One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.
A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.
A family of archaea, in the order DESULFUROCOCCALES, consisting of anaerobic cocci which utilize peptides, proteins or carbohydrates facultatively by sulfur respiration or fermentation. There are eight genera: AEROPYRUM, Desulfurococcus, Ignicoccus, Staphylothermus, Stetteria, Sulfophoboccus, Thermodiscus, and Thermosphaera. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. There are two families: METHANOSARCINACEAE and Methanosaetaceae.
An order of extremely halophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They occur ubiquitously in nature where the salt concentration is high, and are chemoorganotrophic, using amino acids or carbohydrates as a carbon source.
A genus of extremely halophilic HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoheterotropic and strictly aerobic. They are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes (especially the Dead Sea) and marine salterns.
A genus of strictly anaerobic ultrathermophilic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated seawaters. They exhibit heterotrophic growth at an optimum temperature of 100 degrees C.
A species of aerobic, chemolithotrophic ARCHAEA consisting of coccoid cells that utilize sulfur as an energy source. The optimum temperature for growth is 70-75 degrees C. They are isolated from acidic fields.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A family of anaerobic METHANOSARCINALES whose cells are mesophilic or thermophilic and appear as irregular spheroid bodies or sheathed rods. These methanogens are found in any anaerobic environment including aquatic sediments, anaerobic sewage digesters and gastrointestinal tracts. There are four genera: METHANOSARCINA, Methanolobus, Methanothrix, and Methanococcoides.
A species of gram-negative hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in deep ocean hydrothermal vents. It is an obligate anaerobe and obligate chemoorganotroph.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)
A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.
A species of strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaea which lives in geothermally-heated marine sediments. It exhibits heterotropic growth by fermentation or sulfur respiration.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A genus of extremely thermophilic heterotrophic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated sea flows. They are anaerobic chemoorganotropic sulfidogens.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.
A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Mediterranean Sea. It produces bacteriocins active against a range of other halobacteria.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
A family of THERMOPROTEALES consisting of variable length rigid rods without septa. They grow either chemolithoautotrophically or by sulfur respiration. The four genera are: PYROBACULUM; THERMOPROTEUS; Caldivirga; and Thermocladium. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)
A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An order of aerobic, thermophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA, characterized by the absence of a cell wall. Two genera have been described: THERMOPLASMA and Picrophilus.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, cocci to short rod-shaped ARCHAEA, in the family METHANOBACTERIACEAE, order METHANOBACTERIALES. They are found in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or other anoxic environments.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of halophilic archaea distinguished by its production of acid from sugar. This species was previously called Halobacterium marismortui.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
An order of CRENARCHAEOTA consisting of aerobic or facultatively aerobic, chemolithotrophic cocci which are extreme thermoacidophiles. They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A family of anaerobic METHANOMICROBIALES whose cells are coccoid to straight or slightly curved rods. There are six genera.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of extremely thermophilic, sulfate-reducing archaea, in the family Archaeoglobaceae.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The large subunit of the archaeal 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 40 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
A family of SULFOLOBALES consisting of aerobic or facultatively anaerobic chemolithotrophic cocci, usually occurring singly. They grow best at a pH of about 2.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)
A kingdom of hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in diverse environments.
Anaerobic hyperthermophilic species of ARCHAEA, isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples. It is obligately heterotrophic with coccoid cells that require TRYPTOPHAN for growth.
An order of anaerobic, highly specialized methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. Its organisms are nonmotile or motile, with cells occurring as coccoid bodies, pseudosarcina, or rods. Families include METHANOMICROBIACEAE, Methanocorpusculaceae, and Methanospirillaceae.
A genus of rod-shaped, almost rectangular ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. Organisms are facultatively aerobic or strictly anaerobic, grow on various organic substrates, and are found in continental solfataras.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of obligately anaerobic ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. They are found in acidic hot springs and water holes.
A genus of anaerobic, chemolithotropic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family DESULFUROCOCCACEAE. They live in marine environments.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.

Characterization of two novel haloalkaliphilic archaea Natronorubrum bangense gen. nov., sp. nov. and Natronorubrum tibetense gen. nov., sp. nov. (1/2228)

Two haloalkaliphilic archaea were isolated from a soda lake in Tibet. The two strains, designated A33T and GA33T, were Gram-negative, pleomorphic, flat, non-motile and strictly aerobic. Growth required at least 12% NaCl. Growth was between pH 8.0 and pH 11 with an optimum at pH 9.0-9.5. Cells were chemo-organotrophic. Polar lipids were C20-C25 derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol phosphate. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from the two strains were obtained by the analysis of the cloned rDNAs. On 16S rRNA phylogenetic trees, the two strains formed a monophyletic cluster. They differed from their closet neighbours, Halobacterium trapanicum and Natrialba asiatica, in polar lipid composition, as well as physiological and phenotypic characteristics. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that the two strains belonged to different species of the same genus. The results indicated that the strains A33T and GA33T should be classified in a new genus Natronorubrum gen. nov. as Natronorubrum bangense sp. nov. (strain A33T) and Natronorubrum tibetense sp. nov. (strain GA33T).  (+info)

An evaluation of elongation factor 1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes. (2/2228)

Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is a highly conserved ubiquitous protein involved in translation that has been suggested to have desirable properties for phylogenetic inference. To examine the utility of EF-1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes, we studied three properties of EF-1 alpha trees: congruency with other phyogenetic markers, the impact of species sampling, and the degree of substitutional saturation occurring between taxa. Our analyses indicate that the EF-1 alpha tree is congruent with some other molecular phylogenies in identifying both the deepest branches and some recent relationships in the eukaryotic line of descent. However, the topology of the intermediate portion of the EF-1 alpha tree, occupied by most of the protist lineages, differs for different phylogenetic methods, and bootstrap values for branches are low. Most problematic in this region is the failure of all phylogenetic methods to resolve the monophyly of two higher-order protistan taxa, the Ciliophora and the Alveolata. JACKMONO analyses indicated that the impact of species sampling on bootstrap support for most internal nodes of the eukaryotic EF-1 alpha tree is extreme. Furthermore, a comparison of observed versus inferred numbers of substitutions indicates that multiple overlapping substitutions have occurred, especially on the branch separating the Eukaryota from the Archaebacteria, suggesting that the rooting of the eukaryotic tree on the diplomonad lineage should be treated with caution. Overall, these results suggest that the phylogenies obtained from EF-1 alpha are congruent with other molecular phylogenies in recovering the monophyly of groups such as the Metazoa, Fungi, Magnoliophyta, and Euglenozoa. However, the interrelationships between these and other protist lineages are not well resolved. This lack of resolution may result from the combined effects of poor taxonomic sampling, relatively few informative positions, large numbers of overlapping substitutions that obscure phylogenetic signal, and lineage-specific rate increases in the EF-1 alpha data set. It is also consistent with the nearly simultaneous diversification of major eukaryotic lineages implied by the "big-bang" hypothesis of eukaryote evolution.  (+info)

Unusual ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of anoxic Archaea. (3/2228)

The predominant pool of organic matter on earth is derived from the biological reduction and assimilation of carbon dioxide gas, catalyzed primarily by the enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). By virtue of its capacity to use molecular oxygen as an alternative and competing gaseous substrate, the catalytic efficiency of RubisCO and the enzyme's ability to assimilate CO2 may be severely limited, with consequent environmental and agricultural effects. Recent genomic sequencing projects, however, have identified putative RubisCO genes from anoxic Archaea. In the present study, these potential RubisCO sequences, from Methanococcus jannaschii and Archaeoglobus fulgidus, were analyzed in order to ascertain whether such sequences might encode functional proteins. We also report the isolation and properties of recombinant RubisCO using sequences obtained from the obligately anaerobic hyperthermophilic methanogen M. jannaschii. This is the first description of an archaeal RubisCO sequence; this study also represents the initial characterization of a RubisCO molecule that has evolved in the absence of molecular oxygen. The enzyme was shown to be a homodimer whose deduced sequence, along with other recently obtained archaeal RubisCO sequences, differs substantially from those of known RubisCO molecules. The recombinant M. jannaschii enzyme has a somewhat low, but reasonable kcat, however, unlike previously isolated RubisCO molecules, this enzyme is very oxygen sensitive yet it is stable to hyperthermal temperatures and catalyzes the formation of the expected carboxylation product. Despite inhibition by oxygen, this unusual RubisCO still catalyzes a weak yet demonstrable oxygenase activity, with perhaps the lowest capacity for CO2/O2 discrimination ever encountered for any RubisCO.  (+info)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides reveals localization of methanogens and selected uncultured bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic sludge granules. (4/2228)

16S rRNA-targeted in situ hybridization combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to elucidate the spatial distribution of microbes within two types of methanogenic granular sludge, mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C), in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors fed with sucrose-, acetate-, and propionate-based artificial wastewater. The spatial organization of the microbes was visualized in thin sections of the granules by using fluorescent oligonucleotide probes specific to several phylogenetic groups of microbes. In situ hybridization with archaeal- and bacterial-domain probes within granule sections clearly showed that both mesophilic and thermophilic granules had layered structures and that the outer layer harbored mainly bacterial cells while the inner layer consisted mainly of archaeal cells. Methanosaeta-, Methanobacterium-, Methanospirillum-, and Methanosarcina-like cells were detected with oligonucleotide probes specific for the different groups of methanogens, and they were found to be localized inside the granules, in both types of which dominant methanogens were members of the genus Methanosaeta. For specific detection of bacteria which were previously detected by whole-microbial-community 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-cloning analysis (Y. Sekiguchi, Y. Kamagata, K. Syutsubo, A. Ohashi, H. Harada, and K. Nakamura, Microbiology 144:2655-2665, 1998) we designed probes specific for clonal 16S rDNAs related to unidentified green nonsulfur bacteria and clones related to Syntrophobacter species. The probe designed for the cluster closely related to Syntrophobacter species hybridized with coccoid cells in the inner layer of the mesophilic granule sections. The probe for the unidentified bacteria which were clustered with the green nonsulfur bacteria detected filamentous cells in the outermost layer of the thermophilic sludge granule sections. These results revealed the spatial organizations of methanogens and uncultivated bacteria and their in situ morphologies and metabolic functions in both mesophilic and thermophilic granular sludges.  (+info)

Universal conservation in translation initiation revealed by human and archaeal homologs of bacterial translation initiation factor IF2. (5/2228)

Binding of initiator methionyl-tRNA to ribosomes is catalyzed in prokaryotes by initiation factor (IF) IF2 and in eukaryotes by eIF2. The discovery of both IF2 and eIF2 homologs in yeast and archaea suggested that these microbes possess an evolutionarily intermediate protein synthesis apparatus. We describe the identification of a human IF2 homolog, and we demonstrate by using in vivo and in vitro assays that human IF2 functions as a translation factor. In addition, we show that archaea IF2 can substitute for its yeast homolog both in vivo and in vitro. We propose a universally conserved function for IF2 in facilitating the proper binding of initiator methionyl-tRNA to the ribosomal P site.  (+info)

10-11 bp periodicities in complete genomes reflect protein structure and DNA folding. (6/2228)

