Thermococcus: A genus of extremely thermophilic heterotrophic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated sea flows. They are anaerobic chemoorganotropic sulfidogens.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Pyrococcus furiosus: A species of strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaea which lives in geothermally-heated marine sediments. It exhibits heterotropic growth by fermentation or sulfur respiration.Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.Halobacteriaceae: A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Haloferax volcanii: A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.Sulfolobus solfataricus: A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Methanococcus: A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Aeropyrum: A genus of anaerobic, chemolithotropic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family DESULFUROCOCCACEAE. They live in marine environments.Sulfolobus acidocaldarius: A species of aerobic, chemolithotrophic ARCHAEA consisting of coccoid cells that utilize sulfur as an energy source. The optimum temperature for growth is 70-75 degrees C. They are isolated from acidic fields.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Thermoproteaceae: A family of THERMOPROTEALES consisting of variable length rigid rods without septa. They grow either chemolithoautotrophically or by sulfur respiration. The four genera are: PYROBACULUM; THERMOPROTEUS; Caldivirga; and Thermocladium. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)Desulfurococcaceae: A family of archaea, in the order DESULFUROCOCCALES, consisting of anaerobic cocci which utilize peptides, proteins or carbohydrates facultatively by sulfur respiration or fermentation. There are eight genera: AEROPYRUM, Desulfurococcus, Ignicoccus, Staphylothermus, Stetteria, Sulfophoboccus, Thermodiscus, and Thermosphaera. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Haloarcula: A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.Pyrococcus horikoshii: Anaerobic hyperthermophilic species of ARCHAEA, isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples. It is obligately heterotrophic with coccoid cells that require TRYPTOPHAN for growth.Pyrobaculum: A genus of rod-shaped, almost rectangular ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. Organisms are facultatively aerobic or strictly anaerobic, grow on various organic substrates, and are found in continental solfataras.Thermoplasma: A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Sulfolobaceae: A family of SULFOLOBALES consisting of aerobic or facultatively anaerobic chemolithotrophic cocci, usually occurring singly. They grow best at a pH of about 2.Haloferax: A genus of extremely halophilic HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoheterotropic and strictly aerobic. They are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes (especially the Dead Sea) and marine salterns.Thermoplasmales: An order of aerobic, thermophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA, characterized by the absence of a cell wall. Two genera have been described: THERMOPLASMA and Picrophilus.Archaeoglobus fulgidus: A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Methanobacteriaceae: A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.Halobacteriales: An order of extremely halophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They occur ubiquitously in nature where the salt concentration is high, and are chemoorganotrophic, using amino acids or carbohydrates as a carbon source.Halobacterium salinarum: A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Methanobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Halobacterium: A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE whose growth requires a high concentration of salt. Binary fission is by constriction.Methanococcales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)Crenarchaeota: A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.Methanosarcinaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOSARCINALES whose cells are mesophilic or thermophilic and appear as irregular spheroid bodies or sheathed rods. These methanogens are found in any anaerobic environment including aquatic sediments, anaerobic sewage digesters and gastrointestinal tracts. There are four genera: METHANOSARCINA, Methanolobus, Methanothrix, and Methanococcoides.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Pyrococcus abyssi: A species of gram-negative hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in deep ocean hydrothermal vents. It is an obligate anaerobe and obligate chemoorganotroph.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Pyruvate Synthase: A ferredoxin-containing enzyme that catalyzes the COENZYME A-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of PYRUVATE to acetyl-COENZYME A and CARBON DIOXIDE.Haloarcula marismortui: A species of halophilic archaea distinguished by its production of acid from sugar. This species was previously called Halobacterium marismortui.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Methanosarcina barkeri: A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Methanobrevibacter: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, cocci to short rod-shaped ARCHAEA, in the family METHANOBACTERIACEAE, order METHANOBACTERIALES. They are found in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or other anoxic environments.Archaeoglobales: An order of extremely thermophilic, sulfate-reducing archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. The single family Archaeoglobaceae contains one genus ARCHAEOGLOBUS.