One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.
A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.
A family of archaea, in the order DESULFUROCOCCALES, consisting of anaerobic cocci which utilize peptides, proteins or carbohydrates facultatively by sulfur respiration or fermentation. There are eight genera: AEROPYRUM, Desulfurococcus, Ignicoccus, Staphylothermus, Stetteria, Sulfophoboccus, Thermodiscus, and Thermosphaera. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. There are two families: METHANOSARCINACEAE and Methanosaetaceae.
An order of extremely halophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They occur ubiquitously in nature where the salt concentration is high, and are chemoorganotrophic, using amino acids or carbohydrates as a carbon source.
A genus of extremely halophilic HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoheterotropic and strictly aerobic. They are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes (especially the Dead Sea) and marine salterns.
A genus of strictly anaerobic ultrathermophilic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated seawaters. They exhibit heterotrophic growth at an optimum temperature of 100 degrees C.
A species of aerobic, chemolithotrophic ARCHAEA consisting of coccoid cells that utilize sulfur as an energy source. The optimum temperature for growth is 70-75 degrees C. They are isolated from acidic fields.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A family of anaerobic METHANOSARCINALES whose cells are mesophilic or thermophilic and appear as irregular spheroid bodies or sheathed rods. These methanogens are found in any anaerobic environment including aquatic sediments, anaerobic sewage digesters and gastrointestinal tracts. There are four genera: METHANOSARCINA, Methanolobus, Methanothrix, and Methanococcoides.
A species of gram-negative hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in deep ocean hydrothermal vents. It is an obligate anaerobe and obligate chemoorganotroph.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)
A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.
A species of strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaea which lives in geothermally-heated marine sediments. It exhibits heterotropic growth by fermentation or sulfur respiration.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A genus of extremely thermophilic heterotrophic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated sea flows. They are anaerobic chemoorganotropic sulfidogens.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.
A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Mediterranean Sea. It produces bacteriocins active against a range of other halobacteria.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
A family of THERMOPROTEALES consisting of variable length rigid rods without septa. They grow either chemolithoautotrophically or by sulfur respiration. The four genera are: PYROBACULUM; THERMOPROTEUS; Caldivirga; and Thermocladium. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)
A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An order of aerobic, thermophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA, characterized by the absence of a cell wall. Two genera have been described: THERMOPLASMA and Picrophilus.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, cocci to short rod-shaped ARCHAEA, in the family METHANOBACTERIACEAE, order METHANOBACTERIALES. They are found in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or other anoxic environments.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of halophilic archaea distinguished by its production of acid from sugar. This species was previously called Halobacterium marismortui.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
An order of CRENARCHAEOTA consisting of aerobic or facultatively aerobic, chemolithotrophic cocci which are extreme thermoacidophiles. They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A family of anaerobic METHANOMICROBIALES whose cells are coccoid to straight or slightly curved rods. There are six genera.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of extremely thermophilic, sulfate-reducing archaea, in the family Archaeoglobaceae.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The large subunit of the archaeal 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 40 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
A family of SULFOLOBALES consisting of aerobic or facultatively anaerobic chemolithotrophic cocci, usually occurring singly. They grow best at a pH of about 2.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed
A kingdom of hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in diverse environments.
Anaerobic hyperthermophilic species of ARCHAEA, isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples. It is obligately heterotrophic with coccoid cells that require TRYPTOPHAN for growth.
An order of anaerobic, highly specialized methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. Its organisms are nonmotile or motile, with cells occurring as coccoid bodies, pseudosarcina, or rods. Families include METHANOMICROBIACEAE, Methanocorpusculaceae, and Methanospirillaceae.
A genus of rod-shaped, almost rectangular ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. Organisms are facultatively aerobic or strictly anaerobic, grow on various organic substrates, and are found in continental solfataras.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of obligately anaerobic ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. They are found in acidic hot springs and water holes.
A genus of anaerobic, chemolithotropic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family DESULFUROCOCCACEAE. They live in marine environments.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.

Characterization of two novel haloalkaliphilic archaea Natronorubrum bangense gen. nov., sp. nov. and Natronorubrum tibetense gen. nov., sp. nov. (1/2228)

Two haloalkaliphilic archaea were isolated from a soda lake in Tibet. The two strains, designated A33T and GA33T, were Gram-negative, pleomorphic, flat, non-motile and strictly aerobic. Growth required at least 12% NaCl. Growth was between pH 8.0 and pH 11 with an optimum at pH 9.0-9.5. Cells were chemo-organotrophic. Polar lipids were C20-C25 derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol phosphate. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from the two strains were obtained by the analysis of the cloned rDNAs. On 16S rRNA phylogenetic trees, the two strains formed a monophyletic cluster. They differed from their closet neighbours, Halobacterium trapanicum and Natrialba asiatica, in polar lipid composition, as well as physiological and phenotypic characteristics. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that the two strains belonged to different species of the same genus. The results indicated that the strains A33T and GA33T should be classified in a new genus Natronorubrum gen. nov. as Natronorubrum bangense sp. nov. (strain A33T) and Natronorubrum tibetense sp. nov. (strain GA33T).  (+info)

An evaluation of elongation factor 1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes. (2/2228)

Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is a highly conserved ubiquitous protein involved in translation that has been suggested to have desirable properties for phylogenetic inference. To examine the utility of EF-1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes, we studied three properties of EF-1 alpha trees: congruency with other phyogenetic markers, the impact of species sampling, and the degree of substitutional saturation occurring between taxa. Our analyses indicate that the EF-1 alpha tree is congruent with some other molecular phylogenies in identifying both the deepest branches and some recent relationships in the eukaryotic line of descent. However, the topology of the intermediate portion of the EF-1 alpha tree, occupied by most of the protist lineages, differs for different phylogenetic methods, and bootstrap values for branches are low. Most problematic in this region is the failure of all phylogenetic methods to resolve the monophyly of two higher-order protistan taxa, the Ciliophora and the Alveolata. JACKMONO analyses indicated that the impact of species sampling on bootstrap support for most internal nodes of the eukaryotic EF-1 alpha tree is extreme. Furthermore, a comparison of observed versus inferred numbers of substitutions indicates that multiple overlapping substitutions have occurred, especially on the branch separating the Eukaryota from the Archaebacteria, suggesting that the rooting of the eukaryotic tree on the diplomonad lineage should be treated with caution. Overall, these results suggest that the phylogenies obtained from EF-1 alpha are congruent with other molecular phylogenies in recovering the monophyly of groups such as the Metazoa, Fungi, Magnoliophyta, and Euglenozoa. However, the interrelationships between these and other protist lineages are not well resolved. This lack of resolution may result from the combined effects of poor taxonomic sampling, relatively few informative positions, large numbers of overlapping substitutions that obscure phylogenetic signal, and lineage-specific rate increases in the EF-1 alpha data set. It is also consistent with the nearly simultaneous diversification of major eukaryotic lineages implied by the "big-bang" hypothesis of eukaryote evolution.  (+info)

Unusual ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of anoxic Archaea. (3/2228)

The predominant pool of organic matter on earth is derived from the biological reduction and assimilation of carbon dioxide gas, catalyzed primarily by the enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). By virtue of its capacity to use molecular oxygen as an alternative and competing gaseous substrate, the catalytic efficiency of RubisCO and the enzyme's ability to assimilate CO2 may be severely limited, with consequent environmental and agricultural effects. Recent genomic sequencing projects, however, have identified putative RubisCO genes from anoxic Archaea. In the present study, these potential RubisCO sequences, from Methanococcus jannaschii and Archaeoglobus fulgidus, were analyzed in order to ascertain whether such sequences might encode functional proteins. We also report the isolation and properties of recombinant RubisCO using sequences obtained from the obligately anaerobic hyperthermophilic methanogen M. jannaschii. This is the first description of an archaeal RubisCO sequence; this study also represents the initial characterization of a RubisCO molecule that has evolved in the absence of molecular oxygen. The enzyme was shown to be a homodimer whose deduced sequence, along with other recently obtained archaeal RubisCO sequences, differs substantially from those of known RubisCO molecules. The recombinant M. jannaschii enzyme has a somewhat low, but reasonable kcat, however, unlike previously isolated RubisCO molecules, this enzyme is very oxygen sensitive yet it is stable to hyperthermal temperatures and catalyzes the formation of the expected carboxylation product. Despite inhibition by oxygen, this unusual RubisCO still catalyzes a weak yet demonstrable oxygenase activity, with perhaps the lowest capacity for CO2/O2 discrimination ever encountered for any RubisCO.  (+info)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides reveals localization of methanogens and selected uncultured bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic sludge granules. (4/2228)

16S rRNA-targeted in situ hybridization combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to elucidate the spatial distribution of microbes within two types of methanogenic granular sludge, mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C), in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors fed with sucrose-, acetate-, and propionate-based artificial wastewater. The spatial organization of the microbes was visualized in thin sections of the granules by using fluorescent oligonucleotide probes specific to several phylogenetic groups of microbes. In situ hybridization with archaeal- and bacterial-domain probes within granule sections clearly showed that both mesophilic and thermophilic granules had layered structures and that the outer layer harbored mainly bacterial cells while the inner layer consisted mainly of archaeal cells. Methanosaeta-, Methanobacterium-, Methanospirillum-, and Methanosarcina-like cells were detected with oligonucleotide probes specific for the different groups of methanogens, and they were found to be localized inside the granules, in both types of which dominant methanogens were members of the genus Methanosaeta. For specific detection of bacteria which were previously detected by whole-microbial-community 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-cloning analysis (Y. Sekiguchi, Y. Kamagata, K. Syutsubo, A. Ohashi, H. Harada, and K. Nakamura, Microbiology 144:2655-2665, 1998) we designed probes specific for clonal 16S rDNAs related to unidentified green nonsulfur bacteria and clones related to Syntrophobacter species. The probe designed for the cluster closely related to Syntrophobacter species hybridized with coccoid cells in the inner layer of the mesophilic granule sections. The probe for the unidentified bacteria which were clustered with the green nonsulfur bacteria detected filamentous cells in the outermost layer of the thermophilic sludge granule sections. These results revealed the spatial organizations of methanogens and uncultivated bacteria and their in situ morphologies and metabolic functions in both mesophilic and thermophilic granular sludges.  (+info)

Universal conservation in translation initiation revealed by human and archaeal homologs of bacterial translation initiation factor IF2. (5/2228)

Binding of initiator methionyl-tRNA to ribosomes is catalyzed in prokaryotes by initiation factor (IF) IF2 and in eukaryotes by eIF2. The discovery of both IF2 and eIF2 homologs in yeast and archaea suggested that these microbes possess an evolutionarily intermediate protein synthesis apparatus. We describe the identification of a human IF2 homolog, and we demonstrate by using in vivo and in vitro assays that human IF2 functions as a translation factor. In addition, we show that archaea IF2 can substitute for its yeast homolog both in vivo and in vitro. We propose a universally conserved function for IF2 in facilitating the proper binding of initiator methionyl-tRNA to the ribosomal P site.  (+info)

