Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.
A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.
Family of rod-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA. They lack viral envelopes or lipids.
A family of lemon-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA and containing one genus: Fusellovirus.
Family of enveloped, lipid-containing, filamentous DNA viruses that infect ARCHAEA.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoorganotrophic and strictly aerobic. They have been isolated from multiple hypersaline environments that vary widely in chemical and physical properties.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
The fundamental tenet of modern medicine that certain diseases are caused by microorganisms. It was confirmed by the work of Pasteur, Lister, and Koch.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Most strains produce a yellow pigment. This organism is isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, soil, and water, as well as from animals and human wounds, blood, and urine. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.

Viruses from extreme thermal environments. (1/74)

Viruses of extreme thermophiles are of great interest because they serve as model systems for understanding the biochemistry and molecular biology required for life at high temperatures. In this work, we report the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and virus-like particles from extreme thermal acidic environments (70-92 degrees C, pH 1.0-4.5) found in Yellowstone National Park. Six unique particle morphologies were found in Sulfolobus enrichment cultures. Three of the particle morphologies are similar to viruses previously isolated from Sulfolobus species from Iceland and/or Japan. Sequence analysis of their viral genomes suggests that they are related to the Icelandic and Japanese isolates. In addition, three virus particle morphologies that had not been previously observed from thermal environments were found. These viruses appear to be completely novel in nature.  (+info)

Comparative genomic analysis of hyperthermophilic archaeal Fuselloviridae viruses. (2/74)

The complete genome sequences of two Sulfolobus spindle-shaped viruses (SSVs) from acidic hot springs in Kamchatka (Russia) and Yellowstone National Park (United States) have been determined. These nonlytic temperate viruses were isolated from hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus hosts, and both viruses share the spindle-shaped morphology characteristic of the Fuselloviridae family. These two genomes, in combination with the previously determined SSV1 genome from Japan and the SSV2 genome from Iceland, have allowed us to carry out a phylogenetic comparison of these geographically distributed hyperthermal viruses. Each virus contains a circular double-stranded DNA genome of approximately 15 kbp with approximately 34 open reading frames (ORFs). These Fusellovirus ORFs show little or no similarity to genes in the public databases. In contrast, 18 ORFs are common to all four isolates and may represent the minimal gene set defining this viral group. In general, ORFs on one half of the genome are colinear and highly conserved, while ORFs on the other half are not. One shared ORF among all four genomes is an integrase of the tyrosine recombinase family. All four viral genomes integrate into their host tRNA genes. The specific tRNA gene used for integration varies, and one genome integrates into multiple loci. Several unique ORFs are found in the genome of each isolate.  (+info)

Haloviruses HF1 and HF2: evidence for a recent and large recombination event. (3/74)

Haloviruses HF1 and HF2 were isolated from the same saltern pond and are adapted to hypersaline conditions, where they infect a broad range of haloarchaeal species. The HF2 genome has previously been reported. The complete sequence of the HF1 genome has now been determined, mainly by PCR and primer walking. It was 75,898 bp in length and was 94.4% identical to the HF2 genome but about 1.8 kb shorter. A total of 117 open reading frames and five tRNA-like genes were predicted, and their database matches and characteristics were similar to those found in HF2. A comparison of the predicted restriction digest patterns based on nucleotide sequence with the observed restriction digest patterns of viral DNA showed that, unlike the case for HF2, some packaged HF1 DNA had cohesive termini. Except for a single base change, HF1 and HF2 were identical in sequence over the first 48 kb, a region that includes the early and middle genes. The remaining 28 kb of HF1 showed many differences from HF2, and the similarity of the two genomes over this late gene region was 87%. The abrupt shift in sequence similarity around 48 kb suggests a recent recombination event between either HF1 or HF2 and another HF-like halovirus that has swapped most of the right-end 28 kb. This example indicates there is a high level of recombination among viruses that live in this extreme environment.  (+info)

Morphology and genome organization of the virus PSV of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genera Pyrobaculum and Thermoproteus: a novel virus family, the Globuloviridae. (4/74)

A novel virus, termed Pyrobaculum spherical virus (PSV), is described that infects anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaea of the genera Pyrobaculum and Thermoproteus. Spherical enveloped virions, about 100 nm in diameter, contain a major multimeric 33-kDa protein and host-derived lipids. A viral envelope encases a superhelical nucleoprotein core containing linear double-stranded DNA. The PSV infection cycle does not cause lysis of host cells. The viral genome was sequenced and contains 28337 bp. The genome is unique for known archaeal viruses in that none of the genes, including that encoding the major structural protein, show any significant sequence matches to genes in public sequence databases. Exceptionally for an archaeal double-stranded DNA virus, almost all the recognizable genes are located on one DNA strand. The ends of the genome consist of 190-bp inverted repeats that contain multiple copies of short direct repeats. The two DNA strands are probably covalently linked at their termini. On the basis of the unusual morphological and genomic properties of this DNA virus, we propose to assign PSV to a new viral family, the Globuloviridae.  (+info)

SH1: A novel, spherical halovirus isolated from an Australian hypersaline lake. (5/74)

A novel halovirus, SH1, with a spherical morphology is described. Isolated from a hypersaline lake, SH1 is divalent, producing clear plaques on Haloarcula hispanica and a natural Halorubrum isolate. Single-step growth curves gave a latent period of 5-6 h and a burst size of around 200 PFU/cell. The host can differentiate to form tight clusters of thick cell-walled forms, and these were shown to be resistant to infection. Purified virions had no visible tail, were about 70 nm in diameter, and displayed a fragile outer capsid layer, possibly with an underlying membrane component. The structural proteins of the virion were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and several were found to be cross-linked, forming protein complexes. The genome was linear, dsDNA, of approximately 30 kb in length. This morphology and linear genome are features not observed in any other euryarchaeal viruses, but have properties similar to the bacterial virus PRD1.  (+info)

Sulfolobus tengchongensis spindle-shaped virus STSV1: virus-host interactions and genomic features. (6/74)

A virus infecting the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tengchongensis has been isolated from a field sample from Tengchong, China, and characterized. The virus, denoted STSV1 (Sulfolobus tengchongensis spindle-shaped virus 1), has the morphology of a spindle (230 by 107 nm) with a tail of variable length (68 nm on average) at one end and is the largest of the known spindle-shaped viruses. After infecting its host, the virus multiplied rapidly to high titers (>10(10) PFU/ml). Replication of the virus retarded host growth but did not cause lysis of the host cells. STSV1 did not integrate into the host chromosome and existed in a carrier state. The STSV1 DNA was modified in an unusual fashion, presumably by virally encoded modification systems. STSV1 harbors a double-stranded DNA genome of 75,294 bp, which shares no significant sequence similarity to those of fuselloviruses. The viral genome contains a total of 74 open reading frames (ORFs), among which 14 have a putative function. Five ORFs encode viral structural proteins, including a putative coat protein of high abundance. The products of the other nine ORFs are probably involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis, nucleotide metabolism, and DNA modification. The viral genome divides into two nearly equal halves of opposite gene orientation. This observation as well as a GC-skew analysis point to the presence of a putative viral origin of replication in the 1.4-kb intergenic region between ORF1 and ORF74. Both morphological and genomic features identify STSV1 as a novel virus infecting the genus Sulfolobus.  (+info)

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the archaeal virus resolvase SIRV2. (7/74)

The Holliday junction (or four-way junction) is the universal DNA intermediate whose interaction with resolving proteins is one of the major events in the recombinational process. These proteins, called DNA junction-resolving enzymes or resolvases, bind to the junction and catalyse DNA cleavage, promoting the release of two DNA duplexes. SIRV2 Hjc, a viral resolvase infecting a thermophylic archaeon, has been cloned, expressed and purified. Crystals have been obtained in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 147.8, b = 99.9, c = 87.6, beta = 109.46 degrees, and a full data set has been collected at 3.4 A resolution. The self-rotation function indicates the presence of two dimers in the asymmetric unit and a high solvent content (77%). Molecular-replacement trials using known similar resolvase structures have so far been unsuccessful, indicating possible significant structural rearrangements.  (+info)

Characterization of the archaeal thermophile Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus validates an evolutionary link among double-stranded DNA viruses from all domains of life. (8/74)

Icosahedral nontailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses are present in all three domains of life, leading to speculation about a common viral ancestor that predates the divergence of Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. This suggestion is supported by the shared general architecture of this group of viruses and the common fold of their major capsid protein. However, limited information on the diversity and replication of archaeal viruses, in general, has hampered further analysis. Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV), isolated from a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, was the first icosahedral virus with an archaeal host to be described. Here we present a detailed characterization of the components forming this unusual virus. Using a proteomics-based approach, we identified nine viral and two host proteins from purified STIV particles. Interestingly, one of the viral proteins originates from a reading frame lacking a consensus start site. The major capsid protein (B345) was found to be glycosylated, implying a strong similarity to proteins from other dsDNA viruses. Sequence analysis and structural predication of virion-associated viral proteins suggest that they may have roles in DNA packaging, penton formation, and protein-protein interaction. The presence of an internal lipid layer containing acidic tetraether lipids has also been confirmed. The previously presented structural models in conjunction with the protein, lipid, and carbohydrate information reported here reveal that STIV is strikingly similar to viruses associated with the Bacteria and Eukarya domains of life, further strengthening the hypothesis for a common ancestor of this group of dsDNA viruses from all domains of life.  (+info)