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Halococcus: A genus of extremely halophilic HALOBACTERIACEAE with coccoid cells occurring singly or as pairs, tetrads, or irregular clusters. They are found in neutral salt lakes, marine salterns, saline soils and seawater.Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.Halorubrum: A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoorganotrophic and strictly aerobic. They have been isolated from multiple hypersaline environments that vary widely in chemical and physical properties.Archaeoglobus: A genus of extremely thermophilic, sulfate-reducing archaea, in the family Archaeoglobaceae.Methanococcaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOCOCCALES whose organisms are motile by means of flagella. These methanogens use carbon dioxide as an electron acceptor.Acidianus: A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Methanomicrobiaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOMICROBIALES whose cells are coccoid to straight or slightly curved rods. There are six genera.Pandalidae: A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the pandalid shrimp. They are protandric hermaphrodites and can breed in both male and female stages. Many species are commercially harvested in the Pacific Northwest.Natronococcus: A genus of coccoid, extremely halophilic HALOBACTERIACEAE which grows in alkaline conditions. They are nonmotile and strictly aerobic and are found in soda lakes, alkaline salterns, and soda soils.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Methanobacteriales: An order of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are nonmotile, do not catabolize carbohydrates, proteinaceous material, or organic compounds other than formate or carbon monoxide, and are widely distributed in nature.Hydrogenase: An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System: 1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.Rudiviridae: Family of rod-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA. They lack viral envelopes or lipids.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Haloferax mediterranei: A species of halophilic archaea found in the Mediterranean Sea. It produces bacteriocins active against a range of other halobacteria.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Oxaloacetic Acid: A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Sulfolobales: An order of CRENARCHAEOTA consisting of aerobic or facultatively aerobic, chemolithotrophic cocci which are extreme thermoacidophiles. They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Hot Springs: Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Thermococcales: An order of strictly anaerobic, thermophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. Members exhibit heterotropic growth by sulfur respiration. There is a single family THERMOCOCCACEAE.Nanoarchaeota: A kingdom of hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in diverse environments.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Magnesium Chloride: Magnesium chloride. An inorganic compound consisting of one magnesium and two chloride ions. The compound is used in medicine as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many cellular activities. It has also been used as a cathartic and in alloys.Glucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Pacific OceanMethanomicrobiales: An order of anaerobic, highly specialized methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. Its organisms are nonmotile or motile, with cells occurring as coccoid bodies, pseudosarcina, or rods. Families include METHANOMICROBIACEAE, Methanocorpusculaceae, and Methanospirillaceae.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Ketone Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Archaeal Viruses: Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.Fuselloviridae: A family of lemon-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA and containing one genus: Fusellovirus.Chaperonins: A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase: The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC 2.4.2.10.Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors: Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.Phosphotransferases (Paired Acceptors): A group of enzymes that transfers two phosphate groups from a donor such as ATP to two different acceptors. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.9.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.RNA, Transfer, Pro: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying proline to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Halorhodopsins: Light driven chloride ion pumps that are ubiquitously found in halophilic archaea (HALOBACTERIALES).Thermococcaceae: A family of anaerobic THERMOCOCCALES found in hot environments. There are two genera: PYROCOCCUS and THERMOCOCCUS.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rubredoxins: A class of iron-sulfur proteins that contains one iron coordinated to the sulfur atom of four cysteine residues. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Archaeal: The large subunit of the archaeal 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 40 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Subtilisin: A serine endopeptidase isolated from Bacillus subtilis. It hydrolyzes proteins with broad specificity for peptide bonds, and a preference for a large uncharged residue in P1. It also hydrolyzes peptide amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.21.62.