Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Kisspeptins: Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Neurokinin B: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ A with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the URINARY BLADDER and UTERUS.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus: A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.Hypothalamus, Middle: Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.alpha-MSH: A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus: An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the THIRD VENTRICLE.Melanocortins: Peptides derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) which can stimulate MELANOCYTES or CORTICOTROPHS. Melanocortins include ACTH; ALPHA-MSH; and other peptides such as BETA-MSH and GAMMA-MSH, derived from other fragments of POMC. These peptides act through a variety of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS to control different functions including steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis, feeding, and skin pigmentation.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Receptors, Neuropeptide Y: Cell surface proteins that bind neuropeptide Y with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Sodium Glutamate: One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.Hypothalamic Area, Lateral: Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Dynorphins: A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.Neuroanatomical Tract-Tracing Techniques: Methods used to label and follow the course of NEURAL PATHWAYS by AXONAL TRANSPORT of injected NEURONAL TRACT-TRACERS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Median Eminence: Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 3: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH; GAMMA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.beta-Endorphin: A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Galanin-Like Peptide: A neuropeptide that is highly homologous to GALANIN. It is produced by proteolytic processing of a larger protein that is unrelated to prepro-galanin and preferentially binds to GALANIN-2 RECEPTOR.Neuronal Tract-Tracers: Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Receptors, Neurokinin-3: A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin B (neurokinin beta, neuromedin K) over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-3 (NK-3) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. They have been found in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues.Galanin: A neuropeptide of 29-30 amino acids depending on the species. Galanin is widely distributed throughout the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and INTESTINES. There are various subtypes of GALANIN RECEPTORS implicating roles of galanin in regulating FOOD INTAKE; pain perception; memory; and other neuroendocrine functions.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Third Ventricle: A narrow cleft inferior to the CORPUS CALLOSUM, within the DIENCEPHALON, between the paired thalami. Its floor is formed by the HYPOTHALAMUS, its anterior wall by the lamina terminalis, and its roof by EPENDYMA. It communicates with the FOURTH VENTRICLE by the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT, and with the LATERAL VENTRICLES by the interventricular foramina.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Receptors, Ghrelin: Transmembrane proteins that recognize and bind GHRELIN, a potent stimulator of GROWTH HORMONE secretion and food intake in mammals. Ghrelin receptors are found in the pituitary and HYPOTHALAMUS. They belong to the family of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Phodopus: A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.Respiratory System Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the respiratory system.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Receptors, Melanocortin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that have specificity for MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. There are several subtypes of melanocortin receptors, each having a distinct ligand specificity profile and tissue localization.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Electroacupuncture: A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Red Nucleus: A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Trigeminal Nuclei: Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Fourth Ventricle: An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Supraoptic Nucleus: Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Midline Thalamic Nuclei: Small, nonspecific nerve cells scattered in the periventricular GRAY MATTER, separating the medial part of the thalamus from the EPENDYMA of the THIRD VENTRICLE. The group includes the paraventricular nucleus, paratenial nucleus, reuniens nucleus, rhomboidal nucleus, and subfascular nucleus.Periaqueductal Gray: Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Serotonergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Renilla: A genus of bioluminescent marine invertebrates in the family Renillidae, order Pennatulacea, class ANTHOZOA. It contains Renilla LUCIFERASE which oxidizes coelenterazine resulting in LUMINESCENCE.Feedback, Physiological: A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.GABA Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Cholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Berberine Alkaloids: A group of related plant alkaloids that contain the BERBERINE heterocyclic ring structure.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Nerve Tissue ProteinsHomeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Infusions, Intraventricular: The delivery of a drug into a fluid-filled cavity of the brain.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.

Antagonistic effects of extract from leaves of ginkgo biloba on glutamate neurotoxicity. (1/497)

AIM: To determine whether the extract of leaves of Ginkgo biloba L (EGb) and several active constituents of EGb have protective effects against glutamate (Glu)-induced neuronal damage. METHODS: Microscopy and image analysis of nucleus areas in the arcuate nuclei (AN) of mice were made. The neuronal viability in primary cultures from mouse cerebral cortex was assessed using MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] staining and the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) of single neuron was measured using Fura-2. RESULTS: EGb (2.5 mg.L-1) and its constituent ginkgolide B (Gin B, 2 mg.L-1) protected the neuronal viability against Glu-induced injury, and prevented the Glu-induced elevation in [Ca2+]i. EGb (3-10 mg.kg-1) attenuated the decrease of nucleus areas in arcuate nuclei induced by Glu (1 g.kg-1, s.c.). CONCLUSION: EGb and Gin B prevent neurons from Glu neurotoxicity through reduction of the rise in [Ca2+]i.  (+info)

Multiple neuropeptide Y receptors regulate K+ and Ca2+ channels in acutely isolated neurons from the rat arcuate nucleus. (2/497)

We examined the effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and related peptides on Ca2+ and K+ currents in acutely isolated neurons from the arcuate nucleus of the rat. NPY analogues that activated all of the known NPY receptors (Y1-Y5), produced voltage-dependent inhibition of Ca2+ currents and activation of inwardly rectifying K+ currents in arcuate neurons. Both of these effects could occur simultaneously in the same cells. In some cells, activation of Y4 NPY receptors also caused oscillations in [Ca2+]i. NPY hyperpolarized arcuate neurons through the activation of a K+ conductance and increased the spike threshold. Molecular biological studies indicated that arcuate neurons possessed all of the previously cloned NPY receptor types (Y1, Y2, Y4, and Y5). Thus activation of multiple types NPY receptors on arcuate neurons can regulate both Ca2+ and K+ conductances leading to a reduction in neuronal excitability and a suppression of neurotransmitter release.  (+info)

Analgesia-producing mechanism of processed Aconiti tuber: role of dynorphin, an endogenous kappa-opioid ligand, in the rodent spinal cord. (3/497)

The analgesia-producing mechanism of processed Aconiti tuber was examined using rodents whose nociceptive threshold was decreased by loading repeated cold stress (RCS). The antinociceptive effect of processed Aconiti tuber (0.3 g/kg, p.o.) in RCS-loaded mice was antagonized by pretreatment with a kappa-opioid antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (10 mg/kg, s.c.), and was abolished by an intrathecal injection of anti-dynorphin antiserum (5 microg). The Aconiti tuber-induced antinociception was inhibited by both dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and a dopamine D2 antagonist, sulpiride (10 mg/kg, i.p.), in RCS-loaded mice, and it was eliminated by both an electric lesion of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (HARN) and a highly selective dopamine D2 antagonist, eticlopride (0.05 microg), administered into the HARN in RCS-loaded rats. These results suggest that the analgesic effect of processed Aconiti tuber was produced via the stimulation of kappa-opioid receptors by dynorphin released in the spinal cord. It was also shown that dopamine D2 receptors in the HARN were involved in the expression of the analgesic activity of processed Aconiti tuber.  (+info)

STZ-induced diabetes decreases and insulin normalizes POMC mRNA in arcuate nucleus and pituitary in rats. (4/497)

Effects of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and insulin on opioid peptide gene expression were examined in rats. In experiment 1, three groups were administered STZ (75 mg/kg ip single injection). Two groups were killed at either 2 or 4 wk. In the third group, insulin treatment (7.0 IU/kg x 1 day for 3 wk) was initiated 1 wk after STZ injection. STZ induced hyperphagia and reduced weight gain. Insulin decreased food intake and increased body weight relative to diabetes. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in arcuate nucleus (Arc) and pituitary decreased in diabetes and normalized after insulin treatment. Prodynorphin (proDyn) mRNA increased in diabetes and normalized in the pituitary after insulin but not in the Arc. Diabetes did not alter proenkephalin (proEnk) expression in the Arc or pituitary, nor dynorphin A1-17 or beta-endorphin in paraventricular nucleus (PVN). alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) peptide levels were decreased in the PVN and normalized following insulin treatment. Diabetes increased Arc neuropeptide Y mRNA, and insulin suppressed this increase. In experiment 2, insulin (2.5 IU/kg sc) daily for 1 wk in normal rats increased Arc POMC mRNA, but not proDyn and proEnk mRNA. These results suggest that Arc POMC expression and PVN alpha-MSH peptide levels decrease in diabetes. Also, insulin may influence Arc and pituitary POMC activity in neurons that regulate energy metabolism.  (+info)