In recent years it has become evident that viruses have been and continue to be major drivers of evolution of life on earth. Viruses are the most abundant life-like entities on the planet and are likely a major reservoir of genetic diversity for all life on the planet. We also hypothesize that this will be the case anywhere life exists on Earth or on non-Earth like bodies. We are investigating the role of archaeal viruses present in high temperature acidic environments found in Yellowstone National Park. The specific objectives of this project are to (1) to isolate and characterize new archaeal viruses in high temperature environments and (2) to understand the role these viruses play in determining the evolution and ecology of microbial communities. This project involves extensive tool development, such as virus isolation procedures from extreme environments, extremophile virus propagation techniques, and development of genetic and biochemical assays, for the discovery and characterization of ...
A novel archaeal virus, denoted Sulfolobus ellipsoid virus 1 (SEV1), was isolated from an acidic hot spring in Costa Rica. The morphologically unique virion of SEV1 contains a protein capsid with 16 regularly spaced ...
References Notes ^ a b Koonin EV, Senkevich TG, Dolja VV. The ancient Virus World and evolution of cells. Biology Direct. 2006;1:29. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-1-29. PMID 16984643. ^ a b c Dimmock p. 4 ^ a b c Dimmock p. 49 ^ a b Breitbart M, Rohwer F. Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?. Trends in Microbiology. 2005;13(6):278-84. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2005.04.003. PMID 15936660. ^ a b Lawrence CM, Menon S, Eilers BJ, et al.. Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2009;284(19):12599-603. doi:10.1074/jbc.R800078200. PMID 19158076. ^ Edwards RA, Rohwer F. Viral metagenomics. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2005;3(6):504-10. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1163. PMID 15886693. ^ a b Canchaya C, Fournous G, Chibani-Chennoufi S, Dillmann ML, Brüssow H. Phage as agents of lateral gene transfer. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 2003;6(4):417-24. doi:10.1016/S1369-5274(03)00086-9. PMID 12941415. ^ a b Rybicki, EP. The classification of organisms at the ...
Viruses of archaea represent one of the most enigmatic parts of the virosphere. Most of the characterized archaeal viruses infect extremophilic hosts and
VIROME: Goal is to characterize the whole viral population. (Lambda control gave quantitative recovery.) 10^10 phage per gram of stool! Circular contigs (genomes?) all about 5-6 kb. Linear ones very diverse lengths. 7000 new virus genomes! 19-785 per individual sample. Lots of unknown! No contigs of eukaryotic viruses at all, but bits of eukaryotic viral genomes in phage genomes. He thinks there has been lots of misidentification - what appears to be DNA indicating presence of a eukaryotic virus is really jsut a bit of phage genome. See CRISPR system used to compete with other phage (I forget what CRISPR does ...
Arahal, D. R., Dewhirst, F. E., Paster, B. J., Volcani, B. E., & Ventosa, A. (1996). Phylogenetic analyses of some extremely halophilic archaea isolated from Dead Sea water, determined on the basis of their 16S rRNA sequences. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62(10), 3779-3786. Ding, J. Y., Chiang, P. W., Hong, M. J., Dyall-Smith, M., & Tang, S. L. (2014). Complete genome sequence of the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula hispanica strain N601. Genome announcements, 2(2), e00178-14. Juez, G., Rodriguez-Valera, F., Ventosa, A., & Kushner, D. J. (1986). Haloarcula hispanica spec. nov. and Haloferax gibbonsii spec, nov., two new species of extremely halophilic archaebacteria. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 8(1), 75-79. Li, M., Wang, R., Zhao, D., & Xiang, H. (2014). Adaptation of the Haloarcula hispanica CRISPR-Cas system to a purified virus strictly requires a priming process. Nucleic Acids Research, 42(4), 2483-2492. Liu, H., Wu, Z., Li, M., Zhang, F., Zheng, H., Han, J., & ...
Gudbergsdóttir, S. R., Menzel, P., Krogh, A., Young, M. & Peng, X. (2016). Novel viral genomes identified from six metagenomes reveal wide distribution of archaeal viruses and high viral diversity in terrestrial hot springs. Environ Microbiol 18, 863-874. [PubMed]. Häring, M., Rachel, R., Peng, X., Garrett, R. A. & Prangishvili, D. (2005). Viral diversity in hot springs of Pozzuoli, Italy, and characterization of a unique archaeal virus, Acidianus bottle-shaped virus, from a new family, the Ampullaviridae. J Virol 79, 9904-9911. [PubMed]. Krupovic, M., Cvirkaite-Krupovic, V., Iranzo, J., Prangishvili, D. & Koonin, E. V. (2018). Viruses of archaea: Structural, functional, environmental and evolutionary genomics. Virus Res 244, 181-193. [PubMed]. Peng, X., Basta, T., Häring, M., Garrett, R. A. & Prangishvili, D. (2007). Genome of the Acidianus bottle-shaped virus and insights into the replication and packaging mechanisms. Virology 364, 237-243. [PubMed]. Prangishvili, D. (2015). Archaeal ...
Computer artwork of the inner surface of an icosahedral virus capsid. The capsid is the protein shell of the virus and encloses its genetic material. - Stock Image F018/4295
With the rapid progresses in both instrumentation and computing, it is increasingly straightforward and routine to determine the structures of icosahedral viruses to subnanometer resolutions (6-10 Å)...
The genes encoding the two major structural proteins and a putative NTPase belong to a cluster of five genes/ORFs (genes 3, 4 and 8; ORFs 6 and 7 of Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1) that are collinear and conserved among members of the family Pleolipoviridae (Figure 2.Pleolipoviridae; (Senčilo et al., 2012). Pleolipoviruses have non-lytic life cycles. Although there is no direct evidence for the entry mechanism, it has been proposed that the entry of pleolipoviral genomes occurs by membrane fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell cytoplasmic membrane (Pietilä et al., 2009). Viruses are predicted to employ different genome replication strategies, including rolling circle replication (RCR; circular genomes) and protein-primed replication carried out by family B-type polymerase (linear genomes), although direct experimental evidence is missing (Pietilä et al., 2009, Roine et al., 2010, Bath et al., 2006). Viruses exit the cells continuously starting 3-4 hours post infection (Pietilä et ...
The Mayo Clinic sier at vitenskapen har vist den gammeldagse kyllingsuppe rette har fortrinn. Mens voksne og barn kan klage over de prototypiske symptomer på stiv nakke,. Hypoplastisk venstre hjerte syndrom er en medfødt hjertesykdom hos nyfødte barn der venstre side av hjertet ikke danner eiendom og ikke klarer å pumpe blod.
Viruses of Fungi and Simple Eukaryotes focuses on the developments in and experimental approaches to the study of fungi and simple eukaryotic viruses. Emphasizi
This image shows multiple particles of a Sulfolobus spindle shaped virus (SSV) isolated from an acidic hot spring in the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia). These spindle shaped viruses infect Sulfolobus islandicus, a hyper thermophilic microbe that belongs to the third domain of life, the Archaea. Since their discovery in the late 1970s by Carl Woese at the University of Illinois, Archaea were thought to be found only in extreme environments. In recent years, with the advent of new technologies and methodologies, we have begun to uncover that archaea are found everywhere from deep-sea hydrothermal vents to the human gut. Viruses that infect archaea have been shown to possess novel and unique characteristics not typically found in viruses that infect bacteria or eukaryotes. The viruses pictured here are one example of this. They possess a lemon-shaped morphology that has been only found in archaeal viruses. These viruses are thought to attach to cells using sticky tail fibers located at one end of ...
A ceramic skull created by Stow, Ohio, artist Cris Hertle sits on a table in La Casa Hispanica (Harvey House). Hertle spoke about her ceramic skull art and Día de los Muertos (Day of the Dead), a two-day festival that originated in Mexico, at La Casa Hispanica on October 30. A native of Mexico, Hertle experienced Día de los Muertos festival celebrations first hand before
This tall cultivar is a thin pyramid-like shape and has dark green foliage. Cones and buds are typically small and the bark is usually brown and furrowed. This
Descriptions of various icosahedral virus capsid structures in terms of their complete capsids, along with detailed structural and computational analysis
Descriptions of various icosahedral virus capsid structures in terms of their complete capsids, along with detailed structural and computational analysis
En maske som er klinisk utviklet for å berolige betent, sensitiv, eller stiv hud. Formelen er fylt med med tang som er svært rik på antioksidanter, mineraler, og vitaminer for å tilføre rikelig med fuktighet til huden.
3VZH: Conservation and Variability in the Structure and Function of the Cas5d Endoribonuclease in the CRISPR-Mediated Microbial Immune System
Provides a method for researchers using CRISPR-mediated mutagenesis. indCAPS is a web application that facilitates the screening of individuals in which editing of the target has occurred. It also provides replacement for existing tools for the design of primers for dCAPS analysis capable of distinguishing known indel alleles. It was also used to design diagnostic primers to identify CRISPR-induced ahk3 null alleles.
We need your help addressing one of the biggest obstacle to reaching a No Kill Chicago: With nearly 6,000 animals coming through PAWS Chicagos medical and adoption program each year, our Medical Center, located at 3516 W 26th Street, has reached operational capacity. The limitations of the current medical facility have created a bottleneck in our ability to help more animals. There is not enough isolation space to accommodate the animals suffering from contagious illnesses or in need of longer-term care, while still bringing in animals who need only basic care and will quickly move to the adoption centers. With our expert veterinary and behavior teams, our current Medical Center is one of the few that can treat and rehabilitate a large volume of sick, injured and behaviorally challenged pets and give them a chance to get adopted into loving homes. In 2015, PAWS Chicago had a 97.87 percent save rate, even while taking in a vulnerable population of animals. But our work is far from done: Nearly ...
2. Scorzonera hispanica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 791. 1753. Black or Spanish salsify Perennials. Leaf blades 120-400 × (1-)3-6 mm, margins entire (flat or undulate). Involucres 20-30 × 8-12+ mm. Phyllaries ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, glabrous. Cypselae 10-15(-20) mm; pappi 9-15(-20) mm. 2n = 14.. Flowering Jun-Jul. Disturbed sites; 10-200 m; introduced; Calif.; Europe. Scorzonera hispanica sometimes is used culinarily.. ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
Nearly 20 percent of the packaged RNA in bean-pod mottle virus (BPMV) binds to the capsid interior in a symmetric fashion and is clearly visible in the electron density map. The RNA displaying icosahedral symmetry is single-stranded with well-defined polarity and stereochemical properties. Interactions with protein are dominated by nonbonding forces with few specific contacts. The tertiary and quaternary structures of the BPMV capsid proteins are similar to those observed in animal picornaviruses, supporting the close relation between plant comoviruses and animal picornaviruses established by previous biological studies. ...
G protein-coupled receptors are a major class of membrane receptors that mediate physiological and pathophysiological cellular signaling. Many aspects of recept...
Review GenScript expertise in using CRISPR-mediated gene knock out technique to achieve loss of function in different cell lines.
This page details the development and operational history of the Alvis FV4333 Stormer Armored Personnel Carrier (APC) / Multirole Armored Fighting Vehicle (AFV) including technical specifications and pictures.
During the last few years, many interesting concepts and applications have emerged in acoustics. Some of these are obtained by extending the ideas utilized in electromagnetics to acoustics, such as acoustic superlenses which can focus ultrasound waves similar to an optic lens. Such devices hold the potential application in high-resolution clinical imaging.. Another example of the application of electromagnetics and acoustic is the acoustic cloak. The cloak can hide an object from sound waves. To this end, the device changes the propagation and reflection of sound waves and makes it seem as though the cloak and any object beneath it are not present. Future applications of an acoustic cloak include sonar avoidance and design of auditoriums or concert halls.. Worlds first 3D acoustic cloak was designed two years ago at Duke University. The pyramid-like cloak consists of a number of plastic plates with many holes poked through them.. ...
Colony PCR verification of single and double-double gene knockouts. Colony PCR analysis of WOR1, WOR2, and CZF1 single-target knockout transformations (A) and WOR1-plus-WOR2 and WOR2-plus-CZF1 double-double knockout transformations (B). Twenty-four independent colonies from each transformation were tested, using primers specific for the deletion indicated by ←[Δgene] The presence of a band at the mobility indicated confirms that at least one allele of the target gene has been deleted. Selected deletion mutants were further tested for the absence of the target ORF via ORF-check PCRs (C). The presence of a band at the mobility indicated by ←[GENE] reveals the presence of at least one allele of the target ORF, while the absence of a band is consistent with homozygous deletion of the target ORF as follows: 1 to 5, WOR1 single target; 6 to 10, WOR1-plus-WOR2 double double; 11, wild-type control; 12 to 16, WOR2 single target; 17 to 21, WOR1-plus-WOR2 double double; 22 to 27, WOR2-plus-CZF1 double ...
African Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa landraces are considered valuable resources for breeding traits due to their adaptation to local environmental and soil conditions. They often possess superior resistance to endemic pests and tolerance to drought and nutrient deficiencies when compared to the
SNJ54LS33J datasheet, SNJ54LS33J pdf, SNJ54LS33J data sheet, datasheet, data sheet, pdf, Texas Instruments, Quadruple 2-Input Positive-NOR Buffers With Open-Collector
