One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.
A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.
A family of archaea, in the order DESULFUROCOCCALES, consisting of anaerobic cocci which utilize peptides, proteins or carbohydrates facultatively by sulfur respiration or fermentation. There are eight genera: AEROPYRUM, Desulfurococcus, Ignicoccus, Staphylothermus, Stetteria, Sulfophoboccus, Thermodiscus, and Thermosphaera. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. There are two families: METHANOSARCINACEAE and Methanosaetaceae.
An order of extremely halophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They occur ubiquitously in nature where the salt concentration is high, and are chemoorganotrophic, using amino acids or carbohydrates as a carbon source.
A genus of extremely halophilic HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoheterotropic and strictly aerobic. They are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes (especially the Dead Sea) and marine salterns.
A genus of strictly anaerobic ultrathermophilic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated seawaters. They exhibit heterotrophic growth at an optimum temperature of 100 degrees C.
A species of aerobic, chemolithotrophic ARCHAEA consisting of coccoid cells that utilize sulfur as an energy source. The optimum temperature for growth is 70-75 degrees C. They are isolated from acidic fields.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A family of anaerobic METHANOSARCINALES whose cells are mesophilic or thermophilic and appear as irregular spheroid bodies or sheathed rods. These methanogens are found in any anaerobic environment including aquatic sediments, anaerobic sewage digesters and gastrointestinal tracts. There are four genera: METHANOSARCINA, Methanolobus, Methanothrix, and Methanococcoides.
A species of gram-negative hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in deep ocean hydrothermal vents. It is an obligate anaerobe and obligate chemoorganotroph.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)
A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.
A species of strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaea which lives in geothermally-heated marine sediments. It exhibits heterotropic growth by fermentation or sulfur respiration.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A genus of extremely thermophilic heterotrophic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated sea flows. They are anaerobic chemoorganotropic sulfidogens.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.
A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Mediterranean Sea. It produces bacteriocins active against a range of other halobacteria.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
A family of THERMOPROTEALES consisting of variable length rigid rods without septa. They grow either chemolithoautotrophically or by sulfur respiration. The four genera are: PYROBACULUM; THERMOPROTEUS; Caldivirga; and Thermocladium. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)
A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An order of aerobic, thermophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA, characterized by the absence of a cell wall. Two genera have been described: THERMOPLASMA and Picrophilus.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, cocci to short rod-shaped ARCHAEA, in the family METHANOBACTERIACEAE, order METHANOBACTERIALES. They are found in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or other anoxic environments.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of halophilic archaea distinguished by its production of acid from sugar. This species was previously called Halobacterium marismortui.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
An order of CRENARCHAEOTA consisting of aerobic or facultatively aerobic, chemolithotrophic cocci which are extreme thermoacidophiles. They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A family of anaerobic METHANOMICROBIALES whose cells are coccoid to straight or slightly curved rods. There are six genera.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of extremely thermophilic, sulfate-reducing archaea, in the family Archaeoglobaceae.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The large subunit of the archaeal 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 40 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
A family of SULFOLOBALES consisting of aerobic or facultatively anaerobic chemolithotrophic cocci, usually occurring singly. They grow best at a pH of about 2.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)
A kingdom of hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in diverse environments.
Anaerobic hyperthermophilic species of ARCHAEA, isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples. It is obligately heterotrophic with coccoid cells that require TRYPTOPHAN for growth.
An order of anaerobic, highly specialized methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. Its organisms are nonmotile or motile, with cells occurring as coccoid bodies, pseudosarcina, or rods. Families include METHANOMICROBIACEAE, Methanocorpusculaceae, and Methanospirillaceae.
A genus of rod-shaped, almost rectangular ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. Organisms are facultatively aerobic or strictly anaerobic, grow on various organic substrates, and are found in continental solfataras.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of obligately anaerobic ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. They are found in acidic hot springs and water holes.
A genus of anaerobic, chemolithotropic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family DESULFUROCOCCACEAE. They live in marine environments.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.

Characterization of two novel haloalkaliphilic archaea Natronorubrum bangense gen. nov., sp. nov. and Natronorubrum tibetense gen. nov., sp. nov. (1/2228)

Two haloalkaliphilic archaea were isolated from a soda lake in Tibet. The two strains, designated A33T and GA33T, were Gram-negative, pleomorphic, flat, non-motile and strictly aerobic. Growth required at least 12% NaCl. Growth was between pH 8.0 and pH 11 with an optimum at pH 9.0-9.5. Cells were chemo-organotrophic. Polar lipids were C20-C25 derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol phosphate. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from the two strains were obtained by the analysis of the cloned rDNAs. On 16S rRNA phylogenetic trees, the two strains formed a monophyletic cluster. They differed from their closet neighbours, Halobacterium trapanicum and Natrialba asiatica, in polar lipid composition, as well as physiological and phenotypic characteristics. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that the two strains belonged to different species of the same genus. The results indicated that the strains A33T and GA33T should be classified in a new genus Natronorubrum gen. nov. as Natronorubrum bangense sp. nov. (strain A33T) and Natronorubrum tibetense sp. nov. (strain GA33T).  (+info)

An evaluation of elongation factor 1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes. (2/2228)

Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is a highly conserved ubiquitous protein involved in translation that has been suggested to have desirable properties for phylogenetic inference. To examine the utility of EF-1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes, we studied three properties of EF-1 alpha trees: congruency with other phyogenetic markers, the impact of species sampling, and the degree of substitutional saturation occurring between taxa. Our analyses indicate that the EF-1 alpha tree is congruent with some other molecular phylogenies in identifying both the deepest branches and some recent relationships in the eukaryotic line of descent. However, the topology of the intermediate portion of the EF-1 alpha tree, occupied by most of the protist lineages, differs for different phylogenetic methods, and bootstrap values for branches are low. Most problematic in this region is the failure of all phylogenetic methods to resolve the monophyly of two higher-order protistan taxa, the Ciliophora and the Alveolata. JACKMONO analyses indicated that the impact of species sampling on bootstrap support for most internal nodes of the eukaryotic EF-1 alpha tree is extreme. Furthermore, a comparison of observed versus inferred numbers of substitutions indicates that multiple overlapping substitutions have occurred, especially on the branch separating the Eukaryota from the Archaebacteria, suggesting that the rooting of the eukaryotic tree on the diplomonad lineage should be treated with caution. Overall, these results suggest that the phylogenies obtained from EF-1 alpha are congruent with other molecular phylogenies in recovering the monophyly of groups such as the Metazoa, Fungi, Magnoliophyta, and Euglenozoa. However, the interrelationships between these and other protist lineages are not well resolved. This lack of resolution may result from the combined effects of poor taxonomic sampling, relatively few informative positions, large numbers of overlapping substitutions that obscure phylogenetic signal, and lineage-specific rate increases in the EF-1 alpha data set. It is also consistent with the nearly simultaneous diversification of major eukaryotic lineages implied by the "big-bang" hypothesis of eukaryote evolution.  (+info)