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Inorganic Pyrophosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of diphosphate (DIPHOSPHATES) into inorganic phosphate. The hydrolysis of pyrophosphate is coupled to the transport of HYDROGEN IONS across a membrane.Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate: An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Cytochrome a Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) in which the heme prosthetic group is heme a, i.e., the iron chelate of cytoporphyrin IX. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Sensory Rhodopsins: Photosensory rhodopsins found in microorganisms such as HALOBACTERIA. They convert light signals into biochemical information that regulates certain cellular functions such as flagellar motor activity.Thermoproteus: A genus of obligately anaerobic ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. They are found in acidic hot springs and water holes.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Pentoses: A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.TrehaloseMolybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Algeria: A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.Bacteriorhodopsins: Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Coenzyme ACobamidesTranscription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.2,6-Dichloroindophenol: A dye used as a reagent in the determination of vitamin C.Carbamyl Phosphate: The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Chemoautotrophic Growth: Growth of organisms using AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES for obtaining nutrients and chemotrophic processes for obtaining a primary energy supply. Chemotrophic processes are involved in deriving a primary energy supply from exogenous chemical sources. Chemotrophic autotrophs (chemoautotrophs) generally use inorganic chemicals as energy sources and as such are called chemolithoautotrophs. Most chemoautotrophs live in hostile environments, such as deep sea vents. They are mostly BACTERIA and ARCHAEA, and are the primary producers for those ecosystems.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats: Repetitive nucleic acid sequences that are principal components of the archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS, which function as adaptive antiviral defense systems.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Nonheme Iron Proteins: Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Guanidine: A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.Orotic AcidMethanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Hydrocharitaceae: A plant family of the order Hydrocharitales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Tungsten Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.
In archaea[edit]. Crenarchaeota possess neither a cell wall nor the FtsZ mechanism. They use a primitive version of the ... Organisms in the domains of Archaea and Bacteria reproduce with binary fission. This form of asexual reproduction and cell ... Bernander, R; Ettema, TJ (December 2010). "FtsZ-less cell division in archaea and bacteria". Current Opinion in Microbiology. ... "Evolution of diverse cell division and vesicle formation systems in Archaea". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 8 (10): 731-41. ...
"archaea , prokaryote". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2015-11-22.. *^ a b c d e f Gupta, G.N.; Srivastava, S.; Khare, S.K ... Bernstein H, Bernstein C. Sexual communication in archaea, the precursor to meiosis. pp. 103-117 in Biocommunication of Archaea ... "Extremophiles: Archaea and Bacteria" : Map of Life". www.mapoflife.org. Retrieved 2015-11-22.. ... Some archaea inhabit the most biologically inhospitable environments on earth, and this is believed to in some ways mimic the ...
Archaea typically have fewer disulfides than higher organisms.[12] In eukaryotes[edit]. In eukaryotic cells, in general, stable ... In bacteria and archaea[edit]. Disulfide bonds play an important protective role for bacteria as a reversible switch that turns ... "there is no evidence for disulfide bonds in proteins from archaea"". Extremophiles. 12 (1): 29-38. doi:10.1007/s00792-007-0076- ...
Archaea[edit]. Archaea is a domain of organisms that are prokaryotic, single-celled, and are thought to have developed 4 ... "Archaea". Microbe World. Microbe World. Retrieved 8 November 2015.. *^ Chambers, Cecilia R.; Patrick, Wayne M. (2015). " ... It studies the genetics of very small (micro) organisms; bacteria, archaea, viruses and some protozoa and fungi.[1] This ... Gene transfer and genetic exchange have been studied in the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium volcanii and the ...
Archaea[edit]. Archaea have a single type of RNAP, responsible for the synthesis of all RNA. Archaeal RNAP is structurally and ... Archaea has the subunit corresponding to Eukaryotic Rpb1 split into two. There is no homolog to eukaryotic Rpb9 (POLR2I) in the ... The first analysis of the RNAP of an archaeon was performed in 1971, when the RNAP from the extreme halophile Halobacterium ... Bacteria and archaea only have one RNA polymerase. Eukaryotes have multiple types of nuclear RNAP, each responsible for ...