A Cornell researcher, who is a leader in developing a new type of gene editing CRISPR system, and colleagues have used the new method for the first time in human cells - a major advance in the field.. The new system, called CRISPR-Cas3, can efficiently erase long stretches of DNA from a targeted site in the human genome, a capability not easily attainable in more traditional CRISPR-Cas9 systems. Though robust applications may be well in the future, the new system has the potential to seek out and erase such ectopic viruses as herpes simplex, Epstein-Barr, and hepatitis B, each of which is a major threat to public health.. My lab spent the past ten years figuring out how CRISPR-Cas3 works. I am thrilled that my colleagues and I finally demonstrated its genome editing activity in human cells, said Ailong Ke, professor of molecular biology and genetics and a corresponding author of a paper published April 8 in the journal Molecular Cell. Our tools can be made to target these viruses very ...
The MAD2L1 CRISPR guide RNA sequences were designed by GenScripts proprietary algorithm to target a single locus in the endogenous genome. High-specificity gRNA constructs for CRISPR-mediated genome editing
The Yellowstone National Park Research Coordination Network is a collaboration of scientists and NPS staff to develop a coordinated research network focused on geothermal biology and geochemistry.
There are many commentaries written on this text, including an autocommentary by Master Vasubandhu entitled Abhidharmakoshabhasya. Vasubandhus student Sthiramati wrote the Tattvartha-tika (6th c. CE). The Nalanda scholar Yasomitra (6th c. CE), also wrote a sub-commentary on the Abhidharmakoshabhasya, the Sputarth-abhidharmakosa-vyakhya. Other scholars wrote commentaries on the Kosa to defend the Sarvastivadin tenets that Vasubandhu refutes in the text, these include the Nyayanusara (In Accordance with the Truth, by Samghabhadra, 5th c) and the Abhidharma-dipa (Lamp of Abhidharma, anonymous). Dignagas commentary, the Abhidharmakosa Vrtti Marmadipa also includes many sutra quotations. Śamathadevas Abhidharmakośopāyikā-ṭīkā, (The Essential Companion to the Treasury of the Abhidharma, Tib. Chos mngon paʼi mdzod kyi ʼgrel bshad nye bar mkho ba zhes bya ba, Derge no. 4094 / Peking no. 5595), is a handbook of the Abhidarmakosa that quotes passages from the Mūlasarvāstivāda ...
Artene har tydelig kjønnspreg. Hannene i denne slekten har lange, smale og brede blågrå nebb som kan virke opphovnet ved nebbroten. De har hovedsakelig nøttebrun-rødbrun fjærdrakt i hekketiden, men blir langt mer uanselige da de bytter til eklipsedrakt og ligner mer på hunnene. Hannene er promiskuøse. Begge kjønn preges av en kort, stiv stjert og meget korte undere ekstremiteter. Alle artene er dykkende og ernærer seg stort sett gjennom sikting av bunnmaterialer. Fugler som hekker på høye breddegrader trekker mot lavere breddegrader i vintersesongen.[1] ...
In one event, an estimated 3 billion pounds of buoyant debris washed from Japans shores. Heres a firsthand account of where some of that went. You can view a photo slideshow by Stiv Wilson of his journey here on AlterNet.
Are you genome editing with CRISPR-Cas9? Consider the Alt-R CRISPR-Cas9 kit-a customizable, end-to-end Cas9-CRISPR system offering best in class performance.
Just got an announcement about this from a colleague and thought it might be of interest: Science-Corps Providing an opportun... ...
The basic replication cycle of crenarchaeal viruses, including Fuselloviruses, has yet to be determined. There are, however, some trends which have been reported. It is thought that members of the Fuselloviridae family, as well as members of the Rudiviridae, Lipothrixviridae, and Guttaviridae families, associate with host cells by tail fibers which are present on one or both ends of the virion. Some viruses integrate their genome into the host cells chromosome, while others maintain their genomes as extrachromosomal elements. Assembly and release of most known crenarchaeal viruses, do not require cell lysis. Most crenarchaeal viruses, twith the exception of the Bicaudaviridae member ATV, appear to set up chronic infections, either continually producing virus particles or doing so in short events resulting in growth inhibition. These long-term chronic infections are thought to be an adaptation to the extremely hot and acidic environments crenarchaeal viruses inhabit. (source: Ortmann et al.) ...
While multiple replication origins have been observed in archaea, considerably less is known about their evolutionary processes. Here, we performed a comparative analysis of the predicted (proved in part) orc/cdc6-associated replication origins in 15 completely sequenced haloarchaeal genomes to investigate the diversity and evolution of replication origins in halophilic Archaea. Multiple orc/cdc6-associated replication origins were predicted in all of the analyzed haloarchaeal genomes following the identification of putative ORBs (origin recognition boxes) that are associated with orc/cdc6 genes. Five of these predicted replication origins in Haloarcula hispanica were experimentally confirmed via autonomous replication activities. Strikingly, several predicted replication origins in H. hispanica and Haloarcula marismortui are located in the distinct regions of their highly homologous chromosomes, suggesting that these replication origins might have been introduced as parts of new genomic content. A
In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses
RALEIGH, N.C. -- CRISPR-Cas systems are widely heralded as a new generation of genetic tools. But development of these tools requires researchers to identify the protospacer-adjacent motifs (PAMs) that unlock each systems functionality. A new set of techniques expedites PAM identification - and early testing finds that many CRISPR-Cas systems actually have multiple PAMs of varying strength. CRISPR-Cas systems protect bacteria from invaders such as viruses. They do this by creating small strands of RNA that match DNA sequences specific to a given invader. When those CRISPR RNAs find a match, they unleash proteins that chop up the invaders DNA, preventing it from replicating. However, the first step in the process isnt comparing the RNA to target DNA. The first step involves PAM recognition and binding ...
General Information: Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM 639 was isolated from and acidic hot spring in Yellowstone National Park. Extreme thermoacidophilic sulfur-oxidizing archaeon. This organsim is an extreme thermoacidophilic, sulfur-oxidizing archaeon commonly found in hot springs growing at very high temperatures. This obligate aerobe is immotile and grows at a temperature of 55-85 degrees C with optimal growth at 70-75 degrees C. The pH for growth is 1-6 with an optimum pH 2-3. ...
If you are planning to stay overnight in the backcountry, you must obtain a backcountry permit.. You can obtain a permit at any backcountry office or contact the Central Backcountry Office at 307-344-2160.. For more information or questions on horseback riding in the park contact the Central Backcountry Office at 307-344-2160.. Please make sure that the date blood drawn (within 12 months of current date), the laboratory name & negative test results, and identifying features of each animals (name, brand, identifying markings or scars) and are legible on your Coggins forms.. ...
On any backcountry trip, its always a good idea to let people know your itinerary and when you expect be back, and to travel in groups rather than by yourself.
Eukaryotic viruses are used for a variety of biomedical applications including gene therapy, oncolytic therapy and the production of live vaccines. All of these applications depend upon interactions at the viral surface. Traditionally, genetic fusions of coat proteins have been used to engineer the viral surface. However, these techniques can cause problems with viral assembly and can only introduce polypeptide sequences. As an alternative we plan to introduce chemical functionality onto the viral surface via metabolic engineering. Introduced functionality can be modified post assembly with not only polypeptides but also polymers and small molecules. ...
How homologous do (endogenous) CRISPR array tracers need to be to degrade foreig - posted in Microbiology: Hello, I am working against a series of genetic barriers to transformation in a bacteria which has never been successfully transformed The genome shows the presence of an endogenous Type-II Crispr system which has an array of 14 spacers. If I align these spacers with my plasmid of interest there is some pretty high levels of homology, not exact, but sometimes 100%...
A filmmaker examines why hundreds of wild bison are killed every year when they step outside the boundaries of Yellowstone National Park.
No, CRISPR-Cas9 complexes do not recognize, or recognize extremely poorly, targets lacking PAM sequences [1].. The PAM sequence recognized by the S. pyogenes CRISPR-Cas9 system is NGG. If this sequence is not present in your target, you may be able to use other CRISPR systems (from other bacterial species) that recognize different PAM sequences. The following table lists examples of PAM sequences:. ...
afv:AFLA_018910 K01312 trypsin [EC:3.4.21.4] , (RefSeq) elastase, putative (A) MHVVPFTSLLLAIASFANAIVNGVEATKDQAPFTVGLSGTRLFCAGSLIGEKSVITAASC VKDKDATSINVRLGSLQHASGGTVIGVASIDIHPQYDADSLDNDIAFLALADSYSGATPA QLPTKQKALGYGSSVQIFGWGETSKGASFSRTLKTASVNIISRSNCQNIYGPITTITRRE FCVITKDGKGACQADQGGPVVDSAGTLVGIISRAKSCDAGNYPGVETQVDAYLDWINSKL A ...
"Targeted diversity generation by intraterrestrial archaea and archaeal viruses". Nature Communications. 6 (1). doi:10.1038/ ... Archaean viruses (e.g. ANMV-1), temperate phages (e.g. Hankyphage and CrAss-like phage), and lytic phages. DGRs benefit their ... Viruses. 12 (5): 573. doi:10.3390/v12050573. ISSN 1999-4915. Hedzet, Stina; Accetto, Tomaž; Rupnik, Maja (2020-10-10). "Lytic ...
Li, Sen; Yang, Jie (21 August 2014). "System analysis of synonymous codon usage biases in archaeal virus genomes". Journal of ...
Acidianus filamentous virus 1 coat proteins display a helical fold spanning the filamentous archaeal viruses lineage. PNAS 106 ... "Structure of a filamentous virus uncovers familial ties within the archaeal virosphere". Virus Evolution. 6 (1): veaa023. doi: ... Members of the Ligamenvirales are structurally related to archaeal viruses of the family Tristromaviridae which, similar to ... Viruses from the two families share up to ten genes. The major difference between the two families is that members of the ...
"Taxonomy of prokaryotic viruses: 2018-2019 update from the ICTV Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee". Archives of ... "His1, an archaeal virus of the Fuselloviridae family that infects Haloarcula hispanica" J. Virol. 1998 72:9392-9395 ... The genomic loci containing these also tend to have other virus/plasmid genes nearby, and the term ViPREs (for Virus and ... It is the virus capsid that determines cell selection, most likely by proteins in the short tail at one end of the spindle- ...
"Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (19): 12599-603. doi:10.1074/ ... Viruses[edit]. Main articles: Virus and Bacteriophage. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, characterised by extremely ... Breitbart, M.; Rohwer, F. (2005). "Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?". Trends in Microbiology. 13 (6): ... Viruses can be either RNA or DNA viruses consisting of a single or double strand of genetic material (RNA or DNA) respectively ...
ICTV classification of prokaryotic (bacterial and archaeal) viruses[1] Order. Family. Morphology. Nucleic acid. Examples ... A bacteriophage (/bækˈtɪərioʊfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within ... "Genomics of bacterial and archaeal viruses: dynamics within the prokaryotic virosphere". Microbiology and Molecular Biology ... a virus parasitic on bacteria."[10] D'Hérelle called the virus a bacteriophage or bacteria-eater (from the Greek phagein ...
Not only eukaryotic viruses integrate into the genomes of their hosts; many bacterial and archaeal viruses also employ this ... Krupovic M, Prangishvili D, Hendrix RW, Bamford DH (2011). "Genomics of bacterial and archaeal viruses: dynamics within the ... A provirus is a virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell. In the case of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages ... This state can be a stage of virus replication, or a state that persists over longer periods of time as either inactive viral ...
Krupovic M, Cvirkaite-Krupovic V, Prangishvili D, Koonin EV (2015). "Evolution of an archaeal virus nucleocapsid protein from ... Thermoproteus tenax virus 1 Viruses in Alphalipothrixvirus are enveloped, with rod-shaped geometries. The diameter is around 38 ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015. Janekovic, D.; Wunderl, S.; Holz, I.; Zillig, W.; Gierl, A.; Neumann, H ... The TTV1 virion contains four virus-encoded proteins, TP1-4. The proteins do not display any sequence similarity to structural ...
"Archaeal virus with exceptional virion architecture and the largest single-stranded DNA genome". Proceedings of the National ... Pertahanan terhadap virus ini mungkin melibatkan interferensi RNA dari urutan DNA repetitif yang terkait dengan gen dari virus. ... Arkea dapat terinfeksi oleh virus DNA untai ganda yang tidak berhubungan dengan bentuk lain dari virus dan memiliki berbagai ... Dua kelompok virus DNA untai tunggal yang menginfeksi arkea telah baru-baru ini diisolasi. Satu kelompok dicontohkan oleh virus ...
Lawrence CM, Menon S, Eilers BJ, et al.. Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses. The Journal of Biological ... Breitbart M, Rohwer F (2005). "Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?". Trends in Microbiology 13 (6): 278-84 ... நேனோ வைரசுகள் (வாழையின் இலை கொத்து வைரசு, banana bunchy top virus). ஈரிழை டி.என்.ஏ வைரசுகள் (dsDNA virus)[தொகு]. எ.கா: மையோ ... ஓரிழை டி.என்.ஏ வைரசுகள் (ssDNA virus)[தொகு]. *ஜெமினி வைரசுகள் (வெண்டையின் மஞ்சள் நரம்பு வைரசு, bhendi yellow vein mosic virus) ...
"Morphology and genome organization of the virus PSV of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genera Pyrobaculum and Thermoproteus: a ... Pyrobaculum spherical virus Thermoproteus tenax spherical virus 1 Viruses in Globuloviridae are enveloped, with spherical ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Häring M, Peng X, Brügger K, Rachel R, Stetter KO, Garrett RA, ... Globuloviridae is a family of viruses. Pyrobaculum and thermoproteus archaea serve as natural hosts. There are currently only ...
"Archaeal virus with exceptional virion architecture and the largest single-stranded DNA genome". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109 (33 ... 2009). "An ssDNA virus infecting archaea; A new lineage of viruses with a membrane envelope". Mol. Microbiol. 72 (2): 307-19. ... 2006). "Archaeal habitats-from the extreme to the ordinary". Can J Microbiol 52 (2): 73-116. PMID 16541146. doi:10.1139/w05-147 ... Gaasterland T (1999). "Archaeal genomics". Current Opinion in Microbiology 2 (5): 542-7. PMID 10508726. doi:10.1016/S1369-5274( ...
