ArchivesLibraries: Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, accessed 2/1/2008)Analog-Digital Conversion: The process of converting analog data such as continually measured voltage to discrete, digital form.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Tissue Fixation: The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.Biological Specimen Banks: Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Tissue Banks: Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing organs or tissue for future use.Paraffin Embedding: The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Libraries, MedicalDatabase Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.ItalyAustralia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Western Australia: A state in western Australia. Its capital is Perth. It was first visited by the Dutch in 1616 but the English took possession in 1791 and permanent colonization began in 1829. It was a penal settlement 1850-1888, became part of the colonial government in 1886, and was granted self government in 1890. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1329)Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.South Australia: A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)Schools: Educational institutions.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.School Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with health and nursing care given to primary and secondary school students by a registered nurse.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Mastodynia: Pain in the breast generally classified as cyclical (associated with menstrual periods), or noncyclical, i.e. originating from the breast or nearby muscles or joints, ranging from minor discomfort to severely incapacitating.Mastitis: INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Mastitis, Bovine: INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.Cyclopenthiazide: Thiazide diuretic also used as an antihypertensive agent.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Incontinentia Pigmenti: A genodermatosis occurring mostly in females and characterized by skin changes in three phases - vesiculobullous, verrucous papillomatous, and macular melanodermic. Hyperpigmentation is bizarre and irregular. Sixty percent of patients have abnormalities of eyes, teeth, central nervous system, and skin appendages.MaleatesSubtraction Technique: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

Optimisation of DNA and RNA extraction from archival formalin-fixed tissue. (1/75)

Archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is an invaluable resource for molecular genetic studies but the extraction of high quality nucleic acid may be problematic. We have optimised DNA extraction by comparing 10 protocols, including a commercially available kit and a novel method that utilises a thermal cycler. The thermal cycler and Chelex-100 extraction method yielded DNA capable of amplification by PCR from every block and 61% of sections versus 54% using microwave and Chelex-100, 15% with classical xylene-based extraction and 60% of sections using the kit. Successful RNA extraction was observed, by beta-actin amplification, in 83.7% sections for samples treated by the thermal cycler and Chelex-100 method. Thermal cycler and Chelex-100 extraction of nucleic acid is reliable, quick and inexpensive.  (+info)

Sudden cardiac death with apparently normal heart. (2/75)

BACKGROUND: Mechanisms of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in subjects with apparently normal hearts are poorly understood. In survivors, clinical investigations may not establish normal cardiac structure with certainty. Large autopsy series may provide a unique opportunity to confirm structural normalcy of the heart before reviewing a patient's clinical history. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified and reexamined structurally normal hearts from a 13-year series of archived hearts of patients who had sudden cardiac death. Subsequently, for each patient with a structurally normal heart, a detailed review of the circumstances of death as well as clinical history was performed. Of 270 archived SCD hearts identified, 190 were male and 80 female (mean age 42 years); 256 (95%) had evidence of structural abnormalities and 14 (5%) were structurally normal. In the group with structurally normal hearts (mean age 35 years), SCD was the first manifestation of disease in 7 (50%) of the 14 cases. In 6 cases, substances were identified in serum at postmortem examination without evidence of drug overdose; 2 of these chemicals have known associations with SCD. On analysis of ECGs, preexcitation was found in 2 cases. Comorbid conditions identified were seizure disorder and obesity (2 cases each). In 6 cases, there were no identifiable conditions associated with SCD. CONCLUSIONS: In 50% of cases of SCD with structurally normal hearts, sudden death was the first manifestation of disease. An approach combining archived heart examinations with detailed review of the clinical history was effective in elucidating potential SCD mechanisms in 57% of cases.  (+info)

Chromogenic in situ hybridization: a practical alternative for fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect HER-2/neu oncogene amplification in archival breast cancer samples. (3/75)

Determination of HER-2/neu oncogene amplification has become necessary for selection of breast cancer patients for trastuzumab (Herceptin) therapy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is currently regarded as a gold standard method for detecting HER-2/neu amplification, but it is not very practical for routine histopathological laboratories. We evaluated a new modification of in situ hybridization, the chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), which enables detection of HER-2/neu gene copies with conventional peroxidase reaction. Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sections were pretreated (by heating in a microwave oven and using enzyme digestion) and hybridized with a digoxigenin-labeled DNA probe. The probe was detected with anti-digoxigenin fluorescein, anti-fluorescein peroxidase, and diaminobenzidine. Gene copies visualized by CISH could be easily distinguished with a x40 objective in hematoxylin-stained tissue sections. HER-2/neu amplification typically appeared as large peroxidase-positive intranuclear gene copy clusters. CISH and FISH (according to Vysis, made from frozen pulverized tumor samples) correlated well in a series of 157 breast cancers (kappa coefficient, 0.81). The few different classifications were mostly because of low-level amplifications by FISH that were negative by CISH and immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibody CB-11. We conclude that CISH, using conventional bright-field microscopy in evaluation, is a useful alternative for determination of HER-2/neu amplification in paraffin-embedded tumor samples, especially for confirming the immunohistochemical staining results.  (+info)