In archaea[edit]. Tungsten is essential for some archaea. The following tungsten-utilizing enzymes are known: *Aldehyde ... 1 April 2008). Archaea: New Models for Prokaryotic Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1904455271.. ... A wtp system is known to selectively transport tungsten in archaea: *WtpA is tungten-binding protein of ABC family of ... It is used by some bacteria and archaea,[82] but not in eukaryotes. For example, enzymes called oxidoreductases use tungsten ...
ArchaeaEdit. *Sulfolobales, an order in the Crenarchaeota branch[2] of Archaea ... ARMAN, in the Euryarchaeota branch[2] of Archaea. *Acidianus brierleyi, A. infernus, facultatively anaerobic thermoacidophilic ... Thermoplasmatales, an order in the Euryarchaeota branch[2] of Archaea. * ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...
Archaea : prokaryotes distinct from bacteria, that inhabit many environments of the ocean, as well as many extreme environments ...
It is a structural and functional component of the large subunit of the ribosome in all domains of life (bacteria, archaea, and ... In bacteria and archaea, the large ribosomal subunit (LSU) itself is composed of two RNA moieties, the 5S rRNA and another ... Models for: A) bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotic nuclei, B) plastids, and C) mitochondria. The IUPAC code letters and circles ...
Archaea. Archaea possess genes metabolic pathways more closely related to eukaryotes such as the enzymes involved in ...
EAB means conserved in eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria, EA means conserved in eukaryotes and archaea and E means eukaryote- ... Proteins shared only between eukaryotes and archaea are shown as orange ribbons and proteins specific to eukaryotes are shown ... Proteins which have homologs in eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria (EAB) are shown as blue ribbons. Proteins shared only between ... Proteins which have homologs in eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria are shown as blue ribbons. ...
Bernstein H, Bernstein C. Sexual communication in archaea, the precursor to meiosis. pp. 103-117 in Biocommunication of Archaea ... Archaea are prokaryotic unicellular organisms, and form the first domain of life, in Carl Woese's three-domain system. A ... Bacteria and archaea are almost always microscopic, while a number of eukaryotes are also microscopic, including most protists ... Carl Woese's 1990 phylogenetic tree based on rRNA data shows the domains of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryota. All are ...
talk , contribs)‎ (→‎Archaea: Fixed unit of measurement of size of archaea) (Tags: Mobile edit, Mobile web edit) ...
Modern alternative classification systems generally begin with the three-domain system: Archaea (originally Archaebacteria); ... archaea, and eukaryotes as described initially by Carl Woese. Trees constructed with other genes are generally similar, ... "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya". Proceedings of the National ... archaea, and eukaryotes (see: origin of life).[23] ...
a b Bernstein H, Bernstein C. Sexual communication in archaea, the precursor to meiosis. pp. 103-117 in Biocommunication of ... Natural transformation in bacteria, DNA transfer in archaea, and meiosis in eukaryotic microorganisms are induced by stressful ... The designation "Neomuran revolution" refers to the appearances of the common ancestors of eukaryotes and archaea. Cavalier- ... with central functions in meiosis are similar to key proteins in natural transformation in bacteria and DNA transfer in archaea ...
... (also known as pseudomurein) is a major cell wall component of some Archaea that differs from bacterial ... Peptidoglycan Cell wall Methanochondroitin - another archaea cell wall type White, David. (1995) The Physiology and ...
Archaea. SUPERFAMILY database SCOP: Structural Classification of Proteins. ...
Cell-wall-containing Archaea are also lysed by specialized pseudomurein-cleaving lysins, while most archaeal viruses employ ... Archaea. 2010: 1-4. doi:10.1155/2010/480492. Quemin, ERJ; Quax, TEF (5 June 2015). "Archaeal viruses at the cell envelope: ...
nov., a hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from a hydrothermal vent at the Okinawa Trough". Extremophiles. 2 (2): 123-130. doi ... Pyrococcus horikoshii is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic archaeon, first isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples obtained at ... Archaea. 2011: 1-9. doi:10.1155/2011/565127. ISSN 1472-3646. Ando, Susumu; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Ishida, Hiroyasu; Kawarabayasi, ...
