Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.
A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.
Family of rod-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA. They lack viral envelopes or lipids.
A family of lemon-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA and containing one genus: Fusellovirus.
Family of enveloped, lipid-containing, filamentous DNA viruses that infect ARCHAEA.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoorganotrophic and strictly aerobic. They have been isolated from multiple hypersaline environments that vary widely in chemical and physical properties.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A genus of anaerobic, chemolithotropic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family DESULFUROCOCCACEAE. They live in marine environments.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A genus of DNA plant viruses with bacilliform morphology. Transmission in clonally-propagated plants is by vegetative propagation of infected plant materials. Transmission in nature is by mealybugs, seeds, and pollen. The type species is Commelina yellow mottle virus.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
The fundamental tenet of modern medicine that certain diseases are caused by microorganisms. It was confirmed by the work of Pasteur, Lister, and Koch.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Most strains produce a yellow pigment. This organism is isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, soil, and water, as well as from animals and human wounds, blood, and urine. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)

Viruses from extreme thermal environments. (1/74)

Viruses of extreme thermophiles are of great interest because they serve as model systems for understanding the biochemistry and molecular biology required for life at high temperatures. In this work, we report the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and virus-like particles from extreme thermal acidic environments (70-92 degrees C, pH 1.0-4.5) found in Yellowstone National Park. Six unique particle morphologies were found in Sulfolobus enrichment cultures. Three of the particle morphologies are similar to viruses previously isolated from Sulfolobus species from Iceland and/or Japan. Sequence analysis of their viral genomes suggests that they are related to the Icelandic and Japanese isolates. In addition, three virus particle morphologies that had not been previously observed from thermal environments were found. These viruses appear to be completely novel in nature.  (+info)

Comparative genomic analysis of hyperthermophilic archaeal Fuselloviridae viruses. (2/74)

The complete genome sequences of two Sulfolobus spindle-shaped viruses (SSVs) from acidic hot springs in Kamchatka (Russia) and Yellowstone National Park (United States) have been determined. These nonlytic temperate viruses were isolated from hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus hosts, and both viruses share the spindle-shaped morphology characteristic of the Fuselloviridae family. These two genomes, in combination with the previously determined SSV1 genome from Japan and the SSV2 genome from Iceland, have allowed us to carry out a phylogenetic comparison of these geographically distributed hyperthermal viruses. Each virus contains a circular double-stranded DNA genome of approximately 15 kbp with approximately 34 open reading frames (ORFs). These Fusellovirus ORFs show little or no similarity to genes in the public databases. In contrast, 18 ORFs are common to all four isolates and may represent the minimal gene set defining this viral group. In general, ORFs on one half of the genome are colinear and highly conserved, while ORFs on the other half are not. One shared ORF among all four genomes is an integrase of the tyrosine recombinase family. All four viral genomes integrate into their host tRNA genes. The specific tRNA gene used for integration varies, and one genome integrates into multiple loci. Several unique ORFs are found in the genome of each isolate.  (+info)

Haloviruses HF1 and HF2: evidence for a recent and large recombination event. (3/74)

Haloviruses HF1 and HF2 were isolated from the same saltern pond and are adapted to hypersaline conditions, where they infect a broad range of haloarchaeal species. The HF2 genome has previously been reported. The complete sequence of the HF1 genome has now been determined, mainly by PCR and primer walking. It was 75,898 bp in length and was 94.4% identical to the HF2 genome but about 1.8 kb shorter. A total of 117 open reading frames and five tRNA-like genes were predicted, and their database matches and characteristics were similar to those found in HF2. A comparison of the predicted restriction digest patterns based on nucleotide sequence with the observed restriction digest patterns of viral DNA showed that, unlike the case for HF2, some packaged HF1 DNA had cohesive termini. Except for a single base change, HF1 and HF2 were identical in sequence over the first 48 kb, a region that includes the early and middle genes. The remaining 28 kb of HF1 showed many differences from HF2, and the similarity of the two genomes over this late gene region was 87%. The abrupt shift in sequence similarity around 48 kb suggests a recent recombination event between either HF1 or HF2 and another HF-like halovirus that has swapped most of the right-end 28 kb. This example indicates there is a high level of recombination among viruses that live in this extreme environment.  (+info)

Morphology and genome organization of the virus PSV of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genera Pyrobaculum and Thermoproteus: a novel virus family, the Globuloviridae. (4/74)

A novel virus, termed Pyrobaculum spherical virus (PSV), is described that infects anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaea of the genera Pyrobaculum and Thermoproteus. Spherical enveloped virions, about 100 nm in diameter, contain a major multimeric 33-kDa protein and host-derived lipids. A viral envelope encases a superhelical nucleoprotein core containing linear double-stranded DNA. The PSV infection cycle does not cause lysis of host cells. The viral genome was sequenced and contains 28337 bp. The genome is unique for known archaeal viruses in that none of the genes, including that encoding the major structural protein, show any significant sequence matches to genes in public sequence databases. Exceptionally for an archaeal double-stranded DNA virus, almost all the recognizable genes are located on one DNA strand. The ends of the genome consist of 190-bp inverted repeats that contain multiple copies of short direct repeats. The two DNA strands are probably covalently linked at their termini. On the basis of the unusual morphological and genomic properties of this DNA virus, we propose to assign PSV to a new viral family, the Globuloviridae.  (+info)

SH1: A novel, spherical halovirus isolated from an Australian hypersaline lake. (5/74)

A novel halovirus, SH1, with a spherical morphology is described. Isolated from a hypersaline lake, SH1 is divalent, producing clear plaques on Haloarcula hispanica and a natural Halorubrum isolate. Single-step growth curves gave a latent period of 5-6 h and a burst size of around 200 PFU/cell. The host can differentiate to form tight clusters of thick cell-walled forms, and these were shown to be resistant to infection. Purified virions had no visible tail, were about 70 nm in diameter, and displayed a fragile outer capsid layer, possibly with an underlying membrane component. The structural proteins of the virion were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and several were found to be cross-linked, forming protein complexes. The genome was linear, dsDNA, of approximately 30 kb in length. This morphology and linear genome are features not observed in any other euryarchaeal viruses, but have properties similar to the bacterial virus PRD1.  (+info)

Sulfolobus tengchongensis spindle-shaped virus STSV1: virus-host interactions and genomic features. (6/74)

A virus infecting the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tengchongensis has been isolated from a field sample from Tengchong, China, and characterized. The virus, denoted STSV1 (Sulfolobus tengchongensis spindle-shaped virus 1), has the morphology of a spindle (230 by 107 nm) with a tail of variable length (68 nm on average) at one end and is the largest of the known spindle-shaped viruses. After infecting its host, the virus multiplied rapidly to high titers (>10(10) PFU/ml). Replication of the virus retarded host growth but did not cause lysis of the host cells. STSV1 did not integrate into the host chromosome and existed in a carrier state. The STSV1 DNA was modified in an unusual fashion, presumably by virally encoded modification systems. STSV1 harbors a double-stranded DNA genome of 75,294 bp, which shares no significant sequence similarity to those of fuselloviruses. The viral genome contains a total of 74 open reading frames (ORFs), among which 14 have a putative function. Five ORFs encode viral structural proteins, including a putative coat protein of high abundance. The products of the other nine ORFs are probably involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis, nucleotide metabolism, and DNA modification. The viral genome divides into two nearly equal halves of opposite gene orientation. This observation as well as a GC-skew analysis point to the presence of a putative viral origin of replication in the 1.4-kb intergenic region between ORF1 and ORF74. Both morphological and genomic features identify STSV1 as a novel virus infecting the genus Sulfolobus.  (+info)

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the archaeal virus resolvase SIRV2. (7/74)

The Holliday junction (or four-way junction) is the universal DNA intermediate whose interaction with resolving proteins is one of the major events in the recombinational process. These proteins, called DNA junction-resolving enzymes or resolvases, bind to the junction and catalyse DNA cleavage, promoting the release of two DNA duplexes. SIRV2 Hjc, a viral resolvase infecting a thermophylic archaeon, has been cloned, expressed and purified. Crystals have been obtained in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 147.8, b = 99.9, c = 87.6, beta = 109.46 degrees, and a full data set has been collected at 3.4 A resolution. The self-rotation function indicates the presence of two dimers in the asymmetric unit and a high solvent content (77%). Molecular-replacement trials using known similar resolvase structures have so far been unsuccessful, indicating possible significant structural rearrangements.  (+info)

Characterization of the archaeal thermophile Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus validates an evolutionary link among double-stranded DNA viruses from all domains of life. (8/74)

Icosahedral nontailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses are present in all three domains of life, leading to speculation about a common viral ancestor that predates the divergence of Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. This suggestion is supported by the shared general architecture of this group of viruses and the common fold of their major capsid protein. However, limited information on the diversity and replication of archaeal viruses, in general, has hampered further analysis. Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV), isolated from a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, was the first icosahedral virus with an archaeal host to be described. Here we present a detailed characterization of the components forming this unusual virus. Using a proteomics-based approach, we identified nine viral and two host proteins from purified STIV particles. Interestingly, one of the viral proteins originates from a reading frame lacking a consensus start site. The major capsid protein (B345) was found to be glycosylated, implying a strong similarity to proteins from other dsDNA viruses. Sequence analysis and structural predication of virion-associated viral proteins suggest that they may have roles in DNA packaging, penton formation, and protein-protein interaction. The presence of an internal lipid layer containing acidic tetraether lipids has also been confirmed. The previously presented structural models in conjunction with the protein, lipid, and carbohydrate information reported here reveal that STIV is strikingly similar to viruses associated with the Bacteria and Eukarya domains of life, further strengthening the hypothesis for a common ancestor of this group of dsDNA viruses from all domains of life.  (+info)