10-11 bp periodicities in complete genomes reflect protein structure and DNA folding. (6/2228)

MOTIVATION: Completely sequenced genomes allow for detection and analysis of the relatively weak periodicities of 10-11 basepairs (bp). Two sources contribute to such signals: correlations in the corresponding protein sequences due to the amphipatic character of alpha-helices and the folding of DNA (nucleosomal patterns, DNA supercoiling). Since the topological state of genomic DNA is of importance for its replication, recombination and transcription, there is an immediate interest to obtain information about the supercoiled state from sequence periodicities. RESULTS: We show that correlations within proteins affect mainly the oscillations at distances below 35 bp. The long-ranging correlations up to 100 bp reflect primarily DNA folding. For the yeast genome these oscillations are consistent in detail with the chromatin structure. For eubacteria and archaea the periods deviate significantly from the 10.55 bp value for free DNA. These deviations suggest that while a period of 11 bp in bacteria reflects negative supercoiling, the significantly different period of thermophilic archaea close to 10 bp corresponds to positive supercoiling of thermophilic archaeal genomes. AVAILABILITY: Protein sets and C programs for the calculation of correlation functions are available on request from the authors (see  (+info)

The euryarchaeotes, a subdomain of Archaea, survive on a single DNA polymerase: fact or farce? (7/2228)

Archaea is now recognized as the third domain of life. Since their discovery, much effort has been directed towards understanding the molecular biology and biochemistry of Archaea. The objective is to comprehend the complete structure and the depth of the phylogenetic tree of life. DNA replication is one of the most important events in living organisms and DNA polymerase is the key enzyme in the molecular machinery which drives the process. All archaeal DNA polymerases were thought to belong to family B. This was because all of the products of pol genes that had been cloned showed amino acid sequence similarities to those of this family, which includes three eukaryal DNA replicases and Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II. Recently, we found a new heterodimeric DNA polymerase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus. The genes coding for the subunits of this DNA polymerase are conserved in the euryarchaeotes whose genomes have been completely sequenced. The biochemical characteristics of the novel DNA polymerase family suggest that its members play an important role in DNA replication within euryarchaeal cells. We review here our current knowledge on DNA polymerases in Archaea with emphasis on the novel DNA polymerase discovered in Euryarchaeota.  (+info)

Two distinct SECIS structures capable of directing selenocysteine incorporation in eukaryotes. (8/2228)

Translation of UGA as selenocysteine requires specific RNA secondary structures in the mRNAs of selenoproteins. These elements differ in sequence, structure, and location in the mRNA, that is, coding versus 3' untranslated region, in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and archaea. Analyses of eukaryotic selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) elements via computer folding programs, mutagenesis studies, and chemical and enzymatic probing has led to the derivation of a predicted consensus structural model for these elements. This model consists of a stem-loop or hairpin, with conserved nucleotides in the loop and in a non-Watson-Crick motif at the base of the stem. However, the sequences of a number of SECIS elements predict that they would diverge from the consensus structure in the loop region. Using site-directed mutagenesis to introduce mutations predicted to either disrupt or restore structure, or to manipulate loop size or stem length, we show that eukaryotic SECIS elements fall into two distinct classes, termed forms 1 and 2. Form 2 elements have additional secondary structures not present in form 1 elements. By either insertion or deletion of the sequences and structures distinguishing the two classes of elements while maintaining appropriate loop size, conversion of a form 1 element to a functional form 2-like element and of a form 2 to a functional form 1-like element was achieved. These results suggest commonality of function of the two classes. The information obtained regarding the existence of two classes of SECIS elements and the tolerances for manipulations of stem length and loop size should facilitate designing RNA molecules for obtaining high-resolution structural information about these elements.  (+info)