Unusual ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of anoxic Archaea. (3/2228)

The predominant pool of organic matter on earth is derived from the biological reduction and assimilation of carbon dioxide gas, catalyzed primarily by the enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). By virtue of its capacity to use molecular oxygen as an alternative and competing gaseous substrate, the catalytic efficiency of RubisCO and the enzyme's ability to assimilate CO2 may be severely limited, with consequent environmental and agricultural effects. Recent genomic sequencing projects, however, have identified putative RubisCO genes from anoxic Archaea. In the present study, these potential RubisCO sequences, from Methanococcus jannaschii and Archaeoglobus fulgidus, were analyzed in order to ascertain whether such sequences might encode functional proteins. We also report the isolation and properties of recombinant RubisCO using sequences obtained from the obligately anaerobic hyperthermophilic methanogen M. jannaschii. This is the first description of an archaeal RubisCO sequence; this study also represents the initial characterization of a RubisCO molecule that has evolved in the absence of molecular oxygen. The enzyme was shown to be a homodimer whose deduced sequence, along with other recently obtained archaeal RubisCO sequences, differs substantially from those of known RubisCO molecules. The recombinant M. jannaschii enzyme has a somewhat low, but reasonable kcat, however, unlike previously isolated RubisCO molecules, this enzyme is very oxygen sensitive yet it is stable to hyperthermal temperatures and catalyzes the formation of the expected carboxylation product. Despite inhibition by oxygen, this unusual RubisCO still catalyzes a weak yet demonstrable oxygenase activity, with perhaps the lowest capacity for CO2/O2 discrimination ever encountered for any RubisCO.  (+info)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides reveals localization of methanogens and selected uncultured bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic sludge granules. (4/2228)

16S rRNA-targeted in situ hybridization combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to elucidate the spatial distribution of microbes within two types of methanogenic granular sludge, mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C), in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors fed with sucrose-, acetate-, and propionate-based artificial wastewater. The spatial organization of the microbes was visualized in thin sections of the granules by using fluorescent oligonucleotide probes specific to several phylogenetic groups of microbes. In situ hybridization with archaeal- and bacterial-domain probes within granule sections clearly showed that both mesophilic and thermophilic granules had layered structures and that the outer layer harbored mainly bacterial cells while the inner layer consisted mainly of archaeal cells. Methanosaeta-, Methanobacterium-, Methanospirillum-, and Methanosarcina-like cells were detected with oligonucleotide probes specific for the different groups of methanogens, and they were found to be localized inside the granules, in both types of which dominant methanogens were members of the genus Methanosaeta. For specific detection of bacteria which were previously detected by whole-microbial-community 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-cloning analysis (Y. Sekiguchi, Y. Kamagata, K. Syutsubo, A. Ohashi, H. Harada, and K. Nakamura, Microbiology 144:2655-2665, 1998) we designed probes specific for clonal 16S rDNAs related to unidentified green nonsulfur bacteria and clones related to Syntrophobacter species. The probe designed for the cluster closely related to Syntrophobacter species hybridized with coccoid cells in the inner layer of the mesophilic granule sections. The probe for the unidentified bacteria which were clustered with the green nonsulfur bacteria detected filamentous cells in the outermost layer of the thermophilic sludge granule sections. These results revealed the spatial organizations of methanogens and uncultivated bacteria and their in situ morphologies and metabolic functions in both mesophilic and thermophilic granular sludges.  (+info)

Universal conservation in translation initiation revealed by human and archaeal homologs of bacterial translation initiation factor IF2. (5/2228)

Binding of initiator methionyl-tRNA to ribosomes is catalyzed in prokaryotes by initiation factor (IF) IF2 and in eukaryotes by eIF2. The discovery of both IF2 and eIF2 homologs in yeast and archaea suggested that these microbes possess an evolutionarily intermediate protein synthesis apparatus. We describe the identification of a human IF2 homolog, and we demonstrate by using in vivo and in vitro assays that human IF2 functions as a translation factor. In addition, we show that archaea IF2 can substitute for its yeast homolog both in vivo and in vitro. We propose a universally conserved function for IF2 in facilitating the proper binding of initiator methionyl-tRNA to the ribosomal P site.  (+info)

10-11 bp periodicities in complete genomes reflect protein structure and DNA folding. (6/2228)

MOTIVATION: Completely sequenced genomes allow for detection and analysis of the relatively weak periodicities of 10-11 basepairs (bp). Two sources contribute to such signals: correlations in the corresponding protein sequences due to the amphipatic character of alpha-helices and the folding of DNA (nucleosomal patterns, DNA supercoiling). Since the topological state of genomic DNA is of importance for its replication, recombination and transcription, there is an immediate interest to obtain information about the supercoiled state from sequence periodicities. RESULTS: We show that correlations within proteins affect mainly the oscillations at distances below 35 bp. The long-ranging correlations up to 100 bp reflect primarily DNA folding. For the yeast genome these oscillations are consistent in detail with the chromatin structure. For eubacteria and archaea the periods deviate significantly from the 10.55 bp value for free DNA. These deviations suggest that while a period of 11 bp in bacteria reflects negative supercoiling, the significantly different period of thermophilic archaea close to 10 bp corresponds to positive supercoiling of thermophilic archaeal genomes. AVAILABILITY: Protein sets and C programs for the calculation of correlation functions are available on request from the authors (see http://itb.biologie.hu-berlin.de).  (+info)

The euryarchaeotes, a subdomain of Archaea, survive on a single DNA polymerase: fact or farce? (7/2228)

Archaea is now recognized as the third domain of life. Since their discovery, much effort has been directed towards understanding the molecular biology and biochemistry of Archaea. The objective is to comprehend the complete structure and the depth of the phylogenetic tree of life. DNA replication is one of the most important events in living organisms and DNA polymerase is the key enzyme in the molecular machinery which drives the process. All archaeal DNA polymerases were thought to belong to family B. This was because all of the products of pol genes that had been cloned showed amino acid sequence similarities to those of this family, which includes three eukaryal DNA replicases and Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II. Recently, we found a new heterodimeric DNA polymerase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus. The genes coding for the subunits of this DNA polymerase are conserved in the euryarchaeotes whose genomes have been completely sequenced. The biochemical characteristics of the novel DNA polymerase family suggest that its members play an important role in DNA replication within euryarchaeal cells. We review here our current knowledge on DNA polymerases in Archaea with emphasis on the novel DNA polymerase discovered in Euryarchaeota.  (+info)

Two distinct SECIS structures capable of directing selenocysteine incorporation in eukaryotes. (8/2228)