Expression of preproopiomelanocortin mRNA and preprodynorphin mRNA in brain of spontaneously hypertensive rats. (5/497)

AIM: To compare the expressions of prepropiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA and preprodynorphin (PPD) mRNA between 16-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). METHODS: The expression of POMC mRNA and PPD mRNA were detected with nonradioactive in situ hybridization by digoxigenin-labeled RNA probe. RESULTS: POMC mRNA mainly was expressed in arcuate nucleus, compared with WKY, SHR had higher level of POMC mRNA (542). PPD mRNA was found in hippocampus, hypothalamus, central gray, nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and thoracic spinal cord (T4-T6). Compared with WKY, PPD mRNA level of SHR decreased in dentate gyrus (2342), NTS (381), and medial preoptic area (467); no difference was observed in arcuate nucleus (263), thoracic spinal cord (750-1800) and CA1, CA2, CA3 of hippocampus (1674, 2014, 2626). CONCLUSION: Increase of POMC mRNA in arcuate nucleus and decrease of PPD mRNA in dentate gyrus of SHR may be associated with the genesis of spontaneous hypertension.  (+info)

Distribution of estrogen receptor-beta messenger ribonucleic acid in the male sheep hypothalamus. (6/497)

As a first step in determining possible influences of the newly discovered estrogen receptor (ER)-beta on reproduction, we have localized mRNA for ER-beta within the male sheep hypothalamus using in situ hybridization and a rat ER-beta cRNA probe. Highest amounts of hybridization signal were observed in the preoptic area (POA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, and supraoptic nucleus. Relatively moderate amounts of hybridization signal were observed in the retrochiasmatic area (RCH), anterior hypothalamic area, dorsomedial hypothalamus, and lateral hypothalamus. Only a low level of hybridization signal was observed in the ventromedial hypothalamus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and arcuate nucleus. The presence of ER-beta mRNA in several areas of the male sheep hypothalamus suggests multiple functions for this receptor. The distribution of ER-beta in the ovine hypothalamus was similar to that described for the rat, suggesting a high degree of functional conservation across species. A role for ER-beta in influencing reproduction is suggested by its presence in the POA and RCH, regions of the hypothalamus that control reproduction.  (+info)

Pre- and postsynaptic actions of opioid and orphan opioid agonists in the rat arcuate nucleus and ventromedial hypothalamus in vitro. (7/497)

1. Using whole-cell patch clamp recording from neurones in an in vitro slice preparation, we have examined opioid- and orphanin FQ (OFQ)-mediated modulation of synaptic transmission in the rat arcuate nucleus and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). 2. Application of OFQ activated a Ba2+-sensitive and inwardly rectifying K+ conductance in approximately 50 % of arcuate nucleus neurones and approximately 95 % of VMH neurones. The OFQ-activated current was blocked by the nociceptin antagonist [Phe1Psi(CH2NH)Gly2]-nociceptin(1-13) NH2 (NCA), a peptide that on its own exhibited only weak agonist activity at high concentrations (> 1 microM). Similar current activation was observed with the mu agonist DAMGO but not delta (DPDPE) or kappa (U69593) agonists. 3. In arcuate nucleus neurones, DAMGO (1 microM), U69593 (1 microM) and OFQ (100 nM to 1 microM) but not DPDPE (1 microM) were found to depress the amplitude of electrically evoked glutamatergic postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and decrease the magnitude of paired-pulse depression, indicating that opioid receptors were located presynaptically. 4. In VMH neurones, DAMGO strongly depressed the EPSC amplitude in all cells examined. DAMGO decreased the magnitude of paired-pulse depression, indicating that mu receptors were located presynaptically. U69593 weakly depressed the EPSC while OFQ and DPDPE had no effect. 5. In VMH neurones, DAMGO depressed the frequency of miniature EPSCs (-58 %) in the presence of tetrodotoxin and Cd2+ (100 microM), suggesting that the actions of mu receptors could be mediated by an inhibition of the synaptic vesicle release process downstream of Ca2+ entry. 6. The data presented show that presynaptic modulation of excitatory neurotransmission in the arcuate nucleus occurs through mu, kappa and the orphan opioid ORL-1 receptors while in the VMH presynaptic modulation only occurs through mu opioid receptors. Additionally, postsynaptic mu and ORL-1 receptors in both the arcuate nucleus and VMH modulate neuronal excitability through activation of a K+ conductance.  (+info)

Expression of the Huntington's disease gene is regulated in astrocytes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of postpartum rats. (8/497)

Huntington's disease (HD) is one of a number of neurodegenerative disorders caused by expansion of polyglutamine-encoding CAG repeats within specific genes. Huntingtin, the protein product of the HD gene, is widely expressed in neural and nonneural human and rodent tissue. The function of the wild-type or mutated form of huntingtin is currently unknown. We have observed that relative to naive and male animals, huntingtin protein was significantly increased in the arcuate nucleus of postpartum rats. Using an oligonucleotide probe, in situ and Northern blot hybridization confirmed the expression of huntingtin mRNA. Quantification of the in situ hybridization signal in the arcuate nucleus revealed an approximate sevenfold increase in the expression of huntingtin mRNA in postpartum, lactating animals compared with naive female or male animals. Emulsion autoradiography and immunohistochemistry revealed that the cells with elevated huntingtin expression had a stellate conformation that morphologically resembled astrocytes. Dual label immunofluorescence immunohistochemistry demonstrated the colocalization of huntingtin and glial fibrillary acidic protein in these cells, confirming that they were astrocytes. Astrocytes expressing huntingtin were consistently found in close apposition to neuronal soma, suggesting interactions between these cell types. During the perinatal and postnatal period, the hypothalamus undergoes alterations in metabolic function. Our results support the idea of glia-induced metabolic changes in the hypothalamus. These results provide the first demonstration of naturally occurring changes in the expression of the Huntington's disease gene in the brain and suggest that huntingtin may play an important role in the processes that regulate neuroendocrine function.  (+info)

*Arcuate nucleus

The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH, ARC, or infundibular nucleus) is an aggregation of neurons in the ... The arcuate nucleus also contains a population of specialized ependymal cells, called tanycytes. Astrocytes in the arcuate ... NPY/AgRP neurons and POMC/CART neurons make up two groups of neurons in the arcuate nucleus that are centrally involved in the ... "The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus: A key site for mediating leptin's effects on glucose homeostasis and locomotor activity". ...

*Arcuate nucleus (medulla)

... the arcuate nucleus is a group of neurons located on the anterior surface of the medullary pyramids. These nuclei are the ... Arcuate nuclei are capable of chemosensitivity and have a proven role in controlling respiratory frequency. Diagram showing the ... They receive fibers from the corticospinal tract and send their axons through the anterior external arcuate fibers and striae ... course of the arcuate fibers. The formatio reticularis of the medulla oblongata, shown by a transverse section passing through ...

*Pathophysiology of obesity

Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin. Leptin inhibits the NPY/AgRP group while stimulating ... The arcuate nucleus contains two distinct groups of neurons. The first group coexpresses neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti- ... The circuit begins with an area of the hypothalamus, the arcuate nucleus, that has outputs to the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and ...

*Nesfatin-1

Nesfatin/NUCB2 is expressed in the appetite-control hypothalamic nuclei such as paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus ... Nesfatin-1 immunopositive neurons are also located in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Nesfatin-1 immunoreactive neurons in the ARC ... Price, Christopher J.; Samson, Willis K.; Ferguson, Alastair V. (2008). "Nesfatin-1 inhibits NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus ... Nesfatin-1 immunoreactivity was also found in the brainstem nuclei such as nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and Dorsal ...

*Neuropeptide

For example, in one subpopulation of about 3000 neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, three anorectic peptides ... in the arcuate nucleus) Acetylcholine VIP Substance P Dopamine Cholecystokinin Neurotensin Glucagon-like peptide-1 (in the ... These are not the only peptides in the arcuate nucleus; β-endorphin, dynorphin, enkephalin, galanin, ghrelin, growth-hormone ... Vasopressin co-exists with dynorphin and galanin in magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus ...

*Eating

Leptin targets the receptors on the arcuate nucleus and suppresses the secretion of MCH and orexin. The arcuate nucleus also ...

*Michael Warren Schwartz

Leptin increases proopimelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression in the rostral arcuate nucleus. Diabetes. 46:2119-2123, 1997. Hahn T ...