MOTIVATION: Completely sequenced genomes allow for detection and analysis of the relatively weak periodicities of 10-11 basepairs (bp). Two sources contribute to such signals: correlations in the corresponding protein sequences due to the amphipatic character of alpha-helices and the folding of DNA (nucleosomal patterns, DNA supercoiling). Since the topological state of genomic DNA is of importance for its replication, recombination and transcription, there is an immediate interest to obtain information about the supercoiled state from sequence periodicities. RESULTS: We show that correlations within proteins affect mainly the oscillations at distances below 35 bp. The long-ranging correlations up to 100 bp reflect primarily DNA folding. For the yeast genome these oscillations are consistent in detail with the chromatin structure. For eubacteria and archaea the periods deviate significantly from the 10.55 bp value for free DNA. These deviations suggest that while a period of 11 bp in bacteria reflects negative supercoiling, the significantly different period of thermophilic archaea close to 10 bp corresponds to positive supercoiling of thermophilic archaeal genomes. AVAILABILITY: Protein sets and C programs for the calculation of correlation functions are available on request from the authors (see http://itb.biologie.hu-berlin.de).  (+info)

The euryarchaeotes, a subdomain of Archaea, survive on a single DNA polymerase: fact or farce? (7/2228)

Archaea is now recognized as the third domain of life. Since their discovery, much effort has been directed towards understanding the molecular biology and biochemistry of Archaea. The objective is to comprehend the complete structure and the depth of the phylogenetic tree of life. DNA replication is one of the most important events in living organisms and DNA polymerase is the key enzyme in the molecular machinery which drives the process. All archaeal DNA polymerases were thought to belong to family B. This was because all of the products of pol genes that had been cloned showed amino acid sequence similarities to those of this family, which includes three eukaryal DNA replicases and Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II. Recently, we found a new heterodimeric DNA polymerase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus. The genes coding for the subunits of this DNA polymerase are conserved in the euryarchaeotes whose genomes have been completely sequenced. The biochemical characteristics of the novel DNA polymerase family suggest that its members play an important role in DNA replication within euryarchaeal cells. We review here our current knowledge on DNA polymerases in Archaea with emphasis on the novel DNA polymerase discovered in Euryarchaeota.  (+info)

Two distinct SECIS structures capable of directing selenocysteine incorporation in eukaryotes. (8/2228)

Translation of UGA as selenocysteine requires specific RNA secondary structures in the mRNAs of selenoproteins. These elements differ in sequence, structure, and location in the mRNA, that is, coding versus 3' untranslated region, in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and archaea. Analyses of eukaryotic selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) elements via computer folding programs, mutagenesis studies, and chemical and enzymatic probing has led to the derivation of a predicted consensus structural model for these elements. This model consists of a stem-loop or hairpin, with conserved nucleotides in the loop and in a non-Watson-Crick motif at the base of the stem. However, the sequences of a number of SECIS elements predict that they would diverge from the consensus structure in the loop region. Using site-directed mutagenesis to introduce mutations predicted to either disrupt or restore structure, or to manipulate loop size or stem length, we show that eukaryotic SECIS elements fall into two distinct classes, termed forms 1 and 2. Form 2 elements have additional secondary structures not present in form 1 elements. By either insertion or deletion of the sequences and structures distinguishing the two classes of elements while maintaining appropriate loop size, conversion of a form 1 element to a functional form 2-like element and of a form 2 to a functional form 1-like element was achieved. These results suggest commonality of function of the two classes. The information obtained regarding the existence of two classes of SECIS elements and the tolerances for manipulations of stem length and loop size should facilitate designing RNA molecules for obtaining high-resolution structural information about these elements.  (+info)

