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) with the most abundant ...
Magel2 is required for leptin-mediated depolarization of POMC neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in mice. PLoS Genet. ... Magel2 is required for leptin-mediated depolarization of POMC neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in mice. ... Magel2 is required for leptin-mediated depolarization of POMC neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in mice. ...
... or its precursor pro-opioomelanocortin and the co-expressed cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the arcuate nucleus ... Role of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in regulation of body weight during energy deficit. Abstract. Acute or long- ... Role of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in regulation of body weight during energy deficit ... Role of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in regulation of body weight during energy deficit ...
... study examined whether PACAP regulates the feeding behavior and the activity of neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus ( ... mice display reduced carbohydrate intake and PACAP activates NPY-containing neurons in the rat hypothalamic arcuate nucleus.. @ ... study examined whether PACAP regulates the feeding behavior and the activity of neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus ( ... mice display reduced carbohydrate intake and PACAP activates NPY-containing neurons in the rat hypothalamic arcuate nucleus.}, ...
Differential gene regulation of GHSR signaling pathway in the arcuate nucleus and NPY neurons by fasting, diet-induced obesity ... Differential gene regulation of GHSR signaling pathway in the arcuate nucleus and NPY neurons by fasting, diet-induced obesity ... Ghrelins receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and in ...
Arcuate nucleus neurons are not essential for the preprandial peak in plasma ghrelin after neonatal monosodium glutamate ... The aim of the present study was to determine whether arcuate nucleus (ARC) lesions affect the ghrelin level in the plasma and ... In mammals, NPY neurons coexpress Agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, and NPY/AgRP ... Polycomb group (PcG) proteins control the timing of puberty by repressing the Kiss1 gene in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) ...
What is arcuate nucleus, nucleus arcuati? Meaning of arcuate nucleus, nucleus arcuati medical term. What does arcuate nucleus, ... nucleus arcuati in the Medical Dictionary? arcuate nucleus, nucleus arcuati explanation free. ... nucleus. (redirected from arcuate nucleus, nucleus arcuati). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. nucleus. [noo´ ... globose nucleus (nucleus globo´sus) a cerebellar nucleus lying between the emboliform nucleus and the nucleus fastigii and ...
Acute hyperinsulinemia increases neuropeptide Y concentrations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of fasted rats ... were significantly higher in the arcuate nucleus/median eminence (ARC/ME) of hyperinsulinemic rats than in controls (4.8±1.2 vs ... Acute hyperinsulinemia increases neuropeptide Y concentrations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of fasted rats. Life ...
Nesfatin/NUCB2 is expressed in the appetite-control hypothalamic nuclei such as paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus ... Nesfatin-1 immunopositive neurons are also located in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Nesfatin-1 immunoreactive neurons in the ARC ... Price, Christopher J.; Samson, Willis K.; Ferguson, Alastair V. (2008). "Nesfatin-1 inhibits NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus ... Nesfatin-1 immunoreactivity was also found in the brainstem nuclei such as nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and Dorsal ...
... were demonstrated in the ventromedial and ventrolateral parts of the arcuate nucleus. GABA neurones in the ventromedial arcuate ... No significant differences in GAD65, GAD67 or VGAT mRNA were detected in the arcuate nucleus of ob/ob mice as compared to lean ... Levels of mRNA for GAD65, GAD67 and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) were analysed in the arcuate nucleus of leptin- ... particularly in the arcuate nucleus. In order to identify the chemical mediators of leptins action in the hypothalamus, we ...
arcuate nucleus Reference type: Overview Page. Subject: Science and technology, Psychology. A small nucleus near the base of ...
They receive fibers from the corticospinal tract and send their axons through the external arcuate fibers and striae medullares ... the arcuate nucleus is a group of neurons located on the anterior surface of the medullary pyramids. ... For the hypothalamic structure, see Arcuate nucleus.. In the medulla oblongata, the arcuate nucleus is a group of neurons ... sensory/ascending: Gracile nucleus • Cuneate nucleus (Accessory cuneate nucleus) • Sensory decussation • Medial lemniscus ...