Archaeal viruses. Some viruses replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...
Pleolipoviridae, a newly proposed family comprising archaeal pleomorphic viruses with single-stranded or double-stranded DNA ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ...
Archaeal viruses. Some viruses replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ... ICTV Virus Taxonomy ICTV Virus Taxonomy Release History *^ "Taxonomy". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). ...
The archaeal host transferred much of its functional genome to the virus during the evolution of cytoplasm, but retained the ... the VE hypothesis specifies a pox-like virus as the lysogenic virus. A pox-like virus is a likely ancestor because of its ... Barry RD (1961). "The multiplication of influenza virus. II. Multiplicity reactivation of ultraviolet irradiated virus". ... such as influenza virus, and in extant double-stranded segmented RNA viruses such as reovirus.[64] ...
Lawrence CM, Menon S, Eilers BJ, et al.. Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses. The Journal of Biological ... Breitbart M, Rohwer F (2005). "Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?". Trends in Microbiology 13 (6): 278-84 ... நேனோ வைரசுகள் (வாழையின் இலை கொத்து வைரசு, banana bunchy top virus). ஈரிழை டி.என்.ஏ வைரசுகள் (dsDNA virus)தொகு. எ.கா: மையோ வைரசு ... "Viruses". USCB Science Line. பார்த்த நாள் ஏப்ரல் 21, 2017. *↑ "Viruses: Structure, Function, and Uses". Molecular Cell Biology ...
Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2009;284(19):12599-603. doi:10.1074 ... I: Mga virus-dsDNA. II: Mga virus-ssDNA. III: Mga virus-dsRNA. IV: Mga virus-(+)ssRNA. V: Mga virus-(−)ssRNA. VI: Mga virus- ... Kumakalat ang virus-trangkaso sa pamamagitan ng pag-ubo at pagbahin. Inililipat ang mga virus-noro at virus-rota, karaniwang ... Breitbart M. Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?. Trends in Microbiology. 2005;13(6):278-84. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Viruses[edit]. T7 RNA polymerase producing a mRNA (green) from a DNA template. The protein is shown as a purple ribbon. Image ... Archaeal RNAP subunit previously used an "RpoX" nomenclature where each subunit is assigned a letter in a way unrelated to any ... This occurs in negative strand RNA viruses and dsRNA viruses, both of which exist for a portion of their life cycle as double- ... "Multisubunit DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases from Vaccinia Virus and Other Nucleocytoplasmic Large-DNA Viruses: Impressions from ...
Enveloped viruses readily overcome the thermodynamic barrier of merging two plasma membranes by storing kinetic energy in ... They are only found in eukaryotes and their closest archaeal relatives like Heimdallarchaeota. VAMP These proteins originate ... Fusion proteins can originate from genes encoded by infectious enveloped viruses, ancient retroviruses integrated into the host ...
"Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses". J. Biol. Chem. 284 (19): 12599-603. doi:10.1074/jbc.R800078200. PMC ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either RNA or DNA genes and is called an RNA virus or a DNA virus respectively. The vast majority of viruses have ... All viruses reproduce this way, and there are no free-living viruses.[1][2] Viruses are everywhere in the environment, and all ...
"Virus Taxonomy: 2018 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). October 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2019.. ... Bacteriophages occur in over 195 bacterial or archaeal genera. They arose repeatedly in different hosts and there are at least ... Maniloff, J.; Ackermann, H.W. (1998). "Taxonomy of bacterial viruses: establishment of tailed virus genera and the other ... The Caudovirales are an order of viruses also known as the tailed bacteriophages (cauda is Latin for "tail").[1] Under the ...
... for major organisms ranging from viruses to bacteria to eukaryotes. For each model organism, RefSeq aims to provide separate ... analysis Sequence profiling tool Sequence motif UniProt List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes List of sequenced archaeal genomes ...
A new virus theory Recently, his group used genomic information to propose that viruses are derived from ancient cells and were ... Kim KM, Caetano-Anollés G (2012). "The evolutionary history of protein fold families and proteomes confirms that the archaeal ... Nasir A, Kim KM, Caetano-Anollés G (2012). "Giant viruses coexisted with the cellular ancestors and represent a distinct ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Study of giant viruses shakes up tree of life". nsf.gov. September 13, 2012. Retrieved ...
Eukaryotic and archaeal 7S RNAs have very similar secondary structures. In most bacteria, the SRP consists of an RNA molecule ( ... SRP RNA was first detected in avian and murine oncogenic RNA (ocorna) virus particles. Subsequently, SRP RNA was found to be a ... Most bacterial SRPs are composed of SRP RNA and SRP54 (also named Ffh for "Fifty-four homolog"). The Archaeal SRP contains ... The eukaryotic SRP consists of a 300-nucleotide 7S RNA and six proteins: SRPs 72, 68, 54, 19, 14, and 9. Archaeal SRP consists ...
"Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor". Science Advances. 2 (10): e1600492. PMC 5061471 . PMID 27757416. doi: ... Archaea can be infected by double-stranded DNA viruses that are unrelated to any other form of virus and have a variety of ... "Archaeal virus with exceptional virion architecture and the largest single-stranded DNA genome". Proceedings of the National ... the latter virus has the largest currently reported ssDNA genome. Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA interference ...
"Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor". Science Advances. 2 (10): e1600492. Bibcode:2016SciA....2E0492D. doi: ... Archaea can be infected by double-stranded DNA viruses that are unrelated to any other form of virus and have a variety of ... "Archaeal virus with exceptional virion architecture and the largest single-stranded DNA genome". Proceedings of the National ... the latter virus has the largest currently reported ssDNA genome. Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA interference ...
This would help train immune memory and antibody response to defend the body in case said virus ever attacks. While this is ... Eichler J (July 2001). "Biotechnological uses of archaeal extremozymes". Biotechnology Advances. 19 (4): 261-78. doi:10.1016/ ... Some biotechnical labs are looking into using extremophiles engineered to produce portions of viruses on their surface to ...
As arqueas poden ser infectadas por virus de ADN bicatenario que non están relacionados con ningún outro tipo de virus e teñen ... Lipps, G (2008). "Archaeal Plasmids". Plasmids: Current Research and Future Trends (en inglés). Caister Academic Press. ISBN ... Pietilä MK, Roine E, Paulin L, Kalkkinen N, Bamford DH (2009). "An ssDNA virus infecting archaea; A new lineage of viruses with ... Ligamenvirales, virus que infectan arqueas. Ligazóns externas[editar , editar a fonte]. *. "Introduction to the Archaea". UCMP ...
The viruses cannot survive in the extremely acidic and hot conditions that Sulfolobus lives in, and so the viruses use ... Sediments from ~90m below the seafloor on the Peruvian continental margin are dominated by intact archaeal tetraethers, and a ... The viruses infecting archaea like Sulfolobus have to use a strategy to escape prolonged direct exposure to the type of ... The Sulfolobus viruses are temperate or permanent lysogens. Permanent lysogens differ from lysogenic bacteriophages in that the ...
MicroRNAs also play a role in replicating viruses such as HIV-1.[44] Novel HIV-1-encoded microRNA have been found to enhance ... which is now known to be the sequence that interacts with the homologue of the archaeal TATA-binding protein (TBP). Also, even ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription.[6] ... there are others that have detected notable differences between archaeal and eukaryotic TBP. The archaea protein exhibits a ...
... certain Epstein-Barr virus gene products bearing this sequence can stall the proteasome, helping the virus propagate by ... In bacteria that express a 20S proteasome, the β subunits have high sequence identity to archaeal and eukaryotic β subunits, ... Zhang M, Coffino P (March 2004). "Repeat sequence of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 protein interrupts proteasome ... the 11S may play a role in degradation of foreign peptides such as those produced after infection by a virus.[16] ...
... have been described in mRNAs of eukaryotic cells or viruses that infect eukaryotes. Ribosome recruitment in eukaryotes is ... Protein biosynthesis: translation (bacterial, archaeal, eukaryotic). Proteins. Initiation factor. Bacterial. *PIF-1 ...
Kyono K, Miyashiro M, Taguchi I (2002). "Human eukaryotic initiation factor 4AII associates with hepatitis C virus NS5B protein ... "mRNA Decay during Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infections: Protein-Protein Interactions Involving the HSV Virion Host Shutoff ...
"Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classification of life". Proceedings of the National ... genetic variation is proposed to occur mainly as a result of transfer of nuclear information between bacterial cells or viruses ...
Virus. Encyclopedia of Earth. Editors: Cutler Cleveland and Sidney Draggan *^ Gribaldo S, Brochier-Armanet C (2006). "The ... LPSN, list of accepted bacterial and archaeal names. *Cyanobacteria, a phylum of common bacteria but poorly classified at ... in archaeal terms, and organisms that live in cooler environments appeared only later.[50] Since the Archaea and Bacteria are ... it is thought that viruses and archaea began relationships approximately two billion years ago, and that co-evolution may have ...
Virus. Megavirus. 1.259.197. 1,3 Mb. 1.120. 890. 1. Genom virus terbesar yang diketahui saat ini.[13]. ... "The genome of Nanoarchaeum equitans: insights into early archaeal evolution and derived parasitism". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... Virus. Bakteriofag MS2. 3.569. 3,6 kb. 4. 1.121. 1. Genom (ssRNA) yang pertama disekuensing, 1976.[11]. ... Virus. Bakteriofag Φ-X174. 5.386. 5,4 kb. 11. 2.042. 1. Genom ssDNA yang pertama disekuensing, 1977.[12]. ...
The archaeal host transferred much of its functional genome to the virus during the evolution of cytoplasm, but retained the ... the VE hypothesis specifies a pox-like virus as the lysogenic virus. A pox-like virus is a likely ancestor because of its ... Barry RD (1961). "The multiplication of influenza virus. II. Multiplicity reactivation of ultraviolet irradiated virus". ... such as influenza virus, and in extant double-stranded segmented RNA viruses such as reovirus.[66] ...
... viruses, and nematodes.[57] ...
... the discovery of viruses and the development of enrichment culture techniques.[24] While his work on the tobacco mosaic virus ... Karner, M.B.; DeLong, E.F.; Karl, D.M. (2001). "Archaeal dominance in the mesopelagic zone of the Pacific Ocean". Nature. 409 ( ... Viruses are generally regarded as not living and therefore not considered as microorganisms, although a subfield of ... However, other diseases such as influenza, yellow fever or AIDS are caused by pathogenic viruses, which are not usually ...
MicrobeWiki, an extensive wiki about bacteria and viruses. *Bacteria that affect crops and other plants ...
... mitochondrion likely included protection of the archaeal host genome from the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS ...
Culex quinquefasciatus, mosquito (vector of West Nile virus, filariasis etc.) (2010[125]) ... List of sequenced archaeal genomes. *List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes. *List of sequenced fungi genomes ... "The duck genome and transcriptome provide insight into an avian influenza virus reservoir species". Nature Genetics. 45 (7): ...
Andersson AF, Banfield JF (May 2008). "Virus population dynamics and acquired virus resistance in natural microbial communities ... At the same time, repeats were observed in the archaeal organisms of Haloferax and Haloarcula species, and their function was ... Andersson AF, Banfield JF (May 2008). "Virus population dynamics and acquired virus resistance in natural microbial communities ... were required to provide a bacterial host with immunity against infection by a DNA virus. By designing an anti-virus CRISPR, ...
In: G. Witzany (Ed.): Viruses: Essential Agents of Life, Seite 43-60, Springer Link, September 25, 2012. ISBN 978-94-007-4898-9 ...
Some viruses require access to proteins inside the nucleus in order to replicate and/or assemble. DNA viruses, such as ... The archaeal origin of the nucleus is supported by observations that archaea and eukarya have similar genes for certain ... Bell PJ (September 2001). "Viral eukaryogenesis: was the ancestor of the nucleus a complex DNA virus?". Journal of Molecular ... The suggestion is based on similarities between eukaryotes and viruses such as linear DNA strands, mRNA capping, and tight ...
Subgenomic promoters range from 24 nucleotide (Sindbis virus) to over 100 nucleotides (Beet necrotic yellow vein virus) and are ... A subgenomic promoter is a promoter added to a virus for a specific heterologous gene, resulting in the formation of mRNA for ... Many positive-sense RNA viruses produce these subgenomic mRNAs (sgRNA) as one of the common infection techniques used by these ... Promoter organization of the interferon-A genes differentially affects virus-induced expression and responsiveness to TBK1 and ...
Introns are found in the genes of most organisms and many viruses. They can be located in a wide range of genes, including ... "The Yeast tRNA Splicing Endonuclease: A Tetrameric Enzyme with Two Active Site Subunits Homologous to the Archaeal tRNA ...
Bunyamwera virus)[8],施馬倫貝格病毒[8],哈扎拉病毒(英语:Hazara virus)[9],克里米亚-刚果出血热(英语:Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever)[10],和拉萨病毒(英语:Lassa ... RadA protein is an archaeal RecA protein homolog that catalyzes DNA strand exchange. Genes Dev. 1998, 12 (9): 1248-53. PMC ... virus)[11] 脱氧核糖核蛋白[编辑]. 一个脱氧核糖核蛋白(Deoxyribonucleoprotein,缩写:DNP)是DNA和蛋白质的复合物[12]。典型的例子是核小体,其中基因组
... adenovirus simian virus 40, vaccinia virus, reovirus, poliovirus and herpes simplex virus as well as numerous bacteriophages.[ ... One of such applications is the use of archaeal enzymes, which would be better able to survive harsh conditions in vitro.[12] ... Viruses[edit]. Viruses are capsid-encoding organisms composed of proteins and nucleic acids that can self-assemble after ... Many types of virus are capable of genetic recombination. When two or more individual viruses of the same type infect a cell, ...