Investigations were performed on the structural features responsible for kinetic thermal stability of a thermostable carboxypeptidase from the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus which had been purified previously and identified as a zinc metalloprotease [Colombo, DAuria, Fusi, Zecca, Raia and Tortora (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 206, 349-357]. Removal of Zn2+ by dialysis led to reversible activity loss, which was promptly restored by addition of 80 microM ZnCl2 to the assay mixture. For the first-order irreversible thermal inactivation the metal-depleted enzyme showed an activation energy value of 205.6 kJ.mol-1, which is considerably lower than that of the holoenzyme (494.4 kJ.mol-1). The values of activation free energies, enthalpies and entropies also dropped with metal removal. Thermal inactivation of the apoenzyme was very quick at 80 degrees C, whereas the holoenzyme was stable at the same temperature. These findings suggest a major stabilizing role for the bivalent ...
1CAA: X-ray crystal structures of the oxidized and reduced forms of the rubredoxin from the marine hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus.
Archaea exist in a broad range of habitats, and as a major part of global ecosystems,[14] may represent about 20% of microbial cells in the oceans.[159] The first-discovered archaeans were extremophiles.[112] Indeed, some archaea survive high temperatures, often above 100 °C (212 °F), as found in geysers, black smokers, and oil wells. Other common habitats include very cold habitats and highly saline, acidic, or alkaline water. However, archaea include mesophiles that grow in mild conditions, in swamps and marshland, sewage, the oceans, the intestinal tract of animals, and soils.[14]. Extremophile archaea are members of four main physiological groups. These are the halophiles, thermophiles, alkaliphiles, and acidophiles.[160] These groups are not comprehensive or phylum-specific, nor are they mutually exclusive, since some archaea belong to several groups. Nonetheless, they are a useful starting point for classification.. Halophiles, including the genus Halobacterium, live in extremely saline ...
Archaea are nowadays known as the third domain of life. Before 1970 archaea were thought to belong to the domain bacteria, since archaeal cells have similar sizes as bacterial cells and like bacteria possess neither a nucleus nor cell organelles. In the 1970s Carl Woese sequenced ribosomal RNAs of prokaryotic organisms and discovered two different types of rRNA sequences. Because of this discovery Woese proposed that the prokaryotic domain has to be subdivided into two separate domains, namely Bacteria and Archaea. Since then more and more data accumulated which show that Archaea indeed belong to a separate domain. Initially people thought that archaea are freaks living only at sites with extreme living conditions like f.i. hot geysers in Yellowstone National Park and Black Smokers at the bottom of the ocean. But nowadays it is known that archaea also constitute a big part of the biomass in normal environments. Asgard archaea: Close relatives to the first eukaryotic cell? ...
Archaea exist in a broad range of habitats, and as a major part of global ecosystems,[15] may represent about 20% of microbial cells in the oceans.[161] The first-discovered archaeans were extremophiles.[114] Indeed, some archaea survive high temperatures, often above 100 °C (212 °F), as found in geysers, black smokers, and oil wells. Other common habitats include very cold habitats and highly saline, acidic, or alkaline water. However, archaea include mesophiles that grow in mild conditions, in swamps and marshland, sewage, the oceans, the intestinal tract of animals, and soils.[15]. Extremophile archaea are members of four main physiological groups. These are the halophiles, thermophiles, alkaliphiles, and acidophiles.[162] These groups are not comprehensive or phylum-specific, nor are they mutually exclusive, since some archaea belong to several groups. Nonetheless, they are a useful starting point for classification.. Halophiles, including the genus Halobacterium, live in extremely saline ...
Over the last decades, the study of extremophiles has providing ground breaking discoveries that challenge the paradigms of modern biology and make us rethink intriguing questions such as what is life?, what are the limits of life?, and what are the fundamental features of life?. These findings and possibilities have made the study of life in extreme environments one of the most exciting areas of research in recent decades. However, despite the latest advances we are just in the beginning of exploring and characterizing the world of extremophiles. This special issue discusses several aspects of these fascinating organisms, exploring their habitats, biodiversity, ecology, evolution, genetics, biochemistry, and biotechnological applications in a collection of exciting reviews and original articles written by leading experts and research groups in the field. [...]
Our division studies the Biology of Archaea as well as bacterial symbioses with a focus on ecological, physiological and evolutionary aspects to shed light on the diversity and fundamental distinctions between these two prokaryotic groups. In particular we are interested in: - The ecological distribution of archaea from terrestrial, aquatic and hot environments - The phylogeny of archaea - The metabolism and genomes of ammonia oxidizing thaumarchaeota - virus-defense (CRISPR-) systems of hyperthermophilic archaea - physiology and biotechnological application of methanogenic archaea - bacterium-nematode symbioses ...
Our division studies the Biology of Archaea as well as bacterial symbioses with a focus on ecological, physiological and evolutionary aspects to shed light on the diversity and fundamental distinctions between these two prokaryotic groups. In particular we are interested in: - The ecological distribution of archaea from terrestrial, aquatic and hot environments - The phylogeny of archaea - The metabolism and genomes of ammonia oxidizing thaumarchaeota - virus-defense (CRISPR-) systems of hyperthermophilic archaea - physiology and biotechnological application of methanogenic archaea - bacterium-nematode symbioses ...
Domain Archaea is currently represented by one phylum (Euryarchaeota) and two superphyla (TACK and DPANN). However, gene surveys indicate the existence of a vast diversity of uncultivated archaea for which metabolic information is lacking. We sequenced DNA from complex sediment- and groundwater-associated microbial communities sampled prior to and during an acetate biostimulation field experiment to investigate the diversity and physiology of uncultivated subsurface archaea. We sampled 15 genomes that improve resolution of a new phylum within the TACK superphylum and 119 DPANN genomes that highlight a major subdivision within the archaeal domain that separates DPANN from TACK/Euryarchaeota lineages. Within the DPANN superphylum, which lacks any isolated representatives, we defined two new phyla using sequences from 100 newly sampled genomes. The first new phylum, for which we propose the name Woesearchaeota, was defined using 54 new sequences. We reconstructed a complete (finished) genome for an ...
Archaea is a single-celled micro-organism that lives underwater and in soil. A single individual or species is called an archaeon (sometimes spelled archeon). Archaea, like bacteria, are prokaryotes. They have no cell nucleus or any other organelles within their cells. In the past they were viewed as an unusual group of bacteria and named archaebacteria but since the Archaea have an independent evolutionary history and show many differences in their biochemistry from other forms of life, they are now classed into their own group. They have been found in a broad range of habitats, such as soils, lakes, oceans, and marshlands. Archaea are particularly numerous in the oceans, and the archaea in plankton may be one of the most abundant groups of organisms on the planet. These prokaryotes are now recognized as a major part of life on Earth and may play an important role in both the carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle. No clear examples of archaeal pathogens or parasites are known. ...
View Notes - 22 from BIOL 4125 at LSU. PROKARYOTIC DIVERSITY BIOL 4125 SPRING 2009 LECTURE 22 Hyperthermophilic Archaea Part II The early overview of archaeal diversity was exemplified by a
Ti Archaea ket buklen ti domimio wenno pagarian dagiti agmaymaysa a selula a mikroorganismo. Dagitoy a mikrobio ket awananda ti pagtengngaan a selula wenno dagiti dadduma pay a mangbedbed a kulanit nga organulo iti kaunegan dagiti selula. Iti napalabas ti Archaea ket naiklase idi kadagiti bakteria a kas dagiti prokaryote (wenno Pagarian ti Monera) ken nanganan iti archaebakteria, ngem daytoy a pannakaidasig ket naikeddengen a duog.[5] Iti kinapudno, ti Archaea ket adda ti nawaya nga ebolusionario a pakasaritaan ken mangipakpakita kadagiti adu a paggigiddiatan kadagiti bukodda a biokimika manipud kadagiti sabali a porma ti biag, ken isu a tattan ket naidasigda a kas maysa a nailasin a dominio iti sistema ti tallo a dominio. Iti daytoy a sistema, ti maipapan ti pilohenetiko a naisangayan a sangsanga iti ebolusionario a tinaudan ket ti Archaea, Bakteria ken ti Eukaryota. Itan ket ti Archaea ket nabingbingay pay kadagiti uppat a mabigbigan a pilo; mabalin pay nga adu kadagiti pilo ti mabangon ...
Collections of Clusters of Orthologous Genes (COGs) provide indispensable tools for comparative genomic analysis, evolutionary reconstruction and functional annotation of new genomes. Initially, COGs were made for all complete genomes of cellular life forms that were available at the time. However, with the accumulation of thousands of complete genomes, construction of a comprehensive COG set has become extremely computationally demanding and prone to error propagation, necessitating the switch to taxon-specific COG collections. Previously, we reported the collection of COGs for 41 genomes of Archaea (arCOGs). Here we present a major update of the arCOGs and describe evolutionary reconstructions to reveal general trends in the evolution of Archaea. The updated version of the arCOG database incorporates 91% of the pangenome of 120 archaea (251,032 protein-coding genes altogether) into 10,335 arCOGs. Using this new set of arCOGs, we performed maximum likelihood reconstruction of the genome content of
Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as plan of creation, unity of design, etc., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact. Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject the theory. ...
ATCC offers a variety of extremophiles including archaea, halophiles, acidophiles, thermophiles, psychrophiles, and alkaliphiles.
ATCC offers a variety of extremophiles including archaea, halophiles, acidophiles, thermophiles, psychrophiles, and alkaliphiles.
Household biogas digesters are widely used to harvest energy in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding core prokaryotic communities, their co-occurrence patterns, and their relationships to environmental factors is important to manage these small-scale anaerobic digestion systems effectively. In this study, 43 household biogas digesters were collected across eight provinces in China. Prokaryotic communities were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Fourteen core genera and ten core OTUs were identified in household biogas digesters. They were mainly affiliated with the phylum Firmicutes, Synergistetes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Spirochaetes. Core prokaryotic genera were mainly composed of Clostridium, Clostridium XI, Syntrophomonas, Cloacibacillus, Sedimentibacter, and Turicibacter. Prokaryotic communities in the 43 samples were clearly divided into two clusters. Cluster I was dominated by Clostridium, while Cluster II was dominated by members of Spirochaetes,
Here are my 5 cents worth of opinion concerning the Postinggs from L.A. Maron ,CnsIqJ.MDz at gpu.utcc.utoronto.ca, lamoran at gpu.utcc.utoronto.ca (L.A. Moran): There are many characters (not only 16S rRNAs) which separate Archae- and Eubacteria (see Zillig et al., 1992, for a listing). With many molecular markers the Archaebacteria appear closer to the Eukaryotes (e.g.: ATPases, elongation factors, RNA polymerases). Not all of these molecular markers show the Archaebacteria as a monophyletic group, in some analyses they appear paraphyletic; however, the branch that separates the two archaebacterial groups is very short (as is the branch that connects the 16S rRNA of the Archaebacteria to the other 16SrRNAs). Based only on nucleotide data it will be difficult to discriminate between the para and monophyletic origin of the archaebacteria. Rivera and Lake report a higher order character (a deletion/insertion) that unites only some of the archaebacteria with the eukaryotes. I think that one of the ...
One of the three domains of life (together with Bacteria and Eukaryotes). Their morphology is similar to bacteria but many cellular mechanisms are actually closer to eukaryotic than bacterial. They form a distinct clade in the phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence. Archaea are at least as far from bacteria as from eukaryotes (there is a lot of discussion about exactly what the tree of life looks like) but they are often placed with bacteria into the common grouping called prokaryotes. Originally they were discovered in extreme environments and thus are still often thought of as extremophiles. Now archaea are known to be very common in nature, being a dominating group of microorganisms for example in oceans below the photic zone. --Katarzyna Zaremba 15:00, 27 February 2008 (CET) ...
So the subject of this lecture is RNase P in the other branch of life on Earth; the Archaea. The Archaea are a group of prokaryotic organisms that are really independent of the Bacteria, and if anything are more closely related geneologically to the eukaryotes (Eukarya) than to the Bacteria. In addition to being a distinct group, they are generally primative. In many ways, the molecular biology of the Archaea probably resembles those of the ancestors of the eukaryotes, and have proven to be very useful in sorting out the simpler roots of modern eukaryotic complexity.. ...
This brings forth the interesting point of view that the truly ancestral forms of these genes and proteins may be more like the proteins seen in the eukaryotes rather than the archaea! Archaea (and bacteria) can tolerate a lot more genetic change than eukaryotes can, and have a far shorter generation time, allowing them to change and evolve more quickly than the larger, less genetically mutable eukaryotes. On the other hand the lack of change and high level of conservation in eukaryotes means that the complexes remain very similar to those of the ancestral eukaryote from which they evolved. They may even be closer to the forms found in the last common ancestor between eukaryotes and archaea, before the eukaryotes gained a nucleus and became unable to share genes with the surrounding organisms ...