Translation of UGA as selenocysteine requires specific RNA secondary structures in the mRNAs of selenoproteins. These elements differ in sequence, structure, and location in the mRNA, that is, coding versus 3' untranslated region, in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and archaea. Analyses of eukaryotic selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) elements via computer folding programs, mutagenesis studies, and chemical and enzymatic probing has led to the derivation of a predicted consensus structural model for these elements. This model consists of a stem-loop or hairpin, with conserved nucleotides in the loop and in a non-Watson-Crick motif at the base of the stem. However, the sequences of a number of SECIS elements predict that they would diverge from the consensus structure in the loop region. Using site-directed mutagenesis to introduce mutations predicted to either disrupt or restore structure, or to manipulate loop size or stem length, we show that eukaryotic SECIS elements fall into two distinct classes, termed forms 1 and 2. Form 2 elements have additional secondary structures not present in form 1 elements. By either insertion or deletion of the sequences and structures distinguishing the two classes of elements while maintaining appropriate loop size, conversion of a form 1 element to a functional form 2-like element and of a form 2 to a functional form 1-like element was achieved. These results suggest commonality of function of the two classes. The information obtained regarding the existence of two classes of SECIS elements and the tolerances for manipulations of stem length and loop size should facilitate designing RNA molecules for obtaining high-resolution structural information about these elements.  (+info)