Archaeal viruses have evolved to infect hosts often thriving in extreme conditions such as high temperatures. However, there is a paucity of information on archaeal virion structures, genome packaging, and determinants of temperature resistance. The rod-shaped virus APBV1 (Aeropyrum pernix bacilliform virus 1) is among the most thermostable viruses known; it infects a hyperthermophile Aeropyrum pernix, which grows optimally at 90 °C. Here we report the structure of APBV1, determined by cryo-electron microscopy at near-atomic resolution. Tight packing of the major virion glycoprotein (VP1) is ensured by extended hydrophobic interfaces, and likely contributes to the extreme thermostability of the helical capsid. The double-stranded DNA is tightly packed in the capsid as a left-handed superhelix and held in place by the interactions with positively charged residues of VP1. The assembly is closed by specific capping structures at either end, which we propose to play a role in DNA packing and delivery.
Archaeal viruses have evolved to infect hosts often thriving in extreme conditions such as high temperatures. However, there is a paucity of information on archaeal virion structures, genome packaging, and determinants of temperature resistance. The rod-shaped virus APBV1 (Aeropyrum pernix bacilliform virus 1) is among the most thermostable viruses known; it infects a hyperthermophile Aeropyrum pernix, which grows optimally at 90 °C. Here we report the structure of APBV1, determined by cryo-electron microscopy at near-atomic resolution. Tight packing of the major virion glycoprotein (VP1) is ensured by extended hydrophobic interfaces, and likely contributes to the extreme thermostability of the helical capsid. The double-stranded DNA is tightly packed in the capsid as a left-handed superhelix and held in place by the interactions with positively charged residues of VP1. The assembly is closed by specific capping structures at either end, which we propose to play a role in DNA packing and delivery.
In recent years it has become evident that viruses have been and continue to be major drivers of evolution of life on earth. Viruses are the most abundant life-like entities on the planet and are likely a major reservoir of genetic diversity for all life on the planet. We also hypothesize that this will be the case anywhere life exists on Earth or on non-Earth like bodies. We are investigating the role of archaeal viruses present in high temperature acidic environments found in Yellowstone National Park. The specific objectives of this project are to (1) to isolate and characterize new archaeal viruses in high temperature environments and (2) to understand the role these viruses play in determining the evolution and ecology of microbial communities. This project involves extensive tool development, such as virus isolation procedures from extreme environments, extremophile virus propagation techniques, and development of genetic and biochemical assays, for the discovery and characterization of ...
Hypersaline waters and salt crystals are known to contain high numbers of haloarchaeal cells and their viruses. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent studies indicate that these viruses represent a world-wide distributed reservoir of orphan genes and possibly novel virion morphotypes. To date, 90 viruses have been described for halophilic archaeal hosts, all belonging to the Halobacteriaceae family. This number is higher than that described for the members of any other archaeal family, but still very low compared to the viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes. The known haloarchaeal viruses represent icosahedral tailed, icosahedral internal membrane-containing, pleomorphic, and spindle-shaped virion morphotypes. This morphotype distribution is low, especially when compared to the astronomical number (,10(31)) of viruses on Earth. This strongly suggests that only certain protein folds are capable of making a functional virion. Viruses infecting cells belonging to any of the three domains of ...
A novel archaeal virus, denoted Sulfolobus ellipsoid virus 1 (SEV1), was isolated from an acidic hot spring in Costa Rica. The morphologically unique virion of SEV1 contains a protein capsid with 16 regularly spaced ...
Stiv Boka është një këngëtar i njohur dhe muzika ku identifikohet më shumë është ajo pop. Në këtë faqe do gjeni tekstet dhe videoklipet e këngëve të kënduara nga Stiv Boka dhe gjithashtu biografinë, lajme, fotogaleri etj.
References Notes ^ a b Koonin EV, Senkevich TG, Dolja VV. The ancient Virus World and evolution of cells. Biology Direct. 2006;1:29. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-1-29. PMID 16984643. ^ a b c Dimmock p. 4 ^ a b c Dimmock p. 49 ^ a b Breitbart M, Rohwer F. Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?. Trends in Microbiology. 2005;13(6):278-84. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2005.04.003. PMID 15936660. ^ a b Lawrence CM, Menon S, Eilers BJ, et al.. Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2009;284(19):12599-603. doi:10.1074/jbc.R800078200. PMID 19158076. ^ Edwards RA, Rohwer F. Viral metagenomics. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2005;3(6):504-10. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1163. PMID 15886693. ^ a b Canchaya C, Fournous G, Chibani-Chennoufi S, Dillmann ML, Brüssow H. Phage as agents of lateral gene transfer. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 2003;6(4):417-24. doi:10.1016/S1369-5274(03)00086-9. PMID 12941415. ^ a b Rybicki, EP. The classification of organisms at the ...
Viruses of archaea represent one of the most enigmatic parts of the virosphere. Most of the characterized archaeal viruses infect extremophilic hosts and
Bebe Buell, the mother of Liv Tyler and Stiv Bators of The Dead Boys attend a Blondie party at Fiorucci in Los Angeles, California. **EXCLUSIVE** Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images
VIROME: Goal is to characterize the whole viral population. (Lambda control gave quantitative recovery.) 10^10 phage per gram of stool! Circular contigs (genomes?) all about 5-6 kb. Linear ones very diverse lengths. 7000 new virus genomes! 19-785 per individual sample. Lots of unknown! No contigs of eukaryotic viruses at all, but bits of eukaryotic viral genomes in phage genomes. He thinks there has been lots of misidentification - what appears to be DNA indicating presence of a eukaryotic virus is really jsut a bit of phage genome. See CRISPR system used to compete with other phage (I forget what CRISPR does ...
Arahal, D. R., Dewhirst, F. E., Paster, B. J., Volcani, B. E., & Ventosa, A. (1996). Phylogenetic analyses of some extremely halophilic archaea isolated from Dead Sea water, determined on the basis of their 16S rRNA sequences. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62(10), 3779-3786. Ding, J. Y., Chiang, P. W., Hong, M. J., Dyall-Smith, M., & Tang, S. L. (2014). Complete genome sequence of the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula hispanica strain N601. Genome announcements, 2(2), e00178-14. Juez, G., Rodriguez-Valera, F., Ventosa, A., & Kushner, D. J. (1986). Haloarcula hispanica spec. nov. and Haloferax gibbonsii spec, nov., two new species of extremely halophilic archaebacteria. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 8(1), 75-79. Li, M., Wang, R., Zhao, D., & Xiang, H. (2014). Adaptation of the Haloarcula hispanica CRISPR-Cas system to a purified virus strictly requires a priming process. Nucleic Acids Research, 42(4), 2483-2492. Liu, H., Wu, Z., Li, M., Zhang, F., Zheng, H., Han, J., & ...
Viruses infecting the Archaea exhibit a tremendous amount of morphological and genetic diversity. This is especially true for crenarchaeal viruses from the family Fuselloviridae, which possess spindle-shaped capsids and genomes that harbor a great number of uncharacterized genes. The functions of these unidentified gene products are of interest as they have the potential to provide valuable insights into the fusellovirus infection cycle and archaeal viruses in general. In an effort to better characterize the genetic requirements of the Fuselloviridae, we have performed genetic and biochemical experiments using the best studied fusellovirus, Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1). A comprehensive genetic analysis of SSV1 was conducted using long inverse PCR and transposon mutagenesis. The results of this work illustrate that SSV1 is highly tolerant of mutagenesis. A robust protocol for the purification of recombinant VP2 protein from E. coli was developed and should be useful for future studies aimed
Gudbergsdóttir, S. R., Menzel, P., Krogh, A., Young, M. & Peng, X. (2016). Novel viral genomes identified from six metagenomes reveal wide distribution of archaeal viruses and high viral diversity in terrestrial hot springs. Environ Microbiol 18, 863-874. [PubMed]. Häring, M., Rachel, R., Peng, X., Garrett, R. A. & Prangishvili, D. (2005). Viral diversity in hot springs of Pozzuoli, Italy, and characterization of a unique archaeal virus, Acidianus bottle-shaped virus, from a new family, the Ampullaviridae. J Virol 79, 9904-9911. [PubMed]. Krupovic, M., Cvirkaite-Krupovic, V., Iranzo, J., Prangishvili, D. & Koonin, E. V. (2018). Viruses of archaea: Structural, functional, environmental and evolutionary genomics. Virus Res 244, 181-193. [PubMed]. Peng, X., Basta, T., Häring, M., Garrett, R. A. & Prangishvili, D. (2007). Genome of the Acidianus bottle-shaped virus and insights into the replication and packaging mechanisms. Virology 364, 237-243. [PubMed]. Prangishvili, D. (2015). Archaeal ...
For comparison, host of NSV, AOA, was quantified using primers for archaeal amoA gene with a previous protocol (Park et al., 2008). Archaeal amoA gene could be detected in all the samples as pPolB gene. pPolB and amoA gene copies were quantified as described previously (Kim et al., 2019), using real-time PCR with CFX Connect Real-Time system (Bio-Rad Laboratories) using iQ SYBRGreen Supermix (Bio-Rad Laboratories) and built-in CFX manager software v3.0 (Bio-Rad Laboratories). AamoAF and AamoAR primers (Francis et al., 2005) were used with following PCR condition: 95°C (5 min), then 40 cycles at 95°C (30 sec), 55°C (30 sec), and 72°C (1.5 min). For quantification of viral pPolB gene, semi-nested real-time PCR was performed: the first PCR using primers 620F and 1880R with following PCR condition: first, 95°C (10 min), then 20 cycles at 95°C (30 sec), 55°C (30 sec), and 72°C (1.5 min); the second PCR using primers 620F and primer 950R (5-CATGGCRTAWGGATAWGCWGAATT-3) with the same thermal ...
Computer artwork of the inner surface of an icosahedral virus capsid. The capsid is the protein shell of the virus and encloses its genetic material. - Stock Image F018/4295
With the rapid progresses in both instrumentation and computing, it is increasingly straightforward and routine to determine the structures of icosahedral viruses to subnanometer resolutions (6-10 Å)...
Days passed and great heaps of snow accumulated on the rooftops, shaped by the wind into pyramid-like mounds, rounded on one side. There was so much snow gazing in through the windows that it brightened the insides of the houses. A great, white world hung over the little houses, and over the nearby graveyard. One pair of large, bright eyes in particular often gazed sadly through the window at the world outside, at the whiteness . . .. Tsilkes eyes . . .. As though they wanted to ask something of the wider world, as though they sought solace.. And she cheered for the first time when Ivan returned.. She was going to go with him into the forest and take one last look at her old home . . .. Theres not much forest to speak of, Tsilke, the trees are almost all gone, and the three cabins are boarded up and covered in snow.. But she begged Ivan, and her aunt Nikhe. She wanted to see what the stream looked like, and the road.. Fine!. But how would she walk in the city shoes shed brought back from ...
Like the name suggests, a pyramid chart has a triangular structure. Lines run across it, dividing it into sections with thicknesses proportional to their values. A pyramid chart represents data in the form of percentages, with the whole chart representing 100%. A pyramid 3D chart built with Collabion helps you visualize the total data, as well as the hierarchical structure of it, in the form of a pyramid-like structure. A filtered pyramid chart, on the other hand, is represented in the form of a graduated glass pyramid filled by liquid, where the graduations indicate the values of different sections after data filtration. See more on this recent addition to the Custom Visual Gallery!
The genes encoding the two major structural proteins and a putative NTPase belong to a cluster of five genes/ORFs (genes 3, 4 and 8; ORFs 6 and 7 of Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1) that are collinear and conserved among members of the family Pleolipoviridae (Figure 2.Pleolipoviridae; (Senčilo et al., 2012). Pleolipoviruses have non-lytic life cycles. Although there is no direct evidence for the entry mechanism, it has been proposed that the entry of pleolipoviral genomes occurs by membrane fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell cytoplasmic membrane (Pietilä et al., 2009). Viruses are predicted to employ different genome replication strategies, including rolling circle replication (RCR; circular genomes) and protein-primed replication carried out by family B-type polymerase (linear genomes), although direct experimental evidence is missing (Pietilä et al., 2009, Roine et al., 2010, Bath et al., 2006). Viruses exit the cells continuously starting 3-4 hours post infection (Pietilä et ...
The Mayo Clinic sier at vitenskapen har vist den gammeldagse kyllingsuppe rette har fortrinn. Mens voksne og barn kan klage over de prototypiske symptomer på stiv nakke,. Hypoplastisk venstre hjerte syndrom er en medfødt hjertesykdom hos nyfødte barn der venstre side av hjertet ikke danner eiendom og ikke klarer å pumpe blod.
Viruses of Fungi and Simple Eukaryotes focuses on the developments in and experimental approaches to the study of fungi and simple eukaryotic viruses. Emphasizi
This image shows multiple particles of a Sulfolobus spindle shaped virus (SSV) isolated from an acidic hot spring in the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia). These spindle shaped viruses infect Sulfolobus islandicus, a hyper thermophilic microbe that belongs to the third domain of life, the Archaea. Since their discovery in the late 1970s by Carl Woese at the University of Illinois, Archaea were thought to be found only in extreme environments. In recent years, with the advent of new technologies and methodologies, we have begun to uncover that archaea are found everywhere from deep-sea hydrothermal vents to the human gut. Viruses that infect archaea have been shown to possess novel and unique characteristics not typically found in viruses that infect bacteria or eukaryotes. The viruses pictured here are one example of this. They possess a lemon-shaped morphology that has been only found in archaeal viruses. These viruses are thought to attach to cells using sticky tail fibers located at one end of ...
A ceramic skull created by Stow, Ohio, artist Cris Hertle sits on a table in La Casa Hispanica (Harvey House). Hertle spoke about her ceramic skull art and Día de los Muertos (Day of the Dead), a two-day festival that originated in Mexico, at La Casa Hispanica on October 30. A native of Mexico, Hertle experienced Día de los Muertos festival celebrations first hand before
This tall cultivar is a thin pyramid-like shape and has dark green foliage. Cones and buds are typically small and the bark is usually brown and furrowed. This
Descriptions of various icosahedral virus capsid structures in terms of their complete capsids, along with detailed structural and computational analysis
Descriptions of various icosahedral virus capsid structures in terms of their complete capsids, along with detailed structural and computational analysis
En maske som er klinisk utviklet for å berolige betent, sensitiv, eller stiv hud. Formelen er fylt med med tang som er svært rik på antioksidanter, mineraler, og vitaminer for å tilføre rikelig med fuktighet til huden.
3VZH: Conservation and Variability in the Structure and Function of the Cas5d Endoribonuclease in the CRISPR-Mediated Microbial Immune System
Provides a method for researchers using CRISPR-mediated mutagenesis. indCAPS is a web application that facilitates the screening of individuals in which editing of the target has occurred. It also provides replacement for existing tools for the design of primers for dCAPS analysis capable of distinguishing known indel alleles. It was also used to design diagnostic primers to identify CRISPR-induced ahk3 null alleles.