Some Archaea thrive in extreme places such as in thermal pools, hot vents at the bottom of the sea, extremely salty water, and even in underground oil reserves. This book examines the diverse Archaea kingdom and the division of these organisms by their unusual biology into three main groups. It also explains why little in general is known about them, and why further classification of Archaea is so difficult.
In her NY Times blog, Olivia Judson gives an ovation to Archaea. This domain of organisms gets none of the recognition of their more famous kin, Bacteria and Eukaryotes despite their unusual biology. As she describes, some members of the group Archaea have extreme tolerance to temperature and pH, thriving in the boiling acids found in hot springs and the bottom of ocean vents. All known methane producing microbes are found among the Archaea.. ...
Archaebacteria are force anaerobes and they live only in oxygen-free circumstances. They are known as extremophiles, as they are capable to live in a variety of atmosphere. Some species can live in the temperatures over boiling point at 100 degree Celsius. They can also live in acidic, alkaline or saline aquatic surroundings. Some can endure the pressures of more than 200 atmospheres.. The size of archaebacteria varies from 1/10th of a micrometer to more than 15 micrometers. Some of archaebacteria have flagella. Like all prokaryotes, archaebacteria dont have the membrane-bound organelles. They dont contain nuclei, endoplasmic reticula, Golgi complexes, mitochondria, chloroplasts or lysosomes. The cells consist of a thick cytoplasm that includes all the compounds and molecules needed for metabolism and nutrition. Their cell wall doesnt contain peptidoglycan. The rigid cell wall backings the cell and allows archaebacterium to hold its shape. It also defends the cell from overflowing when ...
The universal tree of life represents the proposed evolutionary relationships among all cellular life forms, which are classified into three main urkingdoms or domains; the Archaea (archaebacteria), Bacteria (eubacteria) and Eucarya (eukaryotes)
The highest level, domain, is a relatively new addition to the system since the 1990s. Scientists now recognize three domains of life, the Eukarya, the Archaea, and the Bacteria. The domain Eukarya contains organisms that have cells with nuclei. It includes the kingdoms of fungi, plants, animals, and several kingdoms of protists. The Archaea, are single-celled organisms without nuclei and include many extremophiles that live in harsh environments like hot springs. The Bacteria are another quite different group of single-celled organisms without nuclei. Both the Archaea and the Bacteria are prokaryotes, an informal name for cells without nuclei. The recognition in the 1990s that certain bacteria, now known as the Archaea, were as different genetically and biochemically from other bacterial cells as they were from eukaryotes, motivated the recommendation to divide life into three domains. This dramatic change in our knowledge of the tree of life demonstrates that classifications are not ...
Hyperthermophilic Archaea and Bacteria are an extraordinarily important class of organisms for which genetic tools remain to be developed. Unique technological obstacles to this goal are posed by the thermophilic and, in some cases, strictly anaerobic nature of these organisms. However, recent advan …
The location of hyperthermophilic organisms in the tree of life has been the source of many exciting discussions during the last two decades. It inspired not only novel hypotheses for the early evolution of the organisms, but also the isolation of many new species of Archaea and Bacteria from hot environments, as well as microbial genome sequencing and phylogenomic analyses. In view of the new wealth of genetic information generated from several analysed genomes of the hyperthermophiles, we can only conclude that the question of their exact phylogenetic location and evolutionary origin is presently as open as ever before.. ...
Comparison of complete genomes of Bacteria and Archaea shows that gene content varies considerably and that genomes evolve quite rapidly via gene duplication and deletion and horizontal gene transfer. We analyze a diverse set of 92 Bacteria and 79 Archaea in order to investigate the processes governing the origin and evolution of families of related genes within genomes. Genes were clustered into related groups using similarity criteria derived from BLAST. Most clusters contained genes from only one or a small number of genomes, and relatively few core clusters were found that spanned all genomes. Gene clusters found in larger numbers of genomes tended to have larger numbers of genes per genome; however, clusters with unusually large numbers of genes per genome were found among both narrowly and widely distributed clusters. Larger genomes were found to have larger mean gene family sizes and a greater proportion of families of very large size. We used a model of birth, death, and innovation to predict
Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology - Gordon Research Conference Les Diablerets Conference Center Eurotel Victoria Les Diablerets, CH, Switzerland Unique Biology of the Archaea Bridging the Gap Between Bacteria and Eukaryotes. July 21 - 26, 2019.
Introduction: Archaea comes from the greek word, archaio, meaning ancient (billions of years, and if you dont call that old, then I dont know what is). In order to fully understand the origins of Archaea, we must look at evolutionary history. From what we understand, all living forms have descended from a Universal ancestor, which appeared through spontaneous generation. The term spontaneous generation is generally used to explain what Europeans before 1668 believed to be the cause of life, indicating that every day, living organisms were created by non living things (such as mud). This should not be confused with the modern theory of the origin of life, that abiotic amino acids were generated in the primordial soup and spontaneously joined together to form LUCA ...
To mark the 40th anniversary of the Archaea, Nature journals present a collection of articles that explores our understanding of archaea and how the discovery of new species is reshaping the tree of life.
Their phytanyl tails are primarily hooked to their glycerols using ether, not ester, linkages (see 2, above), which resist destruction better than esters. And their glycerols have opposite handedness to the glycerols in our membrane lipids (note mirror orientation in the bacterial and archaeal lipids in figure).. Molecular handedness -- chirality in chemistry-speak -- is not a thing changed easily by evolution. For instance, the vast majority of protein building blocks called amino acids used by life on Earth are exclusively left-handed. Why? No one really knows, although some have guesses. Once lefty amino acids took over, though, there was no going back biochemically -- the enzymes were set up a certain way and that was that. Thus, that archaeal and bacterial enzymes use glycerols with opposite handedness implies that bacteria and archaea parted ways long, long ago.. Some archaeal lipids have a property that is rarely or never seen in bacteria or eukaryotes. Bacteria and eukaryotes have ...
FALL IN ARCHAEA Lyrics - A selection of 6 Fall In Archaea lyrics including Machines, Blasphemy, Anxiety, High Tides, Gatherings ...
CRR writes:. Does the theory of evolution require a gain of copious quantities of genetic information?. Yes it does. Both in Darwins formulation and in the modern neo-Darwinian version, although Darwin of course knew nothing of genes or DNA.. Both versions believe that the all life on Earth is ascended from primitive ancestors. Darwin lacked the evidence to definitely say only one ancestor but he made it clear that it was his belief that all animals and plants are descended from some one prototype. Most proponents of the modern version, on the evidence of DNA, definitely conclude there was a Last Universal Common Ancestor.. In both versions this common ancestor is envisaged as some simple life form of minimal complexity.. In the modern version with a genetic basis this is supposed to be a single celled organism with a minimal functioning genome, perhaps only a few hundred genes. Some believe this ancestor arose naturally on Earth from non-living matter, some propose panspermia, and some believe ...
Nunoura, T.; Takaki, Y.; Kakuta, J.; Nishi, S.; Sugahara, J.; Kazama, H.; Chee, G.J.; Hattori, M.; Kanai, A.; Aatomi, H.; Takai, K. and akami, H. 2011: Insights into the evolution of Archaea and eukaryotic protein modifier systems revealed by the genome of a novel archaeal group. Nucleic Acids Res., 39, 3204-3223. doi: doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq1228 ...
The traditional bacterial rooting of the three superkingdoms in sequence-based gene trees is inconsistent with new phylogenetic reconstructions based on genome content of compact protein domains. We find that protein domains at the level of the SCOP superfamily (SF) from sequenced genomes implement …
View Notes - Chap 27 Prokaryotes-st from BIL 160 at University of Miami. Prokaryotes-Chap 27 The three major clades, often referred to as the three domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota. -largest
WoRMS (2011). Thaumarchaeota. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=559429 on 2017-12- ...
ADAPTATION OF MICROORGANISMS TO Intense ENVIRONMENTAL Issues Some microorganisms are adapted to severe environmental situations. The thermophiles can endure in substantial temperatures whilst halophiles can endure in substantial salinities. Alkaliphiles and acidophiles can endure in overwhelming pH amounts. So, extremophiles are tailored to severe environmental circumstances because of their decent physiological capacities. These capacities have got some would-be biotechnological apps. Extremophiles are commercially significant when you consider that they yield several enzymes under people serious disorders. Thermophiles will also be known as warmth fans. You have found in environments that arrive about as the outcome of human functions for instance industrial routines, geothermal action, powerful radiation, combustion procedures and solar heating. Inside low-temperature severe, now we have the psychrophiles which include the snow and ice algae. Thermophiles are described as individuals ...
Earth's last universal common ancestor, called LUCA, may have been much more complex than a chemical soup and even more sophisticated than today's simplest creatures, scientists say, suggesting the organism was equipped with an organelle and may have even
Genomic comparative studies on entirely sequenced genomes from the three domains of life, i.e. Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota [1], evidenced that proteins involved in the organization or processing of genetic information (structures of ribosome and chromatin, translation, transcription, replication and DNA repair) display a closer relationship between Archaea and Eukaryota than between Bacteria and Eukaryota [2-4]. To identify new proteins involved in such important cellular mechanisms, an exhaustive inventory of proteins of unknown function common to only Eukaryota and Archaea but not in Bacteria has been devised [5-7]. Among such proteins, the Cluster of Orthologous Group COG2042 comprises proteins ubiquitously present in Eukaryota and present in many, but not all, Archaea; a hallmark of their ancient origin. The corresponding ancestral protein should have been present in the common ancestor of these two domains of life. Some partial experimental data are known from the Saccharomyces ...
Provided herein are genetically engineered archaea. A genetically engineered archaea includes a heterologous polynucleotide that has a promoter operably linked to a coding region, where the coding region encodes a polypeptide having optimal activity below the optimum growth temperature (T.sub.opt) of the genetically engineered archaeon. Also provided herein are methods for using genetically engineered archaea and cell-free extracts of such genetically engineered archaea. In one embodiment, the methods include culturing a genetically engineered archaeon at a temperature that is at least 20.degree. C. below the T.sub.opt of the genetically engineered archaeon, such that the activity in the genetically engineered archaeon of a polypeptide encoded by the coding region is increased compared to the activity in the genetically engineered archaeon of the polypeptide during growth at a second temperature that is at or near the T.sub.opt of the genetically engineered archaeon.
Molecular structures and sequences are generally more revealing of evolutionary relationships than are classical phenotypes (particularly so among microorganisms). Consequently, the basis for the definition of taxa has progressively shifted from the organismal to the cellular to the molecular level. Molecular comparisons show that life on this planet divides into three primary groupings, commonly known as the eubacteria, the archaebacteria, and the eukaryotes. The three are very dissimilar, the differences that separate them being of a more profound nature than the differences that separate typical kingdoms, such as animals and plants. Unfortunately, neither of the conventionally accepted views of the natural relationships among living systems--i.e., the five-kingdom taxonomy or the eukaryote-prokaryote dichotomy--reflects this primary tripartite division of the living world. To remedy this situation we propose that a formal system of organisms be established in which above the level of kingdom ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Copper requirements of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 and implications for nitrification in the marine environment. AU - Amin, Shady A.. AU - Moffett, James W.. AU - Martens-Habbena, Willm. AU - Jacquot, Jeremy E.. AU - Han, Yang. AU - Devol, Allan. AU - Ingalls, Anitra E.. AU - Stahl, David A.. AU - Armbrust, E. Virginia. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) have recently been recognized as the primary nitrifiers in the marine environment; they thus play an important role in the nitrogen cycle. Available genome sequences of AOA indicate that numerous Cu-dependent enzymes are essential for both ammonia oxidation and electron transfer, suggesting a particularly high requirement for copper. However, our knowledge of the copper requirements of AOA and their response to copper limitation in the ocean is nonexistent. Here, we examine the copper requirements of the chemolithoautotrophic AOA Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 ...