Archaea. 2014: 1-18. doi:10.1155/2014/898453. PMC 3960522 . PMID 24729742. "Zaida A. Luthey-Schulten". Chemistry Tree. ...
nov., a methane-producing archaeon, the first isolate of the lineage 'Rice Cluster I', and proposal of the new archaeal order ... Antunes A, Alam I, Bajic VB, Stingl U (September 2011). "Genome sequence of Halorhabdus tiamatea, the first archaeon isolated ... This list of sequenced archaeal genomes contains all the archaea known to have publicly available complete genome sequences ... Methanococcus jannaschii was the first archaeon whose genome was sequenced, in 1996. Currently in this list there are 39 ...
One study analyzed the Z curve for multiple species of Archaea and found that the oriC is located at a sharp peak on the curve ... Zhang R, Zhang CT (2005). "Identification of replication origins in archaeal genomes based on the Z-curve method". Archaea. 1 ( ... Zhang, Ren; Zhang, Chun-Ting (2002-09-20). "Single replication origin of the archaeon Methanosarcina mazei revealed by the Z ... Zhang, Ren; Zhang, Chun-Ting (2002-09-20). "Single replication origin of the archaeon Methanosarcina mazei revealed by the Z ...
"Archeon". MusicMight. Retrieved 2009-07-14. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Architects". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-07-14. Henderson, Alex ...
With the exception of two halophilic archaea the DUF1608 domain is exclusive to the methanogenic Archaea of the order ... The first S-layers were discovered in bacteria in the 1950s and the presence of S-layers in many Archaea was determined through ... The S-layer, which is found in most Archaea, and in many bacteria, serves many crucial functions including protection from ... Archaea. 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/873589. PMC 3361143 . PMID 22666082. 873589. Arbing MA, Chan S, Shin A, Phan T, Ahn CJ, Rohlin ...
Outside the unusual cell wall of hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix. Gianna Palmieri, Raffaele Cannio, Immacolata ... Outside the unusual cell wall of hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix. Gianna Palmieri, Raffaele Cannio, Immacolata ... Outside the unusual cell wall of hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Outside the unusual cell wall of hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix. Gianna Palmieri, Raffaele Cannio, Immacolata ...
We determined the crystal structure of the enzyme from the sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus at 2-Å resolution ... We determined the crystal structure of the enzyme from the sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus at 2-Å resolution ... Structure of the Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. * Home ... Structure of the Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Publikationstyp:. ...
Amino acid sequence analysis shows that the P. aerophilum SOD is closely related to SODs from other hyperthermophilic archaea ( ... Amino acid sequence analysis shows that the P. aerophilum SOD is closely related to SODs from other hyperthermophilic archaea ( ... Amino acid sequence analysis shows that the P. aerophilum SOD is closely related to SODs from other hyperthermophilic archaea ( ... Amino acid sequence analysis shows that the P. aerophilum SOD is closely related to SODs from other hyperthermophilic archaea ( ...
The salt-induced ABC transporter Ota of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 is a glycine betaine transporter. ... The genes encoding the three subunits of the primary ABC transporter Ota of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 ...
CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF A NOVEL OPEN PORE FERRITIN FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILIC ARCHAEON ARCHAEOGLOBUS FULGIDUS , 1S3Q ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF A NOVEL OPEN PORE FERRITIN FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILIC ARCHAEON ARCHAEOGLOBUS FULGIDUS ...
In this work we characterize an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum ( ...
The long-term goals of this research are to understand how the Archaea live in extreme environments and to use the Archaeal ... The Archaea are curious and remarkable organisms; and, their lipids are structurally distinctly different from their bacterial ... The native habitat of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, which is the focus of this research, is hot (65 ... Structure and Conformation of Bipolar Tetraether Lipid Membranes Derived from Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus ...