... and bacteria are generally similar in size and shape, although a few archaea have very different shapes, such as the ... Archaea are particularly numerous in the oceans, and the archaea in plankton may be one of the most abundant groups of ... In some archaea, the lipid bilayer is replaced by a monolayer. In effect, the archaea fuse the tails of two phospholipid ... Similar to PGPR, Archaea are now considered as a source of plant growth promotion as well. Extremophile archaea are members of ...
... is a moth of the family Gelechiidae. It is found in Mexico (Guerrero). The wingspan is about 13 mm. The ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arogalea archaea. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different ... Heterocera 4 : 49 Wikispecies has information related to Arogalea archaea. ...
List of Archaea genera Fournier GP, Poole AM (2018). "A Briefly Argued Case That Asgard Archaea Are Part of the Eukaryote Tree ... Metabolic pathways of Asgard archaea, variation by Phyla Metabolic pathways of Asgard archaea, variation by environment Asgard ... Asgard archaeons have a regulated actin cytoskeleton, and the profilins and gelsolins they use can interact with eukaryotic ... Rambo IM, Langwig MV, Leão P, De Anda V, Baker BJ (July 2022). "Genomes of six viruses that infect Asgard archaea from deep-sea ...
"Grappling archaea: ultrastructural analyses of an uncultivated, cold-loving archaeon, and its biofilm". Frontiers in ... Archaea are known as extremophiles and live in to live in extreme environments, but this capacity to remain stable over a large ... In 1977 archaea, then known as archaebacteria, were first discovered when Carl Woese and George Fox published their findings in ... This biofilm consists almost entirely of SM1 archaea making it the first biofilm found of this nature as no other biofilm with ...
Archaea laevigata C. L. Koch & Berendt, 1854, Archaea incompta Menge, 1854) (type species) - Baltic amber †Archaea pougneti ... Archaea bitterfeldensis Wunderlich, 2004 - Bitterfeld amber †Archaea compacta Wunderlich, 2004 - Baltic amber †Archaea paradoxa ... In 1895, Eugène Simon transferred this species to Archaea as Archaea workmani. Other living species were placed in the genus ... Archaea hyperoptica †Baltarchaea conica (Koch & Berendt 1854) = Archaea conica Dunlop, J.A.; Penney, D. & Jekel, D. (2016), "A ...
Subspecies Orania archaea archaea Houart, 1995 Orania archaea hitomiae Houart & Moe, 2011 (occurs off Oahu, Hawaii). This ... Orania archaea is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Muricidae, the murex snails or rock snails. ... Orania archaea Houart, 1995. Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 24 April 2010. Houart, R.; Gori, S. & ... 4, 16 (A, 2-4): 245-297 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Orania archaea. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
Archaea is a domain of single-celled organisms. Archaea or archea may also refer to: Archaea (spider), an extinct genus of ... a commonly used taxonomic affixes This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Archaea. If an internal ... Archaeidae Archaea (journal), published by Hindawi Archean, or Archæan, a geological eon "archaeo-" ('ancient'), ...
... : Discovering Another Domain of Life is a popular science book written about the domain Archaea. It was ... proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya Howland, John L. The surprising archaea:Discovering another domain of ...
"Archaea". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2021-06-27. Sayers; et al. "Archaea". ... This article lists the genera of the Archaea. The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Archaea genera, Taxonomic lists (genera, ... "A complete domain-to-species taxonomy for Bacteria and Archaea". Nature Biotechnology. 38 (9): 1079-1086. bioRxiv 10.1101/ ...
... can refer to: An organism belong to the domain archaea. Archeon, Netherlands, a Dutch archeological theme park in ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Archeon. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ... Alphen aan den Rijn Made of Hate, a Polish melodic death metal band (transformed from the band Archeon). ...
... not all archaea use them. They are even seen in psychrophiles, which are archaea that require very cold conditions to survive ... These are likely some of the first pathways to evolve because the bacteria and archaea who use them live in environments that ... P. fumarii is a unicellular organism from the domain Archaea living in the hydrothermal vents in black smokers along the Mid- ... Because organisms like P. fumarii live in such harsh environments, these archaea have needed to devise unusual ways to gather ...
Archeon was and is host to several festivals such as the Midsummer Fair, the Midwinter Fair, the Roman Festival and the Elf ... Archeon is an archeological open air and living museum in Alphen aan den Rijn, Netherlands that opened in 1994. In Alphen an ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Archeon. Official website (Articles lacking in-text citations from August 2021, All ...
... (also known as pseudomurein; PPG hereafter) is a major cell wall component of some Archaea that differs ... Pseudopeptidoglycan, like peptidoglycan in bacteria, forms a mesh-like layer outside of the plasma membrane of the archaea. ... Pseudopeptidoglycan, in general, is only present in a few methanogenic archaea. The basic components are N-acetylglucosamine ... Only a few methanogenic archaea have cell walls composed of pseudopeptidoglycan. This component functions much like ...
Together with MscS, MscL, or its homologs, has been found in bacteria, archaea, fungi, and higher plants, but not animals. ... Kloda, Anna; Martinac, Boris (2002). "Common evolutionary origins of mechanosensitive ion channels in Archaea, Bacteria and ... cell-walled Eukarya". Archaea. 1 (1): 35-44. doi:10.1155/2002/419261. PMC 2685541. PMID 15803657. Kung C, Martinac B, Sukharev ...
Archaea. 2013: 648746. doi:10.1155/2013/648746. PMC 3892558. PMID 24492748. SUPERFAMILY database SCOP: Structural ...
Cell-wall-containing Archaea are also lysed by specialized pseudomurein-cleaving lysins, while most archaeal viruses employ ... Archaea. 2010: 480492. doi:10.1155/2010/480492. PMC 2989375. PMID 21113291. Quemin ER, Quax TE (5 June 2015). "Archaeal viruses ...