*Astrocyte

Gömöri-positive astrocytes are much more abundant within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and in the hippocampus than in ... "Composition of Gomori-positive inclusions in astrocytes of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus". Anatomical Record. 240 (3): 407- ... Modulation of synaptic transmission: In the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, rapid changes in astrocyte morphology have ...

*Proopiomelanocortin

... α-MSH produced by neurons in the arcuate nucleus has important roles in the regulation of appetite (POMC neuron stimulation ... "Leptin activates anorexigenic POMC neurons through a neural network in the arcuate nucleus". Nature. 411 (6836): 480-4. doi: ... the anterior pituitary gland Melanotrope cells of the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland Neurons in the arcuate nucleus ...

*Neurokinin B

It has been found that in brain of females, the arcuate nucleus contains twice as many connections to NKB neurons than males. ... Neurokinin b is expressed along with the peptides kisspeptin and dynorphin A in the neuronal cells of the arcuate nucleus. Five ... NKB found mostly in the arcuate nucleus in humans, is found mostly in the monkey hypothalamus. By injecting NKB analogs ... Studies show that in postmenopausal woman there is an increased expression of tachykinin neurons in the arcuate nucleus. In ...

*Puberty

... with de-inhibition of the pulse generator in the arcuate nucleus. This inhibition of the arcuate nucleus is an ongoing active ... The arcuate nucleus is affected and controlled by neuronal input from other areas of the brain and hormonal input from the ... The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is the driver of the reproductive system. It has neurons which generate and release ... Neurons of the arcuate nucleus secrete gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) into the blood of the pituitary portal system. An ...

*Chromatolysis

... particularly in the pontine nuclei and the cerebellar dentate nuclei. Nuclei of cranial nerves, arcuate nuclei, and posterior ... The event of chromatolysis is also characterized by a prominent migration of the nucleus towards the periphery of the cell and ... The loss of staining begins near the nucleus and spreads toward the axon hillock. The basophilic rim is formed as chromatolysis ... In neurons receiving axonal transection, central chromatolysis is observed in the area between the nucleus and the axon hillock ...

*Galanin-like peptide

It is a 60-amino acid polypeptide produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary gland. It is ... and dopamine-containing neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus". Regulatory Peptides. 145 (1-3): 165-8. doi:10.1016/j.regpep. ... "Galanin-like peptide stimulates food intake via activation of neuropeptide Y neurons in the hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus of ...

*Ghrelin

Hewson AK, Tung LY, Connell DW, Tookman L, Dickson SL (December 2002). "The rat arcuate nucleus integrates peripheral signals ... "Novel insight in distribution of nesfatin-1 and phospho-mTOR in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of rats". Peptides. 31 ... "Systemic administration of ghrelin induces Fos and Egr-1 proteins in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of fasted and fed rats". ... increase body weight and fat mass by triggering receptors in the arcuate nucleus that include the orexigenic neuropeptide Y ( ...

*Neuropeptide Y

... specifically in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and dentate gyrus. The arcuate nucleus has been found to have one of the highest ... Minor RK, Chang JW, de Cabo R (February 2009). "Hungry for life: How the arcuate nucleus and neuropeptide Y may play a critical ... Furthermore, in situ hybridization results from the study showed the highest cellular levels of NPY mRNA in the arcuate nucleus ... Pomonis JD, Levine AS, Billington CJ (July 1997). "Interaction of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and central nucleus ...

*Median preoptic nucleus

Although not only the SCN but also the arcuate nucleus (ARC), are involved in the Tb setting through afferents to the ... The median preoptic nucleus is located dorsal to the other three nuclei of the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus. The ... Activation of the median preoptic nucleus leads to stimulation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The afferents to this area ... When combined with lesions on other preoptic hypothalamic nuclei, however, damage to the median preoptic nucleus causes an ...

*Growth hormone-releasing hormone

It is a 44-amino acid peptide hormone produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. GHRH first appears in the human ... GHRH is released from neurosecretory nerve terminals of these arcuate neurons, and is carried by the hypothalamo-hypophyseal ... allowing the free catalytic subunits to translocate to the nucleus and phosphorylate the transcription factor cAMP response ...

*Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

"Kisspeptin immunoreactive cells of the ovine preoptic area and arcuate nucleus co-express estrogen receptor alpha". ...

*Melanocortin

The only neurons known to release melanocortins are located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalmus. Accordingly, there is a ...

*Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Some neurons in arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus make and secrete α-MSH in response to leptin; α-MSH is also made and ...

*Agouti-related peptide

It is synthesised only in neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing cell bodies located in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus ... This hormone acts in the arcuate nucleus and inhibits the AgRP/NPY neuron from releasing orexigenic peptides. Ghrelin has ... mRNA in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of hyperphagic and obese tub/tub mice". Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 125 ... mRNA in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of hyperphagic and obese tub/tub mice". Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 125 ...

*Hypophyseal portal system

Its main function is to quickly transport and exchange hormones between the hypothalamus arcuate nucleus and anterior pituitary ... Many of these branches are continuous between the proximal arcuate nucleus and anterior pituitary, enabling rapid hormone ... Other evidence indicates that capillary perivascular spaces of the median eminence and arcuate nucleus are contiguous, ... of these studies have shown that the neural hypophyseal stalk and ventromedial region of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus ...

*Growth hormone secretagogue receptor

In the brain, they are most highly expressed in the hypothalamus, specifically the ventromedial nucleus and arcuate nucleus. ...

*Anterior external arcuate fibers

This is named the arcuate nucleus, and is serially continuous above with the pontine nuclei in the pons; it contains small ... The anterior external arcuate fibers (ventral external arcuate fibers) vary as to their prominence: in some cases they form an ... As the fibers arch across the pyramid, they enclose a small nucleus which lies in front of and medial to the pyramid. ... fusiform (spindle-shaped) cells, around which some of the arcuate fibers end, and from which others arise. The reticular ...

*Pontine nuclei

Extension of these nuclei in the medulla oblongata are named arcuate nucleus (medulla) which has the same function. They ... The pontine nuclei (or griseum pontis) are the nuclei of the pons involved in motor activity. Corticopontine fibres carry ... information from the primary motor cortex to the ipsilateral pontine nucleus in the ventral pons, and the pontocerebellar ...