Eukaryotes, bacteria, archaea and viruses have on average 15145, 3200, 2358 and 42 proteins respectively coded in their genomes ... including assembled viruses;[54] a variant known as electron crystallography can also produce high-resolution information in ...
Development of a genetic system for the archaeal virus Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV). Virology, 415(1), 6-11. ... to isolate and characterize new archaeal viruses in high temperature environments and (2) to understand the role these viruses ... This project is aimed at probing the occurrence and evolution of archaeal viruses in the extreme environments in the thermal ... We have begun to make evolutionary links between viruses infecting the archaeal and the eukaryal domains of life. We have ...
7 Infection in other species 7.1 Animal viruses 7.2 Plant viruses 7.3 Bacterial viruses 7.4 Archaeal viruses 8 Role in aquatic ... DsDNA Virus SsDNA Virus DsRNA Virus Positive-sense SsRNA Virus Negative-sense SsRNA Virus SsRNA-RT Virus DsDNA-RT Virus ... Archaeal viruses Some viruses replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes unique ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ...
A novel archaeal virus, denoted Sulfolobus ellipsoid virus 1 (SEV1), was isolated from an acidic hot spring in Costa Rica. The ... Novel Sulfolobus Virus with an Exceptional Capsid Architecture  Wang, Haina; Guo, Zhenqian; Feng, Hongli; Chen, Xiuqiang; Li, ... Browsing Ciencias básicas by Subject "Virus release". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W ...
... Stephen T. Abedon and Kelly L. Murray ... Stephen T. Abedon and Kelly L. Murray, "Archaeal Viruses, Not Archaeal Phages: An Archaeological Dig," Archaea, vol. 2013, ...
Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses. Reza Khayat, Liang ... Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses ... Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses ... Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses ...
Virus Res. 2006 Apr;117(1):52-67. Epub 2006 Feb 28. Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; ... Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life.. Prangishvili D1, Garrett RA, ... Here we describe a re-analysis of the proteins encoded by archaeal viruses, with an emphasis on comparative genomics of the ... In terms of virion morphology, the known viruses of archaea fall into two distinct classes: viruses of mesophilic and ...
Sequence analysis of an Archaeal virus isolated from a hypersaline lake in Inner Mongolia, China.. Pagaling E1, Haigh RD, Grant ... Fifty of the seventy ORFs had no identity to data base entries; twenty showed sequence identity matches to archaeal viruses and ... Two lytic viruses infecting these were isolated from the lake water. The BJ1 virus is described in this paper. It has an ... Unrooted phylogenetic tree showing the relationship of the environmental archaeal strain host BJ1B11 for the virus BJ1, to ...
Archaeal Viruses from Yellowstones High Temperature Environments Mark Young, Blake Wiedenheft, Jamie Snyder, Josh Spuhler, ... Of the approximately 4000 viruses described to date, only 36 are associated with archaeal hosts-many of these from thermophilic ... In this work we describe the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and novel virus-like particles ... is used to assess the diversity of the resident archaeal community and to evaluate the diversity of thermophilic viruses. The ...
... we have only a rudimentary understanding of archaeal virus assembly and release from cells. Among archaeal viruses, there are ... Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life. Virus Res. 117:52-67. ... Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. ... His1, an archaeal virus of the Fuselloviridae family that infects Haloarcula hispanica. J. Virol. 72:9392-9395. ...
Vaccinia virus; MCV1, Molluscum contagiosum virus subtype 1; SWPV, Swinepox virus; YMTV, Yaba monkey tumor virus; RPOXV, Rabbit ... Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Archaeal viruses isolated from extreme environments are powerful tools for elucidating the biology of their archeal hosts and ... The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a double-stranded DNA viral capsid type that spans all domains of life. ...
Archaeal viruses. Some viruses replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...
CRISPR-mediated gene silencing reveals involvement of the archaeal S-layer in cell division and virus infection *Isabelle Anna ... Although NH3 was suggested as substrate for AOB [32], the substrate for archaeal AMO, NH3 or NH4+, is not firmly established [ ... The archaeal (soluble) AmoB subunit of Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii is 20 kDa and 4.5 nm in size, suggesting that additional ... Li, P., Herrmann, J., Tolar, B.B. et al. Nutrient transport suggests an evolutionary basis for charged archaeal surface layer ...
"Targeted diversity generation by intraterrestrial archaea and archaeal viruses". Nature Communications. 6 (1). doi:10.1038/ ... Archaean viruses (e.g. ANMV-1), temperate phages (e.g. Hankyphage and CrAss-like phage), and lytic phages. DGRs benefit their ... Viruses. 12 (5): 573. doi:10.3390/v12050573. ISSN 1999-4915. Hedzet, Stina; Accetto, Tomaž; Rupnik, Maja (2020-10-10). "Lytic ...
However these diverse viruses evolved, its clear that there are many more archaeal viruses yet to be discovered, and ... attackers of the thermophilic archaeal genus Sulfolobus. These systems are helping to relate archaeal virus infection to that ... Diverse Archaeal Viruses. Unlike bacteria and eukaryotic microbes, archaea-as far as researchers can determine-do not act as ... Archaeal viruses even show variety in how they arrange their DNA, with some genomes naturally adopting a more compact structure ...
Archaeal viruses. Some viruses replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ... ICTV Virus Taxonomy ICTV Virus Taxonomy Release History *^ "Taxonomy". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). ...
Li, Sen; Yang, Jie (21 August 2014). "System analysis of synonymous codon usage biases in archaeal virus genomes". Journal of ...
The suggested dyes were tested on three archaeal (Hbt. salinarum, Haloferax sp., Halorubrum sp.) and two bacterial (Salicola sp ... CRISPR-mediated gene silencing reveals involvement of the archaeal S-layer in cell division and virus infection *Isabelle Anna ... The suggested dyes were tested on three archaeal (Hbt. salinarum, Haloferax sp., Halorubrum sp.) and two bacterial (Salicola sp ... Fröls, S. Archaeal biofilms: widespread and complex. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 41, 393-8 (2013). ...
... and pleiomorphic virus-like particles. Metavirome analysis corroborated the presence of His1-like viruses and has expanded the ... This study demonstrated that a moderately thermophilic spring environment contained a highly novel pool of viruses and should ... by means of electron microscopy and sequencing of the virus fraction. Microscopy analysis revealed a mixture of regular- and ... which may underline basic ecosystem functioning provided by these viruses. Furthermore, a putative Gemmata-related phage was ...
"Structural and functional studies of archaeal viruses". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (19): 12599-603. doi:10.1074/ ... Viruses[edit]. Main articles: Virus and Bacteriophage. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, characterised by extremely ... Breitbart, M.; Rohwer, F. (2005). "Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?". Trends in Microbiology. 13 (6): ... Viruses can be either RNA or DNA viruses consisting of a single or double strand of genetic material (RNA or DNA) respectively ...
A Dimeric Rep Protein Initiates Replication of a Linear Archaeal Virus Genome: Implications for the Rep Mechanism and Viral ... The Rudiviridae are a family of rod-shaped archaeal viruses with covalently closed, linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes ... ARCHAEA, DNA REPLICATION, VIRUS, ENDONUCLEASE DOMAIN, EUKARYAL VIRUSES, ACTIVE-SITE, SIRV1, CLEAVAGE, REP, ORIGIN ... Assessing host-virus codivergence for close relatives of Merkel cell polyomavirus infecting African great apes. Madinda, N. F ...
2005) Structure of an archaeal virus capsid protein reveals a common ancestry to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses. Proc Natl ... In the current work, we reveal that the archaeal virus Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus isolated from Yellowstone National ... archaeal viruses that encode their own ESCRT-related proteins to facilitate viral biology. Acquisition of these virus-derived ... suggest an evolutionary link between archaeal viruses and viruses that replicate in bacterial and eukaryotic hosts (8, 12, 13 ...
The spindle-shaped virus morphology is unique to Archaea but widespread therein. The best studied fusellovirus is SSV1 from ... The spindle-shaped virus morphology is unique to Archaea but widespread therein. The best studied fusellovirus is SSV1 from ... Deletion of the poorly-conserved predicted DNA binding protein gene VP2 yields viable virus that is indistinguishable from wild ... Deletion of the poorly-conserved predicted DNA binding protein gene VP2 yields viable virus that is indistinguishable from wild ...
Taxonomy of prokaryotic viruses: 2018-2019 update from the ICTV Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee. 2020. Arch Virol. ... Taxonomy of prokaryotic viruses: 2017 update from the ICTV Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee. Arch Virol. 163:1125- ... Taxonomy of prokaryotic viruses: 2016 update from the ICTV bacterial and archaeal viruses subcommittee. Arch. Virol. 162:1153- ... Archaeal virus HCIV-1 highlights conserved elements in icosahedral membrane-containing DNA viruses from extreme environments. ...
Anti-CRISPR proteins encoded by archaeal lytic viruses inhibit subtype I-D immunity. He, F., Bhoobalan-Chitty, Y., Van, L. B., ...
Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life. Virus Res 117(1): 52-67. Epub 2006 ... Archaeal Viruses of the Sulfolobales: Isolation, Infection, and CRISPR Spacer Acquisition. Erdmann S, Garrett RA. Methods Mol ... 2012) Archaeal viruses-novel, diverse and enigmatic. Sci China Life Sci. 55:422-33. ... 2012) An archaeal immune system can detect multiple protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) to target invader DNA. J Biol Chem. 287 ...
Evans DJ (2009) Exploitation of plant and archaeal viruses in bionanotechnology. Biochem Soc Trans 37:665-670PubMedGoogle ... Among the most often used viral backbones are those of the RNA viruses Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Potato virus X (PVX) and ... Expression of an animal virus antigenic site on the surface of a plant virus particle. Virology 197:366-374PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Turpen TH (1999) Tobacco mosaic virus and the virescence of biotechnology. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 354:665-673PubMed ...
... how immune systems counteract viruses, and how viruses travel from host to host. ... how viruses are named, how their genes work, how they copy and package themselves, how they interact with their hosts, ... Virus: An Illustrated Guide to 101 Incredible Microbes. Virus: An Illustrated Guide to 101 Incredible Microbes. Editor/Author ... how immune systems counteract viruses, and how viruses travel from host to host. ...
Articles on viral structure, function, and genetics will be considered, as well as articles focusing on virus-host interactions ... and clinical studies on viruses and viral diseases. ... 48 other archaeal viruses sequenced to date. Even other viruses ... indicating that this type of lysis may be widespread among archaeal viruses. Even though these two different archaeal viruses ... Compared to the viruses infecting organisms from the domains Bacteria and Eukarya, few viruses infecting archaeal organisms ...
2014). Unique genome replication mechanism of the archaeal virus AFV1. Mol. Microbiol. 92, 1313-1325. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12630 ... Wang, H., Peng, N., Shah, S. A., Huang, L., She, Q. (2015). Archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. ... However, there is no report of linear bacterial or archaeal chromosomes containing telomerase-derived arrays at the ends, so ... Indeed, there are numerous examples of Archaeal linear extragenomic genetic elements employing various strategies of ...
At present, STSV1 is the largest archaeal virus that has been isolated and studied. Its genome sequence has been sequenced. ... Cell of the Archaean Sulfolobus infected by virus STSV1 observed under microscopy. Two spindle-shaped viruses were being ... Comparison of archaeal and bacterial genomes: computer analysis of protein sequences predicts novel functions and suggests a ... Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classification of life. Proceedings of the Natural Academy ...
The genome of the archaeal virus SIRV1 has features in common with genomes of eukaryal viruses. Virology 281:6-9. ... archaeal viruses SIRV1 and SIRV2 (107), and both positive- and negative-stranded RNA viruses (2, 110). ... especially to animal and plant viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis viruses, coronaviruses, arenavirues, ... Homologous recombination is also evident in genomes of eukaryotic and archaeal viruses. For example, the attenuated polio ...
Notably, PD patients had fewer gut viruses, including bacterial and archaeal phages. Based on the abundance of six different ... and also accounts for bugs such as viruses and fungi. ...
Pleolipoviridae, a newly proposed family comprising archaeal pleomorphic viruses with single-stranded or double-stranded DNA ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus, mit Species ‚Blackford virus, ‚Bofa virus, ‚Buckhurst virus, ‚Marsac virus, sowie ‚Muthill virus[53] ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ...
  • We have begun to make evolutionary links between viruses infecting the archaeal and the eukaryal domains of life. (nasa.gov)
  • We are investigating the role of archaeal viruses present in high temperature acidic environments found in Yellowstone National Park. (nasa.gov)
  • We have determined that viruses infecting hosts from both domains utilize the same cellular proteins for assembly and trafficking to the membrane prior to lysis. (nasa.gov)
  • Viruses are the most abundant life-like entities on the planet and are likely a major reservoir of genetic diversity for all life on the planet and these studies are aimed at providing insights into the role of viruses in the evolution of early life on Earth. (nasa.gov)
  • The specific objectives of this project are to (1) to isolate and characterize new archaeal viruses in high temperature environments and (2) to understand the role these viruses play in determining the evolution and ecology of microbial communities. (nasa.gov)
