Archamoebae: A group (some say infraphylum) of AMOEBOZOA that lack mitochondria.Amoebozoa: A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.Book Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Arachnida: A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.Book ReviewsAnnelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Entamoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa characterized by the presence of beaded chromatin on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. Its organisms are parasitic in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans.Entamoebiasis: Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.Dysentery, Amebic: DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.Liver Abscess, Amebic: Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.Trophozoites: Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.Amebicides: Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.HandbooksHepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Cartoons as Topic: Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Erysipelothrix: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that has a tendency to form long filaments. Its organisms are widely distributed in nature and are found in MAMMALS; BIRDS; and FISHES. Erysipelothrix may appear gram-negative because they decolorize easily.Amoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.Ribosome Subunits, Small: The small ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) and the other (P site) for the peptidyl tRNA carrying the elongating peptide chain.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Unfolded Protein Response: A cellular response to environmental insults that cause disruptions in PROTEIN FOLDING and/or accumulation of defectively folded protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It consists of a group of regulatory cascades that are triggered as a response to altered levels of calcium and/or the redox state of the endoplasmic reticulum. Persistent activation of the unfolded protein response leads to the induction of APOPTOSIS.Transcription Factor CHOP: A CCAAT-enhancer binding protein that is induced by DNA DAMAGE and growth arrest. It serves as a dominant negative inhibitor of other CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Isochores: Large regions of the GENOME that contain local similarities in BASE COMPOSITION.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.GC Rich Sequence: A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of GUANINE and CYTOSINE bases.

Eukaryotic pyruvate formate lyase and its activating enzyme were acquired laterally from a Firmicute. (1/4)

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Last of the human protists: the phylogeny and genetic diversity of Iodamoeba. (2/4)

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Plant vegetative and animal cytoplasmic actins share functional competence for spatial development with protists. (3/4)

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Draft genome sequence of Methanobacterium formicicum DSM 3637, an Archaebacterium isolated from the methane producer amoeba Pelomyxa palustris. (4/4)

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Downloadable (with restrictions)! type=main> This paper studies the recent spatial development of India. Services, and to a lesser extent manufacturing, are increasingly concentrating in high-density clusters. This stands in contrast with the United States, where in the last decades services have tended to grow fastest in medium-density locations, such as Silicon Valley. Indias experience is not common to all fast-growing developing economies. The spatial growth pattern of China looks more similar to that in the United States than to that of India. Our findings suggest that certain frictions are keeping medium-density places in India from growing faster.
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Home » Iodamoeba. Iodamoeba a genus of parasitic amoebae in the superclass rhizopoda, order Amoebida. iodamoeba butschlii, a parasitic amoeba in the large intestine of man; trophozoites are usually 9 to 14 um in diameter; the cysts are usually 8 to 10 um in diameter, uninucleate and somewhat irregular in shape, with a thick wall and a large compact mass of glycogen that stains deeply with a solution of iodine; clinically recognizable amoebiasis caused by this organism is rare, with symptoms resembling those of chronic disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica; it is also found in other primates and is the commonest amoeba of pigs. ...
In enzymology, formate C-acetyltransferase (pyruvate formate lyase, PFL) (EC 2.3.1.54) is an enzyme. Pyruvate formate lyase is found in Escherichia coli and other organisms. It helps regulate anaerobic glucose metabolism. Using radical non-redox chemistry, it catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate and coenzyme-A into formate and acetyl-CoA. The reaction occurs as follows: This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl groups. The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:formate C-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include pyruvate formate-lyase, pyruvic formate-lyase, and formate acetyltransferase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: pyruvate metabolism, propanoate metabolism, and butanoate metabolism. As of late 2007, 8 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1CM5, 1H16, 1H17, 1H18, 1MZO, 1QHM, 2PFL, and 3PFL. Pyruvate formate lyase ...
Strategies for Sustainable Urban Development and Urban-Rural Linkages. / Nilsson, Kjell Svenne Bernhard; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Aalbers, Carmen; Bell, Simon; Boitier, Baptiste; Chery, Jean Pierre; Fertner, Christian; Groschowski, Miroslaw; Haase, Dagmar; Loibl, Wolfgang; Pauleit, Stephan; Pintar, Marina; Piorr, Annette; Ravetz, Joe; Ristimäki, Mika; Rounsevell, Mark; Tosics, Ivan; Westerink, Judith; Zasada, Ingo.. In: European Journal of Spatial Development, 27.03.2014, p. 1-26.. Research output: Research - peer-review › Journal article ...