*Spinal cord

The collection of secondary axons that do this are known as internal arcuate fibers. The internal arcuate fibers decussate and ... From here, the information is brought to deep nuclei of the cerebellum including the fastigial and interposed nuclei. From the ... either the nucleus gracilis or the nucleus cuneatus, depending on the pathway it took. At this point, the secondary axon leaves ... The midbrain nuclei include four motor tracts that send upper motor neuronal axons down the spinal cord to lower motor neurons ...
For the first time we have identified a nonsteroidal compound, STX, which selectively targets the mER and is more potent than E2 in activating a membrane delimited pathway in hypothalamic arcuate neurons. STX is fully efficacious in ERα and ERβ knock-out mice and has no proliferative effects on reproductive organs, yet it is effective in reducing the weight gain associated with hypoestrogenic states. Although we found that other arcuate neurons express this mER signaling pathway (Qiu et al., 2003), this pathway is involved in heterologous desensitization of the μ-opioid (autoreceptor) and GABAB receptors in POMC neurons and therefore would play a critical role in dictating the level of excitability POMC neurons. These neurons appear to be the critical "relay" neurons in the melanocortin pathway, and their activity ultimately dictates the level of excitability in feeding circuits (Saper et al., 2002; Jobst et al., 2004; Cone, 2005).. Presently, we have characterized an mER that is Gq-coupled ...
Acta Physiologica Sinica Melatonin attenuates the intensity of β-endorphin immunoreactivity in the arcuate nucleus of rat hypothalamus 2000 Issue 0371-0874
Recently, the orphan G-protein coupled receptor 83 (GPR83) was identified as a new participant in body weight regulation. This receptor is highly expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and is regulated in response to nutrient availability. Gpr83 knock-out mice are protected from diet-induced obesity. Moreover, in a previous study, we designed and characterized several artificial constitutively activating mutations (CAMs) in GPR83. A particular CAM was located in the extracellular N-terminal domain (eNDo) that is highly conserved among GPR83 orthologs. This suggests the contribution of this receptor part into regulation of signaling, which needed a more detailed investigation. In this present study, therefore, we further explored the role of the eNDo in regulating GPR83-signaling and demonstrate a proof-of-principle approach in that deletion mutants are characterized by a strong increase in basal Gq/11-mediated signaling, whilst none of the additionally characterized signaling pathways (Gs, Gi,
TY - JOUR. T1 - GLP-1R signaling directly activates arcuate nucleus kisspeptin action in brain slices but does not rescue luteinizing hormone inhibition in ovariectomized mice during negative energy balance. AU - Heppner, Kristy M.. AU - Baquero, Arian F.. AU - Bennett, Camdin M.. AU - Lindsley, Sarah R.. AU - Kirigiti, Melissa A.. AU - Bennett, Baylin. AU - Bosch, Martha A.. AU - Mercer, Aaron J.. AU - Ronnekleiv, Oline. AU - True, Cadence. AU - Grove, Kevin. AU - Smith, M (Susan). PY - 2017/1/5. Y1 - 2017/1/5. N2 - Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are key components of the hypothalamic-pituitarygonadal axis, as they regulate the basal pulsatile release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). ARC Kiss1 action is dependent on energy status, and unmasking metabolic factors responsible for modulating ARC Kiss1 neurons is of great importance. One possible factor is glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an anorexigenic neuropeptide produced by brainstem ...
The study explored effects of brexpiprazole (partial D2/5-HT1A agonist, 5-HT2A and α1B/2C-adrenoceptor antagonist) in rats exposed to predator scent stress (PSS), a proposed model of PTSD-like phenotype. Brexpiprazole (3.0mg/kg, PO), escitalopram (5.0mg/kg, IP) and their combination were administered twice daily for 14 days, starting 14 days after exposure to PSS or sham-PSS, shortly after a situational stress reminder. One day after last treatment behavioral responsivity was assessed. Brexpiprazole+escitalopram-treated rats spent more time in open arms, entered open arms more often and exhibited a lower anxiety index in the elevated plus maze than vehicle-treated, PSS-exposed rats ...
Sanathara NM, Moreas J, Mahavongtrakul M, Sinchak K. Estradiol upregulates progesterone receptor and orphanin FQ colocalization in arcuate nucleus neurons and opioid receptor-like receptor-1 expression in proopiomelanocortin neurons that project to the medial preoptic nucleus in the female rat. Neuroendocrinology. 2014;100(2-3):103-18. PMCID: 4225187 ...
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A new study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation reveals that activation of an enzyme, glucokinase, in a region of the hypothalamus called the arcuate nucleus specifically increases glucose uptake.
Hormonal satiety signals secreted by the gut play a pivotal role in the physiological control of appetite. However, therapeutic exploitation of the gut-brain axis requires greater insight into the interaction of gut hormones with CNS circuits of appetite control. Using the manganese ion (Mn2+) as an activity-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, we showed an increase in signal intensity (SI) in key appetite-regulatory regions of the hypothalamus, including the arcuate, paraventricular, and ventromedial nuclei, after peripheral injection of the orexigenic peptide ghrelin. Conversely, administration of the anorexigenic hormone peptide YY3-36 caused a reduction in SI. In both cases, the changes in SI recorded in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus preceded the effect of these peptides on food intake. Intravenous Mn2+ itself did not significantly alter ghrelin-mediated expression of the immediate early gene product c-Fos, nor did it cause abnormalities of behavior or metabolic ...
Sárvári, Miklós and Kalló, Imre and Hrabovszky, Erik and Solymosi, Norbert and Liposits, Zsolt (2017) Ovariectomy Alters Gene Expression of the Hippocampal Formation in Middle-Aged Rats. Endocrinology, 158 (1). pp. 69-83. ISSN 0013-7227 (print), 1945-7170 (online) Vastagh, Csaba and Rodolosse, Annie and Solymosi, Norbert and Liposits, Zsolt (2016) Altered Expression of Genes Encoding Neurotransmitter Receptors in GnRH Neurons of Proestrous Mice. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 10. pp. 1-16. ISSN 1662-5102, ESSN: 1662-5102 Molnár, Csilla and Sárvári, Miklós and Vastagh, Csaba and Maurnyi, Csilla and Fekete, Csaba and Liposits, Zsolt and Hrabovszky, Erik (2016) Altered gene expression profile of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of male mice suggests profound developmental changes in peptidergic signaling. NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY. ISSN 0028-3835 (In Press) Bálint, Flóra and Liposits, Zsolt and Farkas, Imre (2016) Estrogen Receptor Beta and 2-arachidonoylglycerol Mediate the Suppressive ...
The aim was to examine the impact of lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation on expression of mRNA for cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and its ligands in CNS areas of relevance for feeding controls and metabolism. Lipopolysaccharide effects on plasma levels of TSH and CART peptides were also examined.Lipopolysaccharide (150-200 μg/mouse) was injected in C57BL/6J mice and tissue and plasma samples taken after 24 h. To establish if plasma increase in CART peptide levels were prostanoid dependent, indomethacin was given via the drinking water beginning 48 h prior to LPS. We evaluated mRNA expression for CART, TSHR, TSHβ, and thyrostimulin in brain and pituitary extracts. Plasma levels of TSH, CARTp, and serum amyloid P component were analyzed by ELISA.Lipopolysaccharide suppressed TSHR mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus and the pituitary. CART mRNA expression was reduced in the arcuate nucleus but elevated in the pituitary of ...
I firmly believe that the medical system is not managing end of life care with compassion and recognition of patients `right to choose a dignified and peaceful death if quality of life is lost and this has been recorded in an advance care directive whilst of sound mind. I find it very difficult to believe that anyone with an ounce of compassion can deny those who have lost quality of life be it degeneration or terminal illness the right to make a choice for a dignified and peaceful death provided this has been documented in an advance care directive whilst of sound mind.. When the end is nigh, it is best to avoid hospital; the health system is geared to actively treating patients, not to recognize the dying.. I would like to have a tattoo on my chest If I should lose quality of life please let me die with dignity". There are thousands of patients in hospitals and nursing homes with no quality of life lingering on indefinitely awaiting the blessing of death to release them from their ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estradiol protects proopiomelanocortin neurons against insulin resistance. AU - Qiu, Jian. AU - Bosch, Martha A.. AU - Meza, Cecilia. AU - Navarro, Uyen Vy. AU - Nestor, Casey C.. AU - Wagner, Edward J.. AU - Ronnekleiv, Oline. AU - Kelly, Martin. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - Insulin resistance is at the core of the metabolic syndrome, and men exhibit a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome than women in early adult life, but this sex advantage diminishes sharply when women reach the postmenopausal state. Because 17β-estradiol (E2) augments the excitability of the anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of E2 against insulin resistance in POMC neurons from diet-induced obese (DIO) female and male mice. The efficacy of insulin to activate canonical transient receptor potential 5 (TRPC5) channels and depolarize POMC neurons was significantly reduced in DIO male mice but not in DIO female mice. However, the insulin ...