  • We hope to gain insights into the role that viruses might have played in the formation of suspected protocells of early life, and the enormous diversity of viruses present on the planet. (nasa.gov)
  • This project involves extensive tool development, such as virus isolation procedures from extreme environments, extremophile virus propagation techniques, and development of genetic and biochemical assays, for the discovery and characterization of these unusual viruses. (nasa.gov)
  • We have developed a new method of detecting previously unknown viruses in the environment. (nasa.gov)
  • This project is aimed at probing the occurrence and evolution of archaeal viruses in the extreme environments in the thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park. (nasa.gov)
  • Archaea and their viruses are poorly understood when compared with the Eukarya and Bacteria domains of life. (pnas.org)
  • 80°C) that is emerging as a model for studying hyperthermophilic archaea and their viruses ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • In terms of virion morphology, the known viruses of archaea fall into two distinct classes: viruses of mesophilic and moderately thermophilic Eueryarchaeota closely resemble head-and-tail bacteriophages whereas viruses of hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota show a variety of unique morphotypes. (nih.gov)
  • We are profoundly ignorant about the diversity of viruses that infect the domain Archaea. (nih.gov)
  • Unlike the other domains of life, very few viruses of Archaea have been characterized. (montana.edu)
  • Icosahedral nontailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses are present in all three domains of life, leading to speculation about a common viral ancestor that predates the divergence of Eukarya , Bacteria , and Archaea . (asm.org)
  • In comparison to viruses with eukaryotic and bacterial hosts, little is known about the viruses that infect Archaea . (asm.org)
  • Viruses can infect all types of life forms , from animals and plants to microorganisms , including bacteria and archaea . (wikipedia.org)
  • and since been found in bacteria (e.g.Treponema denticola and Legionella pneumophila), Archaea, Archaean viruses (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation and evolutionary history of the three domains of life (Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea) and their viruses remains controversial. (pnas.org)
  • Viruses of thermophilic Archaea are unique in both their structures and genomic sequences. (frontiersin.org)
  • The spindle-shaped virus morphology is unique to Archaea but widespread therein. (frontiersin.org)
  • Opnå en forståelse af samspillet mellem toxin-antitoxin-systemer og CRISPR-Cas immunitet i bakterier og archaea. (au.dk)
  • 2012) Identification of Novel Positive-Strand RNA Viruses by Metagenomic Analysis of Archaea-Dominated Yellowstone Hot Springs. (openwetware.org)
  • This diversity encompassed known viruses of hyperthermophilic archaea, filamentous Lipothrixviridae, rod-shaped Rudiviridae, and spindle-shaped Fuselloviridae, and novel morphotypes previously not observed in nature. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • These spindle shaped viruses infect Sulfolobus islandicus, a hyper thermophilic microbe that belongs to the third domain of life, the Archaea. (illinois.edu)
  • Viruses that infect archaea have been shown to possess novel and unique characteristics not typically found in viruses that infect bacteria or eukaryotes. (illinois.edu)
  • Little is known about the genetic differences between virus particles (so-called 'genetic diversity'), especially compared to what we know about the diversity of bacteria, archaea, and other single-celled microbes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Insights into head-tailed viruses infecting extremely halophilic archaea. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CRISPR-Cas systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against invading genetic elements, such as plasmids, bacteriophages and archaeal viruses. (wur.nl)
  • Although N-glycosylation was first reported in archaea almost 40 years ago, detailed insights into this process have become possible only recently, with the availability of complete genome sequences for almost 200 archaeal species and the development of appropriate molecular tools. (scoop.it)
  • As a result of these advances, recent efforts have not only succeeded in delineating the pathways involved in archaeal N-glycosylation, but also begun to reveal how such post-translational protein modification helps archaea to survive in some of the harshest environments on the planet. (scoop.it)
  • A ) Numbers in parentheses indicate the total number of proteomes that were sampled from Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, and viruses. (sciencemag.org)
  • Linked in figure 1 is a high-resolution image of the evolutionary tree of life, from viruses through bacteria and archaea to protista, plants, animals and fungi, with a selection of representative species illustrated. (dhushara.com)
  • Transcripts from spacer sequences within chromosomal repeat clusters [CRISPRs (clusters of regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)] from archaea have been implicated in inhibiting or regulating the propagation of archaeal viruses and plasmids. (nih.gov)
  • DGRs were known to exist only in viruses and bacteria until their recent discovery in archaea belonging to the 'microbial dark matter', specifically in organisms closely related to Nanoarchaeota . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results have uncovered the widespread conservation of the CLec-fold in viruses, bacteria, and archaea for accommodating massive sequence variation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viruses of Archaea and Bacteria are among the most abundant and diverse biological entities on Earth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we performed phylogenomic analysis of nearly 200,000 viral nucleotide sequences to establish GL-UVAB: Genomic Lineages of Uncultured Viruses of Archaea and Bacteria . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Grasping the biodiversity of viruses of Bacteria and Archaea has been a major challenge within the field of virology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we applied a phylogenomic approach to chart the diversity of uncultured dsDNA viruses of Bacteria and Archaea aiming to gain insights on their genetic diversity, evolution, and ecology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life. (nih.gov)
  • In accord with this distinction, the sequenced genomes of euryarchaeal viruses encode many proteins homologous to bacteriophage capsid proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The Rudiviridae are a family of rod-shaped archaeal viruses with covalently closed, linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Some viruses integrate their genome into the host cell's chromosome, while others maintain their genomes as extrachromosomal elements. (kenyon.edu)
  • RNA viruses use RNA dependent RNA polymerases to replicate their genomes. (jove.com)
  • The finding that viruses with RNA and DNA genomes can recombine to produce chimeric entities provides valuable insights into the origin and evolution of viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Three RNA cells for ribosomal lineages and three DNA viruses to replicate their genomes: a hypothesis for the origin of cellular domain. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we mined publicly available bacterial and archaeal genomic data sets to identify 12,498 high-confidence viral genomes linked to their microbial hosts. (elifesciences.org)
  • VirSorter identifies viral genome sequences based on the presence of 'hallmark' genes that encode for components found in many virus particles, together with a reference database of genomes from many viruses. (elifesciences.org)
  • These new viral genomes will serve as a useful resource for researchers as they explore the communities of viruses and microbes in natural environments, the human body and in industrial processes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Novel viral genomes identified from six metagenomes reveal wide distribution of archaeal viruses and high viral diversity in terrestrial hot springs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These viruses have genomes of single-stranded RNA, and double-stranded DNA. (scripps.edu)
  • There is also evidence for changes having occurred in the captured integrated elements present in archaeal genomes. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • IMG/M's reference isolate genomes were included from version 2.0 of JGI's Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system, a total of 2,301 isolate genomes consisting of 595 bacterial, 32 archaeal, 13 eukaryotic, and 1,661 virus genomes. (lbl.gov)
  • Moreover, their distribution along the virus/plasmid genomes, as well as their DNA strand specificity, appear to be random. (nih.gov)
  • Network methods rely on the identification of orthologous groups shared among genomes, which can be problematic for viruses due to the rate at which their genes evolve. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A new report from the Journal of Virology refutes that idea and demonstrates that an archaeal virus, Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1), can withstand mutations in 17 of its 35 genes while remaining replication competent. (asm.org)
  • Notably, PD patients had fewer gut viruses, including bacterial and archaeal phages. (alzforum.org)
  • While the scientific literature indicates that over 5,500 phages have been described Ackermann (Arch Virol 152(2):227-243, 2007), much of the scientific community has focused attention on the relatively fewer pathogenic viruses of humans, animals, and agricultural crops. (springer.com)
  • In their natural settings, CRISPR-Cas systems play crucial roles in bacterial and archaeal adaptive immunity to protect against phages and other mobile genetic elements, and they are also widely used as genome engineering technologies. (asm.org)
  • This is true for most prokaryotic viruses such as double-stranded (ds) DNA/RNA phages, dsDNA archaeal viruses as well as many eukaryotic viruses (e.g. herpesviruses and reoviruses). (iucr.org)
  • Here we report that a protein encoded in the 34-kbp genome of the rudivirus SIRV1 is a member of the replication initiator (Rep) superfamily of proteins, which initiate rolling-circle replication (RCR) of diverse viruses and plasmids. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • CRISPR-Cas systems protect prokaryotes against invading viruses and plasmids. (bireme.br)
  • It also substantiates the hypothesis that certain groups of DNA viruses could have emerged from plasmids via acquisition of capsid protein-coding genes from RNA viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple origins of prokaryotic and eukaryotic single-stranded DNA viruses from bacterial and archaeal plasmids. (nih.gov)
  • It has been demonstrated that SSV ( Sulfolobus spindle virus) viruses, carrying an SSV-type integrase gene, and conjugative plasmids, carrying a pNOB8-type integrase, are integrative elements. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Crenarchaeal viruses are characterized by morphologies and genes not detected in viruses infecting other organisms ( 37 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • This is due, in part, to the relatively recent delineation of the archaeal domain of life but, more significantly, to the challenges of isolating and culturing the host organisms ( 42 ). (asm.org)
  • A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have been described as "organisms at the edge of life", [8] and as replicators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with the bacterial and eukaryal domains, little is known about the archaeal domain of life and the viruses that infect these organisms. (pnas.org)
  • Compared to the viruses infecting organisms from the domains Bacteria and Eukarya , few viruses infecting archaeal organisms have been isolated and most are poorly understood in molecular detail. (hindawi.com)
  • Viruses are infectious particles that can only multiply inside the cells of microbes and other organisms. (elifesciences.org)
  • Like all other organisms, archaeal cells are susceptible to viral infections, and to date, about 100 archaeal viruses have been described. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although the single-cell sequenced organisms were not directly visualized, their genomic sequences support the hypothesis that these archaeal DGRs belong to nanosized, symbiotic organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Sulfolobus spindle-shaped viruses (SSVs) of the family Fuselloviridae were the first discovered and probably the best studied family of archaeal viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Isolation and Characterization of Metallosphaera Turreted Icosahedral Virus, a Founding Member of a New Family of Archaeal Viruses. (mpg.de)
  • In this work we describe the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and novel virus-like particles isolated directly from diverse thermal environments in Yellowstone National Park. (montana.edu)
  • These structures are thought to be sites at which progeny virus particles are released from infected cells. (asm.org)
  • Proteomic analysis of purified STIV particles revealed 11 proteins, with two host proteins (Sso7d and SSO0881) and nine virus proteins ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms for some virus species to more complex structures for others. (wikipedia.org)
  • salterprovirus-like) and pleiomorphic virus-like particles. (mdpi.com)
  • This involves assembly of seven-sided pyramid-like structures on the surface of infected cells, which open to disrupt the cell and release progeny virus particles. (pnas.org)
  • Our technologies can be used in different combinations to purify large macromolecular complexes such as viruses, virus-like particles, viral subassemblies, exosomes, membrane vesicles, large protein complexes, ribonucleoprotein complexes etc. (helsinki.fi)
  • CIM® monolithic columns can be utilized for purification of viruses, virus-like particles, nucleic acids, proteins and their complexes. (helsinki.fi)
  • Plant viral vectors delivered by Agrobacterium are the basis of several manufacturing processes that are currently in use for producing a wide range of proteins for multiple applications, including vaccine antigens, antibodies, protein nanoparticles such as virus-like particles (VLPs), and other protein and protein-RNA scaffolds. (springer.com)
  • Members of the family Picornaviridae , which include Hepatitis A virus, poliovirus, and Coxsackieviruses, have non-enveloped particles that consist of a protein shell surrounding the viral RNA genome (poliovirus is illustrated). (virology.ws)