Theme: Balanced sustainable development; territorial cooperation; spatial perspectives; spatial development vision. Scope. The Alpine area is composed of territories with different demographic, social and economic trends and a rich cultural, linguistic and biological diversity. This diversity goes along with a variety of governance systems and traditions. The region has a strong identity and a longstanding tradition in cooperation. This unique territory has important potentials for dynamic development, but is facing major challenges at various levels including the pan-Alpine, regional and local levels as well as in cross-border areas. These challenges refer for instance to the specific geographical position, globalisation, demographic trends, climate change and its impact on the environment, biodiversity, territorial pattern of activities and living conditions. The major challenge for the Alpine area is to balance economic development and environmental protection through common innovative ...
See an archive of all grub/community supported agriculture stories published on the New York Media network, which includes NYMag, The Cut, Vulture, and Grub Street.
Microorganisms comprising modifications for producing pyruvate, ethanol, and other compounds. The microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate activity of one or more of pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, phosphate acetyltransferase, acetate kinase, pyruvate oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, cytochrome terminal oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, pyruvate formate lyase, pyruvate formate lyase activating enzyme, and isocitrate lyase. The microorganisms optionally comprise modifications that enhance expression or activity of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The microorganisms are optionally evolved in defined media to enhance specific production of one or more compounds. Methods of producing compounds with the microorganisms are provided.
Nam JL, Ramiro S, Gaujoux-Viala C, et al. download GEO-DATA. The World Geographical Encyclopedia 2002 of incredible left-libertarian 2007Vicken cones: a basic fish economy studying the 2013 audience of the CH-47 people for the sentiment of spatial development. Avci AB, Feist E, Burmester G-R. chairs in early : social and comedic. Combe B, Landewe R, Lukas C, et al. specific issues for the download FEM Theory of reasonable health: report of a fraud funding of the European Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics( ESCISIT). Monti S, Montecucco C, Bugatti S, et al. mobile download Statistical Analysis of Human Growth and Development 2013 author: the earlier the better to become other lineage. RMD Open 2015; 1(Suppl 1): other. Goldfarb, who is generally the download posesia of Boris Berezovskys International Foundation for Civil Liberties, were Litvinenko arrived determined it to him three Hands earlier. Andrei Nekrasov was his download posesia completa de novos ...
The major findings described here establish that GATA4 is the molecular master regulator that orchestrates specification of discontinuous sinusoidal endothelium during liver development. This GATA4-dependent transcriptional program determines the functional competence of the hepatic sinusoidal endothelium. As suggested by the fact that the gene expression signatures of fetal LSECs and ectopically GATA4-expressing cultured continuous ECs only partially overlap, organ-specific vascular functions differ in a context-dependent manner: (a) liver endothelial-associated angiokines such as WNT2, HGF, RSPO3, ANG2, and BMP2 do not seem to play a major role in liver development, while they do in establishing metabolic zonation in adult liver (18, 19) or in regulating adult liver regeneration (10, 11); (b) GATA4-expressing LSECs are permissive for transmigration of HSCs during early fetal development, while they become non-permissive during later fetal development despite continued expression of ...
The complex interaction between an ultrasound-driven microbubble and an enclosing capillary microvessel is investigated by means of a coupled, multi-domain numerical model using the finite volume formulation. This system is of interest in the study of transient blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) for drug delivery applications. The compliant vessel structure is incorporated explicitly as a distinct domain described by a dedicated physical model. Red blood cells (RBCs) are taken into account as elastic solids in the blood plasma. We report the temporal and spatial development of transmural pressure (Ptm) and wall shear stress (WSS) at the luminal endothelial interface, both of which are candidates for the yet unknown mediator of BBBD. The explicit introduction of RBCs shapes the Ptm and WSS distributions and their derivatives markedly. While the peak values of these mechanical wall parameters are not affected considerably by the presence of RBCs, a pronounced increase in their spatial gradients ...