Investigations were performed on the structural features responsible for kinetic thermal stability of a thermostable carboxypeptidase from the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus which had been purified previously and identified as a zinc metalloprotease [Colombo, DAuria, Fusi, Zecca, Raia and Tortora (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 206, 349-357]. Removal of Zn2+ by dialysis led to reversible activity loss, which was promptly restored by addition of 80 microM ZnCl2 to the assay mixture. For the first-order irreversible thermal inactivation the metal-depleted enzyme showed an activation energy value of 205.6 kJ.mol-1, which is considerably lower than that of the holoenzyme (494.4 kJ.mol-1). The values of activation free energies, enthalpies and entropies also dropped with metal removal. Thermal inactivation of the apoenzyme was very quick at 80 degrees C, whereas the holoenzyme was stable at the same temperature. These findings suggest a major stabilizing role for the bivalent ...
1CAA: X-ray crystal structures of the oxidized and reduced forms of the rubredoxin from the marine hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitrate, nitrite and nitric oxide reductases. T2 - From the last universal common ancestor to modern bacterial pathogens. AU - Vázquez-Torres, Andrés. AU - Baumler, Andreas J. PY - 2016/2/1. Y1 - 2016/2/1. N2 - The electrochemical gradient that ensues from the enzymatic activity of cytochromes such as nitrate reductase, nitric oxide reductase, and quinol oxidase contributes to the bioenergetics of the bacterial cell. Reduction of nitrogen oxides by bacterial pathogens can, however, be uncoupled from proton translocation and biosynthesis of ATP or NH4 +, but still linked to quinol and NADH oxidation. Ancestral nitric oxide reductases, as well as cytochrome c oxidases and quinol bo oxidases evolved from the former, are capable of binding and detoxifying nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. The NO-metabolizing activity associated with these cytochromes can be a sizable source of antinitrosative defense in bacteria during their associations with host cells. Nitrosylation of terminal ...
Archaea exist in a broad range of habitats, and as a major part of global ecosystems,[14] may represent about 20% of microbial cells in the oceans.[159] The first-discovered archaeans were extremophiles.[112] Indeed, some archaea survive high temperatures, often above 100 °C (212 °F), as found in geysers, black smokers, and oil wells. Other common habitats include very cold habitats and highly saline, acidic, or alkaline water. However, archaea include mesophiles that grow in mild conditions, in swamps and marshland, sewage, the oceans, the intestinal tract of animals, and soils.[14]. Extremophile archaea are members of four main physiological groups. These are the halophiles, thermophiles, alkaliphiles, and acidophiles.[160] These groups are not comprehensive or phylum-specific, nor are they mutually exclusive, since some archaea belong to several groups. Nonetheless, they are a useful starting point for classification.. Halophiles, including the genus Halobacterium, live in extremely saline ...
Archaea are nowadays known as the third domain of life. Before 1970 archaea were thought to belong to the domain bacteria, since archaeal cells have similar sizes as bacterial cells and like bacteria possess neither a nucleus nor cell organelles. In the 1970s Carl Woese sequenced ribosomal RNAs of prokaryotic organisms and discovered two different types of rRNA sequences. Because of this discovery Woese proposed that the prokaryotic domain has to be subdivided into two separate domains, namely Bacteria and Archaea. Since then more and more data accumulated which show that Archaea indeed belong to a separate domain. Initially people thought that archaea are freaks living only at sites with extreme living conditions like f.i. hot geysers in Yellowstone National Park and Black Smokers at the bottom of the ocean. But nowadays it is known that archaea also constitute a big part of the biomass in normal environments. Asgard archaea: Close relatives to the first eukaryotic cell? ...
Archaea exist in a broad range of habitats, and as a major part of global ecosystems,[15] may represent about 20% of microbial cells in the oceans.[161] The first-discovered archaeans were extremophiles.[114] Indeed, some archaea survive high temperatures, often above 100 °C (212 °F), as found in geysers, black smokers, and oil wells. Other common habitats include very cold habitats and highly saline, acidic, or alkaline water. However, archaea include mesophiles that grow in mild conditions, in swamps and marshland, sewage, the oceans, the intestinal tract of animals, and soils.[15]. Extremophile archaea are members of four main physiological groups. These are the halophiles, thermophiles, alkaliphiles, and acidophiles.[162] These groups are not comprehensive or phylum-specific, nor are they mutually exclusive, since some archaea belong to several groups. Nonetheless, they are a useful starting point for classification.. Halophiles, including the genus Halobacterium, live in extremely saline ...
Over the last decades, the study of extremophiles has providing ground breaking discoveries that challenge the paradigms of modern biology and make us rethink intriguing questions such as what is life?, what are the limits of life?, and what are the fundamental features of life?. These findings and possibilities have made the study of life in extreme environments one of the most exciting areas of research in recent decades. However, despite the latest advances we are just in the beginning of exploring and characterizing the world of extremophiles. This special issue discusses several aspects of these fascinating organisms, exploring their habitats, biodiversity, ecology, evolution, genetics, biochemistry, and biotechnological applications in a collection of exciting reviews and original articles written by leading experts and research groups in the field. [...]
Our division studies the Biology of Archaea as well as bacterial symbioses with a focus on ecological, physiological and evolutionary aspects to shed light on the diversity and fundamental distinctions between these two prokaryotic groups. In particular we are interested in: - The ecological distribution of archaea from terrestrial, aquatic and hot environments - The phylogeny of archaea - The metabolism and genomes of ammonia oxidizing thaumarchaeota - virus-defense (CRISPR-) systems of hyperthermophilic archaea - physiology and biotechnological application of methanogenic archaea - bacterium-nematode symbioses ...
Our division studies the Biology of Archaea as well as bacterial symbioses with a focus on ecological, physiological and evolutionary aspects to shed light on the diversity and fundamental distinctions between these two prokaryotic groups. In particular we are interested in: - The ecological distribution of archaea from terrestrial, aquatic and hot environments - The phylogeny of archaea - The metabolism and genomes of ammonia oxidizing thaumarchaeota - virus-defense (CRISPR-) systems of hyperthermophilic archaea - physiology and biotechnological application of methanogenic archaea - bacterium-nematode symbioses ...
Domain Archaea is currently represented by one phylum (Euryarchaeota) and two superphyla (TACK and DPANN). However, gene surveys indicate the existence of a vast diversity of uncultivated archaea for which metabolic information is lacking. We sequenced DNA from complex sediment- and groundwater-associated microbial communities sampled prior to and during an acetate biostimulation field experiment to investigate the diversity and physiology of uncultivated subsurface archaea. We sampled 15 genomes that improve resolution of a new phylum within the TACK superphylum and 119 DPANN genomes that highlight a major subdivision within the archaeal domain that separates DPANN from TACK/Euryarchaeota lineages. Within the DPANN superphylum, which lacks any isolated representatives, we defined two new phyla using sequences from 100 newly sampled genomes. The first new phylum, for which we propose the name Woesearchaeota, was defined using 54 new sequences. We reconstructed a complete (finished) genome for an ...
Archaea is a single-celled micro-organism that lives underwater and in soil. A single individual or species is called an archaeon (sometimes spelled archeon). Archaea, like bacteria, are prokaryotes. They have no cell nucleus or any other organelles within their cells. In the past they were viewed as an unusual group of bacteria and named archaebacteria but since the Archaea have an independent evolutionary history and show many differences in their biochemistry from other forms of life, they are now classed into their own group. They have been found in a broad range of habitats, such as soils, lakes, oceans, and marshlands. Archaea are particularly numerous in the oceans, and the archaea in plankton may be one of the most abundant groups of organisms on the planet. These prokaryotes are now recognized as a major part of life on Earth and may play an important role in both the carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle. No clear examples of archaeal pathogens or parasites are known. ...
View Notes - 22 from BIOL 4125 at LSU. PROKARYOTIC DIVERSITY BIOL 4125 SPRING 2009 LECTURE 22 Hyperthermophilic Archaea Part II The early overview of archaeal diversity was exemplified by a