Arcuate nucleus agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play a central role in feeding and are under complex regulation by both homeostatic hormonal and nutrient signals and hypothalamic neuronal pathways. Feeding may also be influenced by environmental cues, sensory inputs, and other behaviors, implying the involvement of higher brain regions. However, whether such pathways modulate feeding through direct synaptic control of AgRP neuron activity is unknown. Here, we show that nociceptin-expressing neurons in the anterior bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (aBNST) make direct GABAergic inputs onto AgRP neurons. We found that activation of these neurons inhibited AgRP neurons and feeding. The activity of these neurons increased upon food availability, and their ablation resulted in obesity. Furthermore, these neurons received afferent inputs from a range of upstream brain regions as well as hypothalamic nuclei. Therefore, aBNST GABAergic nociceptin neurons may act as a gateway to feeding behavior ...
Arcuate nucleus agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play a central role in feeding and are under complex regulation by both homeostatic hormonal and nutrient signals and hypothalamic neuronal pathways. Feeding may also be influenced by environmental cues, sensory inputs, and other behaviors, implying the involvement of higher brain regions. However, whether such pathways modulate feeding through direct synaptic control of AgRP neuron activity is unknown. Here, we show that nociceptin-expressing neurons in the anterior bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (aBNST) make direct GABAergic inputs onto AgRP neurons. We found that activation of these neurons inhibited AgRP neurons and feeding. The activity of these neurons increased upon food availability, and their ablation resulted in obesity. Furthermore, these neurons received afferent inputs from a range of upstream brain regions as well as hypothalamic nuclei. Therefore, aBNST GABAergic nociceptin neurons may act as a gateway to feeding behavior ...
Arcuate nucleus agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play a central role in feeding and are under complex regulation by both homeostatic hormonal and nutrient signals and hypothalamic neuronal pathways. Feeding may also be influenced by environmental cues, sensory inputs, and other behaviors, implying the involvement of higher brain regions. However, whether such pathways modulate feeding through direct synaptic control of AgRP neuron activity is unknown. Here, we show that nociceptin-expressing neurons in the anterior bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (aBNST) make direct GABAergic inputs onto AgRP neurons. We found that activation of these neurons inhibited AgRP neurons and feeding. The activity of these neurons increased upon food availability, and their ablation resulted in obesity. Furthermore, these neurons received afferent inputs from a range of upstream brain regions as well as hypothalamic nuclei. Therefore, aBNST GABAergic nociceptin neurons may act as a gateway to feeding behavior ...
Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog marketed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Besides lowering blood glucose, liraglutide also reduces body weight. It is not fully understood how liraglutide induces weight loss or to what degree liraglutide acts directly in the brain. Here, we determined that liraglutide does not activate GLP-1-producing neurons in the hindbrain, and liraglutide-dependent body weight reduction in rats was independent of GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) in the vagus nerve, area postrema, and paraventricular nucleus. Peripheral injection of fluorescently labeled liraglutide in mice revealed the presence of the drug in the circumventricular organs. Moreover, labeled liraglutide bound neurons within the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and other discrete sites in the hypothalamus. GLP-1R was necessary for liraglutide uptake in the brain, as liraglutide binding was not seen in ...
The nitric oxide (NO) producing enzyme inducible NO synthase isoform (iNOS) is strongly upregulated under inflammatory conditions in the arcuate nucleus, a hypothalamic key structure for the control of food intake and energy balance. This project aims to prove the concept that a pharmacological blockade of iNOS attenuates anorexia and associated disease symptoms induced by the proinflammatory endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also analyzed the association between LPS-induced anorexia and pSTAT3-formation in the arcuate nucleus and in hindbrain feeding centers (AP/NTS region). pSTAT3 is a cytokine dependent transcription factor, which is suggested to control iNOS expression. Findings and conclusions: NO contributes to LPS-induced anorexia because anorexia is attenuated by the specific iNOS-inhibitor 1400W. In addition, 1400W treatment also ameliorates other LPS-induced symptoms (e.g. adipsia, fever, inactivity). LPS treatment induces a time-dependent pSTAT3 formation in the ARC and the ...
Looking for online definition of proopiomelanocortin deficiency in the Medical Dictionary? proopiomelanocortin deficiency explanation free. What is proopiomelanocortin deficiency? Meaning of proopiomelanocortin deficiency medical term. What does proopiomelanocortin deficiency mean?
The protein fragment nesfatin-1 was recently implicated in the control of food intake. Central administration of this fragment results in anorexia and reduced body weight gain, whereas antisense or immunological nesfatin-1 antagonism causes increased food intake and overweight. Nesfatin-1 is derived from the precursor nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). To identify the neurocircuitry underpinning the catabolic effects of NUCB2/nesfatin-1, we have used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to map the distribution of this protein and its mRNA in the rat CNS and performed double-labeling experiments to localize its expression to functionally defined neuronal populations. These experiments confirm previous observations but also present several novel NUCB2 cell populations. Both NUCB2 mRNA and nesfatin-like immunoreactivity was most concentrated in the hypothalamus, in the supraoptic, paraventricular, periventricular and arcuate nuclei and the lateral hypothalamic area/perifornical region. Additionally, ...
Cao et al. investigated the effect of enriched housing environments on tumor growth (see also Kappeler and Meaney). Mice living in enriched environments (EE mice) developed fewer, smaller, and slower-growing tumors when subcutaneously injected with B16 melanoma cells than control mice in standard group housing. In addition, EE mice showed altered serum concentrations of various circulating factors, such as increased adiponectin and decreased leptin concentrations. Sera from EE mice inhibited the in vitro proliferation of B16 melanoma cells, an effect also seen with sera from control mice pretreated with a neutralizing antibody directed against leptin. Gene expression analysis of nuclei in the hypothalamus revealed that the abundance of the mRNA encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was higher in the arcuate nuclei of EE mice compared with that in control mice. Overexpression of BDNF in the hypothalamus resulted in decreased serum leptin concentrations and smaller tumors, whereas ...
Health,...Kisspeptin spurs healthy ovulation researchers explain ...TUESDAY March 17 (HealthDay News) -- A hormone called kisspeptin may ...The study included 10 women who were not menstruating and were inferti...The women who received kisspeptin had a 48-fold increase in LH and a 1...,Hormone,Might,Help,Restore,Female,Fertility,,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
The Aborted Arc trope as used in popular culture. When a Story Arc disappears off the face of the storyline without warning, never to be heard from again.
Looking for online definition of dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus in the Medical Dictionary? dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus explanation free. What is dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus? Meaning of dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus medical term. What does dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus mean?
Agouti-related protein (AgRP), also called agouti-related peptide, is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron. It is synthesised only in neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing cell bodies located in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus. AgRP is co-expressed with NPY and acts to increase appetite and decrease metabolism and energy expenditure. It is one of the most potent and long-lasting of appetite stimulators. In humans, the agouti-related peptide is encoded by the AGRP gene. AgRP is a paracrine signalling molecule made up of 112 amino acids (the gene product of 132 amino acids is processed by removal of the N-terminal 20-residue signal peptide domain). It was independently identified by two teams in 1997 based on its sequence similarity with agouti signalling peptide (ASIP), a protein synthesised in the skin that controls coat colour. AgRP is approximately 25% identical to ASIP. The murine homologue of AgRP consists of 111 amino acids (precursor is 131 ...
Ardrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), beta-endorphin and the melanotropins (MSHs) are all derived from a single large precursor molecule, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) by individual processing through a series of co- and post-translational modifications. Although the primary site of synthesis is in the pituitary, POMC-derived peptides have been identified in various tissues, notably the brain (see refs 6, 7 for review). A major question concerning brain POMC is whether it is synthesized within the central nervous system (CNS) itself or whether it is taken up from plasma flowing in a retrograde fashion from the pituitary. POMC peptides have been detected immunohistochemically and biochemically in the medial basal hypothalamus, the amygdala and throughout the brain stem. POMC peptide-containing cell bodies have been identified only in two cell groups, however, principally in the periarcuate region of the hypothalamus and to a lesser extent in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius. These and other observations
article{957131c7-5da4-4ef9-89f1-411e13214787, abstract = {,p,The progesterone metabolite, allopregnanolone (AlloP), is a GABA,sub,A,/sub, receptor modulating steroid and is known to have orexigenic and pro-obesity effects. The neurobiological mechanisms underpinning these effects are most likely due to enhanced GABAergic signaling in the lateral arcuate nucleus (ARC) and medial paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Inspired by the finding that GABAergic signaling is also important for the orexigenic effects of the circulating hormone, ghrelin, we sought to determine the extent to which AlloP (one of the most potent endogenous GABA,sub,A,/sub,-receptor modulators) operates alongside ghrelin to enhance food intake. Male rats with ad libitum access to standard chow were injected intravenously with AlloP and/or ghrelin, alone or in combination. The intake of the standard chow was greater after AlloP 1 mg/kg together with ghrelin 30 μg/kg than with 30 μg/kg ghrelin alone. Food intake ...
Follicular development and ovulation are suppressed during lactation in various mammalian species, mainly due to the suppression of pulsatile GnRH/LH secretion. Metastin (kisspeptin-54), a KiSS-1 gene product, is an endogenous ligand for GPR54, a G-protein-coupled receptor, and suggested to play a critical role in regulating the gonadal axis. The present study therefore aims to determine whether metastin (kisspeptin-54)-GPR54 signaling in discrete brain areas is inhibited by the suckling stimulus that causes suppression of LH secretion in lactating rats. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the KiSS-1 mRNA level was significantly lower in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)-median eminence region in lactating ovariectomized (OVX) and estrogen-treated OVX rats than in nonlactating controls. KiSS-1 mRNA in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus was kept at a low level in both lactating and nonlactating rats despite estrogen treatment. GPR54mRNAlevels were significantly lower in lactating than nonlactating ...
According to the study by The TsimTsoum Institute, Krakow, Silesia, Poland, increased sympathetic activity, with increased secretion of catecholamine, cortisol, and serotonin can cause oxidative stress, which may damage the arcuate nucleus as well as the hypothalamus and macrophages, and the liver may release pro-inflammatory cytokines. These, in conjunction with an underlying deficiency in long chain PUFA, may damage the arcuate nucleus as well as neuropeptide-Y and pro-opiomelanocortin neurons and insulin receptors in the brain, especially during fetal life, infancy, and childhood, resulting in their dysfunction(32 ...
Although central nervous system has been implicated in glucocorticoid-induced fat mass gain, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of our current study was to investigate the possible involvement of hypothalamic serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) in glucocorticoid-increased adiposity. It is well-known that SGK1 expression is induced by acute glucocorticoid treatment, interestingly, we found its expression was decreased in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, including POMC neurons, following chronic dexamethasone (Dex) treatment. To study a role of SGK1 in POMC neurons, mice with development or adult-onset SGK1 deletion in POMC neurons (PSKO) were then produced. As observed in Dex-treated mice, PSKO mice exhibited increased adiposity and decreased energy expenditure. Consistently, mice overexpressing constitutively active SGK1 in POMC neurons (PSOE) had the opposite phenotype and prevented from Dex-increased adiposity. Finally, Dex decreased hypothalamic ...
One of the main actions of ghrelin, which attracted the interest of researchers mainly due to its possible therapeutic potential, is its orexigenic action. It is recognized that ghrelin transmits hunger signals from the periphery to the central nervous system. Thus, it enhances appetite, increases food intake and reduces energy consumption, with consequent weight gain(41). The discovery of GOAT, enzyme responsible for ghrelin acylation(11) was a step forward in understanding the role played by acyl-modification in the physiology of ghrelin. The GOAT-ghrelin system acts as a nutrient sensor informing the body of the presence of nutrients(42). The central site of ghrelin action is the hypothalamus (mainly the arcuate nucleus, with increased expression of NPY and AgRP orexigenic peptide), where ghrelin and leptin exert antagonistic effects, the two molecules being in competitive interaction(43,44). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that ghrelin is involved in meal initiation/promotion of food ...
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): GnRH a neurohormone consisting of 10 amino acids that is produced in the arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. GnRH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the two gonadotropins...
摘要 Ghrelin作为一种具有特殊功能的能量调控因子,在能量代谢平衡以及生殖调控研究中被广泛关注,然而其在小鼠性周期变化过程中发挥调控的机制尚不明确。本研究通过腹腔注射ghrelin研究其对小鼠性周期不同阶段采食量及血清中雌二醇浓度的影响,并运用免疫荧光技术鉴定了ghrelin与弓状核(arcuate nucleus,ARC)区域分布的α型雌二醇受体(estrogen receptor α,ERα)神经元之间的共表达情况。结果表明,ghrelin(50 μg·kg-1)注射后的2 ...
We also found that glucose sensing by POMC neurons became defective in obese mice on a high-fat diet, suggesting that loss of glucose sensing by neurons has a role in the development of type 2 diabetes ...
Prolactin, Arcuate Nucleus, Brain, Cells, Gestation, Hypothalamus, Leptin, Leptin Receptor, Light, Mice, Mouse, Neurons, Nucleus Of The Solitary Tract, Populations, Pregnancy, Preoptic Area, Prolactin Receptors, Rodents, Transducer
These procedures were conducted as described previously (Ibrahim et al., 2003; Xu et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2008, 2009). Briefly, four 250 μm basal hypothalamic slices were cut on a vibratome and placed in an auxiliary chamber containing oxygenated aCSF. The slices were allowed to recover for 1-2 h in the auxiliary chamber. Thereafter, the arcuate nucleus and median eminence was microdissected and incubated in 10 ml of aCSF, pH 7.3, 300 mOsm, containing 1 mg/ml protease for ∼15 min at 37°C. The tissue was then washed four times in low-calcium CSF (1 mm CaCl2) and two times in aCSF. The cells were isolated by trituration with flame-polished Pasteur pipettes, dispersed onto a 60 mm glass-bottomed Petri dish, and perfused continuously with aCSF at a rate of 2.0 ml/min. The dispersed, bipolar or unipolar fluorescent cells were visualized using a Leitz inverted fluorescent microscope, patched, and then harvested with gentle suction to the pipette using the Xenoworks manipulator system (Sutter ...
First Kiss, Last Kiss, Best Kiss and Worst Kiss, from the edited h2g2, the Unconventional Guide to Life, the Universe and Everything
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The hormone kisspeptin essentially switches on the desire to reproduce and is thought to be responsible for the sexual appetite of young people.
학술논문검색사이트 KISS는 학술논문,연구논문,연구자료,학술지 등 다양한 자료를 서비스하며, 주제별, 등재별, 인용지수, 인기논문, 이슈논문 등 다양한 키워드의 논문을 제공하여 빠른 학술검색 및 인용이 가능하도록 서비스합니다.
학술논문검색사이트 KISS는 학술논문,연구논문,연구자료,학술지 등 다양한 자료를 서비스하며, 주제별, 등재별, 인용지수, 인기논문, 이슈논문 등 다양한 키워드의 논문을 제공하여 빠른 학술검색 및 인용이 가능하도록 서비스합니다.
학술논문검색사이트 KISS는 학술논문,연구논문,연구자료,학술지 등 다양한 자료를 서비스하며, 주제별, 등재별, 인용지수, 인기논문, 이슈논문 등 다양한 키워드의 논문을 제공하여 빠른 학술검색 및 인용이 가능하도록 서비스합니다.
학술논문검색사이트 KISS는 학술논문,연구논문,연구자료,학술지 등 다양한 자료를 서비스하며, 주제별, 등재별, 인용지수, 인기논문, 이슈논문 등 다양한 키워드의 논문을 제공하여 빠른 학술검색 및 인용이 가능하도록 서비스합니다.
학술논문검색사이트 KISS는 학술논문,연구논문,연구자료,학술지 등 다양한 자료를 서비스하며, 주제별, 등재별, 인용지수, 인기논문, 이슈논문 등 다양한 키워드의 논문을 제공하여 빠른 학술검색 및 인용이 가능하도록 서비스합니다.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ontogeny of neuropeptide Y expression in response to deprivation in lean Zucker rat pups. AU - Kowalski, Timothy J.. AU - Houpt, Thomas A.. AU - Jahng, Jeongwon. AU - Okada, Nori. AU - Chua, Jr., Streamson C.. AU - Smith, Gerard P.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity is believed to play an important role in the response to food deprivation in adult rats. Little is known, however, about the role of the hypothalamic NPY system in the control of food intake in the preweanling rat. To address this issue, we examined the effect of deprivation on arcuate nucleus preproNPY expression in lean Zucker rat pups, using in situ hybridization. PreproNPY expression within the arcuate nucleus was localized to cells in the medial portion. Twenty-four hours of food, water, and maternal deprivation significantly increased the relative abundance of preproNPY mRNA in pups on postnatal day (P) 2, P9, P12, and P15 by 14-31%. This response, however, was not observed on ...
The anorectic anx/anx mouse exhibits disturbed feeding behavior and aberrances, including neurodegeneration, in peptidergic neurons in the appetite regulating hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Poor feeding in infants, as well as neurodegeneration, are common phenotypes in human disorders caused by dysfunction of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). We therefore hypothesized that the anorexia and degenerative phenotypes in the anx/anx mouse could be related to defects in the OXPHOS. In this study, we found reduced efficiency of hypothalamic OXPHOS complex I assembly and activity in the anx/anx mouse. We also recorded signs of increased oxidative stress in anx/anx hypothalamus, possibly as an effect of the decreased hypothalamic levels of fully assembled complex I, that were demonstrated by native Western blots. Furthermore, the Ndufaf1 gene, encoding a complex I assembly factor, was genetically mapped to the anx interval and found to be down-regulated in anx/anx mice. These ...