Summons a Demonic Circle for 15 min. Cast Demonic Circle: Teleport to teleport to its location and remove all movement slowing effects. You also learn: Demonic Circle: Teleport Teleports you to your Demonic Circle and removes all movement slowing effects ...
Pages in category "Archaea". The following 2 pages are in this category, out of 2 total. This list may not reflect recent ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Archaea&oldid=766848270" ...
Archaea at the Tree of Life Web Project. References[edit]. *↑ 1.0 1.1 Ruggiero MA, Gordon DP, Orrell TM, Bailly N, Bourgoin T, ... Archaea. *Single-celled organisms lacking nuclei, formerly called archaebacteria, but now known to differ fundamentally from ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Archaea&oldid=48382434" ...
Archaea, (domain Archaea), any of a group of single-celled prokaryotic organisms (that is, organisms whose cells lack a defined ... Alternative Titles: Archaea, archaean, archaebacteria, archaebacterium, archaeobacteria, archaeobacterium, archaeon. Archaea, ( ... Habitats of the archaea. Archaea are microorganisms that define the limits of life on Earth. They were originally discovered ... Archaea are also found living in association with eukaryotes. For example, methanogenic archaea are present in the digestive ...
... There are no movies to show in Archaea. You might want to try its parent group, Life on Earth. ...
"Genomic expansion of domain Archaea highlights roles for organisms from new phyla in anaerobic carbon cycling.". Castelle C.J. ...
Archaea and bacteria are generally similar in size and shape, although a few archaea have very strange shapes, such as the flat ... Archaea are particularly numerous in the oceans, and the archaea in plankton may be one of the most abundant groups of ... In some archaea, the lipid bilayer is replaced by a monolayer. In effect, the archaea fuse the tails of two phospholipid ... Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall. In most archaea the wall is assembled from surface- ...
Archeon can refer to: An organism belong to the domain archaea. Archeon, Netherlands, a Dutch archeological theme park in ... Alphen aan den Rijn Made of Hate, a Polish melodic death metal band (transformed from the band Archeon).. ...
SEAS researchers have found that these pink-hued archaea -- called [I]Halobacterium salinarum[/I] -- use the same mechanisms to ... SEAS researchers have found that these pink-hued archaea -- called Halobacterium salinarum -- use the same mechanisms to ... Archaea (image). Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences ...
The archaea in the genus Pyrodictium thrive in the temperature range of 80 to 110 °C (176 to 230 °F), temperatures at which the ... The archaea in the genus Pyrodictium thrive in the temperature range of 80 to 110 °C (176 to 230 °F), temperatures at which the ...
Archaea Archaea. Archaea are nowadays known as the third domain of life. Before 1970 archaea were thought to belong to the ... These archaea were grouped into the new archaeal superphylum Asgard archaea. This phylum contains Thor-, Odin-, Helmdall- and ... Archaea. Since then more and more data accumulated which show that Archaea indeed belong to a separate domain. ... Halophilic archaea are generally easy to grow in the lab. Haloferax can also be genetically manipulated and we can use CRISPRi ...
Roman and Medieval periods in the Netherlands at Archeon. Youll learn everything about the daily lives of people living ... Accommodations near Archeon. You can spend the night at several holiday parks near Archeon. Many holiday parks are located by ... Archeon is a unique experience, especially for younger visitors. You will not experience a single dull moment in this ancient ... As you walk through Archeon youll learn everything about the daily life of people who lived hundreds of year ago. You will ...
A carbonic anhydrase from the archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila. B E Alber and J G Ferry ...