The global microbial CH4 production is estimated to reach one billion tons annually. Methanogenic archaea produce CH4 in wetlands, rice fields, ruminant and termite digestive systems and have a decisive impact on the planets atmospheric carbon cycle [42]. At the same time, the industrial scale anaerobic digestion of biomass to CH4 plays a vital role in the future global energy mix. All methanogenic archaea capable of CO2 reduction contain the cofactor F420 as an integral part of the methanogenic pathway. In this study, F420 autofluorescence was tested as a universal marker for methanogenic archaea. Genes encoding for F420 biosynthesis enzymes were identified in 653 bacterial and 173 archaeal species [43]. Non-methanogenic but F420 containing microorganisms have reported F420 concentrations of about one fortieth of the concentrations in hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea [19], which is below detection limit of the developed protocol. For the methanogenic archaea, however, the F420 cofactor ...
The Archaebacterium Haloferax volcanii concentrates K+ up to 3.6 M. This creates a very large K+ ion gradient of between 500- to 1,000-fold across the cell membrane. H. volcaniicells can be...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Colonization of rice roots with methanogenic archaea controls photosynthesis-derived methane emission. AU - Pump, Judith. AU - Pratscher, Jennifer. AU - Conrad, Ralf. PY - 2015/7. Y1 - 2015/7. N2 - The methane emitted from rice fields originates to a large part (up to 60%) from plant photosynthesis and is formed on the rice roots by methanogenic archaea. To investigate to which extent root colonization controls methane (CH4) emission, we pulse-labeled rice microcosms with 13CO2 to determine the rates of 13CH4 emission exclusively derived from photosynthates. We also measured emission of total CH4 (12+13CH4), which was largely produced in the soil. The total abundances of archaea and methanogens on the roots and in the soil were analysed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of the archaeal 16S rRNA gene and the mcrA gene coding for a subunit of the methyl coenzyme M reductase respectively. The composition of archaeal and methanogenic communities was determined with terminal ...
Archaea are divided into two main groups based on rRNA trees, the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Two other groups have been tentatively created for certain environmental samples and the peculiar species Nanoarchaeum equitans, discovered in 2002 by Karl Stetter, but their affinities are uncertain. Woese argued that the bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes each represent a primary line of descent that diverged early on from an ancestral progenote with poorly developed genetic machinery. This hypothesis is reflected in the name Archaea, from the Greek archae or ancient. Later he treated these groups formally as domains, each comprising several kingdoms. This division has become very popular, although the idea of the progenote itself is not generally supported. Some biologists, however, have argued that the archaebacteria and eukaryotes arose from specialized eubacteria. The relationship between Archaea and Eukarya remains an important problem. Aside from the similarities noted above, many genetic ...
She ream dy vynvioee eh archaea (un.: archaeon). Cha nel çheshvean killag ny mynolt far-chrackanagh erbee elley oc. Traa dy row, vad currit marish bacteyryn myr prokaryota ny myr reeriaght Monera, fon ennym archaebacteria (shenn vacteyryn). Ec y traa tayn, cha nel bea-oayllee goaill rish y rang-oardraghey shen.[1] Ta shennaghys aafilleydagh er lheh oc, as shimmey scansh teddyr ocsyn as bioagyn elley; myr shen, ta rang-oardraghey noa oc nish myr ream er lheh sy chorys tree reamyn. Tan corys shoh eddyraghey tree banglaneyn aafilleydagh: Archaea, Bacteria as Eukaryota. Tad rheynn Archaea ayns kiare phyla, agh scosoylagh eh dy vel foddey ny smoo ayn. Cha nel monney studeyrys er ny yannoo orroo. She Crenarchaeota as Euryarchaeota ad ny phyla smoo er studeyrys. Ta archaea jeeaghyn gollrish bacteyryn dy mennick, agh ta cummey goan ec kuse jeu; myr shen, killagyn rea kerrooagh Haloquadratum walsbyi. Ta gientagyn as cassanyn soe oc ta faggys dadsyn tec eukaryota, myr sampleyr, ensymeyn ta ...
Bacteria and archaea dominate the biomass of benthic deep-sea ecosystems at all latitudes, playing a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles, but their macroscale patterns and macroecological drivers are still largely unknown. We show the results of the most extensive field study conducted so far to investigate patterns and drivers of the distribution and structure of benthic prokaryote assemblages from 228 samples collected at latitudes comprising 34°N to 79°N, and from ca. 400- to 5570-m depth. We provide evidence that, in deep-sea ecosystems, benthic bacterial and archaeal abundances significantly increase from middle to high latitudes, with patterns more pronounced for archaea, and particularly for Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota. Our results also reveal that different microbial components show varying sensitivities to changes in temperature conditions and food supply. We conclude that climate change will primarily affect deep-sea benthic archaea, with important consequences on global ...
Once they had finished their analysis, Bill Martins team was left with just 355 genes from the original 11,000, and they argue that these 355 definitely belonged to LUCA and can tell us something about how LUCA lived.. Such a small number of genes, of course, would not support life as we know it, and critics immediately latched onto this apparent gene shortage, pointing out that essential components capable of nucleotide and amino acid biosynthesis, for example, were missing. We didnt even have a complete ribosome, admits Martin.. However, their methodology required that they omit all genes that have undergone LGT, so had a ribosomal protein undergone LGT, it wouldnt be included in the list of LUCAs genes. They also speculated that LUCA could have gotten by using molecules in the environment to fill the functions of lacking genes, for example molecules that can synthesize amino acids. After all, says Martin, biochemistry at this early stage in lifes evolution was still primitive and all ...
Abstract. The distribution of the various cell wall and cell envelope (S-layer) polymers among the main lineages of the domain Archaea (Archaebacteria) and the chemical composition and primary structure of polymers forming rigid cell wall sacculi is described. Differences between bacteria and archaea in their sensitivity to antibiotics which inhibit cell wall synthesis in bacteria are discussed.
original description Stetter, K.O., Konig, H., and Stackebrandt, E. 1984. Pyrodictium gen. nov., a new genus of submarine disc-shaped sulphur reducing archaebacteria growing optimally at 105°C. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 4:535-551. [details] ...
In marine sediments archaea often constitute a considerable part of the microbial community, of which the Deep Sea Archaeal Group (DSAG) is one of the most predominant. Despite their high abundance no members from this archaeal group have so far been characterized and thus their metabolism is unknown. Here we show that the relative abundance of DSAG marker genes can be correlated with geochemical parameters, allowing prediction of both the potential electron donors and acceptors of these organisms. We estimated the abundance of 16S rRNA genes from Archaea, Bacteria, and DSAG in 52 sediment horizons from two cores collected at the slow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge, using qPCR. The results indicate that members of the DSAG make up the entire archaeal population in certain horizons and constitute up to ~50% of the total microbial community. The quantitative data were correlated to 30 different geophysical and geochemical parameters obtained from the same sediment horizons. We observed a significant
The factors controlling the relative abundances of Archaea and Bacteria in marine sediments are poorly understood. We determined depth distributions of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes by quantitative PCR at eight stations in Aarhus Bay, Denmark. Bacterial outnumber archaeal genes 10-60-fold in uppermost sediments that are irrigated and mixed by macrofauna. This bioturbation is indicated by visual observations of sediment color and faunal tracks, by porewater profiles of dissolved inorganic carbon and sulfate, and by distributions of unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs. Below the depth of bioturbation, the relative abundances of archaeal genes increase, accounting for one third of 16S rRNA genes in the sulfate zone, and half of 16S rRNA genes in the sulfate-methane transition zone and methane zone. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a strong shift in bacterial and archaeal community structure from bioturbated sediments to underlying layers. Stable isotopic analyses on organic matter and porewater ...
1999 97. Schwerdtfeger, R. M., Chiaraluce, R., Consalvi, V., Scandurra, R., Antranikian, G. (1999) Stability, refolding and Ca2+ binding of pullulanase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus woesei . Eur. J. Biochem. 264:479-487. 96. Linden, A., Niehaus, F., Antranikian, G. (20 00) Single-step purification of a recombinant thermostable α-amylase after solubilization of the enzyme from insoluble aggregates. Journal of Chromtography B. 737: 253-259. 95. Andrade, C.M., Pereira, N. Jr., Antranikian, G. (1999) Extremely thermophilic microorganisms and their polymerhydrolytic enzymes. Revista de Microbiologia 30: 287-298. 94. Stefanova, M. E., Schwerdtfeger, R., Antranikian, G., Scandurra, R. (1999) Heat-stable pullulanase from Bacillus acidopullulyticus : characterization and refolding after guanidinium chloride-induced unfolding. Extremophiles 3: 147-152. 93. Niehaus, F., Bertoldo, C., Kähler, M., Antranikian, G. (1999) Extremophiles as a source of novel enzymes for industrial application. ...
Archaea-specific radA primers were used with PCR to amplify fragments of radA genes from 11 cultivated archaeal species and one marine sponge tissue sample that contained essentially an archaeal monoculture. The amino acid sequences encoded by the PCR fragments, three RadA protein sequences previously published (21), and two new complete RadA sequences were aligned with representative bacterial RecA proteins and eucaryal Rad51 and Dmc1 proteins. The alignment supported the existence of four insertions and one deletion in the archaeal and eucaryal sequences relative to the bacterial sequences. The sizes of three of the insertions were found to have taxonomic and phylogenetic significance. Comparative analysis of the RadA sequences, omitting amino acids in the insertions and deletions, shows a cladal distribution of species which mimics to a large extent that obtained by a similar analysis of archaeal 16S rRNA sequences. The PCR technique also was used to amplify fragments of 15 radA genes from ...
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In spite of their common hypersaline environment, halophilic archaea are surprisingly different in their nutritional demands and metabolic pathways. The metabolic diversity of halophilic archaea was i
An interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion with increasing organic loadingAn interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion with increasing organic loading ...
Jarosite is formed from iron ore deposits by the oxidation of iron sulphides. It has nothing to do with the presence of life, but it forms an extreme environment that can only be tolerated by extremophiles. That is the only connection jarosite has with biological activity. The discovery of jarosite on Mars does not mean that there are likely to be microbes of any kind associated with it.. Extremophiles are microbes which enjoy extreme environments: extremely cold, extremely hot, extremely acid, extremely salty, extremely radioactive and so on. Most of them dont need oxygen and many metabolise sulphur to make a living. Some like the dark ocean depths and pressures in the vicinity of black smokers (deep sea fumaroles).. Some extremophiles are methanogens, that is to say their metabolism generates methane, which is why the detection of short-lived methane emissions on Mars attracted a lot of interest. A common methanogen on Earth lives in anoxic marshes, usually in woodland, where it generates ...
Through text, movement, landscape and music, Archaea for the Evergreens, weaves together abstract, spiritual and scientific ideas surrounding life and death. Drawing connections between formal explorations of circles, physical embodiments of history, lessons learned from the way the natural world deals with death and the mysterious aspects of our universe, Archaea for the Evergreens calls forth the questions that arise when confronted with the vastness of time and space that the Evergreens offers. The term Archaea refers to the microorganisms that create the underlying structure on this planet to which everything is connected, just as The Evergreens Cemetery reminds us of both the connectedness and mystery of our world.. Created by Anne Zuerner in collaboration with the performers. Rehearsal Director: Zoe Rabinowitz. Performed by Martita Abril, Chris Braz, Sara Gurevich, Ainesh Madan, Penelope McCourty, Jenna Purcell, Phoebe Rose Sandford and sixth grade students from the MS 358 Dance Company: ...
By combining archaea and mammal DNA, researchers are hoping to bypass evolution and give people genes that would allow them to resist retinal degeneration.. A new project underway at West Virginia University (WVU) is looking at the proteins produced by single-cell organisms called archaea that help them survive in harsh conditions. Particular proteins in archaea cells, called molecular chaperones, guide other proteins through the folding process which allows the organism to survive in environments including hydrothermal pools and digestive systems.. [Molecular chaperones] embrace the baby proteins and help them to fold correctly, Associate Professor Maxim Sokolov, WVU School of Medicine, said. And if the baby proteins fold incorrectly, the chaperones will unfold them and say, fold again.. It is hoped that giving human cells this capacity could lead to a treatment for several incurable eye diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa. By stopping the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ...
In constrast to bacteria, all archaea possess cell walls lacking peptidoglycan and a number of different cell envelope components have also been described. A paracrystalline protein surface layer, commonly referred to as S-layer, is present in nearly all archaea described to date. S-layers are composed of only one or two proteins and form different lattice structures. In this review, we summarise current understanding of archaeal S-layer proteins, discussing topics such as structure, lattice type distribution among archaeal phyla and glycosylation. The hexagonal lattice type is dominant within the phylum Euryarchaeota, while in the Crenarchaeota this feature is mainly associated with specific orders. S-layers exclusive to the Crenarchaeota have also been described, which are composed of two proteins. Information regarding S-layers in the remaining archaeal phyla is limited, mainly due to organism description through only culture-independent methods. Despite the numerous applied studies using bacterial S