Ti Archaea ket buklen ti domimio wenno pagarian dagiti agmaymaysa a selula a mikroorganismo. Dagitoy a mikrobio ket awananda ti pagtengngaan a selula wenno dagiti dadduma pay a mangbedbed a kulanit nga organulo iti kaunegan dagiti selula. Iti napalabas ti Archaea ket naiklase idi kadagiti bakteria a kas dagiti prokaryote (wenno Pagarian ti Monera) ken nanganan iti archaebakteria, ngem daytoy a pannakaidasig ket naikeddengen a duog.[5] Iti kinapudno, ti Archaea ket adda ti nawaya nga ebolusionario a pakasaritaan ken mangipakpakita kadagiti adu a paggigiddiatan kadagiti bukodda a biokimika manipud kadagiti sabali a porma ti biag, ken isu a tattan ket naidasigda a kas maysa a nailasin a dominio iti sistema ti tallo a dominio. Iti daytoy a sistema, ti maipapan ti pilohenetiko a naisangayan a sangsanga iti ebolusionario a tinaudan ket ti Archaea, Bakteria ken ti Eukaryota. Itan ket ti Archaea ket nabingbingay pay kadagiti uppat a mabigbigan a pilo; mabalin pay nga adu kadagiti pilo ti mabangon ...
Collections of Clusters of Orthologous Genes (COGs) provide indispensable tools for comparative genomic analysis, evolutionary reconstruction and functional annotation of new genomes. Initially, COGs were made for all complete genomes of cellular life forms that were available at the time. However, with the accumulation of thousands of complete genomes, construction of a comprehensive COG set has become extremely computationally demanding and prone to error propagation, necessitating the switch to taxon-specific COG collections. Previously, we reported the collection of COGs for 41 genomes of Archaea (arCOGs). Here we present a major update of the arCOGs and describe evolutionary reconstructions to reveal general trends in the evolution of Archaea. The updated version of the arCOG database incorporates 91% of the pangenome of 120 archaea (251,032 protein-coding genes altogether) into 10,335 arCOGs. Using this new set of arCOGs, we performed maximum likelihood reconstruction of the genome content of
Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as plan of creation, unity of design, etc., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact. Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject the theory. ...
ATCC offers a variety of extremophiles including archaea, halophiles, acidophiles, thermophiles, psychrophiles, and alkaliphiles.
ATCC offers a variety of extremophiles including archaea, halophiles, acidophiles, thermophiles, psychrophiles, and alkaliphiles.
Household biogas digesters are widely used to harvest energy in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding core prokaryotic communities, their co-occurrence patterns, and their relationships to environmental factors is important to manage these small-scale anaerobic digestion systems effectively. In this study, 43 household biogas digesters were collected across eight provinces in China. Prokaryotic communities were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Fourteen core genera and ten core OTUs were identified in household biogas digesters. They were mainly affiliated with the phylum Firmicutes, Synergistetes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Spirochaetes. Core prokaryotic genera were mainly composed of Clostridium, Clostridium XI, Syntrophomonas, Cloacibacillus, Sedimentibacter, and Turicibacter. Prokaryotic communities in the 43 samples were clearly divided into two clusters. Cluster I was dominated by Clostridium, while Cluster II was dominated by members of Spirochaetes,
Here are my 5 cents worth of opinion concerning the Postinggs from L.A. Maron ,CnsIqJ.MDz at gpu.utcc.utoronto.ca, lamoran at gpu.utcc.utoronto.ca (L.A. Moran): There are many characters (not only 16S rRNAs) which separate Archae- and Eubacteria (see Zillig et al., 1992, for a listing). With many molecular markers the Archaebacteria appear closer to the Eukaryotes (e.g.: ATPases, elongation factors, RNA polymerases). Not all of these molecular markers show the Archaebacteria as a monophyletic group, in some analyses they appear paraphyletic; however, the branch that separates the two archaebacterial groups is very short (as is the branch that connects the 16S rRNA of the Archaebacteria to the other 16SrRNAs). Based only on nucleotide data it will be difficult to discriminate between the para and monophyletic origin of the archaebacteria. Rivera and Lake report a higher order character (a deletion/insertion) that unites only some of the archaebacteria with the eukaryotes. I think that one of the ...
One of the three domains of life (together with Bacteria and Eukaryotes). Their morphology is similar to bacteria but many cellular mechanisms are actually closer to eukaryotic than bacterial. They form a distinct clade in the phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence. Archaea are at least as far from bacteria as from eukaryotes (there is a lot of discussion about exactly what the tree of life looks like) but they are often placed with bacteria into the common grouping called prokaryotes. Originally they were discovered in extreme environments and thus are still often thought of as extremophiles. Now archaea are known to be very common in nature, being a dominating group of microorganisms for example in oceans below the photic zone. --Katarzyna Zaremba 15:00, 27 February 2008 (CET) ...
So the subject of this lecture is RNase P in the other branch of life on Earth; the Archaea. The Archaea are a group of prokaryotic organisms that are really independent of the Bacteria, and if anything are more closely related geneologically to the eukaryotes (Eukarya) than to the Bacteria. In addition to being a distinct group, they are generally primative. In many ways, the molecular biology of the Archaea probably resembles those of the ancestors of the eukaryotes, and have proven to be very useful in sorting out the simpler roots of modern eukaryotic complexity.. ...
This brings forth the interesting point of view that the truly ancestral forms of these genes and proteins may be more like the proteins seen in the eukaryotes rather than the archaea! Archaea (and bacteria) can tolerate a lot more genetic change than eukaryotes can, and have a far shorter generation time, allowing them to change and evolve more quickly than the larger, less genetically mutable eukaryotes. On the other hand the lack of change and high level of conservation in eukaryotes means that the complexes remain very similar to those of the ancestral eukaryote from which they evolved. They may even be closer to the forms found in the last common ancestor between eukaryotes and archaea, before the eukaryotes gained a nucleus and became unable to share genes with the surrounding organisms ...
Some Archaea thrive in extreme places such as in thermal pools, hot vents at the bottom of the sea, extremely salty water, and even in underground oil reserves. This book examines the diverse Archaea kingdom and the division of these organisms by their unusual biology into three main groups. It also explains why little in general is known about them, and why further classification of Archaea is so difficult.
In her NY Times blog, Olivia Judson gives an ovation to Archaea. This domain of organisms gets none of the recognition of their more famous kin, Bacteria and Eukaryotes despite their unusual biology. As she describes, some members of the group Archaea have extreme tolerance to temperature and pH, thriving in the boiling acids found in hot springs and the bottom of ocean vents. All known methane producing microbes are found among the Archaea.. ...
Archaebacteria are force anaerobes and they live only in oxygen-free circumstances. They are known as extremophiles, as they are capable to live in a variety of atmosphere. Some species can live in the temperatures over boiling point at 100 degree Celsius. They can also live in acidic, alkaline or saline aquatic surroundings. Some can endure the pressures of more than 200 atmospheres.. The size of archaebacteria varies from 1/10th of a micrometer to more than 15 micrometers. Some of archaebacteria have flagella. Like all prokaryotes, archaebacteria dont have the membrane-bound organelles. They dont contain nuclei, endoplasmic reticula, Golgi complexes, mitochondria, chloroplasts or lysosomes. The cells consist of a thick cytoplasm that includes all the compounds and molecules needed for metabolism and nutrition. Their cell wall doesnt contain peptidoglycan. The rigid cell wall backings the cell and allows archaebacterium to hold its shape. It also defends the cell from overflowing when ...
The universal tree of life represents the proposed evolutionary relationships among all cellular life forms, which are classified into three main urkingdoms or domains; the Archaea (archaebacteria), Bacteria (eubacteria) and Eucarya (eukaryotes)
The highest level, domain, is a relatively new addition to the system since the 1990s. Scientists now recognize three domains of life, the Eukarya, the Archaea, and the Bacteria. The domain Eukarya contains organisms that have cells with nuclei. It includes the kingdoms of fungi, plants, animals, and several kingdoms of protists. The Archaea, are single-celled organisms without nuclei and include many extremophiles that live in harsh environments like hot springs. The Bacteria are another quite different group of single-celled organisms without nuclei. Both the Archaea and the Bacteria are prokaryotes, an informal name for cells without nuclei. The recognition in the 1990s that certain bacteria, now known as the Archaea, were as different genetically and biochemically from other bacterial cells as they were from eukaryotes, motivated the recommendation to divide life into three domains. This dramatic change in our knowledge of the tree of life demonstrates that classifications are not ...