We need your help addressing one of the biggest obstacle to reaching a No Kill Chicago: With nearly 6,000 animals coming through PAWS Chicagos medical and adoption program each year, our Medical Center, located at 3516 W 26th Street, has reached operational capacity. The limitations of the current medical facility have created a bottleneck in our ability to help more animals. There is not enough isolation space to accommodate the animals suffering from contagious illnesses or in need of longer-term care, while still bringing in animals who need only basic care and will quickly move to the adoption centers. With our expert veterinary and behavior teams, our current Medical Center is one of the few that can treat and rehabilitate a large volume of sick, injured and behaviorally challenged pets and give them a chance to get adopted into loving homes. In 2015, PAWS Chicago had a 97.87 percent save rate, even while taking in a vulnerable population of animals. But our work is far from done: Nearly ...
2. Scorzonera hispanica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 791. 1753. Black or Spanish salsify Perennials. Leaf blades 120-400 × (1-)3-6 mm, margins entire (flat or undulate). Involucres 20-30 × 8-12+ mm. Phyllaries ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, glabrous. Cypselae 10-15(-20) mm; pappi 9-15(-20) mm. 2n = 14.. Flowering Jun-Jul. Disturbed sites; 10-200 m; introduced; Calif.; Europe. Scorzonera hispanica sometimes is used culinarily.. ...
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Nearly 20 percent of the packaged RNA in bean-pod mottle virus (BPMV) binds to the capsid interior in a symmetric fashion and is clearly visible in the electron density map. The RNA displaying icosahedral symmetry is single-stranded with well-defined polarity and stereochemical properties. Interactions with protein are dominated by nonbonding forces with few specific contacts. The tertiary and quaternary structures of the BPMV capsid proteins are similar to those observed in animal picornaviruses, supporting the close relation between plant comoviruses and animal picornaviruses established by previous biological studies. ...
G protein-coupled receptors are a major class of membrane receptors that mediate physiological and pathophysiological cellular signaling. Many aspects of recept...
Review GenScript expertise in using CRISPR-mediated gene knock out technique to achieve loss of function in different cell lines.
This page details the development and operational history of the Alvis FV4333 Stormer Armored Personnel Carrier (APC) / Multirole Armored Fighting Vehicle (AFV) including technical specifications and pictures.
Scientists at EPFL have invented an acoustic prism which separates different frequency components of sound similar to an optical prism.
The dynamic interplay between type III CRISPR enzymes governs cyclic nucleotide levels and infection outcomes in virus-host conflict.
Colony PCR verification of single and double-double gene knockouts. Colony PCR analysis of WOR1, WOR2, and CZF1 single-target knockout transformations (A) and WOR1-plus-WOR2 and WOR2-plus-CZF1 double-double knockout transformations (B). Twenty-four independent colonies from each transformation were tested, using primers specific for the deletion indicated by ←[Δgene] The presence of a band at the mobility indicated confirms that at least one allele of the target gene has been deleted. Selected deletion mutants were further tested for the absence of the target ORF via ORF-check PCRs (C). The presence of a band at the mobility indicated by ←[GENE] reveals the presence of at least one allele of the target ORF, while the absence of a band is consistent with homozygous deletion of the target ORF as follows: 1 to 5, WOR1 single target; 6 to 10, WOR1-plus-WOR2 double double; 11, wild-type control; 12 to 16, WOR2 single target; 17 to 21, WOR1-plus-WOR2 double double; 22 to 27, WOR2-plus-CZF1 double ...
African Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa landraces are considered valuable resources for breeding traits due to their adaptation to local environmental and soil conditions. They often possess superior resistance to endemic pests and tolerance to drought and nutrient deficiencies when compared to the
Norris Geyser Basin Norris Geyser Basin (Norris Basin) is located north from the Yellowstone caldera and between the Hebgen Lake and Mammoth Springs. This location in Yellowstone can be broken down into three main areas called the Porcelain Basin, Back Basin, and One Hundred Springs Plain. Norris Basin is better known for the geysers it is home to, which includes Steamboat Geyser, the largest and highest shooting active geyser in the world, and Echinus Geyser. To many scientists, researchers, and tourists that visit Yellowstone National Park, Norris Geyser Basin is considered one of the most interesting and diverse regions. This is attributed to the fact that the Basin contains a variety of hot spots and thermal activity in the form of hot springs, geysers, and mud volcanoes, and is also one of the few regions in Yellowstone that undergoes drastic changes in thermal activity and landscape. One of the noteworthy changes observed is when a hot spring transforms into a geyser or a geyser changes ...
SNJ54LS33J datasheet, SNJ54LS33J pdf, SNJ54LS33J data sheet, datasheet, data sheet, pdf, Texas Instruments, Quadruple 2-Input Positive-NOR Buffers With Open-Collector
A Cornell researcher, who is a leader in developing a new type of gene editing CRISPR system, and colleagues have used the new method for the first time in human cells - a major advance in the field.. The new system, called CRISPR-Cas3, can efficiently erase long stretches of DNA from a targeted site in the human genome, a capability not easily attainable in more traditional CRISPR-Cas9 systems. Though robust applications may be well in the future, the new system has the potential to seek out and erase such ectopic viruses as herpes simplex, Epstein-Barr, and hepatitis B, each of which is a major threat to public health.. My lab spent the past ten years figuring out how CRISPR-Cas3 works. I am thrilled that my colleagues and I finally demonstrated its genome editing activity in human cells, said Ailong Ke, professor of molecular biology and genetics and a corresponding author of a paper published April 8 in the journal Molecular Cell. Our tools can be made to target these viruses very ...
The TAF4B CRISPR guide RNA sequences were designed by GenScripts proprietary algorithm to target a single locus in the endogenous genome. High-specificity gRNA constructs for CRISPR-mediated genome editing
The Yellowstone National Park Research Coordination Network is a collaboration of scientists and NPS staff to develop a coordinated research network focused on geothermal biology and geochemistry.
There are many commentaries written on this text, including an autocommentary by Master Vasubandhu entitled Abhidharmakoshabhasya. Vasubandhus student Sthiramati wrote the Tattvartha-tika (6th c. CE). The Nalanda scholar Yasomitra (6th c. CE), also wrote a sub-commentary on the Abhidharmakoshabhasya, the Sputarth-abhidharmakosa-vyakhya. Other scholars wrote commentaries on the Kosa to defend the Sarvastivadin tenets that Vasubandhu refutes in the text, these include the Nyayanusara (In Accordance with the Truth, by Samghabhadra, 5th c) and the Abhidharma-dipa (Lamp of Abhidharma, anonymous). Dignagas commentary, the Abhidharmakosa Vrtti Marmadipa also includes many sutra quotations. Śamathadevas Abhidharmakośopāyikā-ṭīkā, (The Essential Companion to the Treasury of the Abhidharma, Tib. Chos mngon paʼi mdzod kyi ʼgrel bshad nye bar mkho ba zhes bya ba, Derge no. 4094 / Peking no. 5595), is a handbook of the Abhidarmakosa that quotes passages from the Mūlasarvāstivāda ...
Artene har tydelig kjønnspreg. Hannene i denne slekten har lange, smale og brede blågrå nebb som kan virke opphovnet ved nebbroten. De har hovedsakelig nøttebrun-rødbrun fjærdrakt i hekketiden, men blir langt mer uanselige da de bytter til eklipsedrakt og ligner mer på hunnene. Hannene er promiskuøse. Begge kjønn preges av en kort, stiv stjert og meget korte undere ekstremiteter. Alle artene er dykkende og ernærer seg stort sett gjennom sikting av bunnmaterialer. Fugler som hekker på høye breddegrader trekker mot lavere breddegrader i vintersesongen.[1] ...
In one event, an estimated 3 billion pounds of buoyant debris washed from Japans shores. Heres a firsthand account of where some of that went. You can view a photo slideshow by Stiv Wilson of his journey here on AlterNet.
Are you genome editing with CRISPR-Cas9? Consider the Alt-R CRISPR-Cas9 kit-a customizable, end-to-end Cas9-CRISPR system offering best in class performance.
Just got an announcement about this from a colleague and thought it might be of interest: Science-Corps Providing an opportun... ...
"The wonderful world of archaeal viruses". Annu Rev Microbiol 67: 565-585. 13 Prangishvili D (2015) "Archaeal viruses: living ... "Diversity of viruses of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Aeropyrum, and isolation of the Aeropyrum pernix bacilliform virus ... 6. Mochizuki T, Krupovic M, Pehau-Arnaudet G, Sako Y, Forterre P, and Prangishvili D (2012). "Archaeal virus with exceptional ... Peng, Xu; Garrett, Roger A.; She, QunXin (2012). "Archaeal viruses-novel, diverse and enigmatic". Science China Life Sciences. ...
2009). "Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (19): 12599-603. doi: ... Breitbart, M.; Rohwer, F. (2005). "Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?". Trends in Microbiology. 13 (6): ... The microorganisms and viruses that can reproduce and complete their life cycle within the host are known as microparasites. ... They can be either RNA or DNA viruses consisting of a single or double strand of genetic material (RNA or DNA respectively), ...
... is a family of hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses. Members of the genus Acidianus serve as natural hosts. There ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Bicaudaviridae Genus: Bicaudavirus Acidianus two-tailed virus Viruses in Bicaudaviridae ... Structural and genomic properties of the hyperthermophilic archaeal virus ATV with an extracellular stage of the reproductive ... Liu, J; Cvirkaite-Krupovic, V; Baquero, DP; Yang, Y; Zhang, Q; Shen, Y; Krupovic, M (2021). "Virus-induced cell gigantism and ...
"New virus isolates from Italian hydrothermal environments underscore the biogeographic pattern in archaeal virus communities". ... Globuloviridae is a family of hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses. Crenarchaea of the genera Pyrobaculum and Thermoproteus serve ... There are currently only two species in this family, Pyrobaculum spherical virus and Thermoproteus tenax spherical virus 1, ... Two tentative members of the family, Pyrobaculum spherical virus 2 and Thermoproteus spherical piliferous virus 1 have been ...
"Targeted diversity generation by intraterrestrial archaea and archaeal viruses". Nature Communications. 6 (1). doi:10.1038/ ... Archaean viruses (e.g. ANMV-1), temperate phages (e.g. Hankyphage and CrAss-like phage), and lytic phages. DGRs benefit their ... Viruses. 12 (5): 573. doi:10.3390/v12050573. ISSN 1999-4915. Hedzet, Stina; Accetto, Tomaž; Rupnik, Maja (2020-10-10). "Lytic ...
"Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: Unique viral genomes in the third domain of life". Virus Research. 117 (1): 52-67. ... "Structure of a filamentous virus uncovers familial ties within the archaeal virosphere". Virus Evolution. 6 (1): veaa023. doi: ... "A Novel Virus Family, the Rudiviridae: Structure, Virus-Host Interactions and Genome Variability of the Sulfolobus Viruses ... Rudivirus are promising candidates to become a general model for detailed studies of archaeal virus biology. These are indeed ...
Li, Sen; Yang, Jie (21 August 2014). "System analysis of synonymous codon usage biases in archaeal virus genomes". Journal of ...
Not only eukaryotic viruses integrate into the genomes of their hosts; many bacterial and archaeal viruses also employ this ... Krupovic M, Prangishvili D, Hendrix RW, Bamford DH (2011). "Genomics of bacterial and archaeal viruses: dynamics within the ... A provirus is a virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell. In the case of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages ... This state can be a stage of virus replication, or a state that persists over longer periods of time as either inactive viral ...
Krupovic M, Prangishvili D, Hendrix RW, Bamford DH (December 2011). "Genomics of bacterial and archaeal viruses: dynamics ... T7 phage T12 phage Viruses portal Virophage, viruses that infect other viruses Bacterivore CrAssphage DNA viruses Phage ecology ... Virus found in a boreal lake links ssDNA and dsDNA viruses. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114(31), July ... a virus parasitic on bacteria." D'Hérelle called the virus a bacteriophage, a bacteria-eater (from the Greek phagein meaning " ...
"Genomics of bacterial and archaeal viruses: dynamics within the prokaryotic virosphere". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 75 (4): 610- ... The cell may fill with new viruses until it lyses or bursts, or it may release the new viruses one at a time in an exocytotic ... A virus following a lytic cycle is called a virulent virus. Prophages are important agents of horizontal gene transfer, and are ... This mechanism eventually will lead to the release of the virus as the host cell splits open and the viral DNA is able to ...
Archaeal-specific viruses target only archaean species and currently include 12 families. Numerous unique, previously ... Mochizuki T, Krupovic M, Pehau-Arnaudet G, Sako Y, Forterre P, Prangishvili D (August 2012). "Archaeal virus with exceptional ... Pietilä MK, Demina TA, Atanasova NS, Oksanen HM, Bamford DH (June 2014). "Archaeal viruses and bacteriophages: comparisons and ... Notably, the latter virus has the largest currently reported ssDNA genome. Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA ...
"Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (19): 12599-603. doi:10.1074/ ... Viruses[edit]. Main articles: Virus and Bacteriophage. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, characterised by extremely ... Breitbart, M.; Rohwer, F. (2005). "Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?". Trends in Microbiology. 13 (6): ... Viruses can be either RNA or DNA viruses consisting of a single or double strand of genetic material (RNA or DNA) respectively ...
"Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses of Himalayan Hot Springs at Manikaran Modulate Host Genomes". Frontiers in Microbiology. 9. doi: ...
"Structure of a filamentous virus uncovers familial ties within the archaeal virosphere". Virus Evolution. 6 (1): veaa023. doi: ... virus 3 Acidianus filamentous virus 6 Acidianus filamentous virus 7 Acidianus filamentous virus 8 Acidianus filamentous virus 9 ... Liu, Y; Brandt, D; Ishino, S; Ishino, Y; Koonin, EV; Kalinowski, J; Krupovic, M; Prangishvili, D (2019). "New archaeal viruses ... which contains non-enveloped rod-shaped viruses. Viruses from the two families have linear dsDNA genomes and share up to nine ...
ICTV classification of prokaryotic (bacterial and archaeal) viruses[1] Order. Family. Morphology. Nucleic acid. Examples ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... "Genomics of bacterial and archaeal viruses: dynamics within the prokaryotic virosphere". Microbiology and Molecular Biology ... a virus parasitic on bacteria."[10] D'Hérelle called the virus a bacteriophage or bacteria-eater (from the Greek phagein ...
Different GTA types have originated independently from viruses in several bacterial and archaeal lineages. These cells produce ... Gene transfer agents (GTAs) are DNA-containing virus-like particles that are produced by some bacteria and archaea and mediate ... Virus Evolution. 3 (2): vex036. doi:10.1093/ve/vex036. PMC 5721377. PMID 29250433. Tamarit D, Neuvonen MM, Engel P, Guy L, ...
"Diversity of viruses of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Aeropyrum, and isolation of the Aeropyrum pernix bacilliform virus ... "Unique architecture of thermophilic archaeal virus APBV1 and its genome packaging". Nature Communications. 8 (1): 1436. doi: ... Infection with this virus does not cause host cell lysis. Mochizuki T, Yoshida T, Tanaka R, Forterre P, Sako Y, Prangishvili D ... Clavaviridae is a family of double-stranded viruses that infect archaea. This family was first described by the team led by D. ...
2018-2019 update from the ICTV Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee. In: Archives of Virology 165. 11 March 2020. Pp ... The experiment involved radioactively labeling either protein or nucleic acid of the bacteriophage T2 (a virus that infects ... OCLC 42462623.CS1 maint: others (link) Evelien M. Adriaenssens, Mart Krupovic et al.: Taxonomy of prokaryotic viruses: ...
"Multiple origins of prokaryotic and eukaryotic single-stranded DNA viruses from bacterial and archaeal plasmids". Nature ... species Escherichia virus If1 If1 phage genus Lineavirus species Salmonella virus IKe IKe phage genus Primolicivirus) species ... of ICTV's species Pseudomonas virus Pf1 of genus Primolicivirus), and perhaps also Pf3 (of ICTV's species Pseudomonas virus Pf3 ... The virus exits the host cell by viral extrusion. Viral assembly occurs at the inner membrane (in case of Gram-negative ...