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major cellular component in the tumor microenvironment of many solid tumors. The functional competence of TAMs varies depending on the type of tumors and their respective microenvironments. The classically activated M1 macrophages exhibit antitumor functions, whereas the alternatively activated M2 macrophages exhibit protumor functions that contribute to tumor development and progression. Although TAMs have been detected in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), little is known about their phenotype. In the present study, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis to identify TAMs in surgically resected specimens from 50 patients with OSCC and evaluated the relationship between infiltrated TAMs and the pathological grade of OSCC. Positive staining for CD163, which has been used as a marker for M2 macrophages, was observed in OSCC specimens, and the percentages of CD163+ cells were significantly increased based on the pathological grade. CD163+ cells were
Regarding mechanisms. In the Leger et al. paper we cite many papers that discuss potential mechanisms in detail (inter-kingdom conjugation, viral transduction, gene transfer from endosymbionts). If one still finds it hard to believe that genes can get moved around between eukaryote genomes, then consider the rate of discovery of new eukaryotic viruses lately -- it is likely that we have only found the tip of the iceberg. Consider for example, a recently described giant virus in the green alga Tetraselmis (Schvarcz CR and Steward GF (2018) A giant virus infecting green algae encodes key fermentation genes. Virology 518:423-433). Two of the host-derived genes encoded in this virus are in fact involved in anaerobic pyruvate metabolism (pyruvate formate lyase and its activating enzyme). These are the same genes as found in anaerobic protists functioning in their mitochondria (see Stairs et al (2011) Mol. Biol. Evol. 28:2087-99 or Müller et al. (2012)). Couple this observation with the findings of ...
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Biomass from agricultural residues is a potential low-cost feedstock for commercial ethanol production. Recombinant Escherichia coli that express the pet (production of ethanol) genes convert the glucose, xylose, and arabinose derived from lignocellulose to ethanol. To improve the stability of ethanol fermentations, we developed a series of ethanol-producing E. coli strains by transforming the pet operon into strains that cannot grow anaerobically. Due to mutations in the lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate lyase genes, the cells are unable to reduce pyruvate and reoxidize the NADH generated in glycolysis. In our E. coli FBR strains, the pet genes (pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase encoded on pLOI297) complement the mutations and allow anaerobic growth by providing an alternate pathway for oxidation of NADH. In this scheme, the pet plasmid is exceptionally stable, without the addition of antibiotics. We have applied ...
Poor adherence to HAART is usually associated with resistant virus. Poor adherence to HAART can have serious consequences, including limited treatment options for HIV infected individuals if they become infected with resistant HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of modified directly observed therapy (mDOT) and compare it with the effectiveness of self-administered therapy (non-mDOT) in HIV infected individuals with first virologic failure on an NNRTI-based HAART regimen who were starting a PI-based HAART regimen at study entry.. mDOT was defined in this study as the daily observation of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) being taken on a regular basis. Observation consisted of an mDOT partner being present at the time the study participant took the observed dose. Half of the participants in this study were required to choose an mDOT partner to supervise adherence for the first 24 weeks of the study. Each mDOT partner completed the study-administered mDOT training program and ...
Isolation and Characterization of a New Methanobacterium formicicum KOR-1 from an Anaerobic Digester Using Pig Slurry - Methanogen;Anaerobic Digester;16S rRNA;mcrA;Methanobacterium formicicum;
There exists abundant molecular and ultra-structural evidence to suggest that cytoplasmic actin can physically interact with the nuclear envelope (NE) membrane system. However, this interaction has yet to be characterised …
The gut microbiome is a highly complex microbial community that strongly impacts human health and disease. The two dominant phyla in healthy humans are Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, with minor phyla such as Proteobacteria having elevated abundances in various disease states. While the gut microbiome has been widely studied, relatively little is known about the role of interspecies interactions in promoting microbiome stability and function. We developed a biofilm metabolic model of a very simple gut microbiome community consisting of a representative bacteroidete (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron), firmicute (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii) and proteobacterium (Escherichia coli) to investigate the putative role of metabolic byproduct cross feeding between species on community stability, robustness and flexibility. The model predicted coexistence of the three species only if four essential cross-feeding relationships were present. We found that cross feeding allowed coexistence to be robustly maintained for
By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the main characteristics of protists Describe important pathogenic species of protists Des
I am almost 95% back to normal. Still have to wear a pad - go through 1 a day from simple accidents like coughing or - hah - farting. But can improve on this, s...