Hyperthermophilic Archaea and Bacteria are an extraordinarily important class of organisms for which genetic tools remain to be developed. Unique technological obstacles to this goal are posed by the thermophilic and, in some cases, strictly anaerobic nature of these organisms. However, recent advan …
The location of hyperthermophilic organisms in the tree of life has been the source of many exciting discussions during the last two decades. It inspired not only novel hypotheses for the early evolution of the organisms, but also the isolation of many new species of Archaea and Bacteria from hot environments, as well as microbial genome sequencing and phylogenomic analyses. In view of the new wealth of genetic information generated from several analysed genomes of the hyperthermophiles, we can only conclude that the question of their exact phylogenetic location and evolutionary origin is presently as open as ever before.. ...
Comparison of complete genomes of Bacteria and Archaea shows that gene content varies considerably and that genomes evolve quite rapidly via gene duplication and deletion and horizontal gene transfer. We analyze a diverse set of 92 Bacteria and 79 Archaea in order to investigate the processes governing the origin and evolution of families of related genes within genomes. Genes were clustered into related groups using similarity criteria derived from BLAST. Most clusters contained genes from only one or a small number of genomes, and relatively few core clusters were found that spanned all genomes. Gene clusters found in larger numbers of genomes tended to have larger numbers of genes per genome; however, clusters with unusually large numbers of genes per genome were found among both narrowly and widely distributed clusters. Larger genomes were found to have larger mean gene family sizes and a greater proportion of families of very large size. We used a model of birth, death, and innovation to predict
Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology - Gordon Research Conference Les Diablerets Conference Center Eurotel Victoria Les Diablerets, CH, Switzerland Unique Biology of the Archaea Bridging the Gap Between Bacteria and Eukaryotes. July 21 - 26, 2019.
Introduction: Archaea comes from the greek word, archaio, meaning ancient (billions of years, and if you dont call that old, then I dont know what is). In order to fully understand the origins of Archaea, we must look at evolutionary history. From what we understand, all living forms have descended from a Universal ancestor, which appeared through spontaneous generation. The term spontaneous generation is generally used to explain what Europeans before 1668 believed to be the cause of life, indicating that every day, living organisms were created by non living things (such as mud). This should not be confused with the modern theory of the origin of life, that abiotic amino acids were generated in the primordial soup and spontaneously joined together to form LUCA ...
To mark the 40th anniversary of the Archaea, Nature journals present a collection of articles that explores our understanding of archaea and how the discovery of new species is reshaping the tree of life.
Their phytanyl tails are primarily hooked to their glycerols using ether, not ester, linkages (see 2, above), which resist destruction better than esters. And their glycerols have opposite handedness to the glycerols in our membrane lipids (note mirror orientation in the bacterial and archaeal lipids in figure).. Molecular handedness -- chirality in chemistry-speak -- is not a thing changed easily by evolution. For instance, the vast majority of protein building blocks called amino acids used by life on Earth are exclusively left-handed. Why? No one really knows, although some have guesses. Once lefty amino acids took over, though, there was no going back biochemically -- the enzymes were set up a certain way and that was that. Thus, that archaeal and bacterial enzymes use glycerols with opposite handedness implies that bacteria and archaea parted ways long, long ago.. Some archaeal lipids have a property that is rarely or never seen in bacteria or eukaryotes. Bacteria and eukaryotes have ...
FALL IN ARCHAEA Lyrics - A selection of 6 Fall In Archaea lyrics including Machines, Blasphemy, Anxiety, High Tides, Gatherings ...
CRR writes:. Does the theory of evolution require a gain of copious quantities of genetic information?. Yes it does. Both in Darwins formulation and in the modern neo-Darwinian version, although Darwin of course knew nothing of genes or DNA.. Both versions believe that the all life on Earth is ascended from primitive ancestors. Darwin lacked the evidence to definitely say only one ancestor but he made it clear that it was his belief that all animals and plants are descended from some one prototype. Most proponents of the modern version, on the evidence of DNA, definitely conclude there was a Last Universal Common Ancestor.. In both versions this common ancestor is envisaged as some simple life form of minimal complexity.. In the modern version with a genetic basis this is supposed to be a single celled organism with a minimal functioning genome, perhaps only a few hundred genes. Some believe this ancestor arose naturally on Earth from non-living matter, some propose panspermia, and some believe ...
Nunoura, T.; Takaki, Y.; Kakuta, J.; Nishi, S.; Sugahara, J.; Kazama, H.; Chee, G.J.; Hattori, M.; Kanai, A.; Aatomi, H.; Takai, K. and akami, H. 2011: Insights into the evolution of Archaea and eukaryotic protein modifier systems revealed by the genome of a novel archaeal group. Nucleic Acids Res., 39, 3204-3223. doi: doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq1228 ...
The traditional bacterial rooting of the three superkingdoms in sequence-based gene trees is inconsistent with new phylogenetic reconstructions based on genome content of compact protein domains. We find that protein domains at the level of the SCOP superfamily (SF) from sequenced genomes implement …
View Notes - Chap 27 Prokaryotes-st from BIL 160 at University of Miami. Prokaryotes-Chap 27 The three major clades, often referred to as the three domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota. -largest
WoRMS (2011). Thaumarchaeota. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=559429 on 2017-12- ...
ADAPTATION OF MICROORGANISMS TO Intense ENVIRONMENTAL Issues Some microorganisms are adapted to severe environmental situations. The thermophiles can endure in substantial temperatures whilst halophiles can endure in substantial salinities. Alkaliphiles and acidophiles can endure in overwhelming pH amounts. So, extremophiles are tailored to severe environmental circumstances because of their decent physiological capacities. These capacities have got some would-be biotechnological apps. Extremophiles are commercially significant when you consider that they yield several enzymes under people serious disorders. Thermophiles will also be known as warmth fans. You have found in environments that arrive about as the outcome of human functions for instance industrial routines, geothermal action, powerful radiation, combustion procedures and solar heating. Inside low-temperature severe, now we have the psychrophiles which include the snow and ice algae. Thermophiles are described as individuals ...
Earth's last universal common ancestor, called LUCA, may have been much more complex than a chemical soup and even more sophisticated than today's simplest creatures, scientists say, suggesting the organism was equipped with an organelle and may have even
Genomic comparative studies on entirely sequenced genomes from the three domains of life, i.e. Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota [1], evidenced that proteins involved in the organization or processing of genetic information (structures of ribosome and chromatin, translation, transcription, replication and DNA repair) display a closer relationship between Archaea and Eukaryota than between Bacteria and Eukaryota [2-4]. To identify new proteins involved in such important cellular mechanisms, an exhaustive inventory of proteins of unknown function common to only Eukaryota and Archaea but not in Bacteria has been devised [5-7]. Among such proteins, the Cluster of Orthologous Group COG2042 comprises proteins ubiquitously present in Eukaryota and present in many, but not all, Archaea; a hallmark of their ancient origin. The corresponding ancestral protein should have been present in the common ancestor of these two domains of life. Some partial experimental data are known from the Saccharomyces ...