  • Recently it was discovered that hepatitis A virus (HAV) particles are released from cells in membrane vesicles containing 1-4 virus particles. (virology.ws)
  • Enveloped hepatitis A virus particles are present in the blood of infected humans. (virology.ws)
  • These virus particles are in vesicles derived from the autophagy pathway, which captures and recycles cytoplasmic contents by ejecting them from the cell. (virology.ws)
  • Perhaps immune evasion: the presence of the cell membrane makes HAV and Coxsackievirus B virus particles resistant to neutralization with antibody. (virology.ws)
  • The ability to deliver multiple virus particles to a single cell might help to overcome genetic defects in the viral genome that are a consequence of the high mutation rates of these viruses. (virology.ws)
  • Probably not, in part because the membranes surrounding these virus particles are not needed for infectivity. (virology.ws)
  • While the finding of membranes around picornavirus particles is intriguing, I am not yet convinced that these viruses should be considered to be enveloped. (virology.ws)
  • All known virus particles can be placed into one of two general categories: enveloped or non-enveloped. (virology.ws)
  • Viral concentration, as well as virus-to-cell ratios, increased along the salinity gradient, with around 10 10 virus-like particles (VLPs)/ml in close-to-saturation ponds, which represents the highest viral concentration reported so far for aquatic systems. (asm.org)
  • Most crenarchaeal viruses, twith the exception of the [[Bicaudaviridae]] member ATV, appear to set up chronic infections, either continually producing virus particles or doing so in short events resulting in growth inhibition. (kenyon.edu)
  • Electron microscopic studies of the viruses in two hot springs (85 degrees C, pH 1.5-2.0, and 75-93 degrees C, pH 6.5) in Yellowstone National Park revealed particles with twelve different morphotypes. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Analysis of fluids recovered from these sites revealed both prokaryotes (8,000 per ml) and virus particles (90,000 per ml). (virology.ws)
  • Examination of the fluids by electron microscopy showed virus particles of different kinds: tailed and untailed icosahedral particles, untailed globular particles, and rod and spindle shaped. (virology.ws)
  • This image shows multiple particles of a Sulfolobus spindle shaped virus (SSV) isolated from an acidic hot spring in the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia). (illinois.edu)
  • Structural studies of large macromolecular complexes and virus particles by X-ray crystallography and Electron microscopy. (ikerbasque.net)
  • We use a variety of physical methods to investigate structure-function relationships, including single-crystal x-ray diffraction, static and time-resolved solution x-ray diffraction, electron cryomicroscopy and image reconstruction, mass spectrometry, structure-based computational analyses, and methods associated with thermodynamic characterization of virus particles and their transitions. (scripps.edu)
  • Here we describe a re-analysis of the proteins encoded by archaeal viruses, with an emphasis on comparative genomics of the unique viruses of Crenarchaeota. (nih.gov)
  • A small pool of genes is shared by overlapping subsets of crenarchaeal viruses, in a general analogy with the metagenome structure of bacteriophages. (nih.gov)
  • Bacteriophages that are architecturally similar to the crenarchaeal virus Sulfolobus t urreted i cosahedral v irus (STIV) lyse their host cells ( 3 , 9 , 12 , 22 ), but most viruses that infect crenarchaeal and some euryarchaeal hosts have been observed to extrude from the cell without causing cell death ( 13 , 30 , 41 , 57 ). (asm.org)
  • Whereas species have long been established among sexual eukaryotes, achieving a meaningful species concept for prokaryotes has been an onerous task and has proven exceedingly difficult for describing viruses and bacteriophages. (asm.org)
  • Two virus types resembled head-and-tail bacteriophages from the families Siphoviridae and Podoviridae, and constituted the first observation of these viruses in a hydrothermal environment. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The virus was subsequently shown to infect virus-free isolates of Sulfolobus solfataricus strain P2, for which the complete genome has been sequenced. (asm.org)
  • Viruses infect every living organism on the planet, but not every habitat has been explored for their presence. (virology.ws)
  • These viruses are known to only infect eukaryotes. (virology.ws)
  • A virus known as AFV1 is able to infect A. hospitalis . (elifesciences.org)
  • Like many other viruses, AFV1 steals part of its host cell's membrane when it leaves the cell in search of new cells to infect. (elifesciences.org)
  • These viruses are thought to attach to cells using sticky tail fibers located at one end of the viral particle allowing them to infect the host cell. (illinois.edu)
  • It is possible for several different viruses to infect a single cell at the same time. (elifesciences.org)
  • s findings suggest that although it is common for several different viruses to infect the same cell, it is relatively rare for these viruses to exchange genetic material. (elifesciences.org)
  • We investigate viruses that infect bacteria, insects, plants, and the extreme thermophile Sulfolobus . (scripps.edu)
  • Here we present a detailed characterization of the components forming this unusual virus. (asm.org)
  • This study demonstrated that a moderately thermophilic spring environment contained a highly novel pool of viruses and should encourage future characterization of a wider temperature range of hot springs throughout the world. (mdpi.com)
  • 3) and the isolation and genetic characterization of viruses from extreme thermal environments found in Yellowstone National Park. (montana.edu)
  • This project involves extensive tool development, such as virus isolation procedures from extreme environments, extremophile virus propagation techniques, and development of genetic and biochemical assays, for the discovery and characterization of these unusual viruses. (nasa.gov)
  • Viral diversity in hot springs of Pozzuoli, Italy, and characterization of a unique archaeal virus, Acidianus bottle-shaped virus, from a new family, the Ampullaviridae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We report here the crystal structure of the major capsid protein (MCP) of the Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus, an archaeal virus isolated from an acidic hot spring (pH 2-4, 72-92°C) in Yellowstone National Park. (pnas.org)
  • Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV), isolated from a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, was the first icosahedral virus with an archaeal host to be described. (asm.org)
  • Studies on the structure of STIV have revealed similarities with prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses that suggest a common ancestry for icosahedral double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses ( 30 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • In the current work, we reveal that the archaeal virus Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus isolated from Yellowstone National Park's acidic hot springs also exploits the host ESCRT machinery in its replication cycle. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, perturbation of normal ESCRT function abrogates viral replication and, thus, prevents establishment of a productive Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus infection. (pnas.org)
  • The Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) has emerged as a model system for examining archaeal viruses. (pnas.org)
  • Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) has emerged as a model system for examining archaeal virus replication and structure [ 5 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Enveloped viruses acquire a membrane after the internal components have been assembled, whether they are helical or icosahedral nucleocapsids. (virology.ws)
  • Most of the identified archaeal and bacterial virus sequences came from the families Myoviridae and Siphoviridae (think tailed, icosahedral viruses). (virology.ws)
  • Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus is an archaeal virus isolated from Sulfolobus , which grows in the acidic hot sulfur springs (pH 2-4, 72°C-92°C) in Yellowstone National Park. (scripps.edu)
  • Here we report the genomic sequence of a previously undescribed archaeal virus. (nih.gov)
  • Panel c, Bam H1 enzyme digest of virus BJ1 genomic DNA, DNA size markers are shown on the left (kbps). (nih.gov)
  • Comparative Genomic Analysis of Hyperthermophilic Archaeal Fuselloviridae Viruses. (kenyon.edu)
  • Structural and genomic properties of the hyperthermophilic archaeal virus ATV with an extracellular stage of the reproductive cycle. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This is consistent with the hypothesis that chromosomal spacers are taken up directly and randomly from virus and plasmid DNA and that the spacer transcripts target the genomic DNA of the extrachromosomal elements and not their transcripts. (nih.gov)
  • These findings provide insights about the genomic diversity and ecology of viruses of prokaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, each of the crenarchaeal viruses encodes several proteins with prokaryotic but not viral homologs, some of which, predictably, seem to have been scavenged from the crenarchaeal hosts, but others might have been acquired from bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • The previously presented structural models in conjunction with the protein, lipid, and carbohydrate information reported here reveal that STIV is strikingly similar to viruses associated with the Bacteria and Eukarya domains of life, further strengthening the hypothesis for a common ancestor of this group of dsDNA viruses from all domains of life. (asm.org)
  • Lytic viruses of bacteria typically utilize a holin/endolysin-based mechanism for virion release [ 16 , 17 ], whereas virion egress via a cellular budding mechanism is commonly used by enveloped animal viruses. (hindawi.com)
  • These data increase the number of viral genome sequences that are publically available by a factor of ten and identify the first viruses associated with 13 new types of bacteria, which include species that are abundant in particular environments. (elifesciences.org)
  • The CRISPR pathway was discovered in bacteria, where it functions much like an immune system against invading viruses and plasmid DNA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The x-ray structure of the major capsid protein of the virus revealed a fold nearly identical to the folds of the major capsid proteins of the eukaryotic adenoviruses and PRD-1, a virus that infects bacteria. (scripps.edu)
  • Archaeal cells have unique properties separating them from the other two domains of life: Bacteria and Eukaryota. (educalingo.com)
  • Most virus species have virions too small to be seen with an optical microscope , as they are one-hundredth the size of most bacteria. (popflock.com)
  • In addition, total environmental DNA extracted from three distinct locations is used to assess the diversity of the resident archaeal community and to evaluate the diversity of thermophilic viruses. (montana.edu)
  • The unprecedented diversity of thermal features (~10,000) in Yellowstone National Park has provided us the opportunity to assess host and virus diversity within a single site and among geographically separated sites with distinct geochemical signatures. (montana.edu)
  • However, limited information on the diversity and replication of archaeal viruses, in general, has hampered further analysis. (asm.org)
  • In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer , which increases genetic diversity . (wikipedia.org)
  • The current view of virus diversity in terrestrial hot springs is limited to a few sampling sites. (mdpi.com)
  • 2014) Archaeal viruses: diversity, replication and structure. (openwetware.org)
  • Here, There and Everywhere: Large and Giant Viruses Abound Globally In Nature, a JGI-led team uncovered a broad diversity of large and giant viruses that belong to the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) supergroup. (doe.gov)
  • The expansion of the diversity for large and giant viruses offered the researchers insights into how they might interact with their hosts. (doe.gov)
  • The intrinsically high error rate of these enzymes is a large contributor to the generation of extreme population diversity that facilitates virus adaptation and evolution. (jove.com)
  • Viruses are the most abundant life-like entities on the planet and are likely a major reservoir of genetic diversity for all life on the planet and these studies are aimed at providing insights into the role of viruses in the evolution of early life on Earth. (nasa.gov)
  • Viruses are the most abundant life-like entities on the planet and are likely a major reservoir of genetic diversity for all life on the planet. (nasa.gov)
  • We hope to gain insights into the role that viruses might have played in the formation of suspected protocells of early life, and the enormous diversity of viruses present on the planet. (nasa.gov)
  • IRESes are critical for many pathogenic viruses, but efforts to understand their function are complicated by the diversity of IRES sequences as well as by limited high-resolution structural information. (futura-sciences.com)
  • Surface (S)-layer glycoproteins, the major component of the S-layers in many archaeal species and the best-characterized prokaryotic glycoproteins, were shown to have a large structural diversity in their glycan compositions. (scoop.it)
  • These sequences have the potential to fill many of the gaps in our understanding of the diversity of viruses of prokaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The major capsid protein (B345) was found to be glycosylated, implying a strong similarity to proteins from other dsDNA viruses. (asm.org)
  • While not common, internal lipid layers are present in a number of dsDNA viruses. (asm.org)
  • Bath C, Cukalac T, Porter K, Dyall-Smith ML (2006) His1 and His2 are distantly related, spindle-shaped haloviruses belonging to the novel virus group, Salterprovirus. (springer.com)
  • JVirology: Extreme Mutation Tolerance: Nearly Half of the Archaeal Fusellovirus Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Genes are Not Required for Virus Function, Including the Minor Capsid Protein Gene vp3 . (asm.org)
  • The Fuselloviridae family currently consists of only one virus, Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1), and three tentative members (SSV2, SSV3, and the staaelite virus pSSVx, which stands for plasmid SSV x). (kenyon.edu)