The cell is the smallest unit in the living... Explanation of arcuate nucleus ... Find out information about arcuate nucleus. see cell cell, in biology, the unit of structure and function of which all plants ... Related to arcuate nucleus: Preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus. nucleus:. see cellcell,. in biology, the unit of ... Arcuate nucleus , Article about arcuate nucleus by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/arcuate+ ...
Fasting activates neuropeptide Y neurons in the arcuate nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus in the rhesus macaque. / Grove ... Fasting activates neuropeptide Y neurons in the arcuate nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus in the rhesus macaque. ... title = "Fasting activates neuropeptide Y neurons in the arcuate nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus in the rhesus macaque ... T1 - Fasting activates neuropeptide Y neurons in the arcuate nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus in the rhesus macaque ...
... is synthesised in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). NPY levels rise in the ARC and in appetite-regulating hypothalamic nuclei ... Insulin treatment antagonises starvation-induced increases in neuropeptide Y concentrations in the arcuate nucleus of the rat ... Insulin treatment antagonises starvation-induced increases in neuropeptide Y concentrations in the arcuate nucleus of the rat. ...
GLP-1R signaling directly activates arcuate nucleus kisspeptin action in brain slices but does not rescue luteinizing hormone ... GLP-1R signaling directly activates arcuate nucleus kisspeptin action in brain slices but does not rescue luteinizing hormone ... GLP-1R signaling directly activates arcuate nucleus kisspeptin action in brain slices but does not rescue luteinizing hormone ... title = "GLP-1R signaling directly activates arcuate nucleus kisspeptin action in brain slices but does not rescue luteinizing ...
  • This receptor is highly expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and is regulated in response to nutrient availability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This receptor is highly expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, and it has been demonstrated that hypothalamic expression of Gpr83 is dependent on nutrient availability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings support the hypothesis that the IRS-PI3K pathway is a mediator of insulin action in the arcuate nucleus and, combined with recent evidence that leptin activates PI3K signaling in the hypothalamus, provide a plausible mechanism for neuronal cross-talk between insulin and leptin signaling. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This study was conducted to evaluate changes in MC4R and kiss1 genes expression in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus and its relationship with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in rats. (gmj.ir)
  • Using an immunohistochemical technique to detect PI 3,4,5-triphosphate, the main product of PI3K activity, we further demonstrate that in the arcuate nucleus, insulin-induced PI3K activity occurs preferentially within cells that contain IRS-2. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • POMC neurons that project to the medial preoptic nucleus are also involved in the regulation of sexual behavior in both males and females. (citizendium.org)
  • Direct neural connections from the medial preoptic area (MPOA) to the arcuate nucleus were studied on light and electron microscope level by a multistep experimental procedure. (elsevier.com)
  • In order to eliminate all fibers of more rostral source traversing the medial preoptic area an extended rostral preoptic deafferentation was made, and a survival time of at least 3 weeks was chosen to allow for the complete disappearance of the degenerated fragments from the arcuate nucleus. (elsevier.com)
  • These data suggest that axons originating from medial preoptic neurons terminate in the arcuate nucleus, thus constituting a preoptico-tuberal pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • Köves, K & Réthelyi, M 1976, ' Direct neural connection from the medial preoptic area to the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of the rat ', Experimental brain research , vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 529-539. (elsevier.com)
  • The possible involvement of the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in the development of compensatory ovarian hypertrophy in rats was studied. (elsevier.com)
  • Gerendai, I & Denkova, RT 1980, ' The medical preoptic area and the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus participate in the neuronal mechanism of compensatory ovarian growth ', Neuroendocrinology Letters , vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 263-268. (elsevier.com)
  • This control is likely mediated through activation of ANG II receptors in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area and the ventral portion of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTV) ( 16 , 38 ). (physiology.org)
  • the neurosecretory somatostatin neurons that regulate growth hormone secretion are a different population, located in the periventricular nucleus. (citizendium.org)
  • In a thorough screening of adult male rat brain, GALP mRNA expression was detected only throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) with the most abundant hybridization signal in the posterior, periventricular zones. (nih.gov)