Certain archaeal viruses were shown to carry mini-CRISPR arrays containing one or two spacers. It has been shown that spacers ... Andersson AF, Banfield JF (May 2008). "Virus population dynamics and acquired virus resistance in natural microbial communities ... Andersson AF, Banfield JF (May 2008). "Virus population dynamics and acquired virus resistance in natural microbial communities ... were required to provide a bacterial host with immunity against infection by a DNA virus. By designing an anti-virus CRISPR, ...
Acidianus filamentous virus 1 coat proteins display a helical fold spanning the filamentous archaeal viruses lineage. PNAS 106 ... "Structure of a filamentous virus uncovers familial ties within the archaeal virosphere". Virus Evolution. 6 (1): veaa023. doi: ... Members of the Ligamenvirales are structurally related to archaeal viruses of the family Tristromaviridae which, similar to ... Viruses from the two families share up to ten genes. The major difference between the two families is that members of the ...
"Structure of a filamentous virus uncovers familial ties within the archaeal virosphere". Virus Evolution. 6 (1): veaa023. doi: ... A-form DNA is believed to be one of the adaptations of hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses to harsh environmental conditions in ... as revealed by the structure of several hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses, including rod-shaped rudiviruses SIRV2 and SSRV1, ... 2015). "A virus that infects a hyperthermophile encapsidates A-form DNA". Science. 348 (6237): 914-917. Bibcode:2015Sci...348.. ...
"Structure of a filamentous virus uncovers familial ties within the archaeal virosphere". Virus Evolution. 6 (1): veaa023. doi: ... Pyrobaculum filamentous virus 1 Thermoproteus tenax virus 1 Viruses in the genus Alphatristromavirus are enveloped, with rod- ... Krupovic M, Cvirkaite-Krupovic V, Prangishvili D, Koonin EV (2015). "Evolution of an archaeal virus nucleocapsid protein from ... High-resolution structure of the virion has been determined by cryo-EM for Pyrobaculum filamentous virus 2 (PFV2), a virus ...
ACV has no known relation to any other viruses. However, some other archaeal viruses also have coil-shaped virions like ACV, ... but it does share its coil-like morphology with some other archaeal viruses, suggesting that such viruses may be an ancient ... The coil-like morphology of ACV is characteristic of certain archaeal viruses, not being found among bacterial and eukaryotic ... Mochizuki T, Krupovic M, Pehau-Arnaudet G, Sako Y, Forterre P, Prangishvili D (2012). "Archaeal virus with exceptional virion ...
... existing bacterial virus and 2 archaeal virus species" (PDF). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 17 ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 17 ... Spbetavirus (formerly Spbetalikevirus and sometimes SPbeta-like viruses) is a genus of viruses in the order Caudovirales, in ... The virus attaches to the host cell's adhesion receptors using its terminal fiber, and degrades the cell wall using viral ...
Krupovic M, Cvirkaite-Krupovic V, Prangishvili D, Koonin EV (2015). "Evolution of an archaeal virus nucleocapsid protein from ... Thermoproteus tenax virus 1 Viruses in Alphalipothrixvirus are enveloped, with rod-shaped geometries. The diameter is around 38 ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015. Janekovic, D.; Wunderl, S.; Holz, I.; Zillig, W.; Gierl, A.; Neumann, H ... The TTV1 virion contains four virus-encoded proteins, TP1-4. The proteins do not display any sequence similarity to structural ...
"Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses". Proceedings of ... The most understood helical virus is the tobacco mosaic virus. The virus is a single molecule of (+) strand RNA. Each coat ... In other viruses, especially more complex viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes, the capsid proteins assemble into empty ... The size is also different; the tobacco mosaic virus has a 16.33 protein subunits per helical turn, while the influenza A virus ...
However, this theory is controversial, and additional experimentation involving archaeal viruses is necessary, as they are ... Many biologists do not consider viruses to be alive, but the hypothesis posits that viruses are the originators of the DNA ... The viral eukaryogenesis hypothesis depicts a model of eukaryotic evolution in which a virus, similar to a modern pox virus, ... Forterre P (April 2006). "The origin of viruses and their possible roles in major evolutionary transitions". Virus Research. ...
"Temperate membrane-containing halophilic archaeal virus SNJ1 has a circular dsDNA genome identical to that of plasmid pHH205". ... Natrinema virus SNJ1 is the type species and currently the only member of the genus. Viruses of this genus have tailless ... The temperate haloarchaeal virus SNJ1 displays lytic and lysogenic life cycles. During the lysogenic cycle, the virus resides ... The virus is released by lysis of the infected cells. Pawlowski A, Rissanen I, Bamford JK, Krupovic M, Jalasvuori M (2014). " ...
"Archaeal virus with exceptional virion architecture and the largest single-stranded DNA genome". Proceedings of the National ... Pertahanan terhadap virus ini mungkin melibatkan interferensi RNA dari urutan DNA repetitif yang terkait dengan gen dari virus. ... Arkea dapat terinfeksi oleh virus DNA untai ganda yang tidak berhubungan dengan bentuk lain dari virus dan memiliki berbagai ... Dua kelompok virus DNA untai tunggal yang menginfeksi arkea telah baru-baru ini diisolasi. Satu kelompok dicontohkan oleh virus ...
Pleolipoviridae, a newly proposed family comprising archaeal pleomorphic viruses with single-stranded or double-stranded DNA ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ...
"Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor". Science Advances. 2 (10): e1600492. Bibcode:2016SciA....2E0492D. doi: ... Archaea can be infected by double-stranded DNA viruses that are unrelated to any other form of virus and have a variety of ... "Archaeal virus with exceptional virion architecture and the largest single-stranded DNA genome". Proceedings of the National ... the latter virus has the largest currently reported ssDNA genome. Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA interference ...
MicroRNAs also play a role in replicating viruses such as HIV-1.[44] Novel HIV-1-encoded microRNA have been found to enhance ... which is now known to be the sequence that interacts with the homologue of the archaeal TATA-binding protein (TBP). Also, even ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription.[6] ... there are others that have detected notable differences between archaeal and eukaryotic TBP. The archaea protein exhibits a ...
As arqueas poden ser infectadas por virus de ADN bicatenario que non están relacionados con ningún outro tipo de virus e teñen ... Lipps, G (2008). "Archaeal Plasmids". Plasmids: Current Research and Future Trends (en inglés). Caister Academic Press. ISBN ... Pietilä MK, Roine E, Paulin L, Kalkkinen N, Bamford DH (2009). "An ssDNA virus infecting archaea; A new lineage of viruses with ... Ligamenvirales, virus que infectan arqueas. Ligazóns externas[editar , editar a fonte]. *. "Introduction to the Archaea". UCMP ...
... certain Epstein-Barr virus gene products bearing this sequence can stall the proteasome, helping the virus propagate by ... In bacteria that express a 20S proteasome, the β subunits have high sequence identity to archaeal and eukaryotic β subunits, ... Zhang M, Coffino P (March 2004). "Repeat sequence of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 protein interrupts proteasome ... the 11S may play a role in degradation of foreign peptides such as those produced after infection by a virus.[16] ...
... have been described in mRNAs of eukaryotic cells or viruses that infect eukaryotes. Ribosome recruitment in eukaryotes is ... Protein biosynthesis: translation (bacterial, archaeal, eukaryotic). Proteins. Initiation factor. Bacterial. *PIF-1 ...
Kyono K, Miyashiro M, Taguchi I (2002). "Human eukaryotic initiation factor 4AII associates with hepatitis C virus NS5B protein ... "mRNA Decay during Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infections: Protein-Protein Interactions Involving the HSV Virion Host Shutoff ...
"Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classification of life". Proceedings of the National ... genetic variation is proposed to occur mainly as a result of transfer of nuclear information between bacterial cells or viruses ...
Lawrence CM, Menon S, Eilers BJ, et al.. Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses. The Journal of Biological ... Breitbart M, Rohwer F (2005). "Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?". Trends in Microbiology 13 (6): 278-84 ... நேனோ வைரசுகள் (வாழையின் இலை கொத்து வைரசு, banana bunchy top virus). ஈரிழை டி.என்.ஏ வைரசுகள் (dsDNA virus)[தொகு]. எ.கா: மையோ ... ஓரிழை டி.என்.ஏ வைரசுகள் (ssDNA virus)[தொகு]. *ஜெமினி வைரசுகள் (வெண்டையின் மஞ்சள் நரம்பு வைரசு, bhendi yellow vein mosic virus) ...
"Virus Taxonomy: 2018 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). October 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2019.. ... Bacteriophages occur in over 195 bacterial or archaeal genera. They arose repeatedly in different hosts and there are at least ... Maniloff, J.; Ackermann, H.W. (1998). "Taxonomy of bacterial viruses: establishment of tailed virus genera and the other ... The Caudovirales are an order of viruses also known as the tailed bacteriophages (cauda is Latin for "tail").[1] Under the ...
Virus. Encyclopedia of Earth. Editors: Cutler Cleveland and Sidney Draggan *^ Gribaldo S, Brochier-Armanet C (2006). "The ... LPSN, list of accepted bacterial and archaeal names. *Cyanobacteria, a phylum of common bacteria but poorly classified at ... in archaeal terms, and organisms that live in cooler environments appeared only later.[50] Since the Archaea and Bacteria are ... it is thought that viruses and archaea began relationships approximately two billion years ago, and that co-evolution may have ...
Virus. Megavirus. 1.259.197. 1,3 Mb. 1.120. 890. 1. Genom virus terbesar yang diketahui saat ini.[13]. ... "The genome of Nanoarchaeum equitans: insights into early archaeal evolution and derived parasitism". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... Virus. Bakteriofag MS2. 3.569. 3,6 kb. 4. 1.121. 1. Genom (ssRNA) yang pertama disekuensing, 1976.[11]. ... Virus. Bakteriofag Φ-X174. 5.386. 5,4 kb. 11. 2.042. 1. Genom ssDNA yang pertama disekuensing, 1977.[12]. ...
The archaeal host transferred much of its functional genome to the virus during the evolution of cytoplasm, but retained the ... the VE hypothesis specifies a pox-like virus as the lysogenic virus. A pox-like virus is a likely ancestor because of its ... Barry RD (1961). "The multiplication of influenza virus. II. Multiplicity reactivation of ultraviolet irradiated virus". ... such as influenza virus, and in extant double-stranded segmented RNA viruses such as reovirus.[66] ...
... viruses, and nematodes.[57] ...
... the discovery of viruses and the development of enrichment culture techniques.[24] While his work on the tobacco mosaic virus ... Karner, M.B.; DeLong, E.F.; Karl, D.M. (2001). "Archaeal dominance in the mesopelagic zone of the Pacific Ocean". Nature. 409 ( ... Viruses are generally regarded as not living and therefore not considered as microorganisms, although a subfield of ... However, other diseases such as influenza, yellow fever or AIDS are caused by pathogenic viruses, which are not usually ...
MicrobeWiki, an extensive wiki about bacteria and viruses. *Bacteria that affect crops and other plants ...
Lawrence CM, Menon S, Eilers BJ, et al.. Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses. The Journal of Biological ... Breitbart M, Rohwer F (2005). "Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?". Trends in Microbiology 13 (6): 278-84 ... நேனோ வைரசுகள் (வாழையின் இலை கொத்து வைரசு, banana bunchy top virus). ஈரிழை டி.என்.ஏ வைரசுகள் (dsDNA virus)தொகு. எ.கா: மையோ வைரசு ... "Viruses". USCB Science Line. பார்த்த நாள் ஏப்ரல் 21, 2017. *↑ "Viruses: Structure, Function, and Uses". Molecular Cell Biology ...
... mitochondrion likely included protection of the archaeal host genome from the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS ...
Culex quinquefasciatus, mosquito (vector of West Nile virus, filariasis etc.) (2010[125]) ... List of sequenced archaeal genomes. *List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes. *List of sequenced fungi genomes ... "The duck genome and transcriptome provide insight into an avian influenza virus reservoir species". Nature Genetics. 45 (7): ...
Andersson AF, Banfield JF (May 2008). "Virus population dynamics and acquired virus resistance in natural microbial communities ... At the same time, repeats were observed in the archaeal organisms of Haloferax and Haloarcula species, and their function was ... Andersson AF, Banfield JF (May 2008). "Virus population dynamics and acquired virus resistance in natural microbial communities ... were required to provide a bacterial host with immunity against infection by a DNA virus. By designing an anti-virus CRISPR, ...
In: G. Witzany (Ed.): Viruses: Essential Agents of Life, Seite 43-60, Springer Link, September 25, 2012. ISBN 978-94-007-4898-9 ...
Some viruses require access to proteins inside the nucleus in order to replicate and/or assemble. DNA viruses, such as ... The archaeal origin of the nucleus is supported by observations that archaea and eukarya have similar genes for certain ... Bell PJ (September 2001). "Viral eukaryogenesis: was the ancestor of the nucleus a complex DNA virus?". Journal of Molecular ... The suggestion is based on similarities between eukaryotes and viruses such as linear DNA strands, mRNA capping, and tight ...
Subgenomic promoters range from 24 nucleotide (Sindbis virus) to over 100 nucleotides (Beet necrotic yellow vein virus) and are ... A subgenomic promoter is a promoter added to a virus for a specific heterologous gene, resulting in the formation of mRNA for ... Many positive-sense RNA viruses produce these subgenomic mRNAs (sgRNA) as one of the common infection techniques used by these ... Promoter organization of the interferon-A genes differentially affects virus-induced expression and responsiveness to TBK1 and ...
Introns are found in the genes of most organisms and many viruses. They can be located in a wide range of genes, including ... "The Yeast tRNA Splicing Endonuclease: A Tetrameric Enzyme with Two Active Site Subunits Homologous to the Archaeal tRNA ...
Bunyamwera virus)[8],施馬倫貝格病毒[8],哈扎拉病毒(英语:Hazara virus)[9],克里米亚-刚果出血热(英语:Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever)[10],和拉萨病毒(英语:Lassa ... RadA protein is an archaeal RecA protein homolog that catalyzes DNA strand exchange. Genes Dev. 1998, 12 (9): 1248-53. PMC ... virus)[11] 脱氧核糖核蛋白[编辑]. 一个脱氧核糖核蛋白(Deoxyribonucleoprotein,缩写:DNP)是DNA和蛋白质的复合物[12]。典型的例子是核小体,其中基因组
"Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses". J. Biol. Chem. 284 (19): 12599-603. doi:10.1074/jbc.R800078200. PMC ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either RNA or DNA genes and is called an RNA virus or a DNA virus respectively. The vast majority of viruses have ... All viruses reproduce this way, and there are no free-living viruses.[1][2] Viruses are everywhere in the environment, and all ...
... adenovirus simian virus 40, vaccinia virus, reovirus, poliovirus and herpes simplex virus as well as numerous bacteriophages.[ ... One of such applications is the use of archaeal enzymes, which would be better able to survive harsh conditions in vitro.[12] ... Viruses[edit]. Viruses are capsid-encoding organisms composed of proteins and nucleic acids that can self-assemble after ... Many types of virus are capable of genetic recombination. When two or more individual viruses of the same type infect a cell, ...
Archaeal diversity analysis of spacecraft assembly clean rooms, he ISME Journal (2008) 2, 115-119; doi:10.1038/ismej.2007.98 ... The reason for this extremely small size limit of 0.01 µm is for consideration of gene transfer agents (GTAs) which are virus- ... Amy Maxmen Virus-like particles speed bacterial evolution published online 30 September 2010 ...
Archaeal viruses. Some viruses replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...
... Stephen T. Abedon and Kelly L. Murray ... Stephen T. Abedon and Kelly L. Murray, "Archaeal Viruses, Not Archaeal Phages: An Archaeological Dig," Archaea, vol. 2013, ...
Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses. Reza Khayat, Liang ... Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses ... Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses ... Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses ...
Virus Res. 2006 Apr;117(1):52-67. Epub 2006 Feb 28. Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; ... Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life.. Prangishvili D1, Garrett RA, ... Here we describe a re-analysis of the proteins encoded by archaeal viruses, with an emphasis on comparative genomics of the ... In terms of virion morphology, the known viruses of archaea fall into two distinct classes: viruses of mesophilic and ...
