Archaeal Viruses: Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.Acidianus: A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.Sulfolobus: A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.Rudiviridae: Family of rod-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA. They lack viral envelopes or lipids.Fuselloviridae: A family of lemon-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA and containing one genus: Fusellovirus.Lipothrixviridae: Family of enveloped, lipid-containing, filamentous DNA viruses that infect ARCHAEA.Archaeal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of archaeon.Haloarcula: A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.Halorubrum: A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoorganotrophic and strictly aerobic. They have been isolated from multiple hypersaline environments that vary widely in chemical and physical properties.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Hot Springs: Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Methanobacteriaceae: A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.Methanococcales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Crenarchaeota: A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.WyomingSiphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.Podoviridae: A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.Plant Pathology: The study of infectious diseases associated with plants.MontanaLymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Douglas' Pouch: A sac or recess formed by a fold of the peritoneum.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.IllinoisRussiaHydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Malta: An independent state consisting of three islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. Its capital is Valetta. The major island is Malta, the two smaller islands are Comino and Gozo. It was a Phoenician and Carthaginian colony, captured by the Romans in 218 B.C. It was overrun by Saracens in 870, taken by the Normans in 1090, and subsequently held by the French and later the British who allotted them a dominion government in 1921. It became a crown colony in 1933, achieving independence in 1964. The name possibly comes from a pre-Indoeuropean root mel, high, referring to its rocks, but a more picturesque origin derives the name from the Greek melitta or melissa, honey, with reference to its early fame for its honey production. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p719 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p330)Halomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped or pleomorphic bacteria which are halotolerant. Members of this genus are capable of growth in sodium chloride concentrations of up to 20% or more. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Tombusvirus: A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.Lentinula: A genus of fungi of the family Tricholomataceae, order AGARICALES. The commonly known SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS are Lentinula edodes (also seen as Lentinus edodes).Serbia: A republic located south of HUNGARY, west of ROMANIA and BULGARIA, and part of the former YUGOSLAVIA. The capital is Belgrade.PolysaccharidesPsychoanalytic Therapy: A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.

Viruses from extreme thermal environments. (1/74)

Viruses of extreme thermophiles are of great interest because they serve as model systems for understanding the biochemistry and molecular biology required for life at high temperatures. In this work, we report the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and virus-like particles from extreme thermal acidic environments (70-92 degrees C, pH 1.0-4.5) found in Yellowstone National Park. Six unique particle morphologies were found in Sulfolobus enrichment cultures. Three of the particle morphologies are similar to viruses previously isolated from Sulfolobus species from Iceland and/or Japan. Sequence analysis of their viral genomes suggests that they are related to the Icelandic and Japanese isolates. In addition, three virus particle morphologies that had not been previously observed from thermal environments were found. These viruses appear to be completely novel in nature.  (+info)

Comparative genomic analysis of hyperthermophilic archaeal Fuselloviridae viruses. (2/74)

The complete genome sequences of two Sulfolobus spindle-shaped viruses (SSVs) from acidic hot springs in Kamchatka (Russia) and Yellowstone National Park (United States) have been determined. These nonlytic temperate viruses were isolated from hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus hosts, and both viruses share the spindle-shaped morphology characteristic of the Fuselloviridae family. These two genomes, in combination with the previously determined SSV1 genome from Japan and the SSV2 genome from Iceland, have allowed us to carry out a phylogenetic comparison of these geographically distributed hyperthermal viruses. Each virus contains a circular double-stranded DNA genome of approximately 15 kbp with approximately 34 open reading frames (ORFs). These Fusellovirus ORFs show little or no similarity to genes in the public databases. In contrast, 18 ORFs are common to all four isolates and may represent the minimal gene set defining this viral group. In general, ORFs on one half of the genome are colinear and highly conserved, while ORFs on the other half are not. One shared ORF among all four genomes is an integrase of the tyrosine recombinase family. All four viral genomes integrate into their host tRNA genes. The specific tRNA gene used for integration varies, and one genome integrates into multiple loci. Several unique ORFs are found in the genome of each isolate.  (+info)

Haloviruses HF1 and HF2: evidence for a recent and large recombination event. (3/74)

Haloviruses HF1 and HF2 were isolated from the same saltern pond and are adapted to hypersaline conditions, where they infect a broad range of haloarchaeal species. The HF2 genome has previously been reported. The complete sequence of the HF1 genome has now been determined, mainly by PCR and primer walking. It was 75,898 bp in length and was 94.4% identical to the HF2 genome but about 1.8 kb shorter. A total of 117 open reading frames and five tRNA-like genes were predicted, and their database matches and characteristics were similar to those found in HF2. A comparison of the predicted restriction digest patterns based on nucleotide sequence with the observed restriction digest patterns of viral DNA showed that, unlike the case for HF2, some packaged HF1 DNA had cohesive termini. Except for a single base change, HF1 and HF2 were identical in sequence over the first 48 kb, a region that includes the early and middle genes. The remaining 28 kb of HF1 showed many differences from HF2, and the similarity of the two genomes over this late gene region was 87%. The abrupt shift in sequence similarity around 48 kb suggests a recent recombination event between either HF1 or HF2 and another HF-like halovirus that has swapped most of the right-end 28 kb. This example indicates there is a high level of recombination among viruses that live in this extreme environment.  (+info)

Morphology and genome organization of the virus PSV of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genera Pyrobaculum and Thermoproteus: a novel virus family, the Globuloviridae. (4/74)

A novel virus, termed Pyrobaculum spherical virus (PSV), is described that infects anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaea of the genera Pyrobaculum and Thermoproteus. Spherical enveloped virions, about 100 nm in diameter, contain a major multimeric 33-kDa protein and host-derived lipids. A viral envelope encases a superhelical nucleoprotein core containing linear double-stranded DNA. The PSV infection cycle does not cause lysis of host cells. The viral genome was sequenced and contains 28337 bp. The genome is unique for known archaeal viruses in that none of the genes, including that encoding the major structural protein, show any significant sequence matches to genes in public sequence databases. Exceptionally for an archaeal double-stranded DNA virus, almost all the recognizable genes are located on one DNA strand. The ends of the genome consist of 190-bp inverted repeats that contain multiple copies of short direct repeats. The two DNA strands are probably covalently linked at their termini. On the basis of the unusual morphological and genomic properties of this DNA virus, we propose to assign PSV to a new viral family, the Globuloviridae.  (+info)

SH1: A novel, spherical halovirus isolated from an Australian hypersaline lake. (5/74)

A novel halovirus, SH1, with a spherical morphology is described. Isolated from a hypersaline lake, SH1 is divalent, producing clear plaques on Haloarcula hispanica and a natural Halorubrum isolate. Single-step growth curves gave a latent period of 5-6 h and a burst size of around 200 PFU/cell. The host can differentiate to form tight clusters of thick cell-walled forms, and these were shown to be resistant to infection. Purified virions had no visible tail, were about 70 nm in diameter, and displayed a fragile outer capsid layer, possibly with an underlying membrane component. The structural proteins of the virion were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and several were found to be cross-linked, forming protein complexes. The genome was linear, dsDNA, of approximately 30 kb in length. This morphology and linear genome are features not observed in any other euryarchaeal viruses, but have properties similar to the bacterial virus PRD1.  (+info)

Sulfolobus tengchongensis spindle-shaped virus STSV1: virus-host interactions and genomic features. (6/74)

A virus infecting the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tengchongensis has been isolated from a field sample from Tengchong, China, and characterized. The virus, denoted STSV1 (Sulfolobus tengchongensis spindle-shaped virus 1), has the morphology of a spindle (230 by 107 nm) with a tail of variable length (68 nm on average) at one end and is the largest of the known spindle-shaped viruses. After infecting its host, the virus multiplied rapidly to high titers (>10(10) PFU/ml). Replication of the virus retarded host growth but did not cause lysis of the host cells. STSV1 did not integrate into the host chromosome and existed in a carrier state. The STSV1 DNA was modified in an unusual fashion, presumably by virally encoded modification systems. STSV1 harbors a double-stranded DNA genome of 75,294 bp, which shares no significant sequence similarity to those of fuselloviruses. The viral genome contains a total of 74 open reading frames (ORFs), among which 14 have a putative function. Five ORFs encode viral structural proteins, including a putative coat protein of high abundance. The products of the other nine ORFs are probably involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis, nucleotide metabolism, and DNA modification. The viral genome divides into two nearly equal halves of opposite gene orientation. This observation as well as a GC-skew analysis point to the presence of a putative viral origin of replication in the 1.4-kb intergenic region between ORF1 and ORF74. Both morphological and genomic features identify STSV1 as a novel virus infecting the genus Sulfolobus.  (+info)

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the archaeal virus resolvase SIRV2. (7/74)

The Holliday junction (or four-way junction) is the universal DNA intermediate whose interaction with resolving proteins is one of the major events in the recombinational process. These proteins, called DNA junction-resolving enzymes or resolvases, bind to the junction and catalyse DNA cleavage, promoting the release of two DNA duplexes. SIRV2 Hjc, a viral resolvase infecting a thermophylic archaeon, has been cloned, expressed and purified. Crystals have been obtained in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 147.8, b = 99.9, c = 87.6, beta = 109.46 degrees, and a full data set has been collected at 3.4 A resolution. The self-rotation function indicates the presence of two dimers in the asymmetric unit and a high solvent content (77%). Molecular-replacement trials using known similar resolvase structures have so far been unsuccessful, indicating possible significant structural rearrangements.  (+info)

Characterization of the archaeal thermophile Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus validates an evolutionary link among double-stranded DNA viruses from all domains of life. (8/74)

Icosahedral nontailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses are present in all three domains of life, leading to speculation about a common viral ancestor that predates the divergence of Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. This suggestion is supported by the shared general architecture of this group of viruses and the common fold of their major capsid protein. However, limited information on the diversity and replication of archaeal viruses, in general, has hampered further analysis. Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV), isolated from a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, was the first icosahedral virus with an archaeal host to be described. Here we present a detailed characterization of the components forming this unusual virus. Using a proteomics-based approach, we identified nine viral and two host proteins from purified STIV particles. Interestingly, one of the viral proteins originates from a reading frame lacking a consensus start site. The major capsid protein (B345) was found to be glycosylated, implying a strong similarity to proteins from other dsDNA viruses. Sequence analysis and structural predication of virion-associated viral proteins suggest that they may have roles in DNA packaging, penton formation, and protein-protein interaction. The presence of an internal lipid layer containing acidic tetraether lipids has also been confirmed. The previously presented structural models in conjunction with the protein, lipid, and carbohydrate information reported here reveal that STIV is strikingly similar to viruses associated with the Bacteria and Eukarya domains of life, further strengthening the hypothesis for a common ancestor of this group of dsDNA viruses from all domains of life.  (+info)

*David Prangishvili

"The wonderful world of archaeal viruses". Annu Rev Microbiol 67: 565-585. 13 Prangishvili D (2015) "Archaeal viruses: living ... "Diversity of viruses of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Aeropyrum, and isolation of the Aeropyrum pernix bacilliform virus ... 6. Mochizuki T, Krupovic M, Pehau-Arnaudet G, Sako Y, Forterre P, and Prangishvili D (2012). "Archaeal virus with exceptional ... Peng, Xu; Garrett, Roger A.; She, QunXin (2012). "Archaeal viruses-novel, diverse and enigmatic". Science China Life Sciences. ...

*Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus 1

Rice, G. (2004). "The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a double-stranded DNA viral capsid type that spans all ... Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus 1 (formerly Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus) is a species of virus that infects the ... The genome has a G+C content of 36%. Unlike other viruses that either lyse or bud from their hosts this virus induces a unique ... Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Accessed on line Nov. 25, 2015. Happonen, L. J.; ...

*Lysin

Quemin, ERJ; Quax, TEF (5 June 2015). "Archaeal viruses at the cell envelope: entry and egress". Frontiers in Microbiology. 6: ... Cell-wall-containing Archaea are also lysed by specialized pseudomurein-cleaving lysins, while most archaeal viruses employ ... In order to solve such a problem, phage viruses synthesize another protein called holin which binds to the cell membrane and ... Visweswaran, Ganesh Ram R.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Kok, Jan (2010). "Two Major Archaeal Pseudomurein Endoisopeptidases: PeiW and ...

*Rudivirus

... unlike many other archaeal viruses. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Zillig, W.; Prangishvili, D ... Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: Unique viral genomes in the third domain of life. Virus Res. 117. Guilliere, ... "A Novel Virus Family, the Rudiviridae: Structure, Virus-Host Interactions and Genome Variability of the Sulfolobus Viruses ... Rudivirus are promising candidates to become a general model for detailed studies of archaeal virus biology. These are indeed ...

*Acidianus

Li, Sen; Yang, Jie (21 August 2014). "System analysis of synonymous codon usage biases in archaeal virus genomes". Journal of ...

*Provirus

Not only eukaryotic viruses integrate into the genomes of their hosts; many bacterial and archaeal viruses also employ this ... Krupovic M, Prangishvili D, Hendrix RW, Bamford DH (2011). "Genomics of bacterial and archaeal viruses: dynamics within the ... A provirus is a virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell. In the case of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages ... This state can be a stage of virus replication, or a state that persists over longer periods of time as either inactive viral ...

*Bacteriophage

Krupovic M, Prangishvili D, Hendrix RW, Bamford DH (December 2011). "Genomics of bacterial and archaeal viruses: dynamics ... a virus parasitic on bacteria." D'Hérelle called the virus a bacteriophage or bacteria-eater (from the Greek phagein meaning to ... Viruses portal Bacterivore CrAssphage DNA viruses Phage ecology Phage monographs (a comprehensive listing of phage and phage- ... As the lysogenic cycle allows the host cell to continue to survive and reproduce, the virus is replicated in all of the cell's ...

*Prophage

Krupovic M, Prangishvili D, Hendrix RW, Bamford DH (2011). "Genomics of bacterial and archaeal viruses: dynamics within the ... The cell may fill with new viruses until it lyses or bursts, or it may release the new viruses one at a time in a reverse ... A virus following a lytic cycle is called a virulent virus. Prophages are important agents of horizontal gene transfer, and are ... Pro means ''before'', so, prophage means the stage of a virus in the form of genome inserted into host DNA before attaining its ...

*Clavaviridae

"Diversity of viruses of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Aeropyrum, and isolation of the Aeropyrum pernix bacilliform virus ... "Unique architecture of thermophilic archaeal virus APBV1 and its genome packaging". Nature Communications. 8 (1): 1436. doi: ... Infection with this virus does not cause host cell lysis. Mochizuki T, Yoshida T, Tanaka R, Forterre P, Sako Y, Prangishvili D ... Clavaviridae is a family of double-stranded viruses that infect archaea. This family was first described by the team led by D. ...

*Enterobacter virus CC31

"Taxonomy of prokaryotic viruses: update from the ICTV bacterial and archaeal viruses subcommittee". Archives of Virology. 161 ( ... The virus starts by breaking down all E. coli genetic material. This is known as the lytic cycle. The virus can now occupy the ... Enterobacter virus CC31 is a dsDNA virus lacking an RNA intermediate. The dsDNA is contained within an icosahedral capsid of ... This results in horizontal gene transfer between the virus and cell, resulting in the evolution of the virus and the bacterium ...

*DNA virus

100 archaeal viruses. Archaeal viruses belong to 15 families and infect members of 16 archaeal genera. These are nearly ... Tailed archaeal viruses are found only in the Euryarchaeota, whereas most filamentous and pleomorphic archaeal viruses occur in ... Archaea Although ~50 archaeal viruses are known, all but two have double stranded genomes. These two viruses have been placed ... Another virus - porcine stool associated virus 4 - has been isolated. It appears to be related to the fur seal virus. Two ...

*Spiraviridae

Mochizuki T, Krupovic M, Pehau-Arnaudet G, Sako Y, Forterre P, Prangishvili D (2012). "Archaeal virus with exceptional virion ... Spiraviridae is a family of single stranded DNA viruses that infect archeae. This family was described in 2012. The species in ...

*Alphalipothrixvirus

Krupovic M, Cvirkaite-Krupovic V, Prangishvili D, Koonin EV (2015). "Evolution of an archaeal virus nucleocapsid protein from ... Thermoproteus tenax virus 1 Viruses in Alphalipothrixvirus are enveloped, with rod-shaped geometries. The diameter is around 38 ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015. Janekovic, D.; Wunderl, S.; Holz, I.; Zillig, W.; Gierl, A.; Neumann, H ... The TTV1 virion contains four virus-encoded proteins, TP1-4. The proteins do not display any sequence similarity to structural ...

*Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1

... is a single stranded DNA virus that infects the species of the archaeal genus Halorubrum. It is ... The single-stranded DNA genome of novel archaeal virus Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 Is enclosed in the envelope decorated ... Infection appears to be productive without lysis of the host like may of the archaeal viruses. Exit is likely to be by budding ... It may be organised to form a shell around the genome as is the case in other viruses but this is not yet known. This virus ...

*Marine microorganism

Lawrence CM, Menon S, Eilers BJ, et al.. Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses. Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Viruses are found wherever there is life and have probably existed since living cells first evolved. The origin of viruses is ... Bacterial viruses, called bacteriophages, are a common and diverse group of viruses and are the most abundant form of ... It is estimated that viruses kill approximately 20% of this biomass each day and that there are 15 times as many viruses in the ...

*Viral eukaryogenesis

However, this theory is controversial, and additional experimentation involving archaeal viruses is necessary, as they are ... Most virologists have considered viruses as not alive; but the hypothesis posits that viruses are the ancestors of the shared ... The viral eukaryogenesis hypothesis depicts a model of eukaryotic evolution in which a virus, similar to a modern pox virus, ... a large DNA virus could take control of a bacterial or archaeal cell. Instead of replicating and destroying the host cell, it ...

*Hot spring

... and characterization of a unique archaeal virus, Acidianus bottle-shaped virus, from a new family, the Ampullaviridae". J. ... These viruses were observed to infect cells in the laboratory. There are hot springs in many countries and on all continents of ... Viruses have been collected from very extreme environments, for example, a hot spring with a temperature of 87 to 93 °C (189 to ...

*Ampullaviridae

... and characterization of a unique archaeal virus, Acidianus bottle-shaped virus, from a new family, the Ampullaviridae". Journal ... Ampullaviridae is a family of viruses that infect archaea of the genus Acidianus. Only one genus in this family has been ... Peng, X; Basta, T; Häring, M; Garrett, R. A.; Prangishvili, D (2007). "Genome of the Acidianus bottle-shaped virus and insights ... described, Ampullavirus, which contains one species, Acidianus bottle-shaped virus. The name of the family and genus is derived ...

*Ligamenvirales

Acidianus filamentous virus 1 coat proteins display a helical fold spanning the filamentous archaeal viruses lineage. PNAS 106 ... Viruses from the two families share up to ten genes. The genome is non segmented linear double stranded DNA. Prangishvili D, ... Ligamenvirales is an order of linear viruses that infect archaea of the kingdom Crenarchaeota and have double-stranded DNA ... Krupovic M (2012). "A new proposed taxon for double-stranded DNA viruses, the order "Ligamenvirales"". Arch Virol. 157 (4): 791 ...

*Haloarcula hispanica pleomorphic virus 1

"The single-stranded DNA genome of novel archaeal virus Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 is enclosed in the envelope decorated ... Haloarcula hispanica pleomorphic virus 1 is a double stranded DNA virus that infects the halophilic archaeon Haloarcula ... Examination of the proteins and genome organisation of this virus suggests that it related to the single stranded DNA virus ... The similarity between these double stranded DNA elements and the single stranded virus Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 is ...

*Bicaudaviridae

Structural and genomic properties of the hyperthermophilic archaeal virus ATV with an extracellular stage of the reproductive ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015. UniProt: Taxonomy - Sulfolobus virus STSV1 Häring M, Vestergaard G, ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Bicaudaviridae Genus: Bicaudavirus Acidianus two-tailed virus Viruses in Bicaudaviridae ... There was only one genus (Bicaudavirus) and one species in this family: the type species Acidianus two-tailed virus. until the ...

*Sputnik virophage

... one is a homologue of an archaeal virus, and four others are homologues of proteins in bacteriophages and eukaryotic viruses. ... Viruses like Sputnik that depend on co-infection of the host cell by helper viruses are known as satellite viruses. At its ... was the first known satellite virus that inhibited replication of its helper virus and thus acted as a parasite of that virus. ... All host viruses of the known virophages belong to the group of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses. Studies have been done to ...