It is hypothesized that the symbiosis originated when ancient archaea, similar to modern methanogenic archaea, invaded and ... Hogan CM (2010). "Archaea". In Monosson E, Cleveland C (eds.). Encyclopedia of Earth. Washington, DC.: National Council for ... A similar proposal states that a eukaryote-like cell, the chronocyte, evolved first and phagocytosed archaea and bacteria to ... The first model known as the "syntrophic model" proposes that a symbiotic relationship between the archaea and bacteria created ...
"Identification and analysis of proton-translocating pyrophosphatases in the methanogenic archaeon Methansarcina mazei". Archaea ... The archaeon, Methanosarcina mazei Gö1, encodes within its genome two H+-translocating pyrophosphatases (PPases), Mvp1 and Mvp2 ... Full-length members of the H+-PPase family have been sequenced from numerous bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. These H+ pumping ... Those from respiratory and photosynthetic bacteria as well as archaea are less dependent upon K+. However, exceptions may exist ...
nov., a hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from a hydrothermal vent at the Okinawa Trough". Extremophiles. 2 (2): 123-130. doi ... Pyrococcus horikoshii is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic archaeon, first isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples obtained at ... Archaea. 2011: 1-9. doi:10.1155/2011/565127. ISSN 1472-3646. PMC 3227228. Ando, Susumu; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Ishida, Hiroyasu; ... Archaea described in 1993, Euryarchaeota, All stub articles, Euryarchaeota stubs). ...
... is a thermophilic and obligately autotrophic archaeon. Its type strain is MarburgT. Its genome ... Archaea. 2011: 23. doi:10.1155/2011/973848. ISSN 1472-3646. PMC 3087415. PMID 21559116. 973848. Vitt, Stella; Ma, Kesen; ...
... and the Unique Energy Metabolism of Methanogenic Archaea". Archaea. 2010: 1-14. doi:10.1155/2010/453642. ISSN 1472-3646. PMC ... Pyrrolysine is used by some methanogenic archaea in enzymes that they use to produce methane. It is coded for with the codon ... found only in some archaea and at least one bacterium). The incorporation of these nonstandard amino acids is rare. For example ...
Archaea. 2017: 1-13. doi:10.1155/2017/2136287. PMC 5485487. PMID 28694737. Griebler, C.; Lueders, T. (2009). "Microbial ...
Archaea. 2014: 898453. doi:10.1155/2014/898453. PMC 3960522. PMID 24729742. "Zaida A. Luthey-Schulten". Chemistry Tree. ...
nov., a methane-producing archaeon, the first isolate of the lineage 'Rice Cluster I', and proposal of the new archaeal order ... Blainey PC, Mosier AC, Potanina A, Francis CA, Quake SR (February 2011). "Genome of a low-salinity ammonia-oxidizing archaeon ... July 2006). "The genome of the square archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi : life at the limits of water activity". BMC Genomics. 7: ... March 2010). Friedberg I (ed.). "The complete genome sequence of Haloferax volcanii DS2, a model archaeon". PLOS ONE. 5 (3): ...
Archaea genera, Taxa described in 1996, All stub articles, Archaea stubs). ... nov., novel haloalkaliphilic archaea from soda lakes in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China". International Journal of ... Kamekura, M.; Seno, Y.; Dyall-Smith, M. (1996-05-23). "Halolysin R4, a serine proteinase from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax ... nov., a novel extremely halophilic, aerobic, non-pigmented member of the Archaea from Egypt that produces extracellular poly( ...
During this process, methane forming microorganisms (methanogenic archaea or methanogens) release enzymes that reduce the ... Archaea. 2013: 157529. doi:10.1155/2013/157529. PMC 3806361. PMID 24194675. Article ID 157529. "Power-to-Gas Energy Storage - ... "Selective microbial electrosynthesis of methane by a pure culture of a marine lithoautotrophic archaeon". Bioelectrochemistry. ...
... s from bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes in the three-domain system resemble each other to a remarkable degree, evidence ... The small subunit (30S in bacteria and archaea, 40S in eukaryotes) has the decoding function, whereas the large subunit (50S in ... Every extra ribosomal protein archaea have compared to bacteria has a eukaryotic counterpart, while no such relation applies ... The 50S (large prokaryotic) subunit was determined from the archaeon Haloarcula marismortui and the bacterium Deinococcus ...
... one of the most common tetraether lipid in archaea. Archaeol has been found in all archaea so far, at least in trace amounts. ... Similar to archaea, these lipids are thought to increase the resistivity of bacteria to adverse environments. More stunning is ... Archaea utilize biosynthetic pathways of isoprenoids that is distinct compared to bacteria and eukarya. The C5 precursors to ... 2007), Archaea, Washington, DC: ASM Press, ISBN 978-1-55581-391-8, OCLC 172964654 Koga, Y Nishihara, M Morii, H Akagawa- ...
Archaea. 2011: 608385. doi:10.1155/2011/608385. PMC 3270539. PMID 22312317. Hein PP, Landick R (November 2010). "The bridge ...
Reed CJ, Lewis H, Trejo E, Winston V, Evilia C (2013). "Protein adaptations in archaeal extremophiles". Archaea. 2013: 373275. ... nov., a new barophilic and hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated under high hydrostatic pressure from a deep-sea hydrothermal ... November 2011). "UV-inducible DNA exchange in hyperthermophilic archaea mediated by type IV pili" (PDF). Molecular Microbiology ... Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are hyperthermophilic archaea. Exposure of these organisms to the DNA ...
Design Team: Archea Associati, Laura Andreini, Marco Casamonti, Silvia Fabi, Giovanni Polazzi , Luana Carastro, Francesco ... Archea Associati has also designed the new Antinori Winery in Tuscany and other projects related to nature and architecture in ... Archea Associati. The entire project was designed following the criteria of sustainability, respect for the environment and the ... Cite: "Yanqing Grape Expo / Archea Associati" 03 Feb 2020. ArchDaily. Accessed . , ...
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. ...
Archaea (Vancouver, B.C.). NLM Title Abbreviation:. Archaea. Title(s):. Archaea : an international microbiological journal.. ... Archaea (Vancouver, B.C.) Publication Start Year:. 2002. Country of Publication:. United States. Publisher:. Victoria, B.C. : ... Archaea*. Biotechnology. Environmental Microbiology. Molecular Biology. Broad Subject Term(s):. Microbiology. Publication Type( ...