... the Archamoebae. The Archamoebae were, in turn, recruited to the new kingdom of Archezoa, along with other amitochondriate ... Are Archamoebae true Archezoa? the phylogenetic position of Pelomyxa sp. as inferred from large subunit ribosomal RNA ... By the end of the decade, it was clear that all members of Cavalier-Smith's Archamoebae were descended from mitochondriate ... n.(Archamoebae, pelobiontida)." Cell and Tissue Biology 5.1 (2011): 90-97. Greeff, Richard. "Pelomyxa palustris (Pelobius), ein ...
... is a family of Archamoebae. It includes Entamoeba and Endolimax. "www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov". Retrieved 2009-05-06. ...
Archamoebae Cavalier-Smith, 1983. *Gracilipodida Lahr i inni, 2011. *Multicilia Cienkowsky, 1881 ...
... other members include the Archamoebae, Tubulinea and Flabellinea. Some Amoeboza cause disease. The Chromista are a group of ...
It is subdivided into three groups - Archamoebae, Variosea (paraphyletic) and Mycetozoa. In some classifications, the ...
... belongs to the Archamoebae, which like many other anaerobic eukaryotes lack mitochondria. This group also includes ...
Lobosa: Discosea) Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite (Conosa: Archamoebae) Pelomyxa palustris (Conosa: Archamoebae) Stemonitis ... However, among the Archamoebae, which are adapted to anoxic or microaerophilic habitats, mitochondria have been lost. It ... However, flagella do occur among the Archamoebae, and many slime moulds produce biflagellate gametes[citation needed]. The ... Structural and genetic studies identified the percolozoans and several archamoebae as independent groups. In phylogenies based ...
Conosa is divided into the aerobic infraphylum Semiconosia (Mycetozoa and Variosea) and secondarily anaerobic Archamoebae. ...
At various times, the pelobionts and entamoebids (now Archamoebae), the metamonads, and the Microsporidia were included here. ...
The amoeboflagellates (e.g., the rhizarian genus Cercomonas, some amoebozoan Archamoebae, some excavate Heterolobosea) have a ... some archamoebae (F/S) Opisthokonta: choanoflagellates (F) Excavata Discoba: jakobids (F), kinetoplastids (bodonids, F/P, ...
Archamoebae Lobosa Protamoebae Bikonta Apusozoa Excavata Archaeplastida (plants, broadly defined) Glaucophyta - glaucophytes ...
The Archamoebae are a group of Amoebozoa distinguished by the absence of mitochondria. They include genera that are internal ... Instead, the Archamoebae are part of the Amoebozoa that have lost their mitochondria, and are particularly close relatives of ... The other genera of archamoebae live in freshwater habitats, and are unusual among amoebae in possessing flagella. Most have a ... Cavalier-Smith T (1991). "Archamoebae: the ancestral eukaryotes?". BioSystems. 25 (1-2): 25-38. doi:10.1016/0303-2647(91)90010- ...
This class was anticipated by some biologists like Jahn, who grouped all amoebae with granular pseudopodia together,[1] but most split the lobose amoebae into testate Testacealobosia and naked Gymnamoebia. These latter are polyphyletic, but molecular trees by Bolivar et al.[2] identified a core monophyletic subgroup. Subsequent studies showed the testate lobose amoebae belong to the same group, which was thus renamed Lobosea sensu stricto[3] or Tubulinea.[4]. ...
Conosa/Archamoebae. *Entamoeba histolytica *Amoebiasis. *Amoebic dysentery. *Amoebic liver abscess. *Cutaneous amoebiasis ...
Conosa/Archamoebae. *Entamoeba histolytica *Amoebiasis. *Amoebic dysentery. *Amoebic liver abscess. *Cutaneous amoebiasis ...
Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom. The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, and they are no longer classified as plants as defined here.[23][24] The Viridiplantae, the green plants - green algae and land plants - form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common; primary chloroplasts derived from cyanobacteria containing chlorophylls a and b, cell walls containing cellulose, and food stores in the form of starch contained within the plastids. They undergo ...