*Virus

... to viruses that resemble hooked rods, teardrops or even bottles. Other archaeal viruses resemble the tailed bacteriophages, and ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Other viruses, such as rabies virus, can infect different species of mammals and are said to have a broad range. The viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...

*Archaea

Mochizuki T; Krupovic M; Pehau-Arnaudet G; Sako Y; Forterre P; Prangishvili D (2012). "Archaeal virus with exceptional virion ... Archaea can be infected by double-stranded DNA viruses that are unrelated to any other form of virus and have a variety of ... Notably, the latter virus has the largest currently reported ssDNA genome. Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA ... Connections between archaeal cells can also be found between the Archaeal Richmond Mine Acidophilic Nanoorganisms (ARMAN) and ...

*Globuloviridae

"Morphology and genome organization of the virus PSV of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genera Pyrobaculum and Thermoproteus: a ... Pyrobaculum spherical virus Thermoproteus tenax spherical virus 1 Viruses in Globuloviridae are enveloped, with spherical ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Häring M, Peng X, Brügger K, Rachel R, Stetter KO, Garrett RA, ... Globuloviridae is a family of viruses. Pyrobaculum and thermoproteus archaea serve as natural hosts. There are currently only ...

*Sulfolobus

The viruses cannot survive in the extremely acidic and hot conditions that Sulfolobus lives in, and so the viruses use ... Sediments from ~90m below the seafloor on the Peruvian continental margin are dominated by intact archaeal tetraethers, and a ... The viruses infecting archaea like Sulfolobus have to use a strategy to escape prolonged direct exposure to the type of ... The Sulfolobus viruses are temperate or permanent lysogens. Permanent lysogens differ from lysogenic bacteriophages in that the ...
A novel archaeal virus, denoted Sulfolobus ellipsoid virus 1 (SEV1), was isolated from an acidic hot spring in Costa Rica. The morphologically unique virion of SEV1 contains a protein capsid with 16 regularly spaced ...
References Notes ^ a b Koonin EV, Senkevich TG, Dolja VV. The ancient Virus World and evolution of cells. Biology Direct. 2006;1:29. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-1-29. PMID 16984643. ^ a b c Dimmock p. 4 ^ a b c Dimmock p. 49 ^ a b Breitbart M, Rohwer F. Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?. Trends in Microbiology. 2005;13(6):278-84. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2005.04.003. PMID 15936660. ^ a b Lawrence CM, Menon S, Eilers BJ, et al.. Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2009;284(19):12599-603. doi:10.1074/jbc.R800078200. PMID 19158076. ^ Edwards RA, Rohwer F. Viral metagenomics. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2005;3(6):504-10. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1163. PMID 15886693. ^ a b Canchaya C, Fournous G, Chibani-Chennoufi S, Dillmann ML, Brüssow H. Phage as agents of lateral gene transfer. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 2003;6(4):417-24. doi:10.1016/S1369-5274(03)00086-9. PMID 12941415. ^ a b Rybicki, EP. The classification of organisms at the ...
VIROME: Goal is to characterize the whole viral population. (Lambda control gave quantitative recovery.) 10^10 phage per gram of stool! Circular contigs (genomes?) all about 5-6 kb. Linear ones very diverse lengths. 7000 new virus genomes! 19-785 per individual sample. Lots of unknown! No contigs of eukaryotic viruses at all, but bits of eukaryotic viral genomes in phage genomes. He thinks there has been lots of misidentification - what appears to be DNA indicating presence of a eukaryotic virus is really jsut a bit of phage genome. See CRISPR system used to compete with other phage (I forget what CRISPR does ...
Arahal, D. R., Dewhirst, F. E., Paster, B. J., Volcani, B. E., & Ventosa, A. (1996). Phylogenetic analyses of some extremely halophilic archaea isolated from Dead Sea water, determined on the basis of their 16S rRNA sequences. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62(10), 3779-3786. Ding, J. Y., Chiang, P. W., Hong, M. J., Dyall-Smith, M., & Tang, S. L. (2014). Complete genome sequence of the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula hispanica strain N601. Genome announcements, 2(2), e00178-14. Juez, G., Rodriguez-Valera, F., Ventosa, A., & Kushner, D. J. (1986). Haloarcula hispanica spec. nov. and Haloferax gibbonsii spec, nov., two new species of extremely halophilic archaebacteria. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 8(1), 75-79. Li, M., Wang, R., Zhao, D., & Xiang, H. (2014). Adaptation of the Haloarcula hispanica CRISPR-Cas system to a purified virus strictly requires a priming process. Nucleic Acids Research, 42(4), 2483-2492. Liu, H., Wu, Z., Li, M., Zhang, F., Zheng, H., Han, J., & ...
Computer artwork of the inner surface of an icosahedral virus capsid. The capsid is the protein shell of the virus and encloses its genetic material. - Stock Image F018/4295
With the rapid progresses in both instrumentation and computing, it is increasingly straightforward and routine to determine the structures of icosahedral viruses to subnanometer resolutions (6-10 Å)...
The genes encoding the two major structural proteins and a putative NTPase belong to a cluster of five genes/ORFs (genes 3, 4 and 8; ORFs 6 and 7 of Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1) that are collinear and conserved among members of the family Pleolipoviridae (Figure 2.Pleolipoviridae; (Senčilo et al., 2012). Pleolipoviruses have non-lytic life cycles. Although there is no direct evidence for the entry mechanism, it has been proposed that the entry of pleolipoviral genomes occurs by membrane fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell cytoplasmic membrane (Pietilä et al., 2009). Viruses are predicted to employ different genome replication strategies, including rolling circle replication (RCR; circular genomes) and protein-primed replication carried out by family B-type polymerase (linear genomes), although direct experimental evidence is missing (Pietilä et al., 2009, Roine et al., 2010, Bath et al., 2006). Viruses exit the cells continuously starting 3-4 hours post infection (Pietilä et ...
This image shows multiple particles of a Sulfolobus spindle shaped virus (SSV) isolated from an acidic hot spring in the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia). These spindle shaped viruses infect Sulfolobus islandicus, a hyper thermophilic microbe that belongs to the third domain of life, the Archaea. Since their discovery in the late 1970s by Carl Woese at the University of Illinois, Archaea were thought to be found only in extreme environments. In recent years, with the advent of new technologies and methodologies, we have begun to uncover that archaea are found everywhere from deep-sea hydrothermal vents to the human gut. Viruses that infect archaea have been shown to possess novel and unique characteristics not typically found in viruses that infect bacteria or eukaryotes. The viruses pictured here are one example of this. They possess a lemon-shaped morphology that has been only found in archaeal viruses. These viruses are thought to attach to cells using sticky tail fibers located at one end of ...
This tall cultivar is a thin pyramid-like shape and has dark green foliage. Cones and buds are typically small and the bark is usually brown and furrowed. This
Descriptions of various icosahedral virus capsid structures in terms of their complete capsids, along with detailed structural and computational analysis
Descriptions of various icosahedral virus capsid structures in terms of their complete capsids, along with detailed structural and computational analysis
En maske som er klinisk utviklet for å berolige betent, sensitiv, eller stiv hud. Formelen er fylt med med tang som er svært rik på antioksidanter, mineraler, og vitaminer for å tilføre rikelig med fuktighet til huden.
3VZH: Conservation and Variability in the Structure and Function of the Cas5d Endoribonuclease in the CRISPR-Mediated Microbial Immune System
Provides a method for researchers using CRISPR-mediated mutagenesis. indCAPS is a web application that facilitates the screening of individuals in which editing of the target has occurred. It also provides replacement for existing tools for the design of primers for dCAPS analysis capable of distinguishing known indel alleles. It was also used to design diagnostic primers to identify CRISPR-induced ahk3 null alleles.
We need your help addressing one of the biggest obstacle to reaching a No Kill Chicago: With nearly 6,000 animals coming through PAWS Chicagos medical and adoption program each year, our Medical Center, located at 3516 W 26th Street, has reached operational capacity. The limitations of the current medical facility have created a bottleneck in our ability to help more animals. There is not enough isolation space to accommodate the animals suffering from contagious illnesses or in need of longer-term care, while still bringing in animals who need only basic care and will quickly move to the adoption centers. With our expert veterinary and behavior teams, our current Medical Center is one of the few that can treat and rehabilitate a large volume of sick, injured and behaviorally challenged pets and give them a chance to get adopted into loving homes. In 2015, PAWS Chicago had a 97.87 percent save rate, even while taking in a vulnerable population of animals. But our work is far from done: Nearly ...
2. Scorzonera hispanica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 791. 1753. Black or Spanish salsify Perennials. Leaf blades 120-400 × (1-)3-6 mm, margins entire (flat or undulate). Involucres 20-30 × 8-12+ mm. Phyllaries ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, glabrous. Cypselae 10-15(-20) mm; pappi 9-15(-20) mm. 2n = 14.. Flowering Jun-Jul. Disturbed sites; 10-200 m; introduced; Calif.; Europe. Scorzonera hispanica sometimes is used culinarily.. ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
Review GenScript expertise in using CRISPR-mediated gene knock out technique to achieve loss of function in different cell lines.
The virions of members of the Guttaviridae have an ovoid shape, measuring 55 x 75 nm (for Aeropyrum pernix ovoid virus 1 (APOV1), Betaguttavirus) to 80 x 130 nm (for Sulfolobus newzealandicus droplet-shaped virus (SNDV), Alphaguttavirus), when analysed by cryo-electron microscopy [{Arnold et al., 2000:10873785RJOHTXArnold et al., 2000, SNDV, a novel virus of the extremely thermophilic and acidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus, Virology, 272, 2, 409-16RJOMREFMochizuki et al., 2011:21784945RJOHTXMochizuki et al., 2011, Provirus induction in hyperthermophilic archaea: characterization of Aeropyrum pernix spindle-shaped virus 1 and Aeropyrum pernix ovoid virus 1, J Bacteriol, 193, 19, 5412-9}]. The virion surface is covered by globular subunits, which are ~3.5 nm in width. In negative-contrast electron micrographs, the virions are slightly pleomorphic, most displaying a droplet-like shape. Virions of SNDV are decorated with dense filaments attached to the pointed end of the virion; such appendages were ...
During the last few years, many interesting concepts and applications have emerged in acoustics. Some of these are obtained by extending the ideas utilized in electromagnetics to acoustics, such as acoustic superlenses which can focus ultrasound waves similar to an optic lens. Such devices hold the potential application in high-resolution clinical imaging.. Another example of the application of electromagnetics and acoustic is the acoustic cloak. The cloak can hide an object from sound waves. To this end, the device changes the propagation and reflection of sound waves and makes it seem as though the cloak and any object beneath it are not present. Future applications of an acoustic cloak include sonar avoidance and design of auditoriums or concert halls.. Worlds first 3D acoustic cloak was designed two years ago at Duke University. The pyramid-like cloak consists of a number of plastic plates with many holes poked through them.. ...
African Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa landraces are considered valuable resources for breeding traits due to their adaptation to local environmental and soil conditions. They often possess superior resistance to endemic pests and tolerance to drought and nutrient deficiencies when compared to the
The TAF4B CRISPR guide RNA sequences were designed by GenScripts proprietary algorithm to target a single locus in the endogenous genome. High-specificity gRNA constructs for CRISPR-mediated genome editing
The Yellowstone National Park Research Coordination Network is a collaboration of scientists and NPS staff to develop a coordinated research network focused on geothermal biology and geochemistry.
In one event, an estimated 3 billion pounds of buoyant debris washed from Japans shores. Heres a firsthand account of where some of that went. You can view a photo slideshow by Stiv Wilson of his journey here on AlterNet.
Are you genome editing with CRISPR-Cas9? Consider the Alt-R CRISPR-Cas9 kit-a customizable, end-to-end Cas9-CRISPR system offering best in class performance.
The basic replication cycle of crenarchaeal viruses, including Fuselloviruses, has yet to be determined. There are, however, some trends which have been reported. It is thought that members of the Fuselloviridae family, as well as members of the Rudiviridae, Lipothrixviridae, and Guttaviridae families, associate with host cells by tail fibers which are present on one or both ends of the virion. Some viruses integrate their genome into the host cells chromosome, while others maintain their genomes as extrachromosomal elements. Assembly and release of most known crenarchaeal viruses, do not require cell lysis. Most crenarchaeal viruses, twith the exception of the Bicaudaviridae member ATV, appear to set up chronic infections, either continually producing virus particles or doing so in short events resulting in growth inhibition. These long-term chronic infections are thought to be an adaptation to the extremely hot and acidic environments crenarchaeal viruses inhabit. (source: Ortmann et al.) ...
In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses
RALEIGH, N.C. -- CRISPR-Cas systems are widely heralded as a new generation of genetic tools. But development of these tools requires researchers to identify the protospacer-adjacent motifs (PAMs) that unlock each systems functionality. A new set of techniques expedites PAM identification - and early testing finds that many CRISPR-Cas systems actually have multiple PAMs of varying strength. CRISPR-Cas systems protect bacteria from invaders such as viruses. They do this by creating small strands of RNA that match DNA sequences specific to a given invader. When those CRISPR RNAs find a match, they unleash proteins that chop up the invaders DNA, preventing it from replicating. However, the first step in the process isnt comparing the RNA to target DNA. The first step involves PAM recognition and binding ...
On any backcountry trip, its always a good idea to let people know your itinerary and when you expect be back, and to travel in groups rather than by yourself.
Eukaryotic viruses are used for a variety of biomedical applications including gene therapy, oncolytic therapy and the production of live vaccines. All of these applications depend upon interactions at the viral surface. Traditionally, genetic fusions of coat proteins have been used to engineer the viral surface. However, these techniques can cause problems with viral assembly and can only introduce polypeptide sequences. As an alternative we plan to introduce chemical functionality onto the viral surface via metabolic engineering. Introduced functionality can be modified post assembly with not only polypeptides but also polymers and small molecules. ...
How homologous do (endogenous) CRISPR array tracers need to be to degrade foreig - posted in Microbiology: Hello, I am working against a series of genetic barriers to transformation in a bacteria which has never been successfully transformed The genome shows the presence of an endogenous Type-II Crispr system which has an array of 14 spacers. If I align these spacers with my plasmid of interest there is some pretty high levels of homology, not exact, but sometimes 100%...
A filmmaker examines why hundreds of wild bison are killed every year when they step outside the boundaries of Yellowstone National Park.
No, CRISPR-Cas9 complexes do not recognize, or recognize extremely poorly, targets lacking PAM sequences [1].. The PAM sequence recognized by the S. pyogenes CRISPR-Cas9 system is NGG. If this sequence is not present in your target, you may be able to use other CRISPR systems (from other bacterial species) that recognize different PAM sequences. The following table lists examples of PAM sequences:. ...
afv:AFLA_018910 K01312 trypsin [EC:3.4.21.4] , (RefSeq) elastase, putative (A) MHVVPFTSLLLAIASFANAIVNGVEATKDQAPFTVGLSGTRLFCAGSLIGEKSVITAASC VKDKDATSINVRLGSLQHASGGTVIGVASIDIHPQYDADSLDNDIAFLALADSYSGATPA QLPTKQKALGYGSSVQIFGWGETSKGASFSRTLKTASVNIISRSNCQNIYGPITTITRRE FCVITKDGKGACQADQGGPVVDSAGTLVGIISRAKSCDAGNYPGVETQVDAYLDWINSKL A ...
Berberis hispanica is a shrub belonging to the family Berberidaceae and the genus Berberis (pronounced bẽrber-is). It is a woody plant and parts of the plant are considered toxic, although the berries are edible and juicy. Berberis hispanica is native to temperate and Subtropical regions. It is distributed in the regions of South-West Mediterranean covering the North of Africa and half South of the Iberian Peninsula. It appears from 1000m or up to 2000m in altitude. It is found on hedges of mountains overlooking the Mediterranean. Berberis hispanicais a deciduous shrub growing up to 3 meters (10 feet)high. The stems and young branches are reddish or dark purple. The bark is covered with 3 to 5 branched spines, which are bracts or modified leaves. The central spine is usually larger. The leaves are oval, arranged in fascicles on short peduncles originated in the axils of the spines. The leaves are thick, leathery, similar to the size of the spines, and 1 to 5 cm long. Each leaf is attached to ...
Each week we share a photo to help us get over Hump Day. This weeks photos is of the Lower Yellowstone Falls in Yellowstone National Park.
Foreign Languages Information about Yellowstone National Park is available in 10 languages. Learn about the parks operating hours and seasons, hotel and campground reservations, park fees, and the many natural wonders you can see and activities you can do here. Available in 日本語 (Japanese), 中文 (Mandarin), 粵語 (Cantonese), 한국의 (Korean), Ceský (Czech), Español (Spanish), Français (French), Deutsch (German), Italiano (Italian), and Pусский (Russian).. ...
Yellowstone National Park, the crown of the U.S. National Park System, is definitely worth a visit. Just beware of the wildlife, which isn't fenced in.
Pictures of the Rabbit Creek Group, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: Pool in thick woodland - the southernmost spring in the upper section of the thermal area
We found that 20.5% of patients with an unexplained fever in northwestern Morocco had tick-borne relapsing fever. Molecular detection specific for the 16S rRNA gene identified Borrelia hispanica. The noncoding intergenic spacer sequence domain showed high sensitivity and good resolution for this species.
Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica) produces edible seeds and sprouts, but its also grown as an ornamental plant. It grows up to 3 feet tall and produces spikes of blue flowers during summer. The ...
Research field Despite the importance of microbial communities for the functioning of ecosystems, little is known about their diversity and functioning and how it varies in time and space. In addition mechanisms shaping this diversity and the interactions between the various members of these communities is poorly known. This lake of knowledge is especially true for the eukaryotic component and their associated viruses, both in marine and continental environments. In this context, I am interested in the diversity, evolution and ecology of the eukaryotic component of planktonic communities and their viruses. I seek answers to questions such as: What is the within-species genetics diversity in planktonic organisms? What shapes this variation? What is the diversity of eukaryotic virus in oceans and what are their ecological roles? -Thematic: Population genomics (intraspecific diversity of eukaryotic plankton) - Environmental genomics (diversity, evolution and ecological role of eukaryotic viruses) - ...
The Christian Science Monitor is an international news organization that delivers thoughtful, global coverage via its website, weekly magazine, daily news briefing, and email newsletters.
A new study released this week by USA Today named Minnesota as the best-run state in the nation. All 50 states were ranked by "economic indicators, budget allocations, and balance sheets, in addition to a range of social measures to rank how well each state is run," according to the article. The study, by 24/7 Wall St., named Minnesota as the 10th-best ...
EWGs Skin Deep® database gives you practical solutions to protect yourself and your family from everyday exposures to chemicals in personal care products.
Career Focus:Education, Training, & Library. * Our group recently identified a new class of mammalian large non-coding RNA (lncRNAs) with important roles in biology and disease. These lncRNAs exert their regulatory influence on the genome in uncharacterized ways. We are looking for a highly motivated individual to join our integrative computational and experimental team to help characterize the function of lncRNAs. Specifically, this person will develop and optimize methods for systematically targeting lncRNAs, mutagenizing lncRNAs, and synthetically generating lncRNA sequences designed from principles derived in the lab. This work will include design of experiments to create genetic constructs enabling the replacement of endogenous lncRNAs using CRISPR-mediated gene targeting, molecular cloning, and synthetically assembling mutant alleles using high-throughput and scalable approaches. To readout the effects of these mutants, the candidate will be required to perform gene expression readouts ...
Yellowstone National Park has long been known as a gassy place, and its reputation as such just got more firmly established. That helium emanates from the ground in the park is an established fact, ... Science News Summaries. | Newser
The Yellowstone National Park Research Coordination Network is a collaboration of scientists and NPS staff to develop a coordinated research network focused on geothermal biology and geochemistry.
The Yellowstone National Park Research Coordination Network is a collaboration of scientists and NPS staff to develop a coordinated research network focused on geothermal biology and geochemistry.
The Yellowstone National Park Research Coordination Network is a collaboration of scientists and NPS staff to develop a coordinated research network focused on geothermal biology and geochemistry.
A huge amount of ancient helium is rising up from the rocks beneath Yellowstone National Park - about enough to fill up a Goodyear blimp every week. The
A huge amount of ancient helium is rising up from the rocks beneath Yellowstone National Park - about enough to fill up a Goodyear blimp every week. The
BILLINGS, Mont. Hunters killed more wild bison migrating from Yellowstone National Park this season than they have in decades, with the numbers...
The canyon area of Yellowstone National Park has several vistas, lookouts, and hikes to two of the largest waterfalls in the park, Upper and Lower Yellowstone Falls.
The health benefits of Salba, a.k.a. chia (salvia hispanica). THE NIBBLE, Great Food Finds, is an online gourmet food magazine with 1000+ reviews of gourmet food and beverages, including gourmet snacks. Get the Top Pick Of The Week, a product recommendation and recipe, emailed to you.
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888-850-8474 Were you injured by taking Essure Birth Control in Yellowstone National Park WY? Call us anytime 24/7 for a Free Case Evaluation... No Fee Unless You Win!
...CRISPR a system of genes that bacteria use to fend off viruses is in...The results are scheduled for publication in PNAS Early Edition/e...The CRISPR system has attracted considerable attention for its potenti...Bacteria incorporate small bits of DNA from phages into their CRISPR r...,CRISPR,system,can,promote,antibiotic,resistance,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
CRISPR-Cas systems are common in prokaryotes and can provide small RNA-based adaptive immunity against mobile genetic elements. A CRISPR-Cas system consists of DNA loci with Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR ass
it does not require a majority to prevail, but rather an irate, tireless minority keen to set brushfires in peoples minds." ~~ Samuel Adams ...
Sadly, we had an attack of dyspepsia well into the meeting. Nausea accompanied our belching and farting and we had to leave just as the entertainment was reaching a crescendo. Youll have to read about the results of the meeting in the newspapers, or observations by bloggers who understand this stuff more than we do ...
Archaea are best known in their capacities as extremophiles, i.e. micro-organisms able to thrive in some of the most drastic environments on Earth. The protein-based surface layer that envelopes many archaeal strains must thus correctly assemble and maintain its structural integrity in the face of the physical challenges associated with, for instance, life in high salinity, at elevated temperatures or in acidic surroundings. Study of archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins has thus offered insight into the strategies employed by these proteins to survive direct contact with extreme environments, yet has also served to elucidate other aspects of archaeal protein biosynthesis, including glycosylation, lipid modification and protein export. In this mini-review, recent advances in the study of archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins are discussed.
Consumption of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) has increased in recent years due to their high content of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. However, these seeds also have a high concentration of essential proteins and amino acids, whose biological role has been correlated to antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects.. Grancieri, M., Martino, H. S. D., & Gonzalez de Mejia, E. (2019). Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as a Source of Proteins and Bioactive Peptides with Health Benefits: A Review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety.. ...
Heritable and Precise Zebrafish Genome Editing Using a CRISPR-Cas System. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
So much has been written lately about the gene-editing system known as CRISPR/Cas9 and its potential to transform the field of biology that its easy to forget
Background The bacterial CRISPR system is fast becoming typically the most popular genetic and epigenetic engineering tool because of its universal applicability and adaptability. had been permitted to recover in antibiotic-free moderate for 1?h in 37?C before plating about antibiotic containing 2TY-coated plates (Bio-assay dish with cover, 245?mm??245?mm??25?mm, rays sterilized, Thermo Scientific Nunc). Pursuing over … Continue reading Background The bacterial CRISPR system is fast becoming typically the most. ...
Background The bacterial CRISPR system is fast becoming typically the most popular genetic and epigenetic engineering tool because of its universal applicability and adaptability. had been permitted to recover in antibiotic-free moderate for 1?h in 37?C before plating about antibiotic containing 2TY-coated plates (Bio-assay dish with cover, 245?mm??245?mm??25?mm, rays sterilized, Thermo Scientific Nunc). Pursuing over … Continue reading Background The bacterial CRISPR system is fast becoming typically the most. ...
A long time ago, in a galaxy far far away, people thought that viruses were degenerate forms of life. Scientists saw viruses assimilating genes from their hosts and plopping them into new hosts (ie morons/virulence factors in bacteria). And, phages easily transition from free-floating virus to prophage to virus again, so they concluded that bacteriophage were wayward bacterial genomes. Little bits of genome that declared their independence from their original cell… but still needed the original cells ribosomes and such to propagate.. This lead to the escape theory for the origin of viruses. Bacteriophages escaped from bacteria, and eukaryotic viruses escaped from eukaryotic cells. Thus bacteriophage and say, herpes, had nothing in common except they both managed to escape from their parent genome.. … Yeah, thats totally wrong. Bacteriophages and herpes do have related genes. Sputnik does have genes related to genes found in viruses that infect all three domains of life. Viruses are not ...