The rod-shaped virus APBV1 (Aeropyrum pernix bacilliform virus 1) is among the most thermostable viruses known; it infects a ... However, there is a paucity of information on archaeal virion structures, genome packaging, and determinants of temperature ... Archaeal viruses have evolved to infect hosts often thriving in extreme conditions such as high temperatures. ... The rod-shaped virus APBV1 (Aeropyrum pernix bacilliform virus 1) is among the most thermostable viruses known; it infects a ...
Sequence analysis of an Archaeal virus isolated from a hypersaline lake in Inner Mongolia, China.. Pagaling E1, Haigh RD, Grant ... Fifty of the seventy ORFs had no identity to data base entries; twenty showed sequence identity matches to archaeal viruses and ... Two lytic viruses infecting these were isolated from the lake water. The BJ1 virus is described in this paper. It has an ... Unrooted phylogenetic tree showing the relationship of the environmental archaeal strain host BJ1B11 for the virus BJ1, to ...
Archaeal Viruses from Yellowstones High Temperature Environments Mark Young, Blake Wiedenheft, Jamie Snyder, Josh Spuhler, ... Of the approximately 4000 viruses described to date, only 36 are associated with archaeal hosts-many of these from thermophilic ... In this work we describe the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and novel virus-like particles ... is used to assess the diversity of the resident archaeal community and to evaluate the diversity of thermophilic viruses. The ...
... we have only a rudimentary understanding of archaeal virus assembly and release from cells. Among archaeal viruses, there are ... Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life. Virus Res. 117:52-67. ... Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. ... His1, an archaeal virus of the Fuselloviridae family that infects Haloarcula hispanica. J. Virol. 72:9392-9395. ...
Vaccinia virus; MCV1, Molluscum contagiosum virus subtype 1; SWPV, Swinepox virus; YMTV, Yaba monkey tumor virus; RPOXV, Rabbit ... Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Archaeal viruses isolated from extreme environments are powerful tools for elucidating the biology of their archeal hosts and ... The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a double-stranded DNA viral capsid type that spans all domains of life. ...
Archaeal viruses. Some viruses replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...
However these diverse viruses evolved, its clear that there are many more archaeal viruses yet to be discovered, and ... attackers of the thermophilic archaeal genus Sulfolobus. These systems are helping to relate archaeal virus infection to that ... Diverse Archaeal Viruses. Unlike bacteria and eukaryotic microbes, archaea-as far as researchers can determine-do not act as ... Archaeal viruses even show variety in how they arrange their DNA, with some genomes naturally adopting a more compact structure ...
Archaeal viruses. Some viruses replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ... ICTV Virus Taxonomy ICTV Virus Taxonomy Release History *^ "Taxonomy". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). ...
CRISPR-mediated gene silencing reveals involvement of the archaeal S-layer in cell division and virus infection *Isabelle Anna ... Although NH3 was suggested as substrate for AOB [32], the substrate for archaeal AMO, NH3 or NH4+, is not firmly established [ ... The archaeal (soluble) AmoB subunit of Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii is 20 kDa and 4.5 nm in size, suggesting that additional ... Li, P., Herrmann, J., Tolar, B.B. et al. Nutrient transport suggests an evolutionary basis for charged archaeal surface layer ...
The suggested dyes were tested on three archaeal (Hbt. salinarum, Haloferax sp., Halorubrum sp.) and two bacterial (Salicola sp ... CRISPR-mediated gene silencing reveals involvement of the archaeal S-layer in cell division and virus infection *Isabelle Anna ... The suggested dyes were tested on three archaeal (Hbt. salinarum, Haloferax sp., Halorubrum sp.) and two bacterial (Salicola sp ... Fröls, S. Archaeal biofilms: widespread and complex. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 41, 393-8 (2013). ...
... compared to viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition, many archaeal viruses have been isolated from extreme environments ... compared to viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition, many archaeal viruses have been isolated from extreme environments ... This makes archaeal virus-host systems of particular interest because the hosts generally root near the base of phylogenetic ... This makes archaeal virus-host of particular interest because the hosts generally root near the base of phylogenetic trees, ...
... and pleiomorphic virus-like particles. Metavirome analysis corroborated the presence of His1-like viruses and has expanded the ... This study demonstrated that a moderately thermophilic spring environment contained a highly novel pool of viruses and should ... by means of electron microscopy and sequencing of the virus fraction. Microscopy analysis revealed a mixture of regular- and ... which may underline basic ecosystem functioning provided by these viruses. Furthermore, a putative Gemmata-related phage was ...
... cultivated and uncultivated archaeal viruses. We constructed a bipartite network of archaeal viruses that includes two classes ... However, compared to the previously analyzed similar networks of eukaryotic and bacterial viruses, the archaeal virus network ... sequences from 116 genomes allowed dissection of the archaeal virus network and showed that most groups of the archaeal viruses ... As is typical of viruses in general, there are no universal genes in the archaeal virosphere. Therefore, to obtain a ...
"Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (19): 12599-603. doi:10.1074/ ... Viruses[edit]. Main articles: Virus and Bacteriophage. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, characterised by extremely ... Breitbart, M.; Rohwer, F. (2005). "Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?". Trends in Microbiology. 13 (6): ... Viruses can be either RNA or DNA viruses consisting of a single or double strand of genetic material (RNA or DNA) respectively ...
A Dimeric Rep Protein Initiates Replication of a Linear Archaeal Virus Genome: Implications for the Rep Mechanism and Viral ... The Rudiviridae are a family of rod-shaped archaeal viruses with covalently closed, linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes ... ARCHAEA, DNA REPLICATION, VIRUS, ENDONUCLEASE DOMAIN, EUKARYAL VIRUSES, ACTIVE-SITE, SIRV1, CLEAVAGE, REP, ORIGIN ... Assessing host-virus codivergence for close relatives of Merkel cell polyomavirus infecting African great apes. Madinda, N. F ...
A Dimeric Rep Protein Initiates Replication of a Linear Archaeal Virus Genome: Implications for the Rep Mechanism and Viral ... A Dimeric Rep Protein Initiates Replication of a Linear Archaeal Virus Genome: Implications for the Rep Mechanism and Viral ...
2005) Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses. Proc Natl ... In the current work, we reveal that the archaeal virus Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus isolated from Yellowstone National ... archaeal viruses that encode their own ESCRT-related proteins to facilitate viral biology. Acquisition of these virus-derived ... suggest an evolutionary link between archaeal viruses and viruses that replicate in bacterial and eukaryotic hosts (8, 12, 13 ...
Evolutionary Interaction Between Archaeal-Eukaryal Cell Lineages and Viruses. Pages 241-264 ... mediated communication processes within archaeal cells (intra-organismic), between the same, related and different archaeal ... This book will orientate further investigations on how archaeal ecosphere inhabitants communicate with each other to coordinate ... Archaeal Surface Structures and Their Role in Communication with the Extracellular Environment ...
"The wonderful world of archaeal viruses". Annu Rev Microbiol 67: 565-585. 13 Prangishvili D (2015) "Archaeal viruses: living ... "Diversity of viruses of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Aeropyrum, and isolation of the Aeropyrum pernix bacilliform virus ... 6. Mochizuki T, Krupovic M, Pehau-Arnaudet G, Sako Y, Forterre P, and Prangishvili D (2012). "Archaeal virus with exceptional ... Peng, Xu; Garrett, Roger A.; She, QunXin (2012). "Archaeal viruses-novel, diverse and enigmatic". Science China Life Sciences. ...
The spindle-shaped virus morphology is unique to Archaea but widespread therein. The best studied fusellovirus is SSV1 from ... The spindle-shaped virus morphology is unique to Archaea but widespread therein. The best studied fusellovirus is SSV1 from ... Deletion of the poorly-conserved predicted DNA binding protein gene VP2 yields viable virus that is indistinguishable from wild ... Deletion of the poorly-conserved predicted DNA binding protein gene VP2 yields viable virus that is indistinguishable from wild ...
"Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (19): 12599-603. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... It is estimated viruses kill 20% of this biomass each day and that there are 15 times as many viruses in the oceans as there ... Marine viruses are defined by their habitat as viruses that are found in marine environments, that is, in the saltwater of seas ... A marine virus is more likely to infect cooccurring organisms, those that live in the same region the virus lives in. Therefore ...
Archaeal Viruses [B04.100]. *Rudiviridae [B04.100.700]. *DNA Viruses [B04.280]. *Rudiviridae [B04.280.775] ... Atomic structure of the 75 MDa extremophile Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus determined by CryoEM and X-ray ... Family of rod-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA. They lack viral envelopes or lipids. ...
"Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses". J. Biol. Chem. 284 (19): 12599-603. doi:10.1074/jbc.R800078200. PMC ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either RNA or DNA genes and is called an RNA virus or a DNA virus respectively. The vast majority of viruses have ... All viruses reproduce this way, and there are no free-living viruses.[1][2] Viruses are everywhere in the environment, and all ...
Taxonomy of prokaryotic viruses: 2018-2019 update from the ICTV Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee. 2020. Arch Virol. ... Taxonomy of prokaryotic viruses: 2017 update from the ICTV Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee. Arch Virol. 163:1125- ... Taxonomy of prokaryotic viruses: 2016 update from the ICTV bacterial and archaeal viruses subcommittee. Arch. Virol. 162:1153- ... Archaeal virus HCIV-1 highlights conserved elements in icosahedral membrane-containing DNA viruses from extreme environments. ...
Anti-CRISPR proteins encoded by archaeal lytic viruses inhibit subtype I-D immunity. He, F., Bhoobalan-Chitty, Y., Van, L. B., ...
Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life. Virus Res 117(1): 52-67. Epub 2006 ... Archaeal Viruses of the Sulfolobales: Isolation, Infection, and CRISPR Spacer Acquisition. Erdmann S, Garrett RA. Methods Mol ... 2012) Archaeal viruses-novel, diverse and enigmatic. Sci China Life Sci. 55:422-33. ... 2012) An archaeal immune system can detect multiple protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) to target invader DNA. J Biol Chem. 287 ...
Evans DJ (2009) Exploitation of plant and archaeal viruses in bionanotechnology. Biochem Soc Trans 37:665-670PubMedGoogle ... Among the most often used viral backbones are those of the RNA viruses Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Potato virus X (PVX) and ... Expression of an animal virus antigenic site on the surface of a plant virus particle. Virology 197:366-374PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Turpen TH (1999) Tobacco mosaic virus and the virescence of biotechnology. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 354:665-673PubMed ...
  • Archaea and their viruses are poorly understood when compared with the Eukarya and Bacteria domains of life. (pnas.org)
  • 80°C) that is emerging as a model for studying hyperthermophilic archaea and their viruses ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • In terms of virion morphology, the known viruses of archaea fall into two distinct classes: viruses of mesophilic and moderately thermophilic Eueryarchaeota closely resemble head-and-tail bacteriophages whereas viruses of hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota show a variety of unique morphotypes. (nih.gov)
  • We are profoundly ignorant about the diversity of viruses that infect the domain Archaea. (nih.gov)
  • Unlike the other domains of life, very few viruses of Archaea have been characterized. (montana.edu)
  • Icosahedral nontailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses are present in all three domains of life, leading to speculation about a common viral ancestor that predates the divergence of Eukarya , Bacteria , and Archaea . (asm.org)
  • In comparison to viruses with eukaryotic and bacterial hosts, little is known about the viruses that infect Archaea . (asm.org)
  • Viruses can infect all types of life forms , from animals and plants to microorganisms , including bacteria and archaea . (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaea and particularly hyperthermophilic crenarchaea are hosts to many unusual viruses with diverse virion shapes and distinct gene compositions. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • In contrast, most of these modules include, in addition to viruses, capsid-less mobile elements, emphasizing tight evolutionary connections between the two types of entities in archaea. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • IMPORTANCE: Viruses infecting archaea are among the most mysterious denizens of the virosphere. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • David Prangishvili (born 1948) is a virologist, Professor at the Pasteur Institute of Paris, and foremost authority on viruses infecting Archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prangishvili's studies have helped to reveal that DNA viruses of Archaea constitute a distinctive part of the viral world and that Archaea can be infected by viruses with a variety of unusual morphologies which have not been observed among viruses from the other two domains of life, Bacteria and Eukarya. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought viruses played a central role in early evolution before the diversification of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes, at the time of the last universal common ancestor of life on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation and evolutionary history of the three domains of life (Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea) and their viruses remains controversial. (pnas.org)
  • These highly diverse competences show us that this is possible owing to sign(aling)- mediated communication processes within archaeal cells (intra-organismic), between the same, related and different archaeal species (interorganismic), and between archaea and nonarchaeal organisms (transorganismic). (springer.com)
  • Viruses of thermophilic Archaea are unique in both their structures and genomic sequences. (frontiersin.org)
  • The spindle-shaped virus morphology is unique to Archaea but widespread therein. (frontiersin.org)
  • Family of rod-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA. (harvard.edu)
  • Opnå en forståelse af samspillet mellem toxin-antitoxin-systemer og CRISPR-Cas immunitet i bakterier og archaea. (au.dk)
  • 2012) Identification of Novel Positive-Strand RNA Viruses by Metagenomic Analysis of Archaea-Dominated Yellowstone Hot Springs. (openwetware.org)
  • This diversity encompassed known viruses of hyperthermophilic archaea, filamentous Lipothrixviridae, rod-shaped Rudiviridae, and spindle-shaped Fuselloviridae, and novel morphotypes previously not observed in nature. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • These spindle shaped viruses infect Sulfolobus islandicus, a hyper thermophilic microbe that belongs to the third domain of life, the Archaea. (illinois.edu)
  • Viruses that infect archaea have been shown to possess novel and unique characteristics not typically found in viruses that infect bacteria or eukaryotes. (illinois.edu)
  • Little is known about the genetic differences between virus particles (so-called 'genetic diversity'), especially compared to what we know about the diversity of bacteria, archaea, and other single-celled microbes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Insights into head-tailed viruses infecting extremely halophilic archaea. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CRISPR-Cas systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against invading genetic elements, such as plasmids, bacteriophages and archaeal viruses. (wur.nl)