Welkom bij het Archeon, de wereld van de geschiedenis ... Archeon has unique locations that are ideal for a good party, ... Archeon is a unique location for all your parties! Whether its a smashing birthday party, a cozy family day or a delicious ... The Roman museum in Archeon is housed in a reconstruction of a Gallo-Roman farmhouse. A variety of collections is on display. ... The aim is to return these ships to the public in the newly established National Roman Shipping Museum, at Archeon, in the ...
Timeline for Species Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus [TaxId:2261] from a.4.5.25 Methionine aminopeptidase, insert domain: *Species ... PDB entries in Species: Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus:. *Domain(s) for 1xgm: *. Domain d1xgma1: 1xgm A:195-271 [16220]. Other ... Species Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus [TaxId:2261] from a.4.5.25 Methionine aminopeptidase, insert domain appears in SCOP 1.67. ... Species Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus [TaxId:2261] from a.4.5.25 Methionine aminopeptidase, insert domain appears in SCOP 1.71. ...
uncultured archaeon S15-27. Taxonomy ID: 87424 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid87424). current name. uncultured ... NCBI BLAST name: archaea. Rank: species. Genetic code: Translation table 11 (Bacterial, Archaeal and Plant Plastid). Lineage( ...
CANCELLED Ubiquitin-like modifications and proteasomaldegradation pathways in the Archaea Add to your list(s) Download to your ... CANCELLED Ubiquitin-like modifications and proteasomaldegradation pathways in the Archaea ...
The genome sequence of M. acetivorans and other archaea are available at the Deambulum:%20Archaea website. ... This suggests a different mode of action of two-component systems in archaea. ... and the morphology of this archaeon during different stages of growth and/or changes in the environment. A mutagenesis program ... DHaeze, W. Methanogenic archaeon sequenced . Genome Biol 3, reports0041 (2002). ...
SEAS researchers have found that these pink-hued archaea - called Halobacterium salinarum - use the same mechanisms to maintain ... "Archaea resemble bacterial cells in size and shape but their cell cycle events - such as division and DNA replication - are a ... Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya Have More in Common Than Previously Thought TOPICS:BacteriaDuke UniversityEukaryotesHarvard ... "Archaea are unique because they blend a lot of the characteristics of both bacteria and eukaryotes," said Dr. Yejin Eun, first ...
... Author(s). Sullivan, ... Since little is known about translation in archaea, future work will involve modifying identity elements in the initiator tRNA ... in particular the question of whether suppressors of the UAA codon can also suppress the UAG codon in archaea. H. volcanii WFD ...
C/D box sRNA, CRISPR RNA and tRNA processing in an archaeon with a minimal fragmented genome Hagen Richter; Hagen Richter ... Hagen Richter, Sabine Mohr, Lennart Randau; C/D box sRNA, CRISPR RNA and tRNA processing in an archaeon with a minimal ... The minimal and fragmented genome of this tiny archaeon permits a sequencing depth that enables the identification of ...
The organizational chart of Archaea Energy displays its 28 main executives including Starlee Sykes, Brian McCarthy and Richard ... Archaea Energy org chart. Print your org chart in PDF • Archaea Energy org chart ... Add Archaea Energy in My Favorite Archaea Energy is in My Favorite - Delete *Industries ...
Re-imagining discovery and access to research: grants, datasets, publications, citations, clinical trials, patents and policy documents in one place.
Uncovering major genomic features of essential genes in Bacteria and a methanogenic Archaea. Wednesday, September 16, 2015. - ... Finally, we demonstrated that the essential gene sets of Bacteria and an Archaea share important genomic features, indicating ... encompassing 15 bacteria and one Archaea. We assessed the overall features of essential genes in these two domains of life and ...
Single cell genomic analysis for the marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea ... Keywords:genome, ammonia oxidation, archaea. Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) is one of the most dominant lineages in aquatic ... BGM22-05] Single cell genomic analysis for the marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea ...
Last month I moderated our annual retreat with the NIH Scientific Directors, those individuals tasked with leading their Institute or Center (IC)-based intramural research program. We were joined by many of the IC Clinical Directors. And this year we decided to do something a little different: listen to a series of talks about exciting, new IRP research. ...
What Is Archaea?. Archaea is the third domain of life-"domain" being the highest categorization level of life on the planet. ... Archaea is the third domain of life-"domain" being the highest categorization level of life on the planet. Archaea microbes ... What Makes Archaea Special?. When it comes to microscopic life forms, many people struggle to see the differences, even if they ... In terms of Archaea, as mentioned, these are single-celled organisms that are similar in size and shape to bacteria, hence the ...
This page titled 22: Prokaryotes - Bacteria and Archaea is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or ... The domain Bacteria comprises all organisms in the kingdom Bacteria, the domain Archaea comprises the rest of the prokaryotes, ... 5.2.3: Structure of Prokaryotes- Bacteria and Archaea. There are many differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. ... Archaea : property get [Map MindTouch.Deki.Logic.ExtensionProcessorQueryProvider+,,c__DisplayClass228_0.,PageSubPageProperty, ...
Posts about viruses of the archaea written by Guest Author ... viruses of the archaeaLeave a comment ...
Archaea da:Archaea de:Archaeen et:Arhed eo:Arkioj ko:고세균 hr:Archaea is:Forngerlar it:Archaea he:חיידקים קדומים pam:Archaea la: ... Archaea lb:Archaeën hu:Archeák ms:Arkea nl:Archaea lt:Archėja no:Arkebakterier oc:Archaea nds:Archaeen simple:Archaea sl:Arheje ... The Archaea (Template:IPA), or archaebacteria, are a major group of microorganisms. Like bacteria, archaea are single-celled ... A single individual or species from this domain is called an archaeon (sometimes spelled "archeon"),[2] while the adjectival ...
Contribution of archaea to total prokaryotic production in the deep Atlantic Ocean. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 2303-2309 ( ... Bacteria and archaea in the oxygenated water column of the dark ocean use a variety of reduced inorganic compounds, such as ... Role for urea in nitrification by polar marine Archaea. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109, 17989-17994 (2012). ... 5b and Supplementary Data 9). In the case of archaea, we found MAG0485 as potentially representing a novel family within the ...