  • Transgenic female mice bearing the long and mediumlength constructs showed apparent GFP signals in kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells in both the ARC and anteroventral periventricular nucleus, in which another population of kisspeptin neurons are located. (elsevier.com)
  • On the other hand, transgenic mice bearing 5′-truncated short construct showed few GFP signals in the ARC kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells, whereas they showed colocalization of GFPand kisspeptin-immunoreactivities in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus. (elsevier.com)
  • On day 17 animals were sacrificed and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive cells counted in the arcuate-periventricular hypothalamic region. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These nuclei are the extension of the pontine nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • They may be described as inferior displaced pontine nuclei . (doccheck.com)
  • Major neuronal loss occurs in the inferior olivary, arcuate, and pontine nuclei. (medscape.com)
  • caudate nucleus ( nucleus cauda´tus ) an elongated, arched gray mass closely related to the lateral ventricle throughout its entire extent, which, together with the putamen, forms the neostriatum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • dentate nucleus ( nucleus denta´tus ) the largest of the deep cerebellar nuclei, lying in the white matter of the cerebellum just lateral to the emboliform nucleus . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Compared with diestrus, lactating rats had significant decreases in ANG II receptor binding in several forebrain regions, most notably in the arcuate nucleus/median eminence, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). (physiology.org)
  • Intraoperative human brain recordings during a memory task reveal that when participants inhibit memory formation, the subthalamic nucleus shows higher beta power and beta coherence with areas of the lateral cortex implicated in memory processing. (elifesciences.org)
  • The arcuate nucleus contains two important populations of neuroendocrine neurons with nerve endings in the median eminence. (citizendium.org)
  • Axonal branches also projected to the adjacent median eminence and exited the arcuate nucleus. (elsevier.com)
  • The axonal branching pattern of KNDy neurones suggests that a single KNDy neurone could influence multiple arcuate neurones, tanycytes in the wall of the third ventricle, axon terminals in the median eminence and numerous areas outside of the arcuate nucleus. (elsevier.com)
  • The Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus-Median Eminence Is a Target for Sustained Diabetes Remission Induced by Fibroblast Growth Factor 1. (celebznews.com)
  • Finally, ANG II stimulates dopamine (DA) release into the portal blood system through activation of receptors on dopaminergic neurons and nerve terminals within the arcuate nucleus (ARH) and median eminence (ME), respectively, resulting in inhibition of prolactin (Prl) release ( 20 , 29 ). (physiology.org)
  • Magel2 is required for leptin-mediated depolarization of POMC neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in mice. (harvard.edu)
  • The present study examined whether PACAP regulates the feeding behavior and the activity of neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), a feeding center. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mechanisms of neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, and pancreatic polypeptide inhibition of identified green fluorescent protein-expressing GABA neurons in the hypothalamic neuroendocrine arcuate nucleus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are key components of the hypothalamic-pituitarygonadal axis, as they regulate the basal pulsatile release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). (elsevier.com)
  • Steve Bloom and colleagues at Imperial College London determined that glucokinase levels in the arcuate nucleus are dramatically increased in fasted rats. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here, we determined that liraglutide does not activate GLP-1-producing neurons in the hindbrain, and liraglutide-dependent body weight reduction in rats was independent of GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) in the vagus nerve, area postrema, and paraventricular nucleus. (jci.org)
  • Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide that is cleaved into MSH, ACTH, and β-endorphin and expressed in the arcuate nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • NPY/AgRP neurons and POMC/CART neurons make up two groups of neurons in the arcuate nucleus that are centrally involved in the neuroendocrine function of feeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • To test the hypothesis that arcuate glutamate cells regulate the activity of anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, we will record from POMC neurons while stimulating local glutamate cells with the excitatory microdrop method to activate cell bodies but not axons of passage. (labome.org)
  • There was no electrophysiological evidence for functional expression of P2X4 receptors on AgRP-NPY neuron somata, but instead, we found clear evidence for functional presynaptic P2X4 receptor-mediated responses in terminals of AgRP-NPY neurons onto two of their postsynaptic targets (Arc POMC and paraventricular nucleus neurons), where ATP dramatically facilitated GABA release. (nih.gov)