... whereas archaea did not seem to respond (20, 23, 24). In other soils, growth and nitrification of archaea was demonstrated (25- ... Nitrososphaera viennensis, an ammonia oxidizing archaeon from soil. Maria Tourna, Michaela Stieglmeier, Anja Spang, Martin ... Nitrososphaera viennensis, an ammonia oxidizing archaeon from soil. Maria Tourna, Michaela Stieglmeier, Anja Spang, Martin ... The percentage of archaea in the enrichments varied between 75% and 99%. Fig. 1A displays a characteristic growth curve of ...
Similar Decks to Archeon Tarot. Theme: Dark & Gothic Category: Available Decks More About These Cards. Name: Archeon Tarot. ... Archeon Tarot. The Archeon Tarot features a mix of traditional and non-traditional imagery in dream-like digital collage, ... The Archeon Tarot by Timothy Lantz could have been Pauls subject. The glowing, swirling images are dark, a bit mottled, and ... Archeon Tarot review by Dionysius S. Badarian. Paul of Tarsus, the persecutor of Christians, later convert, apostle, and saint ...
Genetic elements in the extremely thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus.. Zillig W1, Arnold HP, Holz I, Prangishvili D, Schweier A, ...
TYW3_archaea (MF_00266). Accession MF_00266 Integration. tRNA(Phe) 7-((3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-4-demethylwyosine(37)-N(4))- ...
Decarboxylase MfnA, archaea (IPR020931). Short name: MfnA Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent ...
  • If you are interested in learning more about Woese and Archaea, I encourage you to listen to this Woese-themed This Week in Microbiology podcast featuring Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Stanley Maloy (start listening about 3:55 to skip the San Diego weather report). (scientificamerican.com)
  • Incorporation of labeled bicarbonate ( 29 , 30 ), as well as of organic carbon ( 31 , 32 ), has been observed for marine archaea, but in the latter two studies ( 31 , 32 ) it was not determined whether the analyzed microbes were AOA. (pnas.org)
  • Only one group-the marine Thaumarchaeota-has cultivated representatives, making marine archaea an attractive focus point for the latest developments in cultivation-independent molecular methods. (nih.gov)
  • We highlight key gaps in our knowledge about the ecological roles of marine archaea in carbon flow and food web interactions. (nih.gov)
  • Karen L. Casciotti and Alyson E. Santoro of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and their colleagues now show that cultures of marine archaea produce N 2 O via ammonia oxidation. (acs.org)
  • Although some planktonic archaea may be heterotrophic because of their uptake of amino acids ( 14 , 15 ), there is evidence that some marine archaea may be chemoautotrophs ( 16 ), capable of light-independent carbon (C) fixation ( 15 , 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Upon amendment of fertilizer, growth of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was reported to correlate with nitrification activity, whereas archaea did not seem to respond ( 20 , 23 , 24 ). (pnas.org)
  • It's a good question whether Woese would have recognized the Archaea for what they were, had he not been in the habit of thinking for himself. (uncommondescent.com)
  • Among several other accomplishments, Woese has been celebrated for the discovery of the domain Archaea and for establishing rRNA as the 'Rosetta Stone' of evolutionary and environmental microbiology. (scoop.it)
  • and thank you to the late, great Carl Woese , for my post about both -- Archaea Are More Wonderful Than You Know -- was a finalist in the Best Biology Post category in this year's ScienceSeeker Blog Awards . (scientificamerican.com)
  • The archaea, as it happens, were only discovered comparatively recently and identified by the decidedly non-Darwinian Carl Woese. (uncommondescent.com)
  • He also showed that transcriptional promoters in Archaea were different from those in other Bacteria, which contributed to the acceptance of the three Domain view of evolution proposed by Carl Woese. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study published today (May 26) in Nature Microbiology, researchers identified and cultured two lineages of methane-generating archaea that thrive in salty lakes. (uncommondescent.com)
  • Cultivation of a thermophilic ammonia oxidizing archaeon synthesizing crenarchaeol. (nih.gov)
  • Initially people thought that archaea are 'freaks' living only at sites with extreme living conditions like f.i. hot geysers in Yellowstone National Park and Black Smokers at the bottom of the ocean. (uni-ulm.de)