Tag Archives: archaea. archaea/m.smithii - old/new. Posted on October 8, 2018. by monica ... Posted in art, microbes, science , Tagged archaea, art, art and science, human microbiome, methanobrevibacter smithii, microbe ... About archaea and life…. Theyve been around for about 4 billion years! Theyre resilient, truly thriving between order and ... Methanobrevibacter smithii, AKA M. smithii, member of Archaea domain, I dont know of you before this. I feel bad considering ...
... hyperthermophilic and acidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus, arresting the cell cycle in the S phase. STSV2 infection ...
Lokalitet Caral nalazi se 182 kilometra sjeverno od Lime iznad rijeke Supe, a smatra se najstarijim gradskim naseljem u Južnoj Americi. Naseljen je oko 2600 god. pr.n.e., a prostire se na kamenim humakama od kojih najveća ima površinu 150 x 160 metara. Sastoji se od dva ceremonijalna trga, nekoliko zona sa stambenim objektima i sustava za
Archaea expands bps presence in the US biogas industry ... bp completes acquisition of Archaea Energy. Archaea expands ... In October, bp announced it had agreed to acquire Archaea, subject to regulatory and Archaea shareholder approval. Having ... bp has completed its purchase of Archaea Energy, a leading provider of renewable natural gas (RNG), marking a milestone in the ... "We see enormous opportunity to grow our bioenergy business by bringing Archaea fully into bp," said Dave Lawler, Chairman and ...
... Tags:. lyngbya, majuscula, fireweed, stinging, limu, ", monera, ... Prokaryotes and Viruses - Bacteria, cyanobacteria, archaea. Tags:. cyanobacteria, mat, bacteria, blue-green, algae, cyanophyta ... Prokaryotes and Viruses - Bacteria, cyanobacteria, archaea. Tags:. trichodesmium spp. sea, sawdust, blooms, oscillatoriales, ... Prokaryotes and Viruses - Bacteria, cyanobacteria, archaea. Tags:. synechococcus spp. bacterium, bacteria, cyanobacteria, ...
Archaea: Finish is not important at all even though my studio 100 and fathom have nice piano black finishes. My only concern is ...
This is the first study examining structural, functional and biophysical properties of Csp from the Antarctic archaeon ... proteins have been most extensively studied in Bacteria but very few Csp homologues have been identified and studied in Archaea ... This is the first study examining structural, functional and biophysical properties of Csp from the Antarctic archaeon ... The characterization of Csp (Cold Shock Protein) from the Antarctic archaeon, Methanogenium frigidum ...
City riders need this simple precaution when on their way to work, to run errands, and to meet with friends; Closca has made it so that the necessity of a helmet can be fluidly incorporated into your routine and your look without weighing you down or spoiling your style. The perfectly minimal design is available in a range of materials and simple colors to suit a variety of tastes, with interchangeable accessories like visors, aviator-style ear flaps, and woolen caps to keep you looking your best. While a large part of Closcas focus was on the aesthetic, Fuga is safety certified just like its overtly utilitarian counterparts, with fibreglass reinforced EPS, a multisize elastic system for optimal fit, and ventilation for superior air flow. It comes as no surprise that the Indiegogo project - created a mere two days ago - has already met its $20,000 goal. Read more, watch the video, or contribute now to claim your own.. ...
Archaea Biofilmes DNA Bacteriano Cárie Dentária Archaea/genética Archaea/isolamento & purificação Bactérias DNA Bacteriano/ ... Presence of Archaea in dental caries biofilms.. Dame-Teixeira, Naile; de Cena, Jéssica Alves; Côrtes, Débora Azevedo; Belmok, ... Although the prevalence and functions associated with members of Bacteria are well known in dental caries, the role of Archaea ... To detect the presence of Archaea in dental caries, a triplicate of carious dentine samples and duplicate of supragingival ...
  • While bacteria and archaea are both unicellular organisms that lack a nucleus, they are very different in key ways. (
  • Bacteria and Archaea play critical roles in marine energy fluxes and nutrient cycles by incorporating and redistributing dissolved organic matter and inorganic nutrients in the oceans. (
  • View through the light microscope: Methanogenic archaea are fluorescent by nature. (
  • Many methanogenic archaea are found in the digestive tracts of animals such as ruminants , termites , and humans. (
  • We have established a database (HAPIE- Halophilic Archaea Phenotypic Information Explorer) that allows us to quickly compare different species as well as analyse trends and identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities. (
  • He later renamed the groups Archaea and Bacteria to emphasize this, and argued that together with Eukarya they compose three Domains of living organisms. (
  • Previous work by the researchers has shown that certain gut-inhabiting archaea are heritable, much like eye color or height, indicating that human genetics influences archaeal diversity in the gut. (
  • A single individual or species from this domain is called an archaeon (sometimes spelled "archeon"), [2] while the adjectival form is archaeal or archaean . (
  • We also identified viral proteins in every sample and archaeal ammonia monooxygenase proteins in the upwelling region, suggesting that Archaea are important nitrifiers in nutrient-rich surface waters. (
  • The predominantly commensal collection of bacteria, fungi, archaea, protozoa, and viruses that inhabit multicellular organisms constitutes the microbiota, and their DNA is referred to as the microbiome. (
  • Archaea are the third domain of life, separate from the domains of bacteria and eukaryotes. (
  • Archaea are unique because they blend a lot of the characteristics of both bacteria and eukaryotes," said Dr. Yejin Eun, first author of the paper. (
  • Archaea microbes have certain characteristics that are more in line with eukaryotes than bacteria , such as more complex enzymes for replication, as well as unique components in their cell membranes. (
  • Although their prokaryotic features are diagnostic of that clade, archaea are more closely related to eukaryotes than to bacteria. (
  • For instance, archaea uniquely generate methane by consuming the waste products of bacterial fermentation. (