  • In a separate experiment, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) mRNA levels were determined in the arcuate nucleus with in situ hybridization in rats subjected to the free-choice diets for 4 weeks. (frontiersin.org)
  • Separate neuron populations within the arcuate nucleus express the precursor of the melanocortin receptor agonist proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and the melanocortin receptor inverse agonist agouti-related protein (AgRP). (frontiersin.org)
  • We investigated the expression of proopioimelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in the arcuate nucleus of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats after administering capsaicin, hypothesizing that administering capsaicin activates the central opioid system. (psychiatryinvestigation.org)
  • In pre-obese Thm1 conditional knock-out mice, expression of anorexogenic pro-opiomelanocortin ( Pomc ) was decreased by 50% in the arcuate nucleus, which likely caused the hyperphagia. (biologists.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of MC4R and AgRP mRNAs in arcuate nucleus (ARC) during long term malnutrition of female ovariectomized rats. (ac.ir)
  • Functional role of arcuate nucleus NPY/AgRP neurons in the GnRH circuit regulating LH secretion. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in the brain acts like the information hub of energy balance, receiving information both from peripheral organs involved in energy storage or release, and receiving axonal information from other regions of the brain that also play important roles in CNS regulation of energy homeostasis, and sending out efferent information that regulates food intake and utilization. (labome.org)
  • Many neurons in the arcuate nucleus have multiple roles;it is possible that the glutamate cell is no exception, and may play a role in other functions that this small but critical part of the brain controls, including regulation of the pituitary and other endocrine organs, reproduction and lactation, growth, metabolism, and response to stress. (labome.org)
  • P2X4 Receptor Reporter Mice: Sparse Brain Expression and Feeding-Related Presynaptic Facilitation in the Arcuate Nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • We report the distribution of tdTomato-expressing cells throughout the brain and particularly strong expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the growth of NPY neurites from the arcuate nucleus (ARC) was impaired in the fetal brain by maternal obesity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Nesfatin/NUCB2 expression has been reported to be modulated by starvation and re-feeding in the Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the arcuate nucleus (ARC) shows a less restrictive blood-brain barrier, expresses GRs, and projects to the PVN, we investigated whether the ARC can detect and produce fast adjustments of circulating Cort. (eneuro.org)
  • This fast control may be an alternative mechanism used by circulating hormones and metabolites to communicate with control centers in the brain via the arcuate nucleus for fast feedback. (eneuro.org)
  • However, only supraphysiological doses of T3 were sufficient to suppress pro-TRH mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of hypothyroid rats [ 10 ] indicating that T4 uptake into the brain is important for normal function of T3-mediated processes in this tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • Peever JH, Necakov A, Duffin J., "Nucleus raphe obscurus modulates hypoglossal output of neonatal rat in vitro transverse brain stem slices. (bionity.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation can selectively modify neural activity within the subthalamic nucleus to modify decisions under uncertainty in human subjects. (elifesciences.org)
  • GABAergic nature of hypothalamic leptin target neurones in the ventromedial arcuate nucleus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Neurones in the arcuate nucleus that express neurokinin B (NKB), kisspeptin and dynorphin (KNDy) play an important role in the reproductive axis. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the morphology of KNDy neurones by filling fluorescent neurones in the arcuate nucleus of Tac2-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic mice with biocytin. (elsevier.com)
  • KNDy neurones exhibited two primary dendrites, each with a few branches confined to the arcuate nucleus. (elsevier.com)
  • The axons of KNDy neurones originated from the cell body or proximal dendrite and gave rise to local branches that appeared to terminate within the arcuate nucleus. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study we have explored further the linkage between this enzyme and other cellular mediators of leptin and insulin action on rat arcuate nucleus neurones and the mouse hypothalamic cell line, GT1-7. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using isolated arcuate neurones, leptin and insulin were demonstrated to increase the activity of K ATP channels in a PI3K dependent manner, and to increase levels of PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • K ATP activation by these hormones in arcuate neurones was also sensitive to the presence of the actin filament stabilising toxin, jasplakinolide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Leptin and insulin mediated phosphorylation of cellular signalling intermediates and of K ATP channel activation in arcuate neurones is sensitive to PI3K inhibition, thus strengthening further the likely importance of this enzyme in leptin and insulin mediated energy homeostasis control. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sensitivity of leptin and insulin stimulation of K ATP channel opening in arcuate neurones to jasplakinolide indicates that cytoskeletal remodelling may be an important contributor to the cellular signalling mechanisms of these hormones in hypothalamic neurones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A hypothalamic nucleus in the ventral wall of the third ventricle near the pituitary stalk. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The main structures that make up the reward pathway are the ventral tegmental area, the nucleus accumbens (both shown in purple), the amygdala (in green), and the prefrontal cortex (in grey). (learner.org)
  • NPY levels rise in the ARC and in appetite-regulating hypothalamic nuclei in food-deprived rats, and may drive compensatory hyperphagia in starvation. (edu.au)
  • In the present study, we show that microcuts effectively removing SCN-arcuate nucleus (ARC) interconnectivity in Wistar rats result in a loss of rhythmicity in locomotor activity, corticosterone levels, and body temperature in constant dark (DD) conditions. (eneuro.org)
  • After suppression of ERα expression in this nucleus, female mice and rats developed a phenotype characteristic for metabolic syndrome and marked by obesity, hyperphagia, impaired tolerance to glucose, and reduced energy expenditure. (pnas.org)
  • The arcuate nucleus includes several important and diverse populations of neurons that help mediate different neuroendocrine and physiological functions, including neuroendocrine neurons, centrally projecting neurons, and astrocytes . (wikipedia.org)
  • A second population of neuroendocrine neurons, mainly in the ventrolateral part of the arcuate nucleus, make growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). (citizendium.org)
  • Considering the role of the arcuate nucleus in feeding controls, our data highlight TSHR and CART as putative neuroendocrine signaling components that respond to inflammation, perhaps to maintain weight and metabolic homeostasis during states of disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • basal nuclei ( nu´clei basa´les ) specific interconnected subcortical masses of gray matter embedded in each cerebral hemisphere and in the upper brainstem , comprising the corpus striatum (caudate and lentiform nuclei), amygdaloid body , claustrum , and external, extreme, and internal capsules . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nesfatin-1 immunoreactivity was also found in the brainstem nuclei such as nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and Dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one case in particular an acquired hyperacute encephalitis of the tractus solitarii nucleus was diagnosed in the brainstem. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Nucleus arcuatus" visible near bottom right. (wikia.org)
  • Kisspeptin/NKB neurons within the arcuate nucleus form synaptic inputs with TIDA neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • A-C) Representative immunolabelling (upper panels) and quantification (lower panels) of the number of kisspeptin- immunoreactive neurons in the RP3V (A) and fiber density in the RP3V (B) and arcuate nucleus (C) in wild type mice. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Kisspeptin neurons, located in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), are considered to be an intrinsic source of the GnRH pulse generator. (elsevier.com)
  • Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA is expressed in a number of hypothalamic nuclei including the arcuate nucleus (ARC). (elsevier.com)
  • Most of the critical peptides involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis have been colocalized with the inhibitory transmitter GABA in the arcuate nucleus. (labome.org)
  • These studies reported that the arcuate nucleus includes several populations of neurons that contain neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, GABA, and αMSH. (ac.ir)
  • Activation of arcuate nucleus GABA neurons promotes luteinizing hormone secretion and reproductive dysfunction: Implications for polycystic ovary syndrome. (otago.ac.nz)
  • They receive fibers from the corticospinal tract and send their axons through the anterior external arcuate fibers and medullary striae to the cerebellum via the inferior cerebellar peduncle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The arcuate nuclei are situated on the anterior surface of the pyramids . (doccheck.com)
  • They receive fibers from the cerebral cortex and send fibers via the anterior external arcuate fibers to the cerebellum . (doccheck.com)
  • [3] Much smaller parvocellular neurosecretory cells , neurons of the paraventricular nucleus, release corticotropin-releasing hormone and other hormones into the hypophyseal portal system , where these hormones diffuse to the anterior pituitary . (wikipedia.org)
  • The arcuate nucleus contains some other neuronal cell types the function of which is still not fully known. (citizendium.org)
  • In areas such as the LH, VMH, and nucleus of the solitary tract, 20-40% of neurons sampled show such glucose-sensing properties ( 36 , 72 , 83 , 100 ). (physiology.org)