Archaea are best known in their capacities as extremophiles, i.e. micro-organisms able to thrive in some of the most drastic environments on Earth. The protein-based surface layer that envelopes many archaeal strains must thus correctly assemble and maintain its structural integrity in the face of the physical challenges associated with, for instance, life in high salinity, at elevated temperatures or in acidic surroundings. Study of archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins has thus offered insight into the strategies employed by these proteins to survive direct contact with extreme environments, yet has also served to elucidate other aspects of archaeal protein biosynthesis, including glycosylation, lipid modification and protein export. In this mini-review, recent advances in the study of archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins are discussed.
The three types of archaea are the crenarchaeota, the euryarchaeota and the korarchaeota. Archaea is a group of single-celled microorganisms that come in a variety of shapes and survive extreme...
Many of the bacteria and archaea species discovered were found to be extremophiles that thrived in harsh conditions that would have killed your average life form. Some were found to grow best at temperatures above the boiling point of water or in toxic, acidic waste. Others were found to live completely independent of sunlight and oxygen, feasting on sulfur bubbling up from deep sea vents.. ​​ ...
Researchers uncover a group of mobile genetic elements in bacteria and archaea encoding a Cas enzyme. Transposons are stretches of DNA that can hop to different sites in the genome and are commonly found in many types of organisms. In a study published in BMC Biology, researchers described a new type of transposon-like element in bacteria and archaea that encodes a Cas enzyme-well appreciated for its role in the CRISPR/Cas adaptive immune system in prokaryotes-which it in turn requires for integrating into a new genomic home ...
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Effect of temperature on carbon and electron flow and on the archaeal community in methanogenic rice field soil
The creation scenario described above is not embraced by the majority of biologists. They see the naturalistic process of evolution driving the appearance of millions of species of earth life, including the very recent appearance of modern man. Descent with modification and belief in LUCA, the last universal common ancestor, is the ruling paradigm to account for the diversity of Earth life. According to a common internet answer site, evolutionists insist the statement The basic biochemical processes of all organisms is very similar, despite the apparently arbitrary nature of many of these processes is a paramount support pillar of their evolutionary belief. They view the similarity of organisms as affirmation of belief in naturalistic evolutionary descent. An equally logical conclusion that the omnipotent and omniscient Creator would repeatedly use an identical genetic template is not even considered. ...
Biological methane oxidation by methanotrophic Verrucomicrobia under hot and acidic conditions; evolution of an ancient metabolic trait. NFR (FRIMEDBIO), 3.5 mill NOK ...
Strategies to reduce the Earth worming and raise animal production require new systems, where it must be considered methane and other gases emission that might cause environmental damages. The aim of this work was to evaluate the archaea methane production and the metagenomic evaluation of these bacteria present on the solid phase of the bovine ruminal content. For methane production analysis the ruminar content was collected followed by the proper manipulation for the fermentation process to take place and produced gas storage. The ribosomal 16S rRNA region was obtained by PCR amplification which was followed by cloning and DNA sequencing. The data was later analyzed by the software Sequencing Analysis 3.4, Phred/Phrap/Consed and BLAST. The highest methane production and acetate:propionate ratios were observed for the treatments containing 70% of roughage. The BLAST analysis allowed to identify 96 DNA sequences related to the Methanobacteriaceae family, 47 DNA sequences related to unculturable ...
So, first a bit of biology. This will make more sense to you if you are not a creationist. Somewhere back in the mists of time -- long before the universe was created 6,000 years ago -- actually somewhere around 2 billion years ago, it seems that 2 (or possibly 3) simple prokaryotic cells entered into an endosymbiotic relationship. We dont know exactly how this happened. Prokaryotic cells dont have a nucleus and are otherwise relatively simple in their internal structure. There are two major kinds, called archaea and bacteria. The most straightforward explanation of the origin of the eukaryotes is that an archaeal cell somehow engulfed a bacterium, but didnt digest it. Instead, the bacterium reproduced and its progeny started living happily within the cytoplasm of the archaea and its descendants. The endosymbiotic bacteria gradually lost most of their DNA -- they didnt need it because their environment was properly managed by the archaeal DNA, which is now our nuclear DNA -- and they settled ...
These creatures so dependent upon the cold, so specialized to the most frigid, high-pressure places on earth, that youd hardly even recognize them as being from this planet.
Lineage: cellular organisms; Archaea; Euryarchaeota; Stenosarchaea group; Halobacteria; Natrialbales; Natrialbaceae; Halostagnicola; Halostagnicola ...
transparent purple w/ white and black splatter vinyl (EU exclusive - limited to 100 copies). Tracked at Flatline Audio in Denver with long-serving producer Dave Otero (Cattle Decapitation, Cephalic Carnage), Apoptosis is Allegaeons fifth full-length, and the first to feature bassist Brandon Michael. Musically, Brandon brings a huge new dimension, vocalist Riley McShane enthuses. He has this wide breadth of music knowledge and stylistic proficiency that he draws from with excellent taste, and this makes a lot of the songs on Apoptosis come to life. The record also features a guest appearance by classical guitarist Christina Sandsengen, who duets with guitarist Greg Burgess on Colors of the Currents. On this record, I was more open to new ideas that we might not have used in past, states guitarist Michael Stancel. Rather than deleting something because its not Allegaeon-y enough, I would take a step back and see if that idea fit the song and decide if it was worth keeping. With that ...
The discovery reveals the role of a growth factor and endothelial cells in thymus repair, and could have implications for chemotherapy and radiation patients recovery following treatment.. 0 Comments. ...
Viruses of archaea represent one of the most enigmatic parts of the virosphere. Most of the characterized archaeal viruses infect extremophilic hosts and
Lineage: cellular organisms; Archaea; Euryarchaeota; Archaeoglobi; Archaeoglobales; Archaeoglobaceae; Ferroglobus; Ferroglobus ...
Of all the molecular determinants for growth, the hydronium and hydroxide ions are found naturally in the widest concentration range, from acid mine drainage below pH 0 to soda lakes above pH 13. Most bacteria and archaea have mechanisms that maintain their internal, cytoplasmic pH within a narrower range than the pH outside the cell, termed
SEAS researchers have found that these pink-hued archaea -- called [I]Halobacterium salinarum[/I] -- use the same mechanisms to maintain size as bacteria and eukaryotic life, indicting that cellular division strategy may be shared across all domains of life.
This Aquarium COMBO set includes one ADA Cube Garden 90-P and one Archaea Wood Cabinet (for rimless aquariums with base dimensions: L 90cm x W 45cm). Four color choices are available for the cabinet, please select the desired color set when you place the order. ADA Cube Garden 90-P Ultra High Clarity rimless Aquarium:
Threonine--tRNA ligase; Catalyzes the attachment of threonine to tRNA(Thr) in a two-step reaction- L-threonine is first activated by ATP to form Thr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Thr). Also edits incorrectly charged L-seryl-tRNA(Thr); Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family (621 aa ...
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding each other. ...
In 1977, archaea were first classified as a separate group of prokaryotes in the three-domain system of Carl Woese and George E ... Many archaea possess a rotating motility structure that at first seemed to resemble the bacterial and eukaryotic flagella. The ... Thomas NA, Mueller S, Klein A, Jarrell KF (November 2002). "Mutants in flaI and flaJ of the archaeon Methanococcus voltae are ... Woese CR, Kandler O, Wheelis ML (June 1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria ...
The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria (2nd ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-0-387-98771-2. ... Archaea. 2010: 690737. doi:10.1155/2010/690737. PMC 3017947. PMID 21234345. Boone, DR (2001). "Genus IV. Methanohalophilus ...
Schiraldi C, Giuliano M, De Rosa M (September 2002). "Perspectives on biotechnological applications of archaea". Archaea. 1 (2 ... Cowan DA (September 1992). "Biotechnology of the Archaea". Trends in Biotechnology. 10 (9): 315-23. doi:10.1016/0167-7799(92) ...
In eukaryotes and archaea, eight helical elements fold into the Alu and S domains, separated by a long linker region. The Alu ... The SRP RNAs of eukaryotes and Archaea have a GNAR tetraloop (N is for any nucleotide, R is for a purine) in helix 6. Its ... SRP19 is found in the SRP of eukaryotes and Archaea. Its primary role is in preparing the SRP RNA for the binding of SRP54, ... In eukaryotes, the target is the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In Archaea, SRP delivers proteins to the plasma ...
Occurrence of amino acids is based on 135 Archaea, 3775 Bacteria, 614 Eukaryota proteomes and human proteome (21 006 proteins) ... Rother M, Krzycki JA (August 2010). "Selenocysteine, pyrrolysine, and the unique energy metabolism of methanogenic archaea". ... Archaea. 2010: 1-14. doi:10.1155/2010/453642. PMC 2933860. PMID 20847933. Kozlowski LP (January 2017). "Proteome-pI: proteome ...
Archaea have both proteins. Wenzel, Sabine; Schweimer, Kristian; Rösch, Paul; Wöhrl, Birgitta M. (June 2008). "The small hSpt4 ... The single KOW domain in bacteria and archaea anchors a ribosome to the RNAP. In bacteria, the homologous complex only contains ...
ISBN 0-387-68489-1-. Hackstein, Johannes H.P. (2010). (Endo)symbiotic methanogenic archaea. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin ...
"Archeon". MusicMight. Archived from the original on 2012-10-15. Retrieved 2009-07-14. Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Architects". ...
The flagella of archaea have a special name, archaellum, to emphasize its difference from bacterial flagella. An example of a ... Flagella vary greatly among the three domains of life, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. All three kinds of flagella can be ... The main difference between bacterial and archaeal flagella, and eukaryotic flagella is that the bacteria and archaea do not ... Streif S, Staudinger WF, Marwan W, Oesterhelt D (2008). "Flagellar rotation in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum depends on ...
Stanley, Falkow (2006). Archaea, Bacteria : Firmicutes, Actinomycetes (3. ed.). New York, NY: Springer. ISBN 0387254935. v t e ... Labeda, David P. (2015). "Lentzea". Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1002 ...
3: Archaea. Bacteria: Firmicutes, Actinomycetes. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9780387254937. v t e. ... Yokota, Akira (2015). "Propioniferax". Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: 1-4. doi ...
3: Archaea. Bacteria: Firmicutes, Actinomycetes. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9780387254937. v t e. ...
Despite its name, this is not a bacterium, but rather a member of the domain Archaea. It is found in salted fish, hides, ... Peck, R. F.; Dassarma, S; Krebs, M. P. (2000). "Homologous gene knockout in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum with ura3 as a ... To survive in extremely salty environments, this archaeon-as with other halophilic Archaeal species-utilizes compatible solutes ... Kottemann M, Kish A, Iloanusi C, Bjork S, DiRuggiero J (2005). "Physiological responses of the halophilic archaeon ...
And because the system of DNA replication in Archaea is much simpler than that in Eukaryota, it was suggested that Archaea ... All Archaea have lipids with ether links between the head group and side chains, making the lipids more resistant to heat and ... The viruses infecting archaea like Sulfolobus have to use a strategy to escape prolonged direct exposure to the type of ... It belongs to the archaea domain. Sulfolobus species grow in volcanic springs with optimal growth occurring at pH 2-3 and ...
Because many Archaea have adapted to life in extreme environments such as polar regions, hot springs, acidic springs, alkaline ... Archaea represent a source of novel chemical compounds also, for example isoprenyl glycerol ethers 1 and 2 from Thermococcus ... Bertoldo C, Antranikian G (2011). "Chapter 1: Biotechnology of Archaea" (PDF). Biotechnology Vol. IX. Paris: Encyclopedia of ...
This was the basis for his cooperation with Carl Woese and made him the founder of research on the Archaea in Germany. In 1990 ... They also suggested the terms Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya (later corrected to Eukarya) for the three domains and presented ... His discovery of the basic differences between the cell walls of bacteria and archaea (up to 1990 called "archaebacteria") ... typo in abstract: the three forms of life are Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya). Tanner, W.; Renner, S. (September 2018). Obituary - ...
Methanogenesis by methanogenic archaea is reversible. In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water is converted to sugars (and ...
Ettema TJ, Lindås AC, Bernander R (May 2011). "An actin-based cytoskeleton in archaea". Molecular Microbiology. 80 (4): 1052-61 ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Garrity GM; Holt JG (2001). "Taxonomic Outline of the Archaea and Bacteria". In DR ... Boone; RW Castenholz (eds.). Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Volume 1: The Archaea and the deeply branching and ...