Polymerase chain reaction detection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-optimized protocols and their application to myeloma. (4/75)

Since its discovery in 1994, KSHV (also called human herpesvirus-8 or HHV8) has been implicated in a variety of disorders. Although the association of KSHV with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease has been well established, its presence in some other diseases, such as multiple myeloma, remains controversial. Because most KSHV studies are based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, the conflicting data may be attributable to variations in the methods, primer sets, and target sequences selected. To establish an efficient and reliable PCR approach for KSHV detection we designed eight sets of primers to six regions (ORFK1, ORFK2, ORFK9, ORK26, ORF72, and ORF74) of the KSHV genome using appropriate database and software. The detection sensitivity of these primers was carefully assessed and their reliability was strictly validated in a series of positive (15 KS and PEL samples) and negative (16 lymphoid tissues) controls. We found that primer sets to the ORFK9 region showed the highest sensitivity, whereas primer sets to ORFK1 and ORF74 showed the lowest sensitivity. Primer sets to ORFK9, ORF26 and ORF72 regions detected all of the positive cases, whereas other primer sets showed varying detection rates or nonspecific bands. All 16 negative controls were negative with all primer sets. However, six of 16 negative controls became positive when we used nested PCR targeting ORF26. Therefore, multiple target KSHV sequences increase the detection efficiency, while nested PCR protocols are likely to introduce false positivity. Using ORFK9, ORF26 and ORF72 primer sets, we screened bone marrow biopsies from 18 cases of multiple myeloma, and failed to detect any KSHV sequences. This finding supports the conclusion that KSHV is not associated with multiple myeloma. Indeed, our results further confirm that although KSHV is universally present in Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma, it is not ubiquitious.  (+info)

Ethics--dental registration in the seventeenth and early eighteenth century. (5/75)

In the histories of dentistry, some mention is made of the licensing of tooth-drawers, and those who provided dental healthcare before the term Dentist started to become general in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. One of the most striking references to licensing appears in a little piece of doggerel printed under a 1768 print by Dixon after Harris.  (+info)

The Protein Data Bank: unifying the archive. (6/75)

The Protein Data Bank (PDB; is the single worldwide archive of structural data of biological macromolecules. This paper describes the progress that has been made in validating all data in the PDB archive and in releasing a uniform archive for the community. We have now produced a collection of mmCIF data files for the PDB archive ( A utility application that converts the mmCIF data files to the PDB format (called CIFTr) has also been released to provide support for existing software.  (+info)

Laser microdissection and gene expression analysis on formaldehyde-fixed archival tissue. (7/75)

BACKGROUND: Analysis of renal biopsies is currently based on histological recognition of typical structural patterns and immunohistological detection of protein expression alterations. Both can be performed using formaldehyde as the tissue fixative. As a consequence of recent advances in molecular medicine, mRNA expression analysis may offer an attractive option to obtain functionally relevant information. However, quantification of mRNA expression in human renal biopsies thus far has not been possible in formaldehyde-fixed tissue. METHODS: The present study evaluated a recently reported mRNA extraction protocol. Using this approach gene expression analysis could be performed on formaldehyde-fixed archival renal tissues by laser microbeam microdissection, laser pressure catapulting and real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: For an initial feasibility study, the expression of two chemokines (IP-10 and RANTES) in renal transplant rejection was examined. Induction of protein expression in allografts undergoing rejection was demonstrated for both chemokines by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA expression alterations in the defined renal compartments of glomeruli, vessels and tubulointerstitium were quantified using laser microdissection from formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded or frozen tissue sections. A pronounced increase of mRNA expression compared to controls was demonstrated for IP-10 as well as RANTES with both tissue-processing protocols. CONCLUSIONS: Using formaldehyde as the tissue fixative, information on the disease process can now be obtained by histological, immunohistochemical and gene expression techniques. In the future this may allow the study of activated molecular programs in routine renal biopsies as well as archival tissue samples.  (+info)

London home for Crick archive. (8/75)