  • DNA viruses of the Archaea have highly diverse and often exceptionally complex morphotypes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is argued that the remarkable morphotypical diversity of archaea‐specific viruses could have originated from diverse viral archetypes that predated the divergence of the three domains of cellular life. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Double-stranded DNA viruses infecting the Archaea reveal exceptionally diverse, complex morphotypes, never encountered among dsDNA viruses of the Bacteria or Eukarya, and carry genomes with the overwhelming majority of genes without homologues in extant databases, other than in other archaeal viruses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This review highlights some of the directions where the world of prokaryotic viruses, including the 'traditional' bacteriophages and the viruses of Archaea, will lead us in the near future. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is hypothesized that the scarcity of disease‐causing Archaea is due, in part, to mutually‐exclusive phage and virus populations infecting Bacteria and Archaea, coupled with an association of bacterial virulence factors with phages or mobile elements. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Although N-glycosylation was first reported in archaea almost 40 years ago, detailed insights into this process have become possible only recently, with the availability of complete genome sequences for almost 200 archaeal species and the development of appropriate molecular tools. (scoop.it)
  • As a result of these advances, recent efforts have not only succeeded in delineating the pathways involved in archaeal N-glycosylation, but also begun to reveal how such post-translational protein modification helps archaea to survive in some of the harshest environments on the planet. (scoop.it)
  • A ) Numbers in parentheses indicate the total number of proteomes that were sampled from Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, and viruses. (sciencemag.org)
  • Notably, PD patients had fewer gut viruses, including bacterial and archaeal phages. (alzforum.org)
  • These mutants contained a transposable element in the lacS gene with features typical of bacterial and archaeal ISs, including terminal inverted repeats, a putative transposase gene, and short direct flanking repeats. (asm.org)
  • article{osti_1572795, title = {Bacterial and Archaeal Metagenome-Assembled Genome Sequences from Svalbard Permafrost}, author = {Xue, Yaxin and Jonassen, Inge and Øvreås, Lise and Taş, Neslihan}, abstractNote = {ABSTRACT Permafrost contains one of the least known soil microbiomes, where microbial populations reside in an ice-locked environment. (osti.gov)
  • Huge amounts of new details on virus interactions with the cell, other pathogens and the hosts - animal (including human), insect, fungal, plant, bacterial, and archaeal - and their role in infection and disease are forthcoming in perplexing details requiring analysis and comments. (springer.com)
  • In their natural settings, CRISPR-Cas systems play crucial roles in bacterial and archaeal adaptive immunity to protect against phages and other mobile genetic elements, and they are also widely used as genome engineering technologies. (asm.org)
  • Multiple origins of prokaryotic and eukaryotic single-stranded DNA viruses from bacterial and archaeal plasmids. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we mined publicly available bacterial and archaeal genomic data sets to identify 12,498 high-confidence viral genomes linked to their microbial hosts. (elifesciences.org)
  • Archaeal viruses have evolved to infect hosts often thriving in extreme conditions such as high temperatures. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Bacteriophages that are architecturally similar to the crenarchaeal virus Sulfolobus t urreted i cosahedral v irus (STIV) lyse their host cells ( 3 , 9 , 12 , 22 ), but most viruses that infect crenarchaeal and some euryarchaeal hosts have been observed to extrude from the cell without causing cell death ( 13 , 30 , 41 , 57 ). (asm.org)
  • The virus was subsequently shown to infect virus-free isolates of Sulfolobus solfataricus strain P2, for which the complete genome has been sequenced. (asm.org)
  • This makes archaeal virus-host systems of particular interest because the hosts generally root near the base of phylogenetic trees, while some of the viruses have clear structural similarities to those that infect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is especially true of viruses that infect members of the crenarchaea. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most of these viruses are bacteriophages which infect and destroy marine bacteria and control the growth of phytoplankton at the base of the marine food web. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with the bacterial and eukaryal domains, little is known about the archaeal domain of life and the viruses that infect these organisms. (pnas.org)
  • A virus is a parasite that can only be seen under a microscope and can infect living organisms and cause disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viruses are released and are then able to infect other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses can remain intact for a long time, and will infect cells when the time and conditions are right. (wikipedia.org)
  • They came across unknown viruses that infect the microorganisms, while analyzing water they took from a 35-meter-deep aquifer at the sulfur spring. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Lytic archaeal viruses infect abundant primary producers in Earth's crust", in: Nature Communications 12 (30 July 2021). (eurasiareview.com)
  • Viruses infect every living organism on the planet, but not every habitat has been explored for their presence. (virology.ws)
  • These viruses are known to only infect eukaryotes. (virology.ws)
  • A virus known as AFV1 is able to infect A. hospitalis . (elifesciences.org)
  • Like many other viruses, AFV1 steals part of its host cell's membrane when it leaves the cell in search of new cells to infect. (elifesciences.org)
  • These viruses are thought to attach to cells using sticky tail fibers located at one end of the viral particle allowing them to infect the host cell. (illinois.edu)
  • It is possible for several different viruses to infect a single cell at the same time. (elifesciences.org)
  • s findings suggest that although it is common for several different viruses to infect the same cell, it is relatively rare for these viruses to exchange genetic material. (elifesciences.org)
  • We investigate viruses that infect bacteria, insects, plants, and the extreme thermophile Sulfolobus . (scripps.edu)
  • The recent discovery of Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) presents an opportunity to expand our knowledge of virology, study host biology, and investigate the evolutionary relationship of viruses from all three domains of life. (asm.org)
  • [5] [6] The study of viruses is known as virology , a sub-speciality of microbiology . (wikipedia.org)
  • Virology is the study of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new report from the Journal of Virology refutes that idea and demonstrates that an archaeal virus, Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1), can withstand mutations in 17 of its 35 genes while remaining replication competent. (asm.org)
  • This review focuses on advances from over four decades of archaeal virology, with a particular focus on Archaeal viruses from high temperature environments, the existing challenges in understanding archaealing virus gene function, and approaches being taken to overcome these limitations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bacteriophages (phages) Viruses are now recognised as ancient and as having origins that pre-date the divergence of life into the three domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriophages, often just called phages, are viruses that parasite bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the scientific literature indicates that over 5,500 phages have been described Ackermann (Arch Virol 152(2):227-243, 2007), much of the scientific community has focused attention on the relatively fewer pathogenic viruses of humans, animals, and agricultural crops. (springer.com)
  • Bacteriophages or phages for short are viruses that are widely distributed in the environment. (omicsonline.org)
  • The proportional lack of archaeal pathogens: Do viruses/phages hold the key? (semanticscholar.org)
  • This is true for most prokaryotic viruses such as double-stranded (ds) DNA/RNA phages, dsDNA archaeal viruses as well as many eukaryotic viruses (e.g. herpesviruses and reoviruses). (iucr.org)
  • Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life. (nih.gov)
  • The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids -pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The origin and evolutionary relationship of viruses is poorly understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Despite the advantageous position for use in evolutionary studies, little is known about archaeal viruses or how they interact with their hosts, compared to viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, to obtain a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary relationships between viruses, network analysis methods are more productive than traditional phylogenetic approaches. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The relative contributions of distinct evolutionary origins, in particular from non-viral elements, and insufficient sampling to the sparsity of the archaeal virus network remain to be determined by further exploration of the archaeal virosphere. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear because they do not form fossils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detailed examination of archaeal viruses is likely to provide fundamental insights into the evolutionary relationships among viruses infecting hosts in the three domains of life ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Structural similarities of the major capsid protein (MCP), suggest an evolutionary link between archaeal viruses and viruses that replicate in bacterial and eukaryotic hosts ( 8 , 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Structural analysis of the major capsid protein has suggested an evolutionary link between archaeal viruses and bacterial and eukaryotic viruses [ 7 , 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 1992. Early evolutionary relationships among known life forms inferred from elongation factor EF-2/EF-G sequences: Phylogenetic coherence and structure of the Archaeal domain. (tolweb.org)
  • The long evolutionary reach of viruses. (tolweb.org)
  • We have begun to make evolutionary links between viruses infecting the archaeal and the eukaryal domains of life. (nasa.gov)
  • Networks of evolutionary interactions underlying the polyphyletic origin of ssDNA viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Rates of evolutionary change in viruses: patterns and determinants. (nih.gov)
  • Progress in understanding these fascinating viruses at the molecular level and the evolutionary insights coming from these studies are reviewed. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hot crenarchaeal viruses reveal deep evolutionary connections. (kenyon.edu)
  • Two previously overlooked archaeal strains fill an evolutionary gap for microbes. (the-scientist.com)
  • In accord with this distinction, the sequenced genomes of euryarchaeal viruses encode many proteins homologous to bacteriophage capsid proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Here we present a comprehensive comparative analysis of genomes and proteomes from all currently known taxonomically classified and unclassified, cultivated and uncultivated archaeal viruses. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • We constructed a bipartite network of archaeal viruses that includes two classes of nodes, the genomes and gene families that connect them. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Analysis of 5740 protein sequences from 116 genomes allowed dissection of the archaeal virus network and showed that most groups of the archaeal viruses are evolutionarily connected to capsid-less mobile genetic elements, including various plasmids and transposons. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The Rudiviridae are a family of rod-shaped archaeal viruses with covalently closed, linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Plant viruses tend to have single-stranded RNA genomes and bacteriophages tend to have double-stranded DNA genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA viruses use RNA dependent RNA polymerases to replicate their genomes. (jove.com)
  • The finding that viruses with RNA and DNA genomes can recombine to produce chimeric entities provides valuable insights into the origin and evolution of viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Three RNA cells for ribosomal lineages and three DNA viruses to replicate their genomes: a hypothesis for the origin of cellular domain. (nih.gov)
  • VirSorter identifies viral genome sequences based on the presence of 'hallmark' genes that encode for components found in many virus particles, together with a reference database of genomes from many viruses. (elifesciences.org)
  • These new viral genomes will serve as a useful resource for researchers as they explore the communities of viruses and microbes in natural environments, the human body and in industrial processes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Some viruses integrate their genome into the host cell's chromosome, while others maintain their genomes as extrachromosomal elements. (kenyon.edu)
  • These viruses have genomes of single-stranded RNA, and double-stranded DNA. (scripps.edu)
  • There is also evidence for changes having occurred in the captured integrated elements present in archaeal genomes. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Crenarchaeal viruses are characterized by morphologies and genes not detected in viruses infecting other organisms ( 37 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • This is due, in part, to the relatively recent delineation of the archaeal domain of life but, more significantly, to the challenges of isolating and culturing the host organisms ( 42 ). (asm.org)
  • A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have been described as "organisms at the edge of life", [8] and as replicators. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of viruses in the oceans decreases further offshore and deeper into the water, where there are fewer host organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opinions differ on whether viruses are a form of life or organic structures that interact with living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] [2] Viruses are everywhere in the environment, and all organisms can be infected by them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to the viruses infecting organisms from the domains Bacteria and Eukarya , few viruses infecting archaeal organisms have been isolated and most are poorly understood in molecular detail. (hindawi.com)
  • Viruses are infectious particles that can only multiply inside the cells of microbes and other organisms. (elifesciences.org)
  • Like all other organisms, archaeal cells are susceptible to viral infections, and to date, about 100 archaeal viruses have been described. (biomedsearch.com)
  • With the exception of the tailed viruses related to the bacteriophages of the order Caudovirales and the families Turriviridae and Sphaerolipoviridae that are linked to a distinct supermodule of eukaryotic viruses, there are few connector genes shared by different archaeal virus modules. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Even though these two different archaeal viruses appear to share a similar lysis mechanism, genetically they are very different from each other. (hindawi.com)
  • Although we have genome sequences for most of the crenarchaeal viruses isolated, we have only a rudimentary understanding of archaeal virus assembly and release from cells. (asm.org)
  • Earlier in 2015, researchers developed a new computational tool called VirSorter that can predict virus genome sequences within the DNA extracted from microbes. (elifesciences.org)
  • These data increase the number of viral genome sequences that are publically available by a factor of ten and identify the first viruses associated with 13 new types of bacteria, which include species that are abundant in particular environments. (elifesciences.org)
  • A small pool of genes is shared by overlapping subsets of crenarchaeal viruses, in a general analogy with the metagenome structure of bacteriophages. (nih.gov)
  • Whereas species have long been established among sexual eukaryotes, achieving a meaningful species concept for prokaryotes has been an onerous task and has proven exceedingly difficult for describing viruses and bacteriophages. (asm.org)
  • Two virus types resembled head-and-tail bacteriophages from the families Siphoviridae and Podoviridae, and constituted the first observation of these viruses in a hydrothermal environment. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • These viruses were shown to have the same major capsid protein fold (HK97-fold) with tailed bacteriophages belonging to the order Caudovirales and with eukaryotic herpes viruses. (helsinki.fi)