A test group of 25 bison will be herded out of Yellowstone National Park north into the Gardiner Basin Wednesday morning. The bison drive is a part of the
Dotson and Alvis pleaded guilty to simple marijuana possession, were fined $5,000, and banned from Yellowstone National Park for five years.
To protest the slaughter of Yellowstone National Park bison, a 20-year-old man chained himself to a 50-gallon drum full of cement in the middle of the road to the Stephens
Era vorba despre discriminarea pozitiva si practica institutiilor de invatamant superior americane de a avea un anumit numar de locuri rezervate pentru minoritatile nu socio-economice, cum s-ar zice din replyul tau de mai sus, ci rasiale. Ma revoltam impotriva acestui sistem si eram de parere ca admiterea ar trebui sa se faca pe baza rezultatelor academice, in mod complet colour-blind. Pozitia ta era, ca si acuma, ca este vorba despre protectia minoritatilor socio-economice si nu rasiale. Desigur, asta ridica intrebarea de ce sistemul este asa cum este si locurile sunt rezervate pentru minoritatile hispanica, neagra si care or mai fi (nu cred ca se tine cont de starea materiala - !), in loc sa fie rezervate doar pentru persoanele cu o stare socio-economica definita independent de culoare (impotriva acestui din urma sistem nu as ridica nicio obiectie). Intrucat explicatia ta nu era, in mod evident, suficienta, am propus ca sistemul se datoreaza, in realitate, rezultatelor academice inferioare ale ...
In its five years of existence, CRISPR/Cas9 has revolutionized the field of gene editing, allowing researchers to edit DNA like a piece of text. While its potential is unquestionable, ethics and safety concerns have prevented CRISPR from being used to treat human diseases. Now, scientists at the Salk Institute have found a way around one of those hurdles, modifying the CRISPR system to treat several diseases in mice without cutting DNA, which means they avoid unwanted mutations. The technology works epigenetically, influencing gene activity without changing the DNA sequence ...
Based on morphological and molecular evidence we transfer the species of Trisetum sect. Trisetaera, T. hispidum, and Trisetokoeleria taymirica into Koeleria, describe Koeleria sect. Hispanica, and provide a new generic emendation. A total of 49 new combinations or new names are included. Additionally, we lectotypify Avena clarkei Hook f., Avena micans Hook. f., Avena subalpestris Hartm., Avena subspicata var. agrostidea Laest., Trisetum pubiflorum Hack., Trisetum spicatum f. minor Kom., and Trisetum spicatum f. umbrosum Kom ...
CRISPR-Cas systems are adaptive immune systems in bacteria and archaea, consisting of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) array and CRISPR associated (Cas) proteins. In this work, the type I-E CRISPR-Cas system of Escherichia coli was studied.. CRISPR-Cas immunity is divided into three stages. In the first stage, adaptation, Cas1 and Cas2 store memory of invaders in the CRISPR array as short intervening sequences, called spacers. During the expression stage, the array is transcribed, and subsequently processed into small CRISPR RNAs (crRNA), each consisting of one spacer and one repeat. The crRNAs are bound by the Cascade multi-protein complex. During the interference step, Cascade searches for DNA molecules complementary to the crRNA spacer. When a match is found, the target DNA is degraded by the recruited Cas3 nuclease.. Host factors required for integration of new spacers into the CRISPR array were first investigated. Deleting recD, involved in DNA repair, ...
Buy chia seeds from Nuts.com for unbeatable quality & freshness. Our chia seeds are available in bulk at great prices with same-day shipping.
Easily grown in average, medium moisture, well-drained soil in full sun to part shade. Prefers sandy well-drained soils. Avoid unamended clay soils. Tolerates shady conditions. Perhaps best in sun-dappled part shade. Plant bulbs about 3-4" deep and 4-6" apart in the fall. Naturalizes well by both bulb offsets and self-seeding in optimum growing conditions. Plants go dormant by early summer. Plants of this species (Spanish bluebells) will hybridize with plants of Hyancinthoides non-scripta (English bluebells) if planted near each other, resulting in different forms appearing through self-seeding ...
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system is considered as a technological revolution in targeted mutagenesis. However, a large amount of time and cost is needed to screen for the CRISPR-Cas9 induced mutants from a usual large number of initial samples. Thus, Chun Wang and Kejian Wang from the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences presented a cost-effective and sensitive screening technique for identifying mutants based on conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). They called this new technique as annealing at critical temperature PCR (ACT-PCR). ACT-PCR needs only one PCR step and then execution of agarose gel electrophoresis. Because of its simplicity, ACT-PCR is suitable for rapid, large-scale screening of CRISPR-Cas9-induced mutants. Read more description about ACT-PCR in Plant Genome Editing with CRISPR Systems.. ...
Yellowstone National Park's famed Morning Glory Pool, was bluer before people threw coins, trash and rocks into it, researchers say
article, ,front,...,/front, ,body, ,p,...,/p, ,fig id="F1",...,/fig, ,supplementary-material id="S1" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:title="local_file" xlink:href="1471-2105-1-1-s1.pdf" mimetype="applicationn/pdf", ,label,Additional material,/label, ,caption, ,p,Supplementary PDF file supplied by authors.,/p, ,/caption, ,/supplementary-material, ,p,RNAPs seem to have arisen twice in evolution (see the ,inline-supplementary-material xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:title="local_file" xlink:href="timeline", Timeline,/inline-supplementary-material,. A large family of multisubunit RNAPs includes bacterial enzymes, archeal enzymes, eukaryotic nuclear RNAPs, plastid-encoded chloroplast RNAPs, and RNAPs from some eukaryotic viruses ...,/p, ...,/body, ,back,...,/back, ,/article ...
6) The Minitab data file Oldfaithful contains data on eruptions of the Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone National Park. The variable named Duration records how long 299 of these eruptions lasted, in minutes. Describe the shape, center, and spread of the distribution. [The Basic Practice of Statistics, 3rd ed.]. 7) The Minitab data file Calories contains data from a study showing that foods advertised as low calorie often contain more calories than the label states. Is the degree of understatement of calories the same for national (N) brands, regional (R) brands, and locally (L) prepared foods? The variable measured is the percent difference between true and label calories (i.e., true% - label%). [The Basic Practice of Statistics, 3rd ed.]. 8) Open the applets (Statistical Applets) from the BPS4e CD. The Mean and Median applet on the BPS4e CD allows you to place points (data) where ever you want and it shows the dotplot and locates the mean and the median. Useful to explore the relationship ...
The herds of some 4,500 bison that roam Yellowstone National Park are the only remaining purebred bison in the country, but they are infected. Thought to be carrying a bacterial infection, which also affects cattle, ranchers have been asking to remotely vaccinate the bison using biobullets.
Buffalo Field Campaign working to stop the slaughter of Yellowstone National Parks free roaming buffalo by Montanas Department of Livestock.
Visitors to Yellowstone National Park on almost any given day can glimpse packs of wolves and hear their iconic howls, thanks to a yearslong effort to revive the species that once neared extinction in the United States.
The volcanic activity that shaped Yellowstone national park may have sculpted something on a much smaller scale too - the teeth of some rodents
We traveled to Dubois, Wyoming to talk with the Forest Service. Dick was hoping enough years had passed that something had been done to build a trail from Union Pass to Togwotee Pass for CDT hikers. He hoped to hike this new trail. He talked to a ranger who had been funded all last summer to route a trail through this area, but he said there is no money to build it. So Dick would have to follow Forest Service roads. He hates road walking so he scratched those plans and we continued on to Grand Teton and Yellowstone National Parks. ...
Buffalo Field Campaign working to stop the slaughter of Yellowstone National Parks free roaming buffalo by Montanas Department of Livestock.
Chia (Salvia hispanica) is indigenous to the western part of North America. Evidence of the plants use goes back hundreds of years in this region, and it has been used for everything from food to medicine to landscaping. In the last 20 years, it has found worldwide popularity in a novelty item called the Chia ...
How do you pick the best shoes for your activities and what should you think about when choosing? Here are a few considerations to keep in mind.
Electron microscopic studies of the viruses in two hot springs (85 degrees C, pH 1.5-2.0, and 75-93 degrees C, pH 6.5) in Yellowstone National Park revealed particles with twelve different morphotypes. This diversity encompassed known viruses of hyperthermophilic archaea, filamentous Lipothrixviridae, rod-shaped Rudiviridae, and spindle-shaped Fuselloviridae, and novel morphotypes previously not observed in nature. Two virus types resembled head-and-tail bacteriophages from the families Siphoviridae and Podoviridae, and constituted the first observation of these viruses in a hydrothermal environment. Viral hosts in the acidic spring were members of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus. ...
The CRISPR/Cas gene editing system has a lot of buzz behind it: an amusingly crunchy name, an intriguing origin, and potential uses both in research labs and even in the clinic. We heard that Emory scientists are testing it, so an explainer was in order.. The CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) system was originally discovered by dairy industry researchers seeking to prevent phages, the viruses that infect bacteria, from ruining the cultures used to make cheese and yogurt. Bacteria incorporate small bits of DNA from phages into their CRISPR region and use that information to fight off the phages by chewing up their DNA.. At Emory, infectious disease specialist David Weiss has published research on CRISPR in some types of pathogenic bacteria, showing that they need parts of the CRISPR system to evade their hosts and stay infectious. Biologist Bruce Levin has modeled CRISPR-mediated immunity’s role in bacterial evolution.. What has attracted considerable ...
Viruses. Computer artwork showing three typical virus shapes: helical (blue), bacteriophage (red), and icosahedral (green). Viruses contain a core of genetic material, either DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or RNA (ribonucleic acid), surrounded by a capsid (protein coat), and sometimes an outer glycoprotein envelope. Helical viruses have their capsids arranged in a helical structure, whereas the capsids of icosahedral viruses have a 20-sided symmetry. Bacteriophages, or phages, infect bacteria and consist of an icosahedral (20-sided) capsid, a tail, and tail fibres (leg-like) that fix them to a specific receptor site. - Stock Image C009/5045
I started researching the Internet. As you know, some times the web is not always a trusted source of information. Because everybody can publish whatever they please, its often the case that we find misleading information. Any way, I found some interesting articles on the web, but I wasnt sure if I should trust them. So, I went ahead and searched for scholarly articles.. Out of the 222 articles that I found related to chia seeds, only two of them where directly related to the safety of chia seeds consumption. The majority of the articles addressed the application of Salvia Hispanica to the improvement of medical conditions like diabetes, heart diseases, blood pressure and weight loss. Other articles discussed the use of the seeds in the production of bread and their effect in the quality of baked products. Most studies that involved intake of Salvia Hispanica seeds were performed in animals: rabbits, rats and broilers. Few of them where conducted in humans. I can infer from the existent ...
CRISPR-mediated immunity works in three phases. First, a new spacer - a piece of DNA obtained from an invading virus - must be integrated into a bacterium. Next, the CRISPR region - the chain of repeats - is expressed ("read") and individual spacer sequences are processed into what are called crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs). crRNAs can then recognize the complementary sequence in an invading virus, targeting its genome for destruction. Viral DNA sequences are selected for integration by 2 members of the cas family, Cas1 and Cas2, which recognize short sequences known as protospacer-adjacent motifs (PAM sequences). The presence of a PAM sequence is required for Cas binding, but they are broadly distributed throughout the genome. Cas1 and Cas2 cut the viral DNA adjacent to the PAM sequence and insert that region into one end of the CRISPR array. The total array is expressed as a single long RNA, and groups of Cas proteins then process this RNA into individual crRNAs containing each individual spacer ...
Infectious disease treatment developer licenses systems discovered by CRISPR pioneer Jennifer Doudna, Ph.D., and Jillian Banfield, Ph.D.
With the departure of Saints founder/vocalist/guitarist, Ed Kuepper, the bands fourth LP, The Monkey Puzzle, retreats even further away (if not altogether) from The Saints blistering punk beginnings, than even the preceding transitional album, Prehistoric Sounds. Instead, Chris Bailey with the boys (and girl) in tow, nix Prehistorics overdone horns and just make a straightforward rock record, much along the lines of Stiv Bators post-Dead Boys solo material. The tempo is decidedly moderate, and the guitars chime and strum sweetly, almost as if to compete with the post-punk trends of the era. Monkey Puzzle manages to avoid any new wave/new romantic trappings, but to the chagrin of certain Saints followers, this was light years away from the gale-force thrust of their 1977 punk masterpiece, (Im) Stranded. ...
Corvallis - Oct 29, 2003 - The reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park may be the key to maintaining groves of cottonwood trees that were well on their way to localized extinction, and is working to rebalance a stream ecosystem in the park for the first time in seven decades, Oregon State University scientists say in two new studies.