  • His1 and His2 are distantly related, spindle-shaped haloviruses belonging to the novel virus group, Salterprovirus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A virus that infects an archaeal host may constitute a new category of enveloped viruses. (virology.ws)
  • Bath C, Dyall-Smith ML (1998) His1, an archaeal virus of the Fuselloviridae family that infects Haloarcula hispanica. (springer.com)
  • Flock House virus is a T = 3, single-stranded RNA virus that infects Drosophila . (scripps.edu)
  • Although we have genome sequences for most of the crenarchaeal viruses isolated, we have only a rudimentary understanding of archaeal virus assembly and release from cells. (asm.org)
  • article{osti_1572795, title = {Bacterial and Archaeal Metagenome-Assembled Genome Sequences from Svalbard Permafrost}, author = {Xue, Yaxin and Jonassen, Inge and Øvreås, Lise and Taş, Neslihan}, abstractNote = {ABSTRACT Permafrost contains one of the least known soil microbiomes, where microbial populations reside in an ice-locked environment. (osti.gov)
  • A small core metavirome for close-to-saturation systems was found that contained 7 sequences of around 100 nucleotides (nt) whose function was not hinted at by in silico search results, although it most likely represents properties essential for hyperhalophilic viruses. (asm.org)
  • Most viral sequences likely had archaeal hosts. (virology.ws)
  • Some sequences were similar to those of giant viruses like mimiviruses and phycodnaviruses. (virology.ws)
  • Earlier in 2015, researchers developed a new computational tool called VirSorter that can predict virus genome sequences within the DNA extracted from microbes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Short DNA sequences (spacers) from invading viruses are incorporated at CRISPR loci within the bacterial genome and serve as "memory" of previous infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Along with these core DGR components, the archaeal DGRs contain initiation of mutagenic homing sequences in the VR (i.e. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Detailed examination of conserved domains and motifs uncovered a significant number of previously unnoticed homologous relationships among the proteins of crenarchaeal viruses and between viral proteins and those from cellular life forms and allowed functional predictions for some of these conserved genes. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that crenarchaeal viruses are, in general, evolutionarily unrelated to other known viruses and, probably, evolved via independent accretion of genes derived from the hosts and, through more complex routes of horizontal gene transfer, from other prokaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • Sequence analysis of the 17.3-kb circular dsDNA genome predicts 37 open reading frames (ORFs) with little or no similarity to other genes in the databases except for ORFs encoded by other viruses infecting Sulfolobus spp. (asm.org)
  • Readers learn about the history of this unique science, how viruses are named, how their genes work, how they copy and package themselves, how they interact with their hosts, how immune systems counteract viruses, and how viruses travel from host to host. (credoreference.com)
  • The researchers found that only 11 genes, when mutated, rendered the virus noninfective (see figure, right). (asm.org)
  • Virus Genes - incl. (springer.com)
  • Virus Genes is dedicated to the publication of studies on the structure and function of viruses and their genes, the molecular and systems interactions with the host and all applications derived thereof, providing a forum for the analysis of data and discussion of its implications, and the development of new hypotheses. (springer.com)
  • VIRUS GENES does NOT publish purely descriptive studies, e.g., primary sequence data of known viruses based on local sample collections. (springer.com)
  • 2000. Iridovirus homologues of cellular genes -- implications for the molecular evolution of large DNA viruses. (tolweb.org)
  • Virus Genes 21:77-81. (tolweb.org)
  • No genes encoding tRNAs, such as those found in giant viruses, were identified. (virology.ws)
  • Viruses from these two families have many homologous genes and build their virions using structurally similar major capsid proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • Limitations for viral cultivation and purification associated with the absence of universal marker genes have been major drawbacks in the effort to chart and classify the biodiversity of these viruses [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesize that this new viral lysis system is common within diverse archaeal viral populations found within acidic hot springs. (hindawi.com)
  • Structural analysis of the capsid architecture, determined by fitting the subunit into the electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of the virus, identified a number of key interactions that are akin to those observed in adenovirus and PRD1. (pnas.org)
  • The structural and sequence comparison between the MCPs of these viruses, and similarities between their capsid architectures support the idea that their viral capsids share a common ancestor. (pnas.org)
  • Structural and Functional Studies of Archaeal Viruses. (montana.edu)
  • We have begun genetic and structural analyses of these viruses and we are gaining insights into the evolution of viruses on Earth. (nasa.gov)
  • By using sequence alignment and modeling techniques, this lineage was recently extended to include additional large-faceted viruses containing a double-barrel trimeric major coat protein ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • This suggestion is supported by the shared general architecture of this group of viruses and the common fold of their major capsid protein. (asm.org)
  • Deletion of the poorly conserved predicted DNA-binding protein gene VP2 yields viable virus that is indistinguishable from wild-type. (frontiersin.org)
  • Viral envelopes typically contain viral glycoproteins, such as the HA protein of influenza viruses, which serve important functions during replication, such as attachment to cell receptors. (virology.ws)
  • Wiley JA, Richert LE, Swain SD, Harmsen A, Barnard DL, Randall TD, Jutila M, Douglas T, Broomell C, Young M. Inducible Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Elicited by a Protein Cage Nanoparticle Enhances Protection in Mice against Diverse Respiratory Viruses. (montana.edu)
  • Structures of respiratory syncytial virus nucleocapsid protein from two crystal forms: details of potential packing interactions in the native helical form. (ikerbasque.net)
  • This fold is surprisingly reminiscent of the CLec-folds of viral and bacterial DGR variable protein, but differs sufficiently to define a new CLec-fold subclass, which is consistent with early divergence between bacterial and archaeal DGRs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, to our knowledge, this is the first report of an archaeal CLec-fold protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unrooted phylogenetic tree showing the relationship of the environmental archaeal strain host BJ1B11 for the virus BJ1, to other closely related environmental strains isolated by us and Halorubrum species. (nih.gov)
  • The extreme environments favored by many archaeal species and limited knowledge about their biochemistry and biology exacerbate this problem. (asm.org)
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky 's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, [2] about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, [3] although there are millions of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most virus species have virions that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope . (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many. (wikipedia.org)
  • This more comprehensive "metagenomics" approach allows quantification of microbial inhabitants down to the species level, and also accounts for bugs such as viruses and fungi. (alzforum.org)
  • Viruses are real, virus species are man-made, taxonomic constructions. (tolweb.org)
  • Biogenesis pathways of RNA guides in archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity. (uni-ulm.de)
  • The spherical halophilic euryarchaeon Haloarcula hispanica virus (SH1) also has an internal lipid layer that is selectively acquired from the host ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Baranyi U, Klein R, Lubitz W, Kruger DH, Witte A (2000) The archaeal halophilic virus-encoded Dam-like methyltransferase M. phiCh1-I methylates adenine residues and complements dam mutants in the low salt environment of Escherichia coli. (springer.com)
  • Two lytic viruses infecting these were isolated from the lake water. (nih.gov)
  • SSV1, the type virus for the family, was the first high-temperature virus to be characterized. (kenyon.edu)
  • Elucidating the transcription cycle of the UV‐inducible hyperthermophilic archaeal virus SSV1 by DNA microarrays. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Viruses rely on the molecular machinery of their host for many of the functions necessary to generate their viral progeny. (asm.org)
  • SANS project description: Nucleic acids constitute one of the main components of viruses by molecular weight, and the viral genome is often strongly confined into a small volume of the capsid. (iucr.org)
  • One example is provided by hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses of the order Ligamenvirales ( Prangishvili and Krupovic, 2012 ) which contain non-enveloped, rigid rod-shaped viruses of the family Rudiviridae and enveloped, flexible filamentous viruses of the family Lipothrixviridae . (elifesciences.org)
  • The capsid architecture of STIV is reminiscent of the mammalian adenovirus, bacteriophage PRD1, and Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus (PBCV-1). (pnas.org)
  • STIV was determined to be a lytic virus, causing cell disruption beginning at 30 hpi. (asm.org)
  • An examination of STIV-host interactions has revealed a novel virus-induced cell lysis mechanism ( 2 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • A new type of viral-induced lysis system has recently been discovered for two unrelated archaeal viruses, STIV and SIRV2. (hindawi.com)
  • Prior to cell lysis, virus infection resulted in the formation of pyramid-like projections from the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • Most of the information about cell lysis is based on observations of a decrease in optical density (OD) in an infected culture, plaque assays, or plate growth inhibition assays, but little is known about the actual mechanism of archaeal lysis. (asm.org)
  • A similar lysis system was more recently described in another archaeal virus, Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) [ 18 - 20 ], indicating that this type of lysis may be widespread among archaeal viruses. (hindawi.com)
  • Even though these two different archaeal viruses appear to share a similar lysis mechanism, genetically they are very different from each other. (hindawi.com)
  • Assembly and release of most known crenarchaeal viruses, do not require cell lysis. (kenyon.edu)
  • Often, it is through the study of host-virus interactions that insights to the biology of the host are elucidated. (asm.org)
  • Atanasova NS, Roine E, Oren A, Bamford DH, Oksanen HM (2012) Global network of specific virus-host interactions in hypersaline environments. (springer.com)
  • In the Sullivan lab, Ben has worked on continued development of the phageFISH technique to probe the influence of nutrients on virus-host interactions. (openwetware.org)
  • In Hot Spring Microbial Mat, Viruses Ride "Piggyback" In The ISME Journal, scientists have used sequencing methods for the first time to comprehensively characterize viral-host interactions. (doe.gov)
  • In order to understand archaeal host-virus interactions both dependent and culture-independent methods must be used. (nasa.gov)
  • The ecological importance of viruses is now widely recognized, yet our limited knowledge of viral sequence space and virus-host interactions precludes accurate prediction of their roles and impacts. (elifesciences.org)
  • The basic replication cycle of crenarchaeal viruses, including Fuselloviruses, has yet to be determined. (kenyon.edu)
  • These long-term chronic infections are thought to be an adaptation to the extremely hot and acidic environments crenarchaeal viruses inhabit. (kenyon.edu)
  • His Ph.D. work, under the guidance of Mark Young, focused on isolating RNA viruses from acidic, thermophilic environments in Yellowstone National Park and developing bioinformatic/wet lab protocols to generate and analyze viral metagenomes out of these extreme environments. (openwetware.org)
  • Viruses from extreme thermal environments. (kenyon.edu)
  • This project is aimed at probing the occurrence and evolution of archaeal viruses in the extreme environments in the thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park. (nasa.gov)
  • We are investigating the role of archaeal viruses present in high temperature acidic environments found in Yellowstone National Park. (nasa.gov)
  • The specific objectives of this project are to (1) to isolate and characterize new archaeal viruses in high temperature environments and (2) to understand the role these viruses play in determining the evolution and ecology of microbial communities. (nasa.gov)
  • VAPs (virus-associated pyramids) formed by the Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) in cells of its hyperthermophilic archaeal host. (pasteur.fr)
  • The study of viruses is again on the cutting edge of biological sciences: systems biology, genomics, proteomics, metagenomics, using the newest most powerful tools. (springer.com)
  • 60 °C, pH 5.7) by means of electron microscopy and sequencing of the virus fraction. (mdpi.com)
  • Viruses from three ponds (C4, M1, and TS) encompassing salinities from moderately hypersaline to saturated (around 14, 19, and 35%, respectively) were sampled in May and October 2009 and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). (asm.org)
  • An electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of the virus showed that the capsid has pseudo T = 31 quasi symmetry and is 1000 Å in diameter, including the pentons. (scripps.edu)
  • Genus Tequatrovirus ( T4virus , T4-ähnliche Viren , en. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000. The origins and ongoing evolution of viruses. (tolweb.org)
  • Two major phases in the evolution of viruses are indicated in different background colors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Does the evolution of viral polymerases reflect the origin and evolution of viruses? (helsinki.fi)
  • Most archaeal viruses are morphologically and genetically distinct from previously described viruses [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)