  • It is thought that archaea and bacteria diverged early in their existence because of all the dissimilarities between the two groups. (wikibooks.org)
  • Until the late 1970s, biologists thought that Archaea were just weird bacteria, but then a landmark analysis of their DNA showed that they represent an independent branch on the tree of life that stretches back more than three billion years. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The simplicity of archaea means that they've got the potential to be a terrific model to help understand the fundamentally related -- but much more complicated -- cellular processes in humans. (newswise.com)
  • Baker probed the gene fragments more thoroughly to turn up three Archaea from a totally unknown group, probably representing a new phylum among the several dozen known phyla of Archaea. (wordnik.com)
  • The role of sulfur metabolism in the archaeon " Ferroplasma acidarmanus " strain fer1's ability to thrive in this environment was investigated due to its growth-dependent production of methanethiol, a volatile organic sulfur compound. (dovepress.com)
  • Kawakami R, Ohmori T, Sakuraba H, Ohshima T (2015) Identification of a novel amino acid racemase from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT-3 induced by d -amino acids. (springer.com)
  • In this context, we identified a repertoire of 86 DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) in the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638, that are clustered into 32 evolutionary families. (mdpi.com)
  • Perez-Rueda, E. Dissecting the Repertoire of DNA-Binding Transcription Factors of the Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638. (mdpi.com)
  • Denis A, Martínez-Núñez MA, Tenorio-Salgado S, Perez-Rueda E. Dissecting the Repertoire of DNA-Binding Transcription Factors of the Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638. (mdpi.com)
  • Phylogenomic analysis suggests that at least one T4P system was present in the last common ancestor of the extant archaea. (frontiersin.org)
  • The microbial community was analyzed using a Bacteria- and Archaea-targeting 16S rRNA gene-based Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism approach. (environmental-expert.com)
  • 16S rRNA gene sequences specific to Archaea were amplified from pooled faecal DNA in each group, sequenced, and aligned against the NCBI database. (springer.com)
  • Built to last, the Osprey Archeon 45 is a super burly rucksack you'll probably be able to hand down to your grandchildren with a clean conscience, knowing that it's made from 100% recycled fabrics. (outside.co.uk)
  • The Osprey Archeon 30L Rucksack has been crafted with the principle of environmentalism in mind. (snowandrock.com)
  • Though frequently referred to collectively, the planktonic archaea actually comprise four major phylogenetic groups, each with its own distinct physiology and ecology. (nih.gov)
  • Of note, the halobacteria can use light to produce ATP, although no archaea conduct photosynthesis with an electron transport chain, as occurs in other groups. (wikibooks.org)
  • The archaea in the genus Pyrodictium thrive in the temperature range of 80 to 110 °C (176 to 230 °F), temperatures at which the water remains liquid only because of the extremely high pressures. (britannica.com)
  • Also referred to as Archaea, the smaller set on non-nucleated cellular life that used to be referred to as bacteria or prokaroytes. (eol.org)
  • The discovery could support the use of archaea in research to understand human diseases related to errors in cellular gene expression, such as cancer. (newswise.com)
  • The basic structure of replication origins is conserved among archaea, typically including an AT-rich unwinding region flanked by several conserved repeats (origin recognition box, ORB) that are located adjacent to a replication initiator gene. (frontiersin.org)
  • Archaea was originally thought to be just another form of bacteria, but archaea is a much simpler form of life, simpler than a single-celled organism, which nevertheless contains DNA, the gene-code of life. (windows2universe.org)
  • Discovery of the first functional antibacterial gene in Archaea suggests life's extremists may be an untapped source of new antibacterial agents. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • It is the first discovery of a functional antibacterial gene in Archaea," says Seth Bordenstein, the associate professor of biological sciences at Vanderbilt University who directed the study, "You can't overstate the significance of the antibiotic resistance problem that humanity is facing. (infectioncontroltoday.com)