... s are present in archaea, but not much is known about the structure. in situ (in cell) studies have shown that ... "Transcription and translation are coupled in Archaea". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 24 (4): 893-5. doi:10.1093/molbev/ ...
Garrity GM, Holt JG (2001). "Taxonomic Outline of the Archaea and Bacteria". In DR Boone, RW Castenholz (eds.). Bergey's Manual ... of Systematic Bacteriology Volume 1: The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria (2nd ed.). New York: ...
Bacteria and archaea serve as natural hosts. There are currently 434 species in this family, divided among five subfamilies and ... Bacteria and archaea serve as the natural host. Transmission route is passive diffusion. Although Myoviruses are in general ... The haloviruses HF1 and HF2 belong to the same genus but since they infect archaea rather than bacteria are likely to be placed ...
Stackebrandt, Erko (2015). "Dermacoccus". Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi: ...
Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. American Cancer Society: 1-6. doi:10.1002/9781118960608.gbm01115. ISBN ...
A lack of oxygen was found to negatively affect gas vesicle formation in halophilic archaea. Halobacterium salinarum produce ... Hechler T, Pfeifer F (January 2009). "Anaerobiosis inhibits gas vesicle formation in halophilic Archaea". Molecular ... "Antigen presentation using novel particulate organelles from halophilic archaea". Journal of Biotechnology. 88 (2): 119-28. doi ... intensity has been found to affect gas vesicles production and maintenance differently between different bacteria and archaea. ...
Ventosa, Antonio (2015). "Marinococcus". Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: 1-6. ...
Most Archaea are Gram-negative, though at least one Gram-positive member is known. Many protists and bacteria produce other ... In other Archaea, such as Methanomicrobium and Desulfurococcus, the wall may be composed only of surface-layer proteins, known ... There are four types of cell wall currently known among the Archaea. One type of archaeal cell wall is that composed of ... The cell wall of bacteria is also distinct from that of Archaea, which do not contain peptidoglycan. The cell wall is essential ...
Carlier, Jean-Philippe (2015). "Anaeroglobus". Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: ...
Just between eukaryote and archaea, a/eIF2 (trimer) and aIF6 in archaea are conserved in eukaryotes as eIF2(trimer) and eIF6 ... There is also a semi-universal TIF found in all archaea and eukaryote called SUI1, but only in certain bacterial species (YciH ... Of the three domains of life, archaea, eukaryotes, and bacteria, the number of archaeal TIFs is somewhere between eukaryotes ... Archaeal initiation factors are proteins that are used during the translation step of protein synthesis in archaea. The ...
"Coprobacillus". Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: 1-2. 1 January 2015. doi: ...
Archea (common misspelling). Etymology[edit]. From Ancient Greek ἀρχαῖα (arkhaîa, "ancient"), neuter plural of ἀρχαῖος ( ... Archaea at the Tree of Life Web Project. References[edit]. *↑ 1.0 1.1 Ruggiero MA, Gordon DP, Orrell TM, Bailly N, Bourgoin T, ... Archaea. *Single-celled organisms lacking nuclei, formerly called archaebacteria, but now known to differ fundamentally from ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Archaea&oldid=48382434" ...
Archaea Archaea. Archaea are nowadays known as the third domain of life. Before 1970 archaea were thought to belong to the ... These archaea were grouped into the new archaeal superphylum Asgard archaea. This phylum contains Thor-, Odin-, Helmdall- and ... Archaea. Since then more and more data accumulated which show that Archaea indeed belong to a separate domain. ... Halophilic archaea are generally easy to grow in the lab. Haloferax can also be genetically manipulated and we can use CRISPRi ...
The Archaea (/ɑːrˈkiːə/ (. listen) or /ɑːrˈkeɪə/ ar-KEE-ə or ar-KAY-ə) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms. ... Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[92] In most archaea the wall is assembled from surface ... Biocommunication of Archaea. Springer, Switzerland, ISBN 978-3-319-65535-2. *^ Eckburg P; Lepp P; Relman D (2003). "Archaea and ... These microbes (archaea; singular archaeon) are prokaryotes, meaning they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound ...
A selection of 6 Fall In Archaea lyrics including Machines, Blasphemy, Anxiety, High Tides, Gatherings ... ... Related Fall In Archaea Links Fall In Archaea twitter Fall In Archaea mp3 ... Fall In Archaea Lyrics. (1-6 of 6 song lyrics). Selected popular Fall In Archaea song of Monday, February 19 2018 is "Anxiety". ... Related Information for Fall In Archaea Fall In Archaea is a five-piece technical metal band from Victoria, British Columbia, ...
Archaea: A taxonomic domain of single-celled organisms lacking nuclei, formerly called archaebacteria but now known to differ ... He says: The micro-organisms in the Dead Sea water mainly belong to the domain Archaea and they number around 1,000-10,000 per ... His discovery swings open a big door to new questions as to how the Archaea live and from where they derive their energy. ... Recent discoveries of "deep life" in cracks in the Earths crust indicate that some bacteria and many Archaea can live in ...
tags: Archaea x evolution x culture x cell & molecular biology x The Scientist. » Archaea, evolution, culture and cell & ...
Archaea are Everywhere. When archaea were unveiled to the world, they were for many years thought of as extremophile weirdos. ... No obviously parasitic or pathogenic archaea have ever been found. That is not to say they dont exist. Archaea existed long ... On the contrary, plenty of things consume archaea, and archaea play host to an entire spectrum of uniquely-shaped (spindles, ... Archaea are everywhere -- in deep sea vents, in salt flats, in ice, in sea water, in soil, and in you. And they deserve better ...
Archaea are a class of prokaryotes.. Similarities and Differences to Bacteria and Eukarya[edit]. It is thought that archaea and ... Archaea are similar to other prokaryotes in most aspects of cell structure and metabolism. Both bacteria and archaea are ... Archaea are evolutionarily more related to eukaryotes than they are to eubacteria, even though eubacteria and archaea are both ... Unlike bacteria, no pathogenic archaea have ever been identified.. The most common cell wall type for archaea is the S-Layers. ...
BACTERIA & ARCHAEA. PROKARYOTIC ADAPTATIONS. typical prokaryote: 0.5 -5 microns unicellular variety of shapes cocci (spherical ... what are archaea and bacteria?. bacteria and archaea are two of the three domains in the three domain-system put forth by carl ... Bacteria and Archaea -Types of bacteria and archaebacteria. bacteria and archaea. diverse, abundant, and ubiquitousmost of the ... I. Prokaryote Domains: Archaea and Bacteria -A. evidence of early divergence. 1. archaea: are the "ancient" bacteria. 2. ...
Phylogenomics of hyperthermophilic Archaea and Bacteria. H.-P. Klenk, M. Spitzer, T. Ochsenreiter, G. Fuellen ... Phylogenomics of hyperthermophilic Archaea and Bacteria Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... but also the isolation of many new species of Archaea and Bacteria from hot environments, as well as microbial genome ...
Switzerland Unique Biology of the Archaea Bridging the Gap Between Bacteria and Eukaryotes. July 21 - 26, 2019. ... Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology - Gordon Research Conference Les Diablerets Conference Center Eurotel ... Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology - Gordon Research Conference. Les Diablerets Conference Center. Eurotel ... Unique Biology of the Archaea Bridging the Gap Between Bacteria and Eukaryotes. ...
Genomic; Domain Archaea; phyla; subsurface; anaerobic; carbon; cycling; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory. ... Domain Archaea is currently represented by one phylum (Euryarchaeota) and two superphyla (TACK and DPANN). However, gene ... We reconstructed a complete (finished) genome for an archaeon from this phylum that is only 0.8 Mb in length and lacks almost ... Journal Article: Genomic expansion of Domain Archaea highlights roles for organisms from new phyla in anaerobic carbon cycling ...
Archeon can refer to: An organism belong to the domain archaea. Archeon, Netherlands, a Dutch archeological theme park in ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Archeon. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ... Alphen aan den Rijn Made of Hate, a Polish melodic death metal band (transformed from the band Archeon). ...
Pages in category "Archaea". The following 2 pages are in this category, out of 2 total. This list may not reflect recent ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Archaea&oldid=766848270" ...
Archaea, (domain Archaea), any of a group of single-celled prokaryotic organisms (that is, organisms whose cells lack a defined ... Alternative Titles: Archaea, archaean, archaebacteria, archaebacterium, archaeobacteria, archaeobacterium, archaeon. Archaea, ( ... Habitats of the archaea. Archaea are microorganisms that define the limits of life on Earth. They were originally discovered ... Archaea are also found living in association with eukaryotes. For example, methanogenic archaea are present in the digestive ...
Archaea publishes original research articles as well as review articles dealing with all aspects of archaea, providing a unique ... Archaea publishes original research articles as well as review articles dealing with all aspects of archaea, providing a unique ... Archaea maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by ... This study is aimed at screening 33 halophilic archaea isolated from three enrichment cultures from Tunisian hypersaline lake, ...
... There are no movies to show in Archaea. You might want to try its parent group, Life on Earth. ...
SEAS researchers have found that these pink-hued archaea -- called [I]Halobacterium salinarum[/I] -- use the same mechanisms to ... SEAS researchers have found that these pink-hued archaea -- called Halobacterium salinarum -- use the same mechanisms to ... Archaea (image). Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences ...
The archaea in the genus Pyrodictium thrive in the temperature range of 80 to 110 °C (176 to 230 °F), temperatures at which the ... The archaea in the genus Pyrodictium thrive in the temperature range of 80 to 110 °C (176 to 230 °F), temperatures at which the ...
Summons a Demonic Circle for 15 min. Cast Demonic Circle: Teleport to teleport to its location and remove all movement slowing effects. You also learn: Demonic Circle: Teleport Teleports you to your Demonic Circle and removes all movement slowing effects ...
There are four general phenotypic groups of archaea: the methanogens, the extreme halophiles, the sulfate-reducing archaea, and ... Archaea (archaebacteria) are a phenotypically diverse group of microorganisms that share a common evolutionary history. ... Phylogenetic and nucleotide signature analyses of these cloned rDNAs revealed the presence of two lineages of archaea, each ... The abundance and distribution of these archaea in oxic coastal surface waters suggests that these microorganisms represent ...
TYW3_archaea (MF_00266). Accession MF_00266 Integration. tRNA(Phe) 7-((3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-4-demethylwyosine(37)-N(4))- ...
Decarboxylase MfnA, archaea (IPR020931). Short name: MfnA Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent ...
Many Archaea live in places where no light ever penetrates: deep inside the rock or ice or the oceanic floor. Some Archaea are ... But the other large group - the Third Domain: Archaea - eluded us thus far. After all, Archaea are notoriously difficult to ... Do Archaea have clocks? We did not know. Until now. A couple of weeks ago, PLoS ONE published a paper that is the first to ... Once we know there is a clock in Archaea - and now we do due to this paper - we can start studying it in detail. ...
Published since 2002, Archaea provides a unique venue for exchanging information about these extraordinary prokaryotes. Archaea ... Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles dealing with all aspects of archaea, ... To receive news and publication updates for Archaea, enter your email address in the box below. ...
... scientifically known as Archaea in the Encyclopedia of Life. Includes Overview; Brief Summary; Comprehensive D... ... Archaea resemble normal bacteria, but are very different internally. They can live under extreme conditions: there are archaea ... Microbes consume methane: ANME-1 and ANME-2 Archaea The metabolism of ANME-1 and ANME-2 Archaea allows survival in anoxic ... Proteins function in saline environments: archea Proteins of halophilic archea resist the denaturing effect of highly saline ...
Roman and Medieval periods in the Netherlands at Archeon. Youll learn everything about the daily lives of people living ... Accommodations near Archeon. You can spend the night at several holiday parks near Archeon. Many holiday parks are located by ... Archeon is a unique experience, especially for younger visitors. You will not experience a single dull moment in this ancient ... As you walk through Archeon youll learn everything about the daily life of people who lived hundreds of year ago. You will ...
"myoviridae"[MeSH Terms] OR "myoviridae"[All Fields]) AND ("archaea"[MeSH Terms] OR "archaea"[All Fields]). Search. ... Utilization of virus φCh1 elements to establish a shuttle vector system for Halo(alkali)philic Archaea via transformation of ... Utilization of virus φCh1 elements to establish a shuttle vector system for Halo(alkali)philic Archaea via transformation of ... Evaluation of the genomic diversity of viruses infecting bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes using a common bioinformatic platform ...
bosanski: Archaea. български: Археи. català: Arqueobacteri. čeština: Archea. Cymraeg: Archaea. dansk: Archaea. Deutsch: ... hrvatski: Archaea. íslenska: Forngerlar. italiano: Archaea. עברית: חיידקים קדומים. Kapampangan: Archaea. Kiswahili: Archaea. ... Tagalog: Archaea. தமிழ்: ஆர்க்கீயா. ไทย: อาร์เคีย. Tiếng Việt: Vi khuẩn cổ. Türkçe: Arkea. українська: Археї. Winaray: Archaea ... asturianu: Archaea. azərbaycanca: Arxeya. Bahasa Indonesia: Archaea. Bahasa Melayu: Arkea. বাংলা: আর্কিয়া. Bân-lâm-gú: Kó͘- ...
Find archaea bacteria articles , the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource. ... archaea bacteria Articles. * Rich microbial communities inhabit water treatment biofilters and are differentially affected by ... CRISPR is a ubiquitous family of clustered repetitive DNA elements present in 90% of Archaea and 40% of sequenced Bacteria. ... Abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria on biological activated carbon in a pilot-scale drinking ...