  • A third set of electrophysiological experiments tests the hypothesis that neuropeptides released from other arcuate nucleus neurons involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis modulate the activity of the arcuate glutamate neurons. (labome.org)
  • In the fourth set of experiments, we ask whether arcuate glutamate neurons respond to long distance cues relating to energy homeostasis, particularly glucose and leptin. (labome.org)
  • The physiological activity of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons is critical for dynamic maintenance of body energy homeostasis, and its malfunction can result in common metabolic disorders, such as obesity. (jneurosci.org)
  • It is well accepted that neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in the rodent, with NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARH) being thought of as the major contributor to the complex central feeding circuitry. (elsevier.com)
  • Many neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and proteins are localized to the arcuate nucleus where they contribute to the regulation of reproductive cyclicity and energy homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • A pre-embedding immunostaining technique was used to study the ultrastructure and synaptic relationships of ghrelin-containing neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus (ARC). (nih.gov)
  • The arcuate nucleus provides many physiological roles involved in feeding, metabolism, fertility, and cardiovascular regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This application focuses on what appears to be a new cellular player in the CNS regulation of energy balance that we have identified, the arcuate glutamatergic neuron, a cell that has the profile of one that reduces food intake. (labome.org)
  • The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is generally considered the master clock, independently driving all circadian rhythms. (eneuro.org)
  • The present study challenges that view and shows that for a proper functioning circadian system, SCN interaction with the arcuate nucleus (ARC) is essential. (eneuro.org)
  • emboliform nucleus ( nucleus embolifor´mis ) a small cerebellar nucleus lying between the dentate nucleus and the globose nucleus and contributing to the superior cerebellar peduncles . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • intracerebellar nuclei four accumulations of gray matter embedded in the white matter of the cerebellum, comprising the dentate nucleus , emboliform nucleus , nucleus fastigii , and globose nucleus . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dentate nuclei are well preserved. (medscape.com)
  • Diagram showing the course of the arcuate fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • globose nucleus ( nucleus globo´sus ) a cerebellar nucleus lying between the emboliform nucleus and the nucleus fastigii and projecting its fibers via the superior cerebellar peduncle . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Labels for "External arcuate fibers" and "Dorsal external arcuate fibers" visible at lower right. (wikia.org)
  • Maternal obesity and IL-6 lead to aberrant developmental gene expression and deregulated neurite growth in the fetal arcuate nucleus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Polycomb group (PcG) proteins control the timing of puberty by repressing the Kiss1 gene in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In order to investigate the neuropeptide alterations as a consequence of dietary binge eating, relative gene expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1r), prodynorphin, and related genes were measured in LC and hypothalamic arcuate (Arc) regions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Numerous terminal boutons were also visualised within the ependymal layer of the third ventricle adjacent to the arcuate nucleus. (elsevier.com)
  • Although acupuncture activates β-endorphin neurons in the ARC projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a role for ARC β-endorphin neurons in alcohol dependence and acupuncture effects has not been examined. (sciencemag.org)
  • PACAP deficient mice display reduced carbohydrate intake and PACAP activates NPY-containing neurons in the rat hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The populations of neurons found in the arcuate nucleus are based on the hormones they secrete or interact with and are responsible for hypothalamic function, such as regulating hormones released from the pituitary gland or secreting their own hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipopolysaccharide suppressed TSHR mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus and the pituitary. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CART mRNA expression was reduced in the arcuate nucleus but elevated in the pituitary of mice treated with Lipopolysaccharide, whereas plasma TSH remained unchanged. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plasma levels of TSH, CARTp, and serum amyloid P component were analyzed by ELISA.Lipopolysaccharide suppressed TSHR mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus and the pituitary. (gu.se)
  • Experiments with estradiol microinjections used to map the function of distinct hypothalamic nuclei have produced conflicting results, likely because of differences in needle placement and diffusion of the hormone beyond targeted areas ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)