Archaeal Viruses, Not Archaeal Phages: An Archaeological DigArchaeal Viruses, Not Archaeal Phages: An Archaeological Dig

... Stephen T. Abedon and Kelly L. Murray ... Stephen T. Abedon and Kelly L. Murray, "Archaeal Viruses, Not Archaeal Phages: An Archaeological Dig," Archaea, vol. 2013, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/archaea/2013/251245/cta/

Archaeal Viruses from Yellowstones High Temperature Environments - Yellowstone Research Coordination NetworkArchaeal Viruses from Yellowstone's High Temperature Environments - Yellowstone Research Coordination Network

Archaeal Viruses from Yellowstones High Temperature Environments Mark Young, Blake Wiedenheft, Jamie Snyder, Josh Spuhler, ... Of the approximately 4000 viruses described to date, only 36 are associated with archaeal hosts-many of these from thermophilic ... In this work we describe the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and novel virus-like particles ... is used to assess the diversity of the resident archaeal community and to evaluate the diversity of thermophilic viruses. The ...
more infohttp://www.rcn.montana.edu/Publications/Detail.aspx?id=168

Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life.  - PubMed - NCBIEvolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life. - PubMed - NCBI

Virus Res. 2006 Apr;117(1):52-67. Epub 2006 Feb 28. Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; ... Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life.. Prangishvili D1, Garrett RA, ... Here we describe a re-analysis of the proteins encoded by archaeal viruses, with an emphasis on comparative genomics of the ... In terms of virion morphology, the known viruses of archaea fall into two distinct classes: viruses of mesophilic and ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16503363?dopt=Abstract

Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses | PNASStructure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses | PNAS

Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses. Reza Khayat, Liang ... Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses ... Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses ... Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/102/52/18944?ijkey=2c3c06fea1d696e104b9b587729a9345acf94f24&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Sequence analysis of an Archaeal virus isolated from a hypersaline lake in Inner Mongolia, China.  - PubMed - NCBISequence analysis of an Archaeal virus isolated from a hypersaline lake in Inner Mongolia, China. - PubMed - NCBI

Sequence analysis of an Archaeal virus isolated from a hypersaline lake in Inner Mongolia, China.. Pagaling E1, Haigh RD, Grant ... Fifty of the seventy ORFs had no identity to data base entries; twenty showed sequence identity matches to archaeal viruses and ... Two lytic viruses infecting these were isolated from the lake water. The BJ1 virus is described in this paper. It has an ... Unrooted phylogenetic tree showing the relationship of the environmental archaeal strain host BJ1B11 for the virus BJ1, to ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17996081?dopt=Abstract

Particle Assembly and Ultrastructural Features Associated with Replication of the Lytic Archaeal Virus Sulfolobus Turreted...Particle Assembly and Ultrastructural Features Associated with Replication of the Lytic Archaeal Virus Sulfolobus Turreted...