Consequently, the research of Archaea in general and hyperthermophiles in particular has entered a new phase, with many ... Molecular biology of hyperthermophilic Archaea Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 1998;61:87-115. doi: 10.1007/BFb0102290. ... An overview is given of recent insight in the molecular biology of hyperthermophilic Archaea, as well as of a number of ... Such systems would allow the application of this class of Archaea as so-called "cell factories": (i) expression of certain ...
We have used two independent methods to determine the genome copy number in halophilic archaea, 1) cell lysis … ... Regulated polyploidy in halophilic archaea PLoS One. 2006 Dec 20;1(1):e92. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000092. ... We have used two independent methods to determine the genome copy number in halophilic archaea, 1) cell lysis in agarose blocks ... Our results indicate that polyploidy might be more widespread in archaea (or even prokaryotes in general) than previously ...
Similar Decks to Archeon Tarot. Theme: Dark & Gothic Category: Available Decks More About These Cards. Name: Archeon Tarot. ... Archeon Tarot. The Archeon Tarot features a mix of traditional and non-traditional imagery in dream-like digital collage, ... The Archeon Tarot by Timothy Lantz could have been Pauls subject. The glowing, swirling images are dark, a bit mottled, and ... Archeon Tarot review by Dionysius S. Badarian. Paul of Tarsus, the persecutor of Christians, later convert, apostle, and saint ...
Tag: archaea. Atheism Cell biology Evolution Intelligent Design theism Archaea discoverer Carl Woeses theological reflections ... Archeon life form eats fragments of meteorites. At ScienceAlerts: This particular mineral connoisseur loves to dine on far more ... Its a good question whether Woese would have recognized the Archaea for what they were, had he not been in the habit of ... The slingshot of life? According to this version of the tale, the eukaryotes are descended from the Asgard archaea. ...
High abundance of Archaea in Antarctic marine picoplankton.. DeLong EF1, Wu KY, Prézelin BB, Jovine RV. ... Pelagic Archaea constituted up to 34% of the prokaryotic biomass in coastal Antarctic surface waters, and they were also ... Archaea (archaebacteria) constitute one of the three major evolutionary lineages of life on Earth. Previously these prokaryotes ... Recently, novel (uncultivated) phylotypes of Archaea have been detected in coastal and subsurface marine waters, but their ...
However, Archaea are resistant to many of the antibiotics routinely used for selection in the Bacteria, and a number of ... strategies specific to the Archaea have been developed. In addition, examples utilizing the genetic systems developed for each ... Updated clusters of orthologous genes for Archaea - Biology Direct From www. .biology-direct. .com - December 28, 2012 10:49 AM ... Microbes known as archaea are as distinct from bacteria as plants and animals are, they wrote in a published paper.. ...
A study led by Indiana University is the first to reveal key similarities between chromosomes in humans and archaea. The work ... Key similarities discovered between human and archaea chromosomes Discovery from Indiana University could advance use of single ... Archaea are simple single-celled organisms that comprise one of the three domains of life on Earth. Although found in every ... "The simplicity of archaea means that theyve got the potential to be a terrific model to help understand the fundamentally ...
In reality, some bacteria and archaea do not share this canonical rRNA arrangement-their 16S and 23S rRNA genes are separated ... to cellular life and the genes for their RNA components are the most conserved and transcribed genes in bacteria and archaea. ... Unlinked rRNA genes are widespread among bacteria and archaea. *Tess E. Brewer. 1. ,6. nAff6, ... Brewer, T.E., Albertsen, M., Edwards, A. et al. Unlinked rRNA genes are widespread among bacteria and archaea. ISME J (2019) ...
weather Archea Epidavros - Greece - WeatherOnline. Weather forecast up to 14 days including temperature, weather condition and ... Forecast: Archea Epidavros Region. In the next few days, its sunny. During the day there is no rain. Daytime temperature ...
  • [6] Despite this morphological similarity to bacteria, archaea possess genes and several metabolic pathways that are more closely related to those of eukaryotes, notably the enzymes involved in transcription and translation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaea use more energy sources than eukaryotes: these range from organic compounds , such as sugars, to ammonia , metal ions or even hydrogen gas . (wikipedia.org)
  • The three primary divisions of life now comprise the familiar bacteria and eukaryotes, along with the Archaea . (wordnik.com)
  • [1] Woese argued that the bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes each represent a primary line of descent that diverged early on from an ancestral progenote with poorly developed genetic machinery. (wikibooks.org)
  • Archaea are evolutionarily more related to eukaryotes than they are to eubacteria, even though eubacteria and archaea are both prokaryotic groups. (wikibooks.org)
  • Both bacteria and eukaryotes have membranes composed mainly of glycerol-ester lipids, whereas archaea have membranes composed of glycerol-ether lipids. (wikibooks.org)
  • Unique Biology of the Archaea Bridging the Gap Between Bacteria and Eukaryotes. (microbes.info)
  • This may suggest a close relationship between Archaea and eukaryotes . (berkeley.edu)
  • The three domains include diverse life forms such as the Eukarya (organisms, including humans, yeast, and plants, whose cells have a DNA-containing nucleus) as well as Bacteria and Archaea (two distinct groups of unicellular microorganisms whose DNA floats around in the cell instead of in a nucleus). (wordnik.com)
  • How many times did the molecular characters that define Woese's three domains [Bacteria, Archaea , Eukarya] evolve? (wordnik.com)
  • This transformed the previous 5-kingdom system (plantae, animalia, fungi, protists, and prokaryotes) drawn by Lynn Margulis into 3 equally distinct groups (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya). (wikibooks.org)
  • Eukarya and archaea are noted to have many similarities especially in regards to metabolic pathways. (wikibooks.org)
  • For example, enzymes present in transcription and translation of archaea are more closely related to those of Eukarya than bacteria. (wikibooks.org)
  • The relationship between archaea and Eukarya remains an important problem. (wikibooks.org)
  • Currently these archaea could not be cultivated in the laboratory, only the genomes of these organisms could be assembled from the metagenomic sequences. (uni-ulm.de)
  • [7] Archaea are particularly numerous in the oceans, and the archaea in plankton may be one of the most abundant groups of organisms on the planet. (wikipedia.org)
  • He says: The micro-organisms in the Dead Sea water mainly belong to the domain Archaea and they number around 1,000-10,000 per ml much lower than regular sea water. (wordnik.com)
  • The organisms he revealed -- the archaea -- are fascinating and abundant creatures, yet are hardly ever discussed in depth, even within the confines of microbiology classes. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This book examines the diverse Archaea kingdom and the division of these organisms by their unusual biology into three main groups. (biguniverse.com)
  • From the reviews 'The material in this book (Respiration in Archaea and Bacteria:Diversity of Prokaryotic Respiratory Systems, edited by Davide Zannoni) provides a bridge between the biophysics and biochemistry of the individual enzyme components and the complex physiology of the organisms in which these components function. (nhbs.com)
  • In other words, Archaea build the same structures as other organisms, but they build them from different chemical components. (berkeley.edu)
  • singular archaeon ) are prokaryotes , meaning they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles in their cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • He noticed that the sequencing of the prokaryotes were a distinct form of life in itself- he called them archaea. (wikibooks.org)
  • Archaea are a class of prokaryotes. (wikibooks.org)
  • Archaea are similar to other prokaryotes in most aspects of cell structure and metabolism. (wikibooks.org)
  • Archaea were initially classified as bacteria , receiving the name archaebacteria (in the Archaebacteria kingdom), but this classification is outdated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The domain Archaea is subdivided into different phyla: Euryarchaeota, TACK (containing Thaum-, Aig-, Cren- and Korarchaeota) and Asgard archaea. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Domain Archaea is currently represented by one phylum (Euryarchaeota) and two superphyla (TACK and DPANN). (osti.gov)
  • Baker probed the gene fragments more thoroughly to turn up three Archaea from a totally unknown group, probably representing a new phylum among the several dozen known phyla of Archaea. (wordnik.com)
  • We reconstructed a complete (finished) genome for an archaeon from this phylum that is only 0.8 Mb in length and lacks almost all core biosynthetic pathways, but has genes encoding enzymes predicted to interact with bacterial cell walls, consistent with a symbiotic lifestyle. (osti.gov)
  • We also reconstructed a complete (1.24 Mb) genome for another DPANN archaeon, a member of the Diapherotrites phylum. (osti.gov)
  • Before 1970 archaea were thought to belong to the domain bacteria, since archaeal cells have similar sizes as bacterial cells and like bacteria possess neither a nucleus nor cell organelles. (uni-ulm.de)
  • These archaea were grouped into the new archaeal superphylum Asgard archaea. (uni-ulm.de)
  • There are even features of archaeal tRNA that are more like eukaryotic critters than bacteria, meaning that Archaea share certain features in common with you and not with bacteria. (berkeley.edu)
  • Archaea are a branch of the three-domain system of life that contains single-celled microorganisms. (wikibooks.org)
  • Asgard archaea: Close relatives to the first eukaryotic cell? (uni-ulm.de)
  • Archaea were initially viewed as extremophiles living in harsh environments, such as hot springs and salt lakes , but they have since been found in a broad range of habitats , including soils, oceans, and marshlands . (wikipedia.org)
  • But nowadays it is known that archaea also constitute a big part of the biomass in 'normal' environments. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Archaea were first found in extreme environments, such as volcanic hot springs . (wikipedia.org)
  • Methanogens are also used in biogas production and sewage treatment , and biotechnology exploits enzymes from extremophile archaea that can endure high temperatures and organic solvents . (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaea rotate archaella to find food or escape from dangers resembling bacterial flagella system. (nature.com)
  • Using molecular and biogeochemical techniques, we quantified ammonia oxidation rates and the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in tandem in the ETNP and GOC. (bemanlab.org)
  • Initially people thought that archaea are 'freaks' living only at sites with extreme living conditions like f.i. hot geysers in Yellowstone National Park and Black Smokers at the bottom of the ocean. (uni-ulm.de)
  • It is thought that archaea and bacteria diverged early in their existence because of all the dissimilarities between the two groups. (wikibooks.org)
  • Thus, as for a recently identified superphylum of bacteria with small genomes and no cultivated representatives, the biogeochemical impacts of this major radiation of archaea are primarily through anaerobic carbon and hydrogen cycling. (osti.gov)
  • Comparison of complete genomes of Bacteria and Archaea shows that gene content varies considerably and that genomes evolve quite rapidly via gene duplication and deletion and horizontal gene transfer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We analyze a diverse set of 92 Bacteria and 79 Archaea in order to investigate the processes governing the origin and evolution of families of related genes within genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are now a large number of completely sequenced genomes of Bacteria and Archaea that can be used to study evolution at the whole-genome level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The pseudopeptidoglycans consist of polysaccharides that give the archaea a rigid structure. (wikibooks.org)
  • ScpA proteins lacking the ScpB-binding segment are found to prevail in archaea. (kaist.ac.kr)
  • The Archaea are further divided into multiple recognized phyla . (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaea, one of three domains of life, rotate archaella for swim. (nature.com)
  • However, gene surveys indicate the existence of a vast diversity of uncultivated archaea for which metabolic information is lacking. (osti.gov)
  • We sequenced DNA from complex sediment- and groundwater-associated microbial communities sampled prior to and during an acetate biostimulation field experiment to investigate the diversity and physiology of uncultivated subsurface archaea. (osti.gov)
  • Archaea have significant impacts on microbial diversity and evolution [1,2] as well as human health [3]. (nature.com)
  • We are working with halophilic archaea ( Haloferax volcanii , Halorubrum lacusprofundi and Natrialba magadii ), which require a lot of salt to grow. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Halophilic archaea are generally easy to grow in the lab. (uni-ulm.de)
  • however, unlike plants and cyanobacteria , no known species of archaea does both. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iti napalabas ti Archaea ket naiklase idi kadagiti bakteria a kas dagiti prokaryote (wenno Pagarian ti Monera ) ken nanganan iti archaebakteria , ngem daytoy a pannakaidasig ket naikeddengen a duog. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thermococcus gammatolerans -- a flagellate archaeon that thrives in hot, oxygen-starved waters. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It also explains why little in general is known about them, and why further classification of Archaea is so difficult. (biguniverse.com)
  • Archaea are nowadays known as the third domain of life. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Since then more and more data accumulated which show that Archaea indeed belong to a separate domain. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Archaea are the third domain of life, as evolutionarily distinct from other microbes in the bacteria as they are from animals or plants. (bemanlab.org)
  • These differences may be an adaptation on the part of archaea to hyperthermophily. (wikibooks.org)
  • The most striking chemical differences between Archaea and other living things lie in their cell membrane. (berkeley.edu)