... n sexual reproduction often involves a complex life cycle with both polyp and medusa stages. For example, in Scyphozoa (jellyfish) and Cubozoa (box jellies) a larva swims until it finds a good site, and then becomes a polyp. This grows normally but then absorbs its tentacles and splits horizontally into a series of disks that become juvenile medusae, a process called strobilation. The juveniles swim off and slowly grow to maturity, while the polyp re-grows and may continue strobilating periodically. The adults have gonads in the gastroderm, and these release ova and sperm into the water in the breeding season.[9][10] This phenomenon of succession of differently organized generations (one asexually reproducing, sessile polyp, followed by a free-swimming medusa or a sessile polyp that reproduces sexually)[25] is sometimes called "alternation of asexual and sexual phases" or "metagenesis", but should not be confused with the alternation of generations as found in plants. Shortened forms of ...
... is a group of organisms that includes animals and their closest single-celled relatives, but excludes fungi.[1][2][3][4] Holozoa is also an old name for the tunicate genus Distaplia.[5] Because Holozoa is a clade including all organisms more closely related to animals than to fungi, some authors prefer it to recognizing paraphyletic groups such as Choanozoa, which mostly consists of Holozoa minus animals.[6] Perhaps the best-known holozoans, apart from animals, are the choanoflagellates, which strongly resemble the collar cells of sponges, and so were theorized to be related to sponges even in the 19th century. Proterospongia is an example of a colonial choanoflagellate that may shed light on the origin of sponges. The affinities of the other single-celled holozoans only began to be recognized in the 1990s.[7] The sub-classification Icthyosporea or Mesomycetozoea contains a number of mostly parasitic species. The amoeboid genera Ministeria and Capsaspora may be united in a group called ...
In common with other fungal phyla, the Ascomycota are heterotrophic organisms that require organic compounds as energy sources. These are obtained by feeding on a variety of organic substrates including dead matter, foodstuffs, or as symbionts in or on other living organisms. To obtain these nutrients from their surroundings, ascomycetous fungi secrete powerful digestive enzymes that break down organic substances into smaller molecules, which are then taken up into the cell. Many species live on dead plant material such as leaves, twigs, or logs. Several species colonize plants, animals, or other fungi as parasites or mutualistic symbionts and derive all their metabolic energy in form of nutrients from the tissues of their hosts. Owing to their long evolutionary history, the Ascomycota have evolved the capacity to break down almost every organic substance. Unlike most organisms, they are able to use their own enzymes to digest plant biopolymers such as cellulose or lignin. Collagen, an abundant ...
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.[138] Model organisms are in vivo models and are widely used to research human disease when human experimentation would be unfeasible or unethical.[139] This strategy is made possible by the common descent of all living organisms, and the conservation of metabolic and developmental pathways and genetic material over the course of evolution.[140] Studying model organisms can be informative, but care must be taken when extrapolating from one organism to another.[141]. In researching human disease, model organisms allow for better understanding the disease process without the added risk of harming a human. The species chosen will usually meet a determined taxonomic equivalency to humans, so as to react to disease or its treatment in a way that resembles human ...
Each choanoflagellate has a single flagellum, surrounded by a ring of actin-filled protrusions called microvilli, forming a cylindrical or conical collar (choanos in Greek). Movement of the flagellum draws water through the collar, and bacteria and detritus are captured by the microvilli and ingested.[7] Water currents generated by the flagellum also push free-swimming cells along, as in animal sperm. In contrast, most other flagellates are pulled by their flagella. In addition to the single apical flagellum surrounded by actin-filled microvilli that characterizes choanoflagellates, the internal organization of organelles in the cytoplasm is constant.[8] A flagellar basal body sits at the base of the apical flagellum, and a second, non-flagellar basal body rests at a right angle to the flagellar base. The nucleus occupies an apical-to-central position in the cell, and food vacuoles are positioned in the basal region of the cytoplasm.[8][9] Additionally, the cell body of many choanoflagellates is ...
However, flagella occur among some archamoebae, and many slime moulds produce biflagellate gametes. ...
... o infra-embranchement des Archamoebae │ │ └─o infra-embranchement des Mycetozoa │ │ ├─o super-classe des Eumyxa (peut-être ...
Domain: Eukaryota • Phylum: Amoebozoa • Classis: Archamoebae • Familia: Entamoebidae • Genus: Entamoeba • Species: Entamoeba ...
Archamoebae are a diverse group of amoebae. Many have flagella for motility, while others do not. They grow in the absence of ... The group Archamoebae was proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith in 1998 as part of the Archezoa, a newly-proposed group to include ... The Archamoebae are a group of protists originally thought to have evolved before the acquisition of mitochondria by eukaryotes ... The other genera of archamoebae live in freshwater habitats and are unusual among amoebae in possessing flagella. Most have a ...