  • The Sulfolobus spindle-shaped viruses (SSVs) of the family Fuselloviridae were the first discovered and probably the best studied family of archaeal viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bath C, Cukalac T, Porter K, Dyall-Smith ML (2006) His1 and His2 are distantly related, spindle-shaped haloviruses belonging to the novel virus group, Salterprovirus. (springer.com)
  • Examination of the fluids by electron microscopy showed virus particles of different kinds: tailed and untailed icosahedral particles, untailed globular particles, and rod and spindle shaped. (virology.ws)
  • This image shows multiple particles of a Sulfolobus spindle shaped virus (SSV) isolated from an acidic hot spring in the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia). (illinois.edu)
  • JVirology: Extreme Mutation Tolerance: Nearly Half of the Archaeal Fusellovirus Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Genes are Not Required for Virus Function, Including the Minor Capsid Protein Gene vp3 . (asm.org)
  • The Fuselloviridae family currently consists of only one virus, Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1), and three tentative members (SSV2, SSV3, and the staaelite virus pSSVx, which stands for plasmid SSV x). (kenyon.edu)
  • The known haloarchaeal viruses represent icosahedral tailed, icosahedral internal membrane-containing, pleomorphic, and spindle-shaped virion morphotypes. (helsinki.fi)
  • In this work we describe the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and novel virus-like particles isolated directly from diverse thermal environments in Yellowstone National Park. (montana.edu)
  • These structures are thought to be sites at which progeny virus particles are released from infected cells. (asm.org)
  • Proteomic analysis of purified STIV particles revealed 11 proteins, with two host proteins (Sso7d and SSO0881) and nine virus proteins ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms for some virus species to more complex structures for others. (wikipedia.org)
  • salterprovirus-like) and pleiomorphic virus-like particles. (mdpi.com)
  • This involves assembly of seven-sided pyramid-like structures on the surface of infected cells, which open to disrupt the cell and release progeny virus particles. (pnas.org)
  • Penetration follows attachment: Virions (single virus particles) enter the host cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis or membrane fusion . (wikipedia.org)
  • Our technologies can be used in different combinations to purify large macromolecular complexes such as viruses, virus-like particles, viral subassemblies, exosomes, membrane vesicles, large protein complexes, ribonucleoprotein complexes etc. (helsinki.fi)
  • CIM® monolithic columns can be utilized for purification of viruses, virus-like particles, nucleic acids, proteins and their complexes. (helsinki.fi)
  • Plant viral vectors delivered by Agrobacterium are the basis of several manufacturing processes that are currently in use for producing a wide range of proteins for multiple applications, including vaccine antigens, antibodies, protein nanoparticles such as virus-like particles (VLPs), and other protein and protein-RNA scaffolds. (springer.com)
  • Members of the family Picornaviridae , which include Hepatitis A virus, poliovirus, and Coxsackieviruses, have non-enveloped particles that consist of a protein shell surrounding the viral RNA genome (poliovirus is illustrated). (virology.ws)
  • Recently it was discovered that hepatitis A virus (HAV) particles are released from cells in membrane vesicles containing 1-4 virus particles. (virology.ws)
  • Enveloped hepatitis A virus particles are present in the blood of infected humans. (virology.ws)
  • These virus particles are in vesicles derived from the autophagy pathway, which captures and recycles cytoplasmic contents by ejecting them from the cell. (virology.ws)
  • Perhaps immune evasion: the presence of the cell membrane makes HAV and Coxsackievirus B virus particles resistant to neutralization with antibody. (virology.ws)
  • The ability to deliver multiple virus particles to a single cell might help to overcome genetic defects in the viral genome that are a consequence of the high mutation rates of these viruses. (virology.ws)
  • Probably not, in part because the membranes surrounding these virus particles are not needed for infectivity. (virology.ws)
  • While the finding of membranes around picornavirus particles is intriguing, I am not yet convinced that these viruses should be considered to be enveloped. (virology.ws)
  • All known virus particles can be placed into one of two general categories: enveloped or non-enveloped. (virology.ws)
  • Viral concentration, as well as virus-to-cell ratios, increased along the salinity gradient, with around 10 10 virus-like particles (VLPs)/ml in close-to-saturation ponds, which represents the highest viral concentration reported so far for aquatic systems. (asm.org)
  • Electron microscopic studies of the viruses in two hot springs (85 degrees C, pH 1.5-2.0, and 75-93 degrees C, pH 6.5) in Yellowstone National Park revealed particles with twelve different morphotypes. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Analysis of fluids recovered from these sites revealed both prokaryotes (8,000 per ml) and virus particles (90,000 per ml). (virology.ws)
  • Most crenarchaeal viruses, twith the exception of the [[Bicaudaviridae]] member ATV, appear to set up chronic infections, either continually producing virus particles or doing so in short events resulting in growth inhibition. (kenyon.edu)
  • Structural studies of large macromolecular complexes and virus particles by X-ray crystallography and Electron microscopy. (ikerbasque.net)
  • We use a variety of physical methods to investigate structure-function relationships, including single-crystal x-ray diffraction, static and time-resolved solution x-ray diffraction, electron cryomicroscopy and image reconstruction, mass spectrometry, structure-based computational analyses, and methods associated with thermodynamic characterization of virus particles and their transitions. (scripps.edu)
  • Detailed examination of conserved domains and motifs uncovered a significant number of previously unnoticed homologous relationships among the proteins of crenarchaeal viruses and between viral proteins and those from cellular life forms and allowed functional predictions for some of these conserved genes. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that crenarchaeal viruses are, in general, evolutionarily unrelated to other known viruses and, probably, evolved via independent accretion of genes derived from the hosts and, through more complex routes of horizontal gene transfer, from other prokaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • Sequence analysis of the 17.3-kb circular dsDNA genome predicts 37 open reading frames (ORFs) with little or no similarity to other genes in the databases except for ORFs encoded by other viruses infecting Sulfolobus spp. (asm.org)
  • As is typical of viruses in general, there are no universal genes in the archaeal virosphere. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Viruses are an important natural means of transferring genes between different species, which increases genetic diversity and drives evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus has either RNA or DNA genes and is called an RNA virus or a DNA virus respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Readers learn about the history of this unique science, how viruses are named, how their genes work, how they copy and package themselves, how they interact with their hosts, how immune systems counteract viruses, and how viruses travel from host to host. (credoreference.com)
  • Virus Genes - incl. (springer.com)
  • Virus Genes is dedicated to the publication of studies on the structure and function of viruses and their genes, the molecular and systems interactions with the host and all applications derived thereof, providing a forum for the analysis of data and discussion of its implications, and the development of new hypotheses. (springer.com)
  • VIRUS GENES does NOT publish purely descriptive studies, e.g., primary sequence data of known viruses based on local sample collections. (springer.com)
  • 2000. Iridovirus homologues of cellular genes -- implications for the molecular evolution of large DNA viruses. (tolweb.org)
  • Virus Genes 21:77-81. (tolweb.org)
  • No genes encoding tRNAs, such as those found in giant viruses, were identified. (virology.ws)
  • Viruses from these two families have many homologous genes and build their virions using structurally similar major capsid proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • It also substantiates the hypothesis that certain groups of DNA viruses could have emerged from plasmids via acquisition of capsid protein-coding genes from RNA viruses. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers found that only 11 genes, when mutated, rendered the virus noninfective (see figure, right). (asm.org)
  • Both culture-dependent and culture-independent studies indicate that these viruses represent a world-wide distributed reservoir of orphan genes and possibly novel virion morphotypes. (helsinki.fi)
  • In addition, each of the crenarchaeal viruses encodes several proteins with prokaryotic but not viral homologs, some of which, predictably, seem to have been scavenged from the crenarchaeal hosts, but others might have been acquired from bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Of the approximately 4000 viruses described to date, only 36 are associated with archaeal hosts-many of these from thermophilic Crenarchaeota. (montana.edu)
  • However virus in the feces, which is transmitted to other hosts, is not enveloped. (virology.ws)
  • This database can be leveraged for network analytics, allowing integrated projects to uncovert he nature of viruses in natural ecosystems and ultimately their intimate relation with their hosts. (openwetware.org)
  • 2003. Coevolution of viruses with hosts and vectors and possible paleontology. (tolweb.org)
  • The expansion of the diversity for large and giant viruses offered the researchers insights into how they might interact with their hosts. (doe.gov)
  • Viral hosts in the acidic spring were members of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Most viral sequences likely had archaeal hosts. (virology.ws)
  • Many double-stranded DNA viruses which parasitize such hosts, including the filamentous virus AFV1 of Acidianus hospitalis , are enveloped with a lipid-containing membrane. (elifesciences.org)
  • We have determined that viruses infecting hosts from both domains utilize the same cellular proteins for assembly and trafficking to the membrane prior to lysis. (nasa.gov)
  • To date, 90 viruses have been described for halophilic archaeal hosts, all belonging to the Halobacteriaceae family. (helsinki.fi)
  • Fig. 3 Virus-host preferences and FSF distribution in viruses infecting different hosts. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, total environmental DNA extracted from three distinct locations is used to assess the diversity of the resident archaeal community and to evaluate the diversity of thermophilic viruses. (montana.edu)
  • The unprecedented diversity of thermal features (~10,000) in Yellowstone National Park has provided us the opportunity to assess host and virus diversity within a single site and among geographically separated sites with distinct geochemical signatures. (montana.edu)
  • However, limited information on the diversity and replication of archaeal viruses, in general, has hampered further analysis. (asm.org)
  • In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer , which increases genetic diversity . (wikipedia.org)
  • The current view of virus diversity in terrestrial hot springs is limited to a few sampling sites. (mdpi.com)
  • The results of his research provide new perspectives concerning the diversity and evolution of viruses and virus-host interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses are still one of the largest areas of unexplored genetic diversity on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2014) Archaeal viruses: diversity, replication and structure. (openwetware.org)
  • Here, There and Everywhere: Large and Giant Viruses Abound Globally In Nature, a JGI-led team uncovered a broad diversity of large and giant viruses that belong to the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) supergroup. (doe.gov)
  • The intrinsically high error rate of these enzymes is a large contributor to the generation of extreme population diversity that facilitates virus adaptation and evolution. (jove.com)
  • Viruses are the most abundant life-like entities on the planet and are likely a major reservoir of genetic diversity for all life on the planet and these studies are aimed at providing insights into the role of viruses in the evolution of early life on Earth. (nasa.gov)
  • Viruses are the most abundant life-like entities on the planet and are likely a major reservoir of genetic diversity for all life on the planet. (nasa.gov)
  • We hope to gain insights into the role that viruses might have played in the formation of suspected protocells of early life, and the enormous diversity of viruses present on the planet. (nasa.gov)
  • IRESes are critical for many pathogenic viruses, but efforts to understand their function are complicated by the diversity of IRES sequences as well as by limited high-resolution structural information. (futura-sciences.com)
  • Surface (S)-layer glycoproteins, the major component of the S-layers in many archaeal species and the best-characterized prokaryotic glycoproteins, were shown to have a large structural diversity in their glycan compositions. (scoop.it)
  • Isolation and Characterization of Metallosphaera Turreted Icosahedral Virus, a Founding Member of a New Family of Archaeal Viruses. (mpg.de)
  • Some viruses may have evolved from plasmids-pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we report that a protein encoded in the 34-kbp genome of the rudivirus SIRV1 is a member of the replication initiator (Rep) superfamily of proteins, which initiate rolling-circle replication (RCR) of diverse viruses and plasmids. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • CRISPR-Cas systems protect prokaryotes against invading viruses and plasmids. (bireme.br)
  • It has been demonstrated that SSV ( Sulfolobus spindle virus) viruses, carrying an SSV-type integrase gene, and conjugative plasmids, carrying a pNOB8-type integrase, are integrative elements. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Here we describe a re-analysis of the proteins encoded by archaeal viruses, with an emphasis on comparative genomics of the unique viruses of Crenarchaeota. (nih.gov)
  • We report here the crystal structure of the major capsid protein (MCP) of the Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus, an archaeal virus isolated from an acidic hot spring (pH 2-4, 72-92°C) in Yellowstone National Park. (pnas.org)
  • Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV), isolated from a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, was the first icosahedral virus with an archaeal host to be described. (asm.org)
  • Studies on the structure of STIV have revealed similarities with prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses that suggest a common ancestry for icosahedral double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses ( 30 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • In this article we focus on virus-host interactions using a proteomics approach to study Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus (STIV) infection of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 . (frontiersin.org)
  • In the current work, we reveal that the archaeal virus Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus isolated from Yellowstone National Park's acidic hot springs also exploits the host ESCRT machinery in its replication cycle. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, perturbation of normal ESCRT function abrogates viral replication and, thus, prevents establishment of a productive Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus infection. (pnas.org)
  • The Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) has emerged as a model system for examining archaeal viruses. (pnas.org)
  • Atomic structure of the 75 MDa extremophile Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus determined by CryoEM and X-ray crystallography. (harvard.edu)
  • Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) has emerged as a model system for examining archaeal virus replication and structure [ 5 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Enveloped viruses acquire a membrane after the internal components have been assembled, whether they are helical or icosahedral nucleocapsids. (virology.ws)
  • Most of the identified archaeal and bacterial virus sequences came from the families Myoviridae and Siphoviridae (think tailed, icosahedral viruses). (virology.ws)
  • Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus is an archaeal virus isolated from Sulfolobus , which grows in the acidic hot sulfur springs (pH 2-4, 72°C-92°C) in Yellowstone National Park. (scripps.edu)
  • The latest observation supporting this proposal comes from the studies of icosahedral tailed haloarchaeal viruses which are the most abundant virus isolates from hypersaline environments. (helsinki.fi)
  • Unrooted phylogenetic tree showing the relationship of the environmental archaeal strain host BJ1B11 for the virus BJ1, to other closely related environmental strains isolated by us and Halorubrum species. (nih.gov)
  • The extreme environments favored by many archaeal species and limited knowledge about their biochemistry and biology exacerbate this problem. (asm.org)
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky 's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, [2] about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, [3] although there are millions of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most virus species have virions that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope . (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many. (wikipedia.org)
  • This more comprehensive "metagenomics" approach allows quantification of microbial inhabitants down to the species level, and also accounts for bugs such as viruses and fungi. (alzforum.org)
  • Viruses are real, virus species are man-made, taxonomic constructions. (tolweb.org)
  • 2004. The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a double-stranded DNA viral capsid type that spans all domains of life. (tolweb.org)
  • However, there is a paucity of information on archaeal virion structures, genome packaging, and determinants of temperature resistance. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Lytic viruses of bacteria typically utilize a holin/endolysin-based mechanism for virion release [ 16 , 17 ], whereas virion egress via a cellular budding mechanism is commonly used by enveloped animal viruses. (hindawi.com)
  • Among them, there are extraordinary virion morphologies as well as the common head-tailed viruses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Little is known about the replication cycle of archaeal viruses. (asm.org)
  • Our results support an ancient origin for viruses "hijacking" ESCRT proteins to complete their replication cycle and thus identify a critical host-virus interaction conserved between two domains of life. (pnas.org)
  • Many viruses have evolved specific mechanisms for exiting their host cell at the end of their viral replication cycle. (hindawi.com)
  • These results indicate that these cellular proteins were present before the split of the domains of life and viruses utilizing these proteins during their replication cycle is ancient. (nasa.gov)
  • Characterizing the six unannotated core ORFs is a potential starting place to understand the replication cycle of this archaeal parasite. (asm.org)
  • The basic replication cycle of crenarchaeal viruses, including Fuselloviruses, has yet to be determined. (kenyon.edu)
  • The spherical halophilic euryarchaeon Haloarcula hispanica virus (SH1) also has an internal lipid layer that is selectively acquired from the host ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Baranyi U, Klein R, Lubitz W, Kruger DH, Witte A (2000) The archaeal halophilic virus-encoded Dam-like methyltransferase M. phiCh1-I methylates adenine residues and complements dam mutants in the low salt environment of Escherichia coli. (springer.com)
  • However, compared to the previously analyzed similar networks of eukaryotic and bacterial viruses, the archaeal virus network is sparsely connected. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • A small core metavirome for close-to-saturation systems was found that contained 7 sequences of around 100 nucleotides (nt) whose function was not hinted at by in silico search results, although it most likely represents properties essential for hyperhalophilic viruses. (asm.org)
  • Some sequences were similar to those of giant viruses like mimiviruses and phycodnaviruses. (virology.ws)
  • Short DNA sequences (spacers) from invading viruses are incorporated at CRISPR loci within the bacterial genome and serve as "memory" of previous infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The major capsid protein (B345) was found to be glycosylated, implying a strong similarity to proteins from other dsDNA viruses. (asm.org)
  • The previously presented structural models in conjunction with the protein, lipid, and carbohydrate information reported here reveal that STIV is strikingly similar to viruses associated with the Bacteria and Eukarya domains of life, further strengthening the hypothesis for a common ancestor of this group of dsDNA viruses from all domains of life. (asm.org)
  • While not common, internal lipid layers are present in a number of dsDNA viruses. (asm.org)
  • Here we present a detailed characterization of the components forming this unusual virus. (asm.org)
  • This study demonstrated that a moderately thermophilic spring environment contained a highly novel pool of viruses and should encourage future characterization of a wider temperature range of hot springs throughout the world. (mdpi.com)
  • 3) and the isolation and genetic characterization of viruses from extreme thermal environments found in Yellowstone National Park. (montana.edu)
  • This project involves extensive tool development, such as virus isolation procedures from extreme environments, extremophile virus propagation techniques, and development of genetic and biochemical assays, for the discovery and characterization of these unusual viruses. (nasa.gov)
  • Structural analysis of the capsid architecture, determined by fitting the subunit into the electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of the virus, identified a number of key interactions that are akin to those observed in adenovirus and PRD1. (pnas.org)
  • Often, it is through the study of host-virus interactions that insights to the biology of the host are elucidated. (asm.org)
  • Archaeal host-virus interactions are just beginning to be explored and the current understanding of archaeal virus mechanisms is rudimentary at best. (frontiersin.org)
  • An examination of STIV-host interactions has revealed a novel virus-induced cell lysis mechanism ( 2 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Atanasova NS, Roine E, Oren A, Bamford DH, Oksanen HM (2012) Global network of specific virus-host interactions in hypersaline environments. (springer.com)
  • In the Sullivan lab, Ben has worked on continued development of the phageFISH technique to probe the influence of nutrients on virus-host interactions. (openwetware.org)
  • In Hot Spring Microbial Mat, Viruses Ride "Piggyback" In The ISME Journal, scientists have used sequencing methods for the first time to comprehensively characterize viral-host interactions. (doe.gov)
  • In order to understand archaeal host-virus interactions both dependent and culture-independent methods must be used. (nasa.gov)
  • The ecological importance of viruses is now widely recognized, yet our limited knowledge of viral sequence space and virus-host interactions precludes accurate prediction of their roles and impacts. (elifesciences.org)
  • Structures of respiratory syncytial virus nucleocapsid protein from two crystal forms: details of potential packing interactions in the native helical form. (ikerbasque.net)
  • In addition, many archaeal viruses have been isolated from extreme environments and present a unique opportunity for elucidating factors that are important for existence at the extremes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Marine viruses are defined by their habitat as viruses that are found in marine environments, that is, in the saltwater of seas or oceans or the brackish water of coastal estuaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • His Ph.D. work, under the guidance of Mark Young, focused on isolating RNA viruses from acidic, thermophilic environments in Yellowstone National Park and developing bioinformatic/wet lab protocols to generate and analyze viral metagenomes out of these extreme environments. (openwetware.org)
  • This project is aimed at probing the occurrence and evolution of archaeal viruses in the extreme environments in the thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park. (nasa.gov)
  • We are investigating the role of archaeal viruses present in high temperature acidic environments found in Yellowstone National Park. (nasa.gov)
  • The specific objectives of this project are to (1) to isolate and characterize new archaeal viruses in high temperature environments and (2) to understand the role these viruses play in determining the evolution and ecology of microbial communities. (nasa.gov)
  • These long-term chronic infections are thought to be an adaptation to the extremely hot and acidic environments crenarchaeal viruses inhabit. (kenyon.edu)
  • Viruses from extreme thermal environments. (kenyon.edu)
  • Many of these viruses display no genetic or even morphological relationship to viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes, raising questions regarding their origins and position in the global virosphere. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • This number is higher than that described for the members of any other archaeal family, but still very low compared to the viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes. (helsinki.fi)
  • Prior to cell lysis, virus infection resulted in the formation of pyramid-like projections from the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • Most of the information about cell lysis is based on observations of a decrease in optical density (OD) in an infected culture, plaque assays, or plate growth inhibition assays, but little is known about the actual mechanism of archaeal lysis. (asm.org)
  • In particular the breaking down of bacteria by viruses (lysis) has been shown to enhance nitrogen cycling and stimulate phytoplankton growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the host cell has finished making more viruses, it undergoes lysis , or breaks apart. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new type of viral-induced lysis system has recently been discovered for two unrelated archaeal viruses, STIV and SIRV2. (hindawi.com)
  • We hypothesize that this new viral lysis system is common within diverse archaeal viral populations found within acidic hot springs. (hindawi.com)
  • A similar lysis system was more recently described in another archaeal virus, Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) [ 18 - 20 ], indicating that this type of lysis may be widespread among archaeal viruses. (hindawi.com)
  • Assembly and release of most known crenarchaeal viruses, do not require cell lysis. (kenyon.edu)
  • VAPs (virus-associated pyramids) formed by the Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) in cells of its hyperthermophilic archaeal host. (pasteur.fr)
  • The structural and sequence comparison between the MCPs of these viruses, and similarities between their capsid architectures support the idea that their viral capsids share a common ancestor. (pnas.org)
  • Structural and Functional Studies of Archaeal Viruses. (montana.edu)
  • We have begun genetic and structural analyses of these viruses and we are gaining insights into the evolution of viruses on Earth. (nasa.gov)
  • Structural studies have not only provided insights into structure-function relationships but have also identified links between viruses across all three domains of life. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molecular techniques are used to compare the DNA or RNA of viruses and are a useful means of investigating how they arose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses rely on the molecular machinery of their host for many of the functions necessary to generate their viral progeny. (asm.org)
  • SANS project description: Nucleic acids constitute one of the main components of viruses by molecular weight, and the viral genome is often strongly confined into a small volume of the capsid. (iucr.org)
  • Bath C, Dyall-Smith ML (1998) His1, an archaeal virus of the Fuselloviridae family that infects Haloarcula hispanica. (springer.com)
  • A virus that infects an archaeal host may constitute a new category of enveloped viruses. (virology.ws)
  • The x-ray structure of the major capsid protein of the virus revealed a fold nearly identical to the folds of the major capsid proteins of the eukaryotic adenoviruses and PRD-1, a virus that infects bacteria. (scripps.edu)
  • Flock House virus is a T = 3, single-stranded RNA virus that infects Drosophila . (scripps.edu)
  • STIV has arguably become one of the most studied crenarchaeal archaeal virus systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • Crenarchaeal viruses form a distinct yet highly diverse group. (frontiersin.org)
  • This suggestion is supported by the shared general architecture of this group of viruses and the common fold of their major capsid protein. (asm.org)
  • Viruses infecting cells belonging to any of the three domains of life are known to share similar major capsid protein folds which can be used to classify viruses into structure-based lineages. (helsinki.fi)
  • 13 Prangishvili D (2015) "Archaeal viruses: living fossils of the ancient virosphere? (wikipedia.org)
  • Biogenesis pathways of RNA guides in archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity. (uni-ulm.de)
  • The capsid architecture of STIV is reminiscent of the mammalian adenovirus, bacteriophage PRD1, and Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus (PBCV-1). (pnas.org)
  • STIV was determined to be a lytic virus, causing cell disruption beginning at 30 hpi. (asm.org)
  • SSV1, the type virus for the family, was the first high-temperature virus to be characterized. (kenyon.edu)
  • One example is provided by hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses of the order Ligamenvirales ( Prangishvili and Krupovic, 2012 ) which contain non-enveloped, rigid rod-shaped viruses of the family Rudiviridae and enveloped, flexible filamentous viruses of the family Lipothrixviridae . (elifesciences.org)
  • Two lytic viruses infecting these were isolated from the lake water. (nih.gov)
  • Comparative Genomic Analysis of Hyperthermophilic Archaeal Fuselloviridae Viruses. (kenyon.edu)
  • Elucidating the transcription cycle of the UV‐inducible hyperthermophilic archaeal virus SSV1 by DNA microarrays. (currentprotocols.com)
  • In eukaryotes, Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) proteins are part of a conserved pathway important for multivesicular body biogenesis, metazoan cytokinesis, macroautophagy, and the budding of viruses ( 15 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here we report the genomic sequence of a previously undescribed archaeal virus. (nih.gov)
  • Panel c, Bam H1 enzyme digest of virus BJ1 genomic DNA, DNA size markers are shown on the left (kbps). (nih.gov)
  • There are a many genomic structures in viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • 60 °C, pH 5.7) by means of electron microscopy and sequencing of the virus fraction. (mdpi.com)
  • The existence of viruses in the ocean was discovered through electron microscopy and epifluorescence microscopy of ecological water samples, and later through metagenomic sampling of uncultured viral samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantification of marine viruses was originally performed using transmission electron microscopy but has been replaced by epifluorescence or flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • My lab employs state-of-the-art single particle electron cryo-microscopy and cryo-tomography to investigate the structure and function of archaeal surface proteins. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Viruses from three ponds (C4, M1, and TS) encompassing salinities from moderately hypersaline to saturated (around 14, 19, and 35%, respectively) were sampled in May and October 2009 and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). (asm.org)
  • An electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of the virus showed that the capsid has pseudo T = 31 quasi symmetry and is 1000 Å in diameter, including the pentons. (scripps.edu)
  • The structure is nearly identical to the MCP structures of the eukaryotic Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus, and the bacteriophage PRD1, and shows a common fold with the mammalian adenovirus. (pnas.org)
  • Their replication mechanisms remain obscure, although parallels have been drawn to the Poxviridae and other large cytoplasmic eukaryotic viruses. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, these fidelity variants can be useful tools in characterizing mechanisms of virus adaptation and evolution 4-7 . (jove.com)
  • The research group is focused on the understanding of viral pathogenesis, the virus-cell recognition mechanisms and the assembly principles of viruses. (ikerbasque.net)
  • Two mechanisms have been proposed for stably maintaining an integrated element within archaeal chromosomes. (biochemsoctrans.org)