... we have only a rudimentary understanding of archaeal virus assembly and release from cells. Among archaeal viruses, there are ... Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life. Virus Res. 117:52-67. ... Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. ... His1, an archaeal virus of the Fuselloviridae family that infects Haloarcula hispanica. J. Virol. 72:9392-9395. ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/83/12/5964?ijkey=a7aae5c9490178d101ba65cf564a688fbacede1b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

A Dimeric Rep Protein Initiates Replication of a Linear Archaeal Virus Genome: Implications for the Rep Mechanism and Viral...A Dimeric Rep Protein Initiates Replication of a Linear Archaeal Virus Genome: Implications for the Rep Mechanism and Viral...

Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life. Virus Res. 117:52-67. ... The genome of the archaeal virus SIRV1 has features in common with genomes of eukaryal viruses. Virology 281:6-9. ... A novel virus family, the Rudiviridae: structure, virus-host interactions and genome variability of the sulfolobus viruses ... Archaeal viruses display tremendous diversity of both morphology and genome content. Seven viral families from the ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/85/2/925?ijkey=40918ce9d59fd3b7509317ee50a807a266493ae2&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

A Dimeric Rep Protein Initiates Replication of a Linear Archaeal Virus Genome: Implications for the Rep Mechanism and Viral...A Dimeric Rep Protein Initiates Replication of a Linear Archaeal Virus Genome: Implications for the Rep Mechanism and Viral...

A Dimeric Rep Protein Initiates Replication of a Linear Archaeal Virus Genome: Implications for the Rep Mechanism and Viral ... The Rudiviridae are a family of rod-shaped archaeal viruses with covalently closed, linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes ... ARCHAEA, DNA REPLICATION, VIRUS, ENDONUCLEASE DOMAIN, EUKARYAL VIRUSES, ACTIVE-SITE, SIRV1, CLEAVAGE, REP, ORIGIN ... Assessing host-virus codivergence for close relatives of Merkel cell polyomavirus infecting African great apes. Madinda, N. F ...
more infohttps://risweb.st-andrews.ac.uk/portal/en/researchoutput/a-dimeric-rep-protein-initiates-replication-of-a-linear-archaeal-virus-genome-implications-for-the-rep-mechanism-and-viral-replication

Archaea Family Tree Blossoms, Thanks to Genomics | The Scientist Magazine®Archaea Family Tree Blossoms, Thanks to Genomics | The Scientist Magazine®

However these diverse viruses evolved, its clear that there are many more archaeal viruses yet to be discovered, and ... attackers of the thermophilic archaeal genus Sulfolobus. These systems are helping to relate archaeal virus infection to that ... Diverse Archaeal Viruses. Unlike bacteria and eukaryotic microbes, archaea-as far as researchers can determine-do not act as ... Archaeal viruses even show variety in how they arrange their DNA, with some genomes naturally adopting a more compact structure ...
more infohttps://www.the-scientist.com/features/archaea-family-tree-blossoms-thanks-to-genomics-36643

Parasitism - WikipediaParasitism - Wikipedia

"Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (19): 12599-603. doi:10.1074/ ... Viruses[edit]. Main articles: Virus and Bacteriophage. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, characterised by extremely ... Breitbart, M.; Rohwer, F. (2005). "Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?". Trends in Microbiology. 13 (6): ... Viruses can be either RNA or DNA viruses consisting of a single or double strand of genetic material (RNA or DNA) respectively ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasitic

Parasitism - WikipediaParasitism - Wikipedia

"Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (19): 12599-603. doi:10.1074/ ... Viruses[edit]. Main articles: Virus and Bacteriophage. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, characterised by extremely ... Breitbart, M.; Rohwer, F. (2005). "Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?". Trends in Microbiology. 13 (6): ... Viruses can be either RNA or DNA viruses consisting of a single or double strand of genetic material (RNA or DNA) respectively ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasites

Functional interplay between a virus and the ESCRT machinery in Archaea | PNASFunctional interplay between a virus and the ESCRT machinery in Archaea | PNAS

2005) Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses. Proc Natl ... Acidianus Tailed Spindle Virus: a New Archaeal Large Tailed Spindle Virus Discovered by Culture-Independent Methods ... In the current work, we reveal that the archaeal virus Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus isolated from Yellowstone National ... archaeal viruses that encode their own ESCRT-related proteins to facilitate viral biology. Acquisition of these virus-derived ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/110/26/10783

Viruses | Free Full-Text | Diversity of dsDNA Viruses in a South African Hot Spring Assessed by Metagenomics and MicroscopyViruses | Free Full-Text | Diversity of dsDNA Viruses in a South African Hot Spring Assessed by Metagenomics and Microscopy

... and pleiomorphic virus-like particles. Metavirome analysis corroborated the presence of His1-like viruses and has expanded the ... This study demonstrated that a moderately thermophilic spring environment contained a highly novel pool of viruses and should ... by means of electron microscopy and sequencing of the virus fraction. Microscopy analysis revealed a mixture of regular- and ... which may underline basic ecosystem functioning provided by these viruses. Furthermore, a putative Gemmata-related phage was ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/9/11/348

Frontiers | A genetic study of SSV1, the prototypical fusellovirus | MicrobiologyFrontiers | A genetic study of SSV1, the prototypical fusellovirus | Microbiology

The spindle-shaped virus morphology is unique to Archaea but widespread therein. The best studied fusellovirus is SSV1 from ... The spindle-shaped virus morphology is unique to Archaea but widespread therein. The best studied fusellovirus is SSV1 from ... Deletion of the poorly-conserved predicted DNA binding protein gene VP2 yields viable virus that is indistinguishable from wild ... Deletion of the poorly-conserved predicted DNA binding protein gene VP2 yields viable virus that is indistinguishable from wild ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2012.00200/full

Timeline Member | Research - Institut PasteurTimeline Member | Research - Institut Pasteur

Archaeal virus with exceptional virion architecture and the largest single-stranded DNA genome. Read more ... First insights into the entry process of hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses. Read more ... The two ages of the RNA world, and the transition to the DNA world: a story of viruses and cells. Read more ... Single-stranded DNA viruses employ a variety of mechanisms for integration into host genomes. Read more ...
more infohttps://research.pasteur.fr/en/timeline-member/?id=4284

Publications - Universität UlmPublications - Universität Ulm

Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life. Virus Res 117(1): 52-67. Epub 2006 ... Archaeal Viruses of the Sulfolobales: Isolation, Infection, and CRISPR Spacer Acquisition. Erdmann S, Garrett RA. Methods Mol ... 2012) Archaeal viruses-novel, diverse and enigmatic. Sci China Life Sci. 55:422-33. ... 2012) An archaeal immune system can detect multiple protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) to target invader DNA. J Biol Chem. 287 ...
more infohttps://www.uni-ulm.de/nawi/nawi-for1680/publications/

Plant Viral Vectors for Delivery by Agrobacterium | SpringerLinkPlant Viral Vectors for Delivery by Agrobacterium | SpringerLink

Evans DJ (2009) Exploitation of plant and archaeal viruses in bionanotechnology. Biochem Soc Trans 37:665-670PubMedGoogle ... Among the most often used viral backbones are those of the RNA viruses Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Potato virus X (PVX) and ... Expression of an animal virus antigenic site on the surface of a plant virus particle. Virology 197:366-374PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Turpen TH (1999) Tobacco mosaic virus and the virescence of biotechnology. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 354:665-673PubMed ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F82_2013_352

தீ நுண்மம் - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியாதீ நுண்மம் - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா

Lawrence CM, Menon S, Eilers BJ, et al.. Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses. The Journal of Biological ... Breitbart M, Rohwer F. Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?. Trends in Microbiology. 2005;13(6):278-84. எஆசு ... நேனோ வைரசுகள் (வாழையின் இலை கொத்து வைரசு, banana bunchy top virus). ஈரிழை டி.என்.ஏ வைரசுகள் (dsDNA virus)[தொகு]. எ.கா: மையோ ... ஓரிழை டி.என்.ஏ வைரசுகள் (ssDNA virus)[தொகு]. *ஜெமினி வைரசுகள் (வெண்டையின் மஞ்சள் நரம்பு வைரசு, bhendi yellow vein mosic virus) ...
more infohttps://ta.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%AE%A4%E0%AF%80_%E0%AE%A8%E0%AF%81%E0%AE%A3%E0%AF%8D%E0%AE%AE%E0%AE%AE%E0%AF%8D

Frontiers | A New View of the T-Loop Junction: Implications for Self-Primed Telomere Extension, Expansion of Disease-Related...Frontiers | A New View of the T-Loop Junction: Implications for Self-Primed Telomere Extension, Expansion of Disease-Related...

2014). Unique genome replication mechanism of the archaeal virus AFV1. Mol. Microbiol. 92, 1313-1325. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12630 ... Wang, H., Peng, N., Shah, S. A., Huang, L., She, Q. (2015). Archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. ... However, there is no report of linear bacterial or archaeal chromosomes containing telomerase-derived arrays at the ends, so ... Indeed, there are numerous examples of Archaeal linear extragenomic genetic elements employing various strategies of ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fgene.2019.00792/full

Viral dark matter and virus-host interactions resolved from publicly available microbial genomes | eLifeViral dark matter and virus-host interactions resolved from publicly available microbial genomes | eLife

Hyperthermophilic Archaeal Virus 2, NC_014321) that clustered with 21 bacterial viruses, presumably due to poor archaeal virus ... iii) Viruses are mostly host specific and virus/hosts define modules.. These results make sense and are mostly expected, the ... as well as the clear separation between DNA and RNA viruses as well as Archaeal and Bacterial viruses were all expected based ... "Long-term evolutionary patterns of bacterial and archaeal virus genomes", Global virus-host network is confirmed as modular" ...
more infohttps://elifesciences.org/articles/08490

Imbroglios of Viral Taxonomy: Genetic Exchange and Failings of Phenetic Approaches | Journal of BacteriologyImbroglios of Viral Taxonomy: Genetic Exchange and Failings of Phenetic Approaches | Journal of Bacteriology

The genome of the archaeal virus SIRV1 has features in common with genomes of eukaryal viruses. Virology 281:6-9. ... archaeal viruses SIRV1 and SIRV2 (107), and both positive- and negative-stranded RNA viruses (2, 110). ... especially to animal and plant viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis viruses, coronaviruses, arenavirues, ... Homologous recombination is also evident in genomes of eukaryotic and archaeal viruses. For example, the attenuated polio ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/184/17/4891

Remarkable morphological diversity of viruses and virus-like particles in hot terrestrial environments  - Publikationsserver...Remarkable morphological diversity of viruses and virus-like particles in hot terrestrial environments - Publikationsserver...