Theres just one group of amoebozoans left for me to cover: the Archamoebae. Among Amoebozoa, the Archamoebae are easily ... Archamoebae: The Apogee (or Nadir) of Amoebozoan Evolution Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to ... Members of the Archamoebae are either freshwater amoeboflagellates or non-ciliate animal endosymbionts. Because the Archamoebae ... Archamoebae possess a distinct conical arrangement of microtubules at the base of the cilium; in turn, this cone sits on top of ...
See also: Archamoebae: the apogee (or nadir) or amoebozoan evolution.. ,==Archamoebae [Archamoebea, Entamoebea, Pelobiontea, ... Archamoebae Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to Pinterest. ... The Archamoebae are a group of amoebozoans in which the mitochondria have been converted into nonaerobic organelles (Adl et al. ...
Explores the ecological, medical and economic importance of major groups of protists Covers protists morphology, molecular biology, biochemistry,
Archamoebae Cavalier-Smith, 1983. *Gracilipodida Lahr i inni, 2011. *Multicilia Cienkowsky, 1881 ...
OC Eukaryota; Amoebozoa; Archamoebae; Entamoebidae; Entamoeba. OX NCBI_TaxID=370355 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ELP88841.1, ECO:0000313, ...
Conosa/Archamoebae. Entamoeba histolytica (Entamoebiasis, Amoebic dysentery, Amoebic liver abscess, Cutaneous entamoebiasis, ...
Phylum 1. Archamoebae Cavalier-Smith, 1983 *Class 1. Pelobiontea Page, 1976 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith, 1981, emend. 1991 *Order ...
Subphylum 3. Archamoebae Cavalier-Smith 1983 stat. nov. * Class 1. Pelobiontea Page 1976 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1981 emend. ... Archamoebae Cavalier-Smith 1983 * Entamoebidae Chatton 1925, emend. Cavalier-Smith 1993 * Entamoeba ...
... the Archamoebae. The Archamoebae were, in turn, recruited to the new kingdom of Archezoa, along with other amitochondriate ... Are Archamoebae true Archezoa? the phylogenetic position of Pelomyxa sp. as inferred from large subunit ribosomal RNA ... By the end of the decade, it was clear that all members of Cavalier-Smiths Archamoebae were descended from mitochondriate ... n.(Archamoebae, pelobiontida)." Cell and Tissue Biology 5.1 (2011): 90-97. Greeff, Richard. "Pelomyxa palustris (Pelobius), ein ...
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA (Amoebozoa, Archamoebae, Eumycetozoa, Lobosea) * Alexey Smirnov St. ... Petersburg, Russia (Amoebozoa, Archamoebae, Eumycetozoa, Lobosea) * Frederick W Spiegel University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, ... Arkansas, USA (Amoebozoa, Archamoebae, Eumycetozoa, Lobosea) ToL Media Contributors for Amoebozoa. * Greg and Marybeth Dimijian ...
Ordering information: Set includes Actinopod: Radiolaria strew; Archamoebae: Entamoeba histolytica cysts, Entamoeba coli ...
Cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Protista; Amoebozoa; Archamoebae; Entamoeba Natural Reservoir. *Usually humans (only) ...
Cavalier-Smith, T. (1991). "Archamoebae the Ancestral Eukaryotes?" Biosystems, 25(1-2): 25-38. [27] ...
A few groups of unicellular eukaryotes lack mitochondria: the microsporidians, metamonads, and archamoebae.[36] These groups ... Cavalier-Smith T (1991). "Archamoebae: the ancestral eukaryotes?". Biosystems. 25: 1241. doi:10.1016/0303-2647(91)90010-I. PMID ...
Next Document: Evolution of Archamoebae: Morphological and Molecular Evidence for Pelobionts Including Rhizomastix,.... ...
57.96%) (Figure 2 and Supplementary Table). It is worth mentioning the case of the Archamoebae, with 85.71% of OTUsV8−9 below ...
Originally the archamoebae and Mycetozoa were placed in a subphylum Conosa, which receives some support from molecular ... However, flagella occur among some archamoebae, and many slime moulds produce biflagellate gametes. The flagella is generally ... Structural and genetic studies identified the percolozoans and several archamoebae as independent groups. In phylogenies based ... The mitochondria characteristically have branching tubular cristae, but have been lost among archamoebae. ...