  • Group I catalytic introns have been found in bacterial, viral, organellar, and some eukaryotic genomes, but not in archaea. (
  • 'Archaea' Woese et al. (
  • Archaea were identified in 1977 by Carl Woese and George E. Fox as being a separate branch based on their separation from other prokaryotes on 16S rRNA phylogenetic trees . (
  • In terms of Archaea, as mentioned, these are single-celled organisms that are similar in size and shape to bacteria, hence the initial confusion in their classification. (
  • Like bacteria , archaea are single-celled organisms that lack nuclei and are therefore prokaryotes , classified in kingdom Monera in the traditional five-kingdom taxonomy . (
  • While archaea are found in most environments, including the human gut microbiome, relatively little is known about them. (
  • Unlike bacteria, no pathogenic species of archaea have been discovered, which is a major reason why more attention is paid to bacteria in the animal microbiome. (
  • Nicholas Youngblut, a group leader in the Department of Microbiome Research headed by Ruth Ley at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, addresses questions about the ecology and evolution of host-associated methanogens, which are methane-producing archaea. (
  • The researchers show that closely related animal species harbor more similar archaea, and certain specific archaea were likely present in the guts of the first vertebrates. (
  • Archaea are single-celled microorganisms that inhabit some of Earth's most extreme environments, such as volcanic hot springs, oil wells, and salt lakes. (
  • The Archaea ( Template:IPA ), or archaebacteria , are a major group of microorganisms . (
  • SEAS researchers have found that these pink-hued archaea - called Halobacterium salinarum - use the same mechanisms to maintain size as bacteria and eukaryotic life, indicating that cellular division strategy may be shared across all domains of life. (
  • Finally, we demonstrated that the essential gene sets of Bacteria and an Archaea share important genomic features, indicating that high order properties of gene essentiality and genome architecture were probably present in the last universal common ancestor or evolved independently in the two prokaryotic domains of life. (
  • The genome sequence of M. acetivorans and other archaea are available at the Deambulum:%20Archaea website. (
  • Having the complete genome sequence of the M. acetivorans will be useful for studying metabolic pathways, adaptations to changed environmental conditions, and the morphology of this archaeon during different stages of growth and/or changes in the environment. (
  • Here we integrated a set of 17 high-resolution and genome-wide experimental in vitro essential gene studies and three in vivo required gene datasets, encompassing 15 bacteria and one Archaea. (
  • Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are key players in the nitrogen cycle of polar soils. (
  • Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) is one of the most dominant lineages in aquatic microbial ecosystem in the dark oceans. (
  • Perhaps even more significant are the large numbers of archaea found throughout most of the world's oceans, a predominantly cold environment. (
  • These archaea, which belong to several deeply branching lineages unrelated to those previously known, can be present in extremely high numbers (up to 40% of the microbial biomass) although almost none have been isolated in pure culture . (
  • One recent study has shown, however, that one group of marine crenarchaeota are capable of nitrification , a trait previously unknown among the archaea. (
  • In a new paper, researchers revealed how archaea fit into this picture. (
  • Although there is still uncertainty in the phylogeny , Archaea, Eukaryota and Bacteria are the fundamental classifications of what is called the three-domain system . (
  • The aim is to return these ships to the public in the newly established National Roman Shipping Museum, at Archeon, in the context of the Limes Unesco World Heritage Nomination. (
  • Archaea were originally described in extreme environments, but have since been found in all habitats and may contribute up to 20% of total biomass . (
  • Recently, several studies have shown that archaea exist not only in mesophilic and thermophilic environments but are also present, sometimes in high numbers, at low temperatures as well. (
  • Archaea is the third domain of life-"domain" being the highest categorization level of life on the planet. (
  • Since little is known about translation in archaea, future work will involve modifying identity elements in the initiator tRNA to study their requirements in both initiation and elongation in archaea. (
  • Now, with a team of collaborators including Ethan Garner, the John L. Loeb Associate Professor of the Natural Sciences at Harvard, and Amy Schmid, Assistant Professor of biology at Duke University, Amir found that archaea use the very same mechanism. (
  • Although the prevalence and functions associated with members of Bacteria are well known in dental caries , the role of Archaea in cariogenic biofilms has not been studied yet. (
  • Where optimal growth occurs at greater than 80°C, the archaeon is a hyperthermophyle , and the highest recorded temperature survived was 121°C. Although thermophilic bacteria predominate at some high temperatures, archaea generally have the edge when acidity exceeds pH 5. (
  • This new work by Youngblut and colleagues expands the evolutionary scale from humans to all vertebrates and shows evidence of an ancient association between archaea and animals. (
  • Archeon is a unique location for all your parties! (
  • Archeon has unique locations that are ideal for a good party, an extensive dinner or a swinging dance evening. (
  • Archeon offers various unique locations for your event. (
  • Archea Associati has also designed the new Antinori Winery in Tuscany and other projects related to nature and architecture in China. (
  • Or experience Archeon from our nature campsite. (
  • This research is the first to quantify the cellular mechanics of size regulation in archaea," said Amir. (
  • The study shows that the diversity of archaea in the vertebrate gut is greater than previously thought. (
  • These suppressor tRNAs should allow a study of the requirements for suppression of UAG and UAA codons in H. volcanii, in particular the question of whether suppressors of the UAA codon can also suppress the UAG codon in archaea. (