Provided herein are genetically engineered archaea. A genetically engineered archaea includes a heterologous polynucleotide that has a promoter operably linked to a coding region, where the coding region encodes a polypeptide having optimal activity below the optimum growth temperature (T.sub.opt) of the genetically engineered archaeon. Also provided herein are methods for using genetically engineered archaea and cell-free extracts of such genetically engineered archaea. In one embodiment, the methods include culturing a genetically engineered archaeon at a temperature that is at least 20.degree. C. below the T.sub.opt of the genetically engineered archaeon, such that the activity in the genetically engineered archaeon of a polypeptide encoded by the coding region is increased compared to the activity in the genetically engineered archaeon of the polypeptide during growth at a second temperature that is at or near the T.sub.opt of the genetically engineered archaeon.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Copper requirements of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 and implications for nitrification in the marine environment. AU - Amin, Shady A.. AU - Moffett, James W.. AU - Martens-Habbena, Willm. AU - Jacquot, Jeremy E.. AU - Han, Yang. AU - Devol, Allan. AU - Ingalls, Anitra E.. AU - Stahl, David A.. AU - Armbrust, E. Virginia. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) have recently been recognized as the primary nitrifiers in the marine environment; they thus play an important role in the nitrogen cycle. Available genome sequences of AOA indicate that numerous Cu-dependent enzymes are essential for both ammonia oxidation and electron transfer, suggesting a particularly high requirement for copper. However, our knowledge of the copper requirements of AOA and their response to copper limitation in the ocean is nonexistent. Here, we examine the copper requirements of the chemolithoautotrophic AOA Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 ...
The global microbial CH4 production is estimated to reach one billion tons annually. Methanogenic archaea produce CH4 in wetlands, rice fields, ruminant and termite digestive systems and have a decisive impact on the planets atmospheric carbon cycle [42]. At the same time, the industrial scale anaerobic digestion of biomass to CH4 plays a vital role in the future global energy mix. All methanogenic archaea capable of CO2 reduction contain the cofactor F420 as an integral part of the methanogenic pathway. In this study, F420 autofluorescence was tested as a universal marker for methanogenic archaea. Genes encoding for F420 biosynthesis enzymes were identified in 653 bacterial and 173 archaeal species [43]. Non-methanogenic but F420 containing microorganisms have reported F420 concentrations of about one fortieth of the concentrations in hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea [19], which is below detection limit of the developed protocol. For the methanogenic archaea, however, the F420 cofactor ...
The Archaebacterium Haloferax volcanii concentrates K+ up to 3.6 M. This creates a very large K+ ion gradient of between 500- to 1,000-fold across the cell membrane. H. volcaniicells can be...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Colonization of rice roots with methanogenic archaea controls photosynthesis-derived methane emission. AU - Pump, Judith. AU - Pratscher, Jennifer. AU - Conrad, Ralf. PY - 2015/7. Y1 - 2015/7. N2 - The methane emitted from rice fields originates to a large part (up to 60%) from plant photosynthesis and is formed on the rice roots by methanogenic archaea. To investigate to which extent root colonization controls methane (CH4) emission, we pulse-labeled rice microcosms with 13CO2 to determine the rates of 13CH4 emission exclusively derived from photosynthates. We also measured emission of total CH4 (12+13CH4), which was largely produced in the soil. The total abundances of archaea and methanogens on the roots and in the soil were analysed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of the archaeal 16S rRNA gene and the mcrA gene coding for a subunit of the methyl coenzyme M reductase respectively. The composition of archaeal and methanogenic communities was determined with terminal ...
Archaea are divided into two main groups based on rRNA trees, the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Two other groups have been tentatively created for certain environmental samples and the peculiar species Nanoarchaeum equitans, discovered in 2002 by Karl Stetter, but their affinities are uncertain. Woese argued that the bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes each represent a primary line of descent that diverged early on from an ancestral progenote with poorly developed genetic machinery. This hypothesis is reflected in the name Archaea, from the Greek archae or ancient. Later he treated these groups formally as domains, each comprising several kingdoms. This division has become very popular, although the idea of the progenote itself is not generally supported. Some biologists, however, have argued that the archaebacteria and eukaryotes arose from specialized eubacteria. The relationship between Archaea and Eukarya remains an important problem. Aside from the similarities noted above, many genetic ...
She ream dy vynvioee eh archaea (un.: archaeon). Cha nel çheshvean killag ny mynolt far-chrackanagh erbee elley oc. Traa dy row, vad currit marish bacteyryn myr prokaryota ny myr reeriaght Monera, fon ennym archaebacteria (shenn vacteyryn). Ec y traa tayn, cha nel bea-oayllee goaill rish y rang-oardraghey shen.[1] Ta shennaghys aafilleydagh er lheh oc, as shimmey scansh teddyr ocsyn as bioagyn elley; myr shen, ta rang-oardraghey noa oc nish myr ream er lheh sy chorys tree reamyn. Tan corys shoh eddyraghey tree banglaneyn aafilleydagh: Archaea, Bacteria as Eukaryota. Tad rheynn Archaea ayns kiare phyla, agh scosoylagh eh dy vel foddey ny smoo ayn. Cha nel monney studeyrys er ny yannoo orroo. She Crenarchaeota as Euryarchaeota ad ny phyla smoo er studeyrys. Ta archaea jeeaghyn gollrish bacteyryn dy mennick, agh ta cummey goan ec kuse jeu; myr shen, killagyn rea kerrooagh Haloquadratum walsbyi. Ta gientagyn as cassanyn soe oc ta faggys dadsyn tec eukaryota, myr sampleyr, ensymeyn ta ...
The active seepage of the marine cold seeps could be a critical process for the exchange of energy between the submerged geosphere and the sea floor environment through organic-rich fluids, potentially even affecting surrounding microbial habitats. However, few studies have investigated the associated microbial community changes. In the present study, 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced to decipher changes in the microbial communities from the Thuwal seepage point in the Red Sea to nearby marine sediments in the brine pool, normal marine sediments and water, and benthic microbial mats. An unexpected number of reads from unclassified groups were detected in these habitats; however, the ecological functions of these groups remain unresolved. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community structures were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Analysis of amoA showed that planktonic marine habitats, including seeps and marine water, hosted archaeal ammonia oxidizers that
Bacteria and archaea dominate the biomass of benthic deep-sea ecosystems at all latitudes, playing a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles, but their macroscale patterns and macroecological drivers are still largely unknown. We show the results of the most extensive field study conducted so far to investigate patterns and drivers of the distribution and structure of benthic prokaryote assemblages from 228 samples collected at latitudes comprising 34°N to 79°N, and from ca. 400- to 5570-m depth. We provide evidence that, in deep-sea ecosystems, benthic bacterial and archaeal abundances significantly increase from middle to high latitudes, with patterns more pronounced for archaea, and particularly for Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota. Our results also reveal that different microbial components show varying sensitivities to changes in temperature conditions and food supply. We conclude that climate change will primarily affect deep-sea benthic archaea, with important consequences on global ...
Once they had finished their analysis, Bill Martins team was left with just 355 genes from the original 11,000, and they argue that these 355 definitely belonged to LUCA and can tell us something about how LUCA lived.. Such a small number of genes, of course, would not support life as we know it, and critics immediately latched onto this apparent gene shortage, pointing out that essential components capable of nucleotide and amino acid biosynthesis, for example, were missing. We didnt even have a complete ribosome, admits Martin.. However, their methodology required that they omit all genes that have undergone LGT, so had a ribosomal protein undergone LGT, it wouldnt be included in the list of LUCAs genes. They also speculated that LUCA could have gotten by using molecules in the environment to fill the functions of lacking genes, for example molecules that can synthesize amino acids. After all, says Martin, biochemistry at this early stage in lifes evolution was still primitive and all ...
Abstract. The distribution of the various cell wall and cell envelope (S-layer) polymers among the main lineages of the domain Archaea (Archaebacteria) and the chemical composition and primary structure of polymers forming rigid cell wall sacculi is described. Differences between bacteria and archaea in their sensitivity to antibiotics which inhibit cell wall synthesis in bacteria are discussed.
original description Stetter, K.O., Konig, H., and Stackebrandt, E. 1984. Pyrodictium gen. nov., a new genus of submarine disc-shaped sulphur reducing archaebacteria growing optimally at 105°C. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 4:535-551. [details] ...