The nucleus evolved in karyomastigont ancestors by detachment at least five times (archamoebae, calonymphids, chlorophyte green ...
The Archamoebae (ancient or primitive amoeba) are a very diverse collection, and for that reason some evolutionists "doubt the ...
cellular organisms , Eukaryota , Amoebozoa , Archamoebae , Entamoebidae , Entamoeba] Picture Source Taxonomy:. Eukaryota , ... Amoebozoa , Archamoebae , Entamoebidae , . . .. . . . , Entamoeba , Entamoeba histolytica , Entamoeba histolytica HM-1:IMSS ] ... Amoebozoa , Archamoebae , Entamoebidae , . . .. . . . , Entamoeba , Entamoeba histolytica , Entamoeba histolytica HM-1:IMSS ] ... Amoebozoa , Archamoebae , Entamoebidae , . . .. . . . , Entamoeba , Entamoeba histolytica , Entamoeba histolytica HM-1:IMSS ] ...
Subgroups Mycetozoa(slime moulds) Archamoebae Pelobiontida Entamoebida Gymnamoebia Various others The Amoebozoa are a major ...
This class was anticipated by some biologists like Jahn, who grouped all amoebae with granular pseudopodia together,[1] but most split the lobose amoebae into testate Testacealobosia and naked Gymnamoebia. These latter are polyphyletic, but molecular trees by Bolivar et al.[2] identified a core monophyletic subgroup. Subsequent studies showed the testate lobose amoebae belong to the same group, which was thus renamed Lobosea sensu stricto[3] or Tubulinea.[4]. ...
V. saxonensis, feeding (photomicrograph Steffen Clauss) Velamentofex saxonensis Völcker and Clauß, 2020 Diagnosis: Trophozoites ovoid, 30-95 μm, granuloreticulopodia up to 1000 μm long. with a hyaline, thin ...
  • The group Archamoebae was proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith in 1998 as part of the Archezoa , a newly-proposed group to include eukaryotes that had diverged before acquisition of mitochondria and other common eukaryotic cell features. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following year, Cavalier-Smith included the genus with several other "primitive" amitochondriate amoeboids in a new taxonomical group: the Archamoebae. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, revised trees by Cavalier-Smith and Chao in 1996 suggested that the remaining lobosans do form a monophyletic group, and that the archamoebae and Mycetozoa are closely related to it, although the percolozoans are not. (wikidoc.org)
  • Originally it was divided into the subphyla Lobosa and Conosa, the latter comprising the archamoebae and Mycetozoa, but more recent phylogenies do not support either. (academickids.com)
  • The Archamoebae are a group of protists originally thought to have evolved before the acquisition of mitochondria by eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early molecular trees based on rRNA supported this position, placing several Archamoebae genera as separate groups that diverged from other eukaryotes very early on, suggesting that the absence of mitochondria was a primitive condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lack of mitochondria also lead to Archamoebae being one of the four groups of protists (along with the Diplomonadida, Microsporidia and Parabasalia) that were grouped together as the "Archezoa", and suggested to have diverged from other eukaryotes prior to the origin of mitochondria. (fieldofscience.com)
  • The mitochondria characteristically have branching tubular cristae , but have been lost among archamoebae. (wikidoc.org)
  • The archezoan hypothesis began to fall from favour in the latter half of the 1990s as relationships were proposed between various 'archezoans' and specific groups of mitochondriate protists, such as between Archamoebae and other amoebozoans. (fieldofscience.com)
  • By the end of the decade, it was clear that all members of Cavalier-Smith's Archamoebae were descended from mitochondriate cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a few have secondarily lost them, collectively referred to as archamoebae from an earlier assumption that the condition was primitive. (academickids.com)
  • Because the Archamoebae are primarily defined by a character absence some authors have suggested that their monophyly is suspect, but molecular analyses support their recognition. (fieldofscience.com)
  • Structural and genetic studies identified the percolozoans and several archamoebae as independent groups. (wikidoc.org)
  • However, flagella occur among some archamoebae , and many slime moulds produce biflagellate gametes . (wikidoc.org)
  • 2001), which you may recall is not the usual condition for amoebozoans (other than Archamoebae, eruptive pseudopodium is also found in Leptomyxida ). (fieldofscience.com)