Viral hosts in the acidic spring were members of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus. ... Remarkable morphological diversity of viruses and virus-like particles in hot terrestrial environments ... Remarkable morphological diversity of viruses and virus-like particles in hot terrestrial environments. Archives of virology ... Electron microscopic studies of the viruses in two hot springs (85 degrees C, pH 1.5-2.0, and 75-93 degrees C, pH 6.5) in ...
more infohttps://epub.uni-regensburg.de/13520/

Mark A. Young - Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology | Montana State UniversityMark A. Young - Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology | Montana State University

... of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, ... and Ultrastructural Features Associated with Replication of the Lytic Archaeal Virus Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus. ... Structural and Functional Studies of Archaeal Viruses. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2009;284(19):12599-12603. ... Snyder JC, Wiedenheft B, Lavin M, Roberto FF, Spuhler J, Ortmann AC, Douglas T, Young M. Virus movement maintains local virus ...
more infohttp://plantsciences.montana.edu/facultyorstaff/faculty/young/

David Prangishvili - WikipediaDavid Prangishvili - Wikipedia

"The wonderful world of archaeal viruses". Annu Rev Microbiol 67: 565-585. 13 Prangishvili D (2015) "Archaeal viruses: living ... "Diversity of viruses of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Aeropyrum, and isolation of the Aeropyrum pernix bacilliform virus ... 6. Mochizuki T, Krupovic M, Pehau-Arnaudet G, Sako Y, Forterre P, and Prangishvili D (2012). "Archaeal virus with exceptional ... Peng, Xu; Garrett, Roger A.; She, QunXin (2012). "Archaeal viruses-novel, diverse and enigmatic". Science China Life Sciences. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Prangishvili

Hans Richnow - Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental ResearchHans Richnow - Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research

Bacterial and archaeal viruses of Himalayan hot springs at Manikaran modulate host genomes. Front. Microbiol. 9 , art. 3095. ...
more infohttps://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=39647
  • Panel a. 0.8% TAE agarose gel showing virus BJ1 genome sensitivity to nucleases. (nih.gov)
  • lanes 1 and 4 size markers (kbps), lanes 2 and 3 BJ1 virus genome. (nih.gov)
  • Although we have genome sequences for most of the crenarchaeal viruses isolated, we have only a rudimentary understanding of archaeal virus assembly and release from cells. (asm.org)
  • Here we report that a protein encoded in the 34-kbp genome of the rudivirus SIRV1 is a member of the replication initiator (Rep) superfamily of proteins, which initiate rolling-circle replication (RCR) of diverse viruses and plasmids. (asm.org)
  • Archaeal viruses display tremendous diversity of both morphology and genome content. (asm.org)
  • The genome arrangement, including the presence of inverted terminal repeats (ITRs), is reminiscent of those of the large cytoplasmic DNA viruses, such as the Poxviridae ( 3 , 10 ). (asm.org)
  • The most represented viral contig was to a cyanophage genome fragment, which may underline basic ecosystem functioning provided by these viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Many viruses integrate their genome into the DNA of their host cell, and there are computational tools available that exploit this ability to identify viruses and link them to their host. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, other viruses can live and multiply inside cells without integrating their genome into the host's DNA. (elifesciences.org)
  • Earlier in 2015, researchers developed a new computational tool called VirSorter that can predict virus genome sequences within the DNA extracted from microbes. (elifesciences.org)
  • VirSorter identifies viral genome sequences based on the presence of 'hallmark' genes that encode for components found in many virus particles, together with a reference database of genomes from many viruses. (elifesciences.org)
  • These data increase the number of viral genome sequences that are publically available by a factor of ten and identify the first viruses associated with 13 new types of bacteria, which include species that are abundant in particular environments. (elifesciences.org)
  • Their replication mechanisms remain obscure, although parallels have been drawn to the Poxviridae and other large cytoplasmic eukaryotic viruses. (asm.org)
  • Recently it has been discovered that a number of eukaryotic viruses, including HIV, coopt the cellular Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) machinery to affect egress from infected cells. (pnas.org)
  • In this work we describe the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and novel virus-like particles isolated directly from diverse thermal environments in Yellowstone National Park. (montana.edu)
  • These structures are thought to be sites at which progeny virus particles are released from infected cells. (asm.org)
  • Proteomic analysis of purified STIV particles revealed 11 proteins, with two host proteins (Sso7d and SSO0881) and nine virus proteins ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • This involves assembly of seven-sided pyramid-like structures on the surface of infected cells, which open to disrupt the cell and release progeny virus particles. (pnas.org)
  • salterprovirus-like) and pleiomorphic virus-like particles. (mdpi.com)
  • Plant viral vectors delivered by Agrobacterium are the basis of several manufacturing processes that are currently in use for producing a wide range of proteins for multiple applications, including vaccine antigens, antibodies, protein nanoparticles such as virus-like particles (VLPs), and other protein and protein-RNA scaffolds. (springer.com)
  • Viruses are infectious particles that can only multiply inside the cells of microbes and other organisms. (elifesciences.org)
  • Electron microscopic studies of the viruses in two hot springs (85 degrees C, pH 1.5-2.0, and 75-93 degrees C, pH 6.5) in Yellowstone National Park revealed particles with twelve different morphotypes. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The capsid architecture of STIV is reminiscent of the mammalian adenovirus, bacteriophage PRD1, and Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus (PBCV-1). (pnas.org)
  • STIV was determined to be a lytic virus, causing cell disruption beginning at 30 hpi. (asm.org)
  • An examination of STIV-host interactions has revealed a novel virus-induced cell lysis mechanism ( 2 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • A new type of viral-induced lysis system has recently been discovered for two unrelated archaeal viruses, STIV and SIRV2. (hindawi.com)
  • Structural analysis of the capsid architecture, determined by fitting the subunit into the electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of the virus, identified a number of key interactions that are akin to those observed in adenovirus and PRD1. (pnas.org)
  • The structural and sequence comparison between the MCPs of these viruses, and similarities between their capsid architectures support the idea that their viral capsids share a common ancestor. (pnas.org)
  • Structural and Functional Studies of Archaeal Viruses. (montana.edu)
  • These new viral genomes will serve as a useful resource for researchers as they explore the communities of viruses and microbes in natural environments, the human body and in industrial processes. (elifesciences.org)
  • In accord with this distinction, the sequenced genomes of euryarchaeal viruses encode many proteins homologous to bacteriophage capsid proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Novel viral genomes identified from six metagenomes reveal wide distribution of archaeal viruses and high viral diversity in terrestrial hot springs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Little is known about the replication cycle of archaeal viruses. (asm.org)
  • Our results support an ancient origin for viruses "hijacking" ESCRT proteins to complete their replication cycle and thus identify a critical host-virus interaction conserved between two domains of life. (pnas.org)
  • Many viruses have evolved specific mechanisms for exiting their host cell at the end of their viral replication cycle. (hindawi.com)
  • Detailed examination of conserved domains and motifs uncovered a significant number of previously unnoticed homologous relationships among the proteins of crenarchaeal viruses and between viral proteins and those from cellular life forms and allowed functional predictions for some of these conserved genes. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, each of the crenarchaeal viruses encodes several proteins with prokaryotic but not viral homologs, some of which, predictably, seem to have been scavenged from the crenarchaeal hosts, but others might have been acquired from bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that crenarchaeal viruses are, in general, evolutionarily unrelated to other known viruses and, probably, evolved via independent accretion of genes derived from the hosts and, through more complex routes of horizontal gene transfer, from other prokaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • Most of the information about cell lysis is based on observations of a decrease in optical density (OD) in an infected culture, plaque assays, or plate growth inhibition assays, but little is known about the actual mechanism of archaeal lysis. (asm.org)
  • Lytic viruses of bacteria typically utilize a holin/endolysin-based mechanism for virion release [ 16 , 17 ], whereas virion egress via a cellular budding mechanism is commonly used by enveloped animal viruses. (hindawi.com)
  • Even though these two different archaeal viruses appear to share a similar lysis mechanism, genetically they are very different from each other. (hindawi.com)
  • Two lytic viruses infecting these were isolated from the lake water. (nih.gov)
  • Here we describe a re-analysis of the proteins encoded by archaeal viruses, with an emphasis on comparative genomics of the unique viruses of Crenarchaeota. (nih.gov)
  • In eukaryotes, Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) proteins are part of a conserved pathway important for multivesicular body biogenesis, metazoan cytokinesis, macroautophagy, and the budding of viruses ( 15 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • Small circular DNA viruses such as phiX174 and M13 in bacteria, geminiviruses in plants, and circoviruses in animals replicate by rolling-circle replication (RCR). (asm.org)
  • Metavirome analysis corroborated the presence of His1-like viruses and has expanded the current clade of salterproviruses using a polymerase B gene phylogeny. (mdpi.com)
  • Deletion of the poorly conserved predicted DNA-binding protein gene VP2 yields viable virus that is indistinguishable from wild-type. (frontiersin.org)
  • There is no single 'marker' gene that can be used to identify all viruses in environmental samples. (elifesciences.org)
  • 1998. Evidence for massive gene exchange between archaeal and bacterial hyperthermophiles. (tolweb.org)
  • Bacterial virus phi29 DNA-packaging motor and its potential applications in gene therapy and nanotechnology. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Unrooted phylogenetic tree showing the relationship of the environmental archaeal strain host BJ1B11 for the virus BJ1, to other closely related environmental strains isolated by us and Halorubrum species. (nih.gov)
  • However, infection of S. solfataricus with virus lacking ORF d244 dramatically retards host growth, compared to the wild-type virus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Prior to cell lysis, virus infection resulted in the formation of pyramid-like projections from the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • The unprecedented diversity of thermal features (~10,000) in Yellowstone National Park has provided us the opportunity to assess host and virus diversity within a single site and among geographically separated sites with distinct geochemical signatures. (montana.edu)
  • This virus was isolated from a hot spring in the Rabbit Creek thermal area which is located in the Midway Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deletion of the well-conserved ORF d244 that encodes a predicted nuclease yields viable virus. (frontiersin.org)