Current evidence suggests that ghrelin, a stomach derived peptide, exerts its orexigenic action through specific modulation of Sirtuin1 (SIRT1)/p53 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways, which ultimately increase the expression of agouti-related protein (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). However, there is a paucity of data about the possible action of ghrelin on alternative metabolic pathways at this level. Here, we demonstrate that ghrelin elicits a marked upregulation of the hypothalamic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Of note, central inhibition of mTOR signaling with rapamycin decreased ghrelins orexigenic action and normalized the mRNA expression of AgRP and NPY, as well as their key downstream transcription factors, namely cAMP response-element binding protein (pCREB) and forkhead box O1 (FoxO1, total and phosphorylated). Taken together, these data indicate that, in addition to previous reported mechanisms, ghrelin
TY - JOUR. T1 - Leptin directly activates SF1 neurons in the VMH, and this action by leptin is required for normal body-weight homeostasis. AU - Dhillon, Harveen. AU - Zigman, Jeffrey M.. AU - Ye, Chianping. AU - Lee, Charlotte E.. AU - McGovern, Robert A.. AU - Tang, Vinsee. AU - Kenny, Christopher D.. AU - Christiansen, Lauryn M.. AU - White, Ryan D.. AU - Edelstein, Elisabeth A.. AU - Coppari, Roberto. AU - Balthasar, Nina. AU - Cowley, Michael A.. AU - Chua, Streamson. AU - Elmquist, Joel K.. AU - Lowell, Bradford B.. PY - 2006/1/19. Y1 - 2006/1/19. N2 - Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, acts directly on the brain to control food intake and energy expenditure. An important question is the identity of first-order neurons initiating leptins anti-obesity effects. A widely held view is that most, if not all, of leptins effects are mediated by neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. However, leptin receptors (LEPRs) are expressed in other sites as well, including the ...
With the advent of more intensive glucose management, hypoglycemia has emerged as a primary limitation in the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes. It is now recognized that the increased incidence of hypoglycemia derives not only from imperfect insulin replacement but also from impaired counterregulation and hypoglycemic unawareness (1). The latter two observations have led to a renewed interest in the mechanisms underlying hypoglycemic detection. As a result of intensive research over the past decade, the traditional hypothalamocentric model of glucose sensing has been replaced with one emphasizing a widespread neural network involving numerous aspects of the central nervous system, as well as peripheral sensory input. Thus, in addition to the ventromedial hypothalamus, the paraventricular hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract, and dorsal motor nucleus all appear to play important roles (2,3). In the periphery, important glucose sensors have been ...
Using calcium imaging as a marker of neuronal excitability, we detected glucose-excited, glucose-inhibited, and nonresponsive neurons in primary hypothalamic cell cultures, in proportions similar to those described previously (1,23). Thus, ∼30% of neurons were excited by raising the glucose concentration from 3 to 15 mmol/l, ∼6% were inhibited, and the remainder were nonresponsive over the same concentration range. The mechanism of glucose sensing in the glucose-excited neurons could not be attributed solely to KATP channel closure because tolbutamide only increased intracellular Ca2+ in ∼10% of glucose-excited neurons in the presence of 3 mmol/l glucose. Furthermore, the nonmetabolizable sugars αMDG and 3-O-MDG mimicked the action of glucose in glucose-excited neurons, indicating that metabolic generation of ATP is not a prerequisite for the sensing of glucose analogs. The sensitivity of the glucose-sensing machinery to αMDG, its dependence on extracellular Na+, and its inhibition by ...
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript-immunoreactive (CART-IR) neurons and nerve fibers were abundant in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses of t
A smart needle loaded with sensors to determine the proximity to nerves under the skin took top prize at the SFI TIDA awards.
Learn more about Endarterectomía de la Arteria Carótida at Grand Strand Medical Center DefiniciónRazones para realizar el procedimientoFactores de riesgo ...
Help failed kiss? I dated a guy and in the end we hugged and I think he tried to kiss me but I didnt realise. What should I do now? Should I be now the one to ask him put...... asked under Dating
Lateral Hypothalamic Area (Lateral Hypothalamus) is part of the hypothalamus in the limbic system that contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the medial forebrain bundle
To understand better the relationship between hypothalamic galaninergic neurons and the pituitary gland, we studied the effects of hypophysectomy on hypothalamic galanin (GAL) content and distribution by radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry, and on GAL mRNA by Northern blot analysis. Three weeks after hypophysectomy, performed at 5 or 8 weeks of age, the hypothalamic concentrations of GAL and GAL mRNA were reduced by 30-50% in both male and female rats, compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Similar reverse-phase HPLC retention times of hypothalamic GAL were observed in intact and hypophysectomized rats. The reduction of hypothalamic GAL concentration following hypophysectomy was time-dependent, as peptide levels were unaffected one week after surgery. Immunohistochemistry showed regional differences in the effect of hypophysectomy on galaninergic neurons. In the hypophysiotropic hypothalamus, the scarce GAL immunoreactivity normally observed in the arcuate nuclei was no longer ...
The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a neural site in the limbic brain involved in regulating emotional and sexual behaviours. There is however limited information on the specific neuronal cell type in the MePD functionally mediating these behaviours in rodents. The recent discovery of a significant kisspeptin neurone population in the MePD has raised interest in the possible role of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor in sexual behaviour. This study therefore tested the hypothesis that the MePD kisspeptin neurone population is involved in regulating attraction towards opposite sex conspecifics, sexual behaviour, social interaction and anxiety response by selectively stimulating these neurones using the novel pharmacosynthetic DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technique ...
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a newly discovered molecule whose expression in the brain is confined to the arcuate nucleus and median eminence. In the rat, cellular levels of GALP mRNA are reduced by fasting ...
To classify reliably cortical NPY neurons, used unsupervised clustering algorithms based on laminar location and electrophysiological and molecular properties. These classification schemes confirmed that NPY neurons are nearly exclusively GABAergic and are three main types (1) Neurogliaform-like neurons exhibiting a dense axonal arbor, were the most frequent and superficial, and substantially expressed the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase. (2) Martinotti-like cells characterized by an ascending axon ramifying in layer I coexpressed somatostatin and were the most excitable type. (3) Among fast-spiking and parvalbumin-positive basket cells, NPY expression was correlated with pronounced spike latency ...
Definition of posterior hypothalamic region. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Kisspeptin, a peptide encoded by the Kiss1 gene, has been considered as a potential candidate for a factor triggering the onset of puberty, and its expression in the hypothalamus was found to increase during peripubertal period in rodent models. The present study aimed to clarify the oestrogenic reg
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[Leu31, Pro34]-Neuropeptide Y (Porcine), 5 mg. This NPY analog is a highly potent and selective ligand for Y? receptors in different cell lines and tissues.
Do cats kiss each other? What about people? The answer is sort of, and the cat kiss is much different from anything us humans do.
Do cats kiss each other? What about people? The answer is sort of, and the cat kiss is much different from anything us humans do.
Kissing is a crucial part of the sexual process. And yes, kissing is a form of sex. When humans kiss, it triggers a flurry of activity in the brain and...
இப்பக்கம் கடைசியாக 25 ஏப்ரல் 2017, 07:48 மணிக்குத் திருத்தப்பட்டது ...
Hyperprolactinemia is the most common cause of hypogonadotropic anovulation and is one of the leading causes of infertility in women aged 25-34. Hyperprolactinemia has been proposed to block ovulation through inhibition of GnRH release. Kisspeptin neurons, which express prolactin receptors, were recently identified as major regulators of GnRH neurons. To mimic the human pathology of anovulation, we continuously infused female mice with prolactin. Our studies demonstrated that hyperprolactinemia in mice induced anovulation, reduced GnRH and gonadotropin secretion, and diminished kisspeptin expression. Kisspeptin administration restored gonadotropin secretion and ovarian cyclicity, suggesting that kisspeptin neurons play a major role in hyperprolactinemic anovulation. Our studies indicate that administration of kisspeptin may serve as an alternative therapeutic approach to restore the fertility of hyperprolactinemic women who are resistant or intolerant to dopamine agonists ...