Unprecedented access to the archives of Francis Crick, just before the 50th anniversary next year of his famous paper co-authored with James Watson on the proposed double helix structure of DNA, looks set to go ahead. Nigel Williams reports.  (+info)

  • Upon the founding of the Archives, all collections, whether loaned or donated to the Archives, were duplicated on microfilm , allowing the Archives to offer easy access to its collections nationwide and to establish archival databases in New York, Washington, D.C., Boston , Detroit, and at the DeYoung Museum in San Francisco . (
  • The Archives also offers microfilm for interlibrary loan at no charge. (
  • Microfilm is no longer being produced at the Archives as it has been superseded by digitization . (
  • The Archives serves as the official records depository for the Homewood Campus divisions of Johns Hopkins University: Central Administration, Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, G.W.C. Whiting School of Engineering, Carey Business School, the School of Education, and the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, based in Washington, DC. (
  • Archives of Oral Biology is an international journal which aims to publish papers of the highest scientific quality in the oral and craniofacial sciences. (
  • In 2011, the Archives of American Art became the first Smithsonian business unit to work directly with Wikipedia through the Wikipedia Galleries, Libraries, and Museums project , starting by appointing the first Smithsonian Wikipedian in Residence , Sarah Stierch. (
  • This digital archive makes the embroidery produced in this project available online. (
  • Creating a route of entry focused on work-based learning allowing trainees to use their skills to solve real-life issues in archive services - At Glasgow University Archives, Mary and Olivia have worked across university services to identify existing practice and support a new digital preservation strategy - At Gloucestershire Archives, Roz is testing upgrades to in-house preservation software, coping with real-life pressures within a local authority IT environment. (
  • In April, 2011, the Archives received a second Terra grant of $3 million to fund another five years of digitization and technological developments, which began in 2005 with a $3.6 million grant from Terra. (
  • In 2009 the Archives received a $213,315 grant from the Leon Levy Foundation to process the André Emmerich Gallery records and a $100,000 gift from the Kress Foundation to complete the digitization of the Jacques Seligmann & Company records. (
  • The Archives documents the experience of faculty, students, and alumni through activities that include collection acquisition and oral history. (
  • The Archives of American Art is the largest collection of primary resources documenting the history of the visual arts in the United States . (
  • The Archives holds a unique collection of material from notable artists, dealers, critics and collectors. (
  • Whilst at the Jesuits in Britain Archives I also catalogued the personal papers of Fr Bernard Basset SJ (1909-1988), which involved producing detailed descriptions of the items in the collection and writing a biography. (
  • The archive includes digital images, notes about the personal stories behind the embroidery, and metadata that will make the materials searchable and sortable by predefined categories. (
  • SEALibrary (Sun'aq Ecological Archives and Library) at Omeka is a searchable digital archive of The Sun'aq Tribe of Kodiak's governance records and environmental reference materials. (
  • Access to the Archives is provided through the research room . (
  • Disabling it allows access to the public archives. (
  • Patrons who wish to view the documents associated with the bibliographic records contained within this archive are welcome to come to the Tribal Center to access the digital and/or physical records. (
  • [ page needed ] Every year the Archives honors individual contributions to the American art community with the Archives of American Art Medal and art historians with the Lawrence A. Fleischman Award for Scholarly Excellence in the Field of American Art History . (
  • Archives of Oral Biology will also publish expert reviews and articles concerned with advancement in relevant methodologies. (
  • This week's 'From the Archives' blog post has been written by our most recent work experience student, Evangeline Mills. (
  • Professor López began building this archive in the fall of 2017 in collaboration with International Studies/Philosophy major Rebecca Weiner. (
  • These forty minute performances will take place at the Missouri State Archives in Jefferson City, just minutes from the Capitol. (
  • Changing the recruitment basis of the archives sector The programmes take a skills-focused approach to recruitment, underlining the importance of confidence in handling technical issues rather than specific qualifications. (
  • More than 20 million items of original material are housed in the Archives' research centers in Washington, D.C. and New York City . (
  • This research data is included in RWJF's Health and Medical Care Archive (HMCA) at the University of Michigan Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) archive. (
  • Her research interests include Latin American Literatures of the XX and XXI centuries, women writers, autobiography and testimonio , gender and violence, film and documentary, human rights and activism, migrations, and Hispanics in the U.S. She is author of Trauma,memoria y cuerpo: el testimonio femenino en Colombia , 2012. (
  • While papers and documents make up a large portion of the Archives, more unique objects have been acquired over the years. (
  • The following describes the selection criteria and process for determining which RWJF grantee datasets are appropriate for the HMCA archive and the ICPSR notification process. (