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Several different neuronal populations are involved in regulating energy homeostasis. Among these, agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons are thought to promote feeding and weight gain; however, the evidence supporting this view is incomplete. Using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology to provide specific and reversible regulation of neuronal activity in mice, we have demonstrated that acute activation of AgRP neurons rapidly and dramatically induces feeding, reduces energy expenditure, and ultimately increases fat stores. All these effects returned to baseline after stimulation was withdrawn. In contrast, inhibiting AgRP neuronal activity in hungry mice reduced food intake. Together, these findings demonstrate that AgRP neuron activity is both necessary and sufficient for feeding. Of interest, activating AgRP neurons potently increased motivation for feeding and also drove intense food-seeking behavior, demonstrating that AgRP neurons engage brain sites ...
Neuropepetide Y (NPY) is best known for its powerful stimulation of food intake and its effects on reducing energy expenditure. However, the pathways involved and the regulatory mechanisms behind this are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that NPY derived from the arcuate nucleus (Arc) is critical for the control of sympathetic outflow and brown adipose tissue (BAT) function. Mechanistically, a key change induced by Arc NPY signaling is a marked Y1 receptor-mediated reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is also associated with a reduction in TH expression in the locus coeruleus (LC) and other regions in the brainstem. Consistent with this, Arc NPY signaling decreased sympathetically innervated BAT thermogenesis, involving the downregulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in BAT. Taken together, these data reveal a powerful Arc-NPY-regulated neuronal circuit that controls BAT thermogenesis and sympathetic output via TH
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Toda C, Santoro A, Kim JD, Diano S. (2017) POMC neurons: From birth to Death. Annu Rev Physiol. 79:209-236. doi: 10.1146/annurev-physiol-022516-034110. PMID: 28192062. Santoro A, Campolo M, Liu C, Sesaki H, Meli R, Liu ZW, Kim JD, Diano S. (2017) DRP1 suppresses leptin and glucose sensing of POMC neurons. Cell Metab. 25(3):647-660. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.01.003. Epub 2017 Feb 9. PMID: 28190775. Toda C, Kim JD, Impellizzeri D, Cuzzocrea S, Liu ZW, Diano S (2016) UCP2 regulates mitochondrial fission and ventromedial nucleus control of glucose responsiveness. Cell 164(5):872-83. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.02.010. PMID: 26919426. Koch M, Varela L, Kim JG, Kim JD, Hernandez F, Simonds SE, Castorena CM, Vianna CR, Elmquist JK, Morozov YM, Rakic P, Bechmann I, Cowley MA, Szigeti-Buck K, Dietrich MO, Gao X-B, Diano S, Horvath TL (2015) Hypothalamic POMC neurons promote cannabinoid-induced feeding. Nature 519(7541):45-50. doi: 10.1038/nature14260. Epub 2015 Feb 18.. Long L, Toda C, Jeong JK, Horvath TL, ...
Toda C, Santoro A, Kim JD, Diano S. (2017) POMC neurons: From birth to Death. Annu Rev Physiol. 79:209-236. doi: 10.1146/annurev-physiol-022516-034110. PMID: 28192062. Santoro A, Campolo M, Liu C, Sesaki H, Meli R, Liu ZW, Kim JD, Diano S. (2017) DRP1 suppresses leptin and glucose sensing of POMC neurons. Cell Metab. 25(3):647-660. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.01.003. Epub 2017 Feb 9. PMID: 28190775. Toda C, Kim JD, Impellizzeri D, Cuzzocrea S, Liu ZW, Diano S (2016) UCP2 regulates mitochondrial fission and ventromedial nucleus control of glucose responsiveness. Cell 164(5):872-83. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.02.010. PMID: 26919426. Koch M, Varela L, Kim JG, Kim JD, Hernandez F, Simonds SE, Castorena CM, Vianna CR, Elmquist JK, Morozov YM, Rakic P, Bechmann I, Cowley MA, Szigeti-Buck K, Dietrich MO, Gao X-B, Diano S, Horvath TL (2015) Hypothalamic POMC neurons promote cannabinoid-induced feeding. Nature 519(7541):45-50. doi: 10.1038/nature14260. Epub 2015 Feb 18.. Long L, Toda C, Jeong JK, Horvath TL, ...
This topic contains 12 study abstracts on Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) indicating it may contribute to Obesity, Excitotoxicity, and Fibromyalgia
In the follow-up experiments, which we conducted in mice, we were able to induce leptin resistance simply by infusing activators of this pathway, further supporting our theory that this signaling pathway may contribute to leptin resistance in obesity," said Dr. Makoto Fukuda, instructor of internal medicine at UT Southwestern and the studys lead author. Dr. Elmquist said that while the EPAC signaling pathway itself is not novel, this is the first time it has been studied in the hypothalamus and in the context of energy balance and leptin signaling. The next step, Dr. Elmquist said, is to investigate how critical the EPAC pathway actually is in leptin responsive neurons and to determine its role in maintaining energy balance and leptin sensitivity. "These results are potentially interesting and provocative, but the physiological importance remains to be seen," Dr. Elmquist said. "If, however, this pathway is indeed important, it will offer new insights into the mechanisms that high levels of ...
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This review examined several models of leptin resistance and the role of leptin resistance in the susceptibility to dietary obesity. Only some of the leptin-resistance models (leptin antagonist blockade and aged obese rats) exhibit heightened weight and adiposity gain on a chow diet, while all models discussed demonstrate obesity in the presence of an HF diet. Thus, the leptin resistance appears to be reinforcing "reward eating" beyond caloric energy requirements. Overconsumption of palatable food could be mediated by activation of reward circuitry involving opioids and dopamine or an impairment in a pathway (or pathways) mediating satiation of the palatable diet (16).. Whereas the hypothalamus, in particular, the arcuate nucleus, has been identified as important in regulating the caloric requirements, other regions in the hypothalamus, such as lateral hypothalamus and extrahypothalamus areas including the amygdale, prefrontal cortex, nuclear accumbens, and ventral tegmental area (VTA), are ...
The central nervous system mediates energy balance (energy intake and energy expenditure) in the body; the hypothalamus has a key role in this process. Recent evidence has demonstrated an important role for hypothalamic malonyl CoA in mediating energy balance. Malonyl CoA is generated by the carboxylation of acetyl CoA by acetyl CoA carboxylase and is then either incorporated into long-chain fatty acids by fatty acid synthase, or converted back to acetyl-CoA by malonyl CoA decarboxylase. Increased hypothalamic malonyl CoA is an indicator of energy surplus, resulting in a decrease in food intake and an increase in energy expenditure. In contrast, a decrease in hypothalamic malonyl CoA signals an energy deficit, resulting in an increased appetite and a decrease in body energy expenditure. A number of hormonal and neural orexigenic and anorexigenic signaling pathways have now been shown to be associated with changes in malonyl CoA levels in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. Despite ...
article{15d6a800-b218-4b3e-9762-5dfcb828c8f1, abstract = {Since the discovery of neuropeptide Y which is co-stored and co-operate with noradrenaline (NA) in sympathetic nerve fibers, several scientific groups have searched for structures with neuropeptide Y antagonistic properties. Research has mainly focused on various peptide fragments which originate from or are related to the neuropeptide Y sequence. Some non-peptide antagonists have been proposed but they are mostly of low potency and non-selective. Our recent observations that alpha-trinositol (D-myo-inositol 1.2.6-trisphosphate) is an inhibitor of neuropeptide Y effects will hopefully lead to the development of useful non-peptide neuropeptide Y inhibitors. As a novel approach the highly selective approach of down-regulating neuropeptide Y receptors with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides is also discussed. Neuropeptide Y antagonistic agents would help us to understand the physiological role of neuropeptide Y and may serve as useful ...
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Lesioning studies performed nearly 100 years ago identified the hypothalamus as a critical structure for the control of food intake. However the dynamics of the hypothalamic circuits that give rise to feeding behavior have long been a mystery. In 2015, we reported the first measurements of the activity dynamics of hypothalamic neurons that control hunger (AgRP neurons) in awake, behaving mice (Chen et al., Cell 2015). Prior to our work, these cells were thought to be regulated primarily by hormones and nutrients that circulate in the blood, such that their activity would gradually fluctuate in unison with changes in nutritional state. We discovered unexpectedly that these hunger neurons are also potently regulated by sensory cues associated with food: that is, we found that merely showing a piece of food to a hungry mouse was sufficient to shut off its AgRP neurons within seconds, often before a single bite of food could be consumed. We showed that this sensory regulation resembles an expected ...
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Behavioral changes in adult rats treated with monosodium glutamate in cialis free trial voucher for cialis the neonatal stage. JY1 and JY5 exhibited a weak correlation between circuital current and Cu(II) reduction. To examine the utility of swallowing therapy (ST) before ...
Pharmacology of the hypothalamus , Pharmacology of the hypothalamus , کتابخانه الکترونیک و دیجیتال - آذرسا
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