In marine sediments archaea often constitute a considerable part of the microbial community, of which the Deep Sea Archaeal Group (DSAG) is one of the most predominant. Despite their high abundance no members from this archaeal group have so far been characterized and thus their metabolism is unknown. Here we show that the relative abundance of DSAG marker genes can be correlated with geochemical parameters, allowing prediction of both the potential electron donors and acceptors of these organisms. We estimated the abundance of 16S rRNA genes from Archaea, Bacteria, and DSAG in 52 sediment horizons from two cores collected at the slow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge, using qPCR. The results indicate that members of the DSAG make up the entire archaeal population in certain horizons and constitute up to ~50% of the total microbial community. The quantitative data were correlated to 30 different geophysical and geochemical parameters obtained from the same sediment horizons. We observed a significant
The factors controlling the relative abundances of Archaea and Bacteria in marine sediments are poorly understood. We determined depth distributions of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes by quantitative PCR at eight stations in Aarhus Bay, Denmark. Bacterial outnumber archaeal genes 10-60-fold in uppermost sediments that are irrigated and mixed by macrofauna. This bioturbation is indicated by visual observations of sediment color and faunal tracks, by porewater profiles of dissolved inorganic carbon and sulfate, and by distributions of unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs. Below the depth of bioturbation, the relative abundances of archaeal genes increase, accounting for one third of 16S rRNA genes in the sulfate zone, and half of 16S rRNA genes in the sulfate-methane transition zone and methane zone. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a strong shift in bacterial and archaeal community structure from bioturbated sediments to underlying layers. Stable isotopic analyses on organic matter and porewater ...
1999 97. Schwerdtfeger, R. M., Chiaraluce, R., Consalvi, V., Scandurra, R., Antranikian, G. (1999) Stability, refolding and Ca2+ binding of pullulanase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus woesei . Eur. J. Biochem. 264:479-487. 96. Linden, A., Niehaus, F., Antranikian, G. (20 00) Single-step purification of a recombinant thermostable α-amylase after solubilization of the enzyme from insoluble aggregates. Journal of Chromtography B. 737: 253-259. 95. Andrade, C.M., Pereira, N. Jr., Antranikian, G. (1999) Extremely thermophilic microorganisms and their polymerhydrolytic enzymes. Revista de Microbiologia 30: 287-298. 94. Stefanova, M. E., Schwerdtfeger, R., Antranikian, G., Scandurra, R. (1999) Heat-stable pullulanase from Bacillus acidopullulyticus : characterization and refolding after guanidinium chloride-induced unfolding. Extremophiles 3: 147-152. 93. Niehaus, F., Bertoldo, C., Kähler, M., Antranikian, G. (1999) Extremophiles as a source of novel enzymes for industrial application. ...
Archaea-specific radA primers were used with PCR to amplify fragments of radA genes from 11 cultivated archaeal species and one marine sponge tissue sample that contained essentially an archaeal monoculture. The amino acid sequences encoded by the PCR fragments, three RadA protein sequences previously published (21), and two new complete RadA sequences were aligned with representative bacterial RecA proteins and eucaryal Rad51 and Dmc1 proteins. The alignment supported the existence of four insertions and one deletion in the archaeal and eucaryal sequences relative to the bacterial sequences. The sizes of three of the insertions were found to have taxonomic and phylogenetic significance. Comparative analysis of the RadA sequences, omitting amino acids in the insertions and deletions, shows a cladal distribution of species which mimics to a large extent that obtained by a similar analysis of archaeal 16S rRNA sequences. The PCR technique also was used to amplify fragments of 15 radA genes from ...
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In spite of their common hypersaline environment, halophilic archaea are surprisingly different in their nutritional demands and metabolic pathways. The metabolic diversity of halophilic archaea was i
An interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion with increasing organic loadingAn interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion with increasing organic loading ...
Evans, TW, Könneke, M, Lipp, JS, Adhikari, RR, Taubner, H, Elvert, M and Hinrichs, KU (2018) Lipid biosynthesis of Nitrosopumilus maritimus dissected by lipid specific radioisotope probing (lipid-RIP) under contrasting ammonium supply. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 242. 51-63. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2018.09.001 ...
Jarosite is formed from iron ore deposits by the oxidation of iron sulphides. It has nothing to do with the presence of life, but it forms an extreme environment that can only be tolerated by extremophiles. That is the only connection jarosite has with biological activity. The discovery of jarosite on Mars does not mean that there are likely to be microbes of any kind associated with it.. Extremophiles are microbes which enjoy extreme environments: extremely cold, extremely hot, extremely acid, extremely salty, extremely radioactive and so on. Most of them dont need oxygen and many metabolise sulphur to make a living. Some like the dark ocean depths and pressures in the vicinity of black smokers (deep sea fumaroles).. Some extremophiles are methanogens, that is to say their metabolism generates methane, which is why the detection of short-lived methane emissions on Mars attracted a lot of interest. A common methanogen on Earth lives in anoxic marshes, usually in woodland, where it generates ...
Through text, movement, landscape and music, Archaea for the Evergreens, weaves together abstract, spiritual and scientific ideas surrounding life and death. Drawing connections between formal explorations of circles, physical embodiments of history, lessons learned from the way the natural world deals with death and the mysterious aspects of our universe, Archaea for the Evergreens calls forth the questions that arise when confronted with the vastness of time and space that the Evergreens offers. The term Archaea refers to the microorganisms that create the underlying structure on this planet to which everything is connected, just as The Evergreens Cemetery reminds us of both the connectedness and mystery of our world.. Created by Anne Zuerner in collaboration with the performers. Rehearsal Director: Zoe Rabinowitz. Performed by Martita Abril, Chris Braz, Sara Gurevich, Ainesh Madan, Penelope McCourty, Jenna Purcell, Phoebe Rose Sandford and sixth grade students from the MS 358 Dance Company: ...
By combining archaea and mammal DNA, researchers are hoping to bypass evolution and give people genes that would allow them to resist retinal degeneration.. A new project underway at West Virginia University (WVU) is looking at the proteins produced by single-cell organisms called archaea that help them survive in harsh conditions. Particular proteins in archaea cells, called molecular chaperones, guide other proteins through the folding process which allows the organism to survive in environments including hydrothermal pools and digestive systems.. [Molecular chaperones] embrace the baby proteins and help them to fold correctly, Associate Professor Maxim Sokolov, WVU School of Medicine, said. And if the baby proteins fold incorrectly, the chaperones will unfold them and say, fold again.. It is hoped that giving human cells this capacity could lead to a treatment for several incurable eye diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa. By stopping the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ...
Archaea are best known in their capacities as extremophiles, i.e. micro-organisms able to thrive in some of the most drastic environments on Earth. The protein-based surface layer that envelopes many archaeal strains must thus correctly assemble and maintain its structural integrity in the face of the physical challenges associated with, for instance, life in high salinity, at elevated temperatures or in acidic surroundings. Study of archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins has thus offered insight into the strategies employed by these proteins to survive direct contact with extreme environments, yet has also served to elucidate other aspects of archaeal protein biosynthesis, including glycosylation, lipid modification and protein export. In this mini-review, recent advances in the study of archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins are discussed.
The three types of archaea are the crenarchaeota, the euryarchaeota and the korarchaeota. Archaea is a group of single-celled microorganisms that come in a variety of shapes and survive extreme...
Archaea are environmentally ubiquitous on Earth, and their extremophilic and metabolically versatile phenotypes make them helpful as mannequin methods for astrobiology. Here, we reveal a brand new practical group of halo(natrono)archaea in a position to make the most of alpha-D-glucans (amylopectin, amylose and glycogen), sugars, and glycerol as electron donors and carbon sources for sulfur respiration. They are facultative anaerobes enriched from hypersaline sediments with both amylopectin, glucose or glycerol as electron/carbon sources and elemental sulfur because the terminal electron acceptor. They embody 10 strains of neutrophilic haloarchaea from circum pH-neutral lakes and one natronoarchaeon from soda-lake sediments.. The neutrophilic isolates can develop by fermentation, though addition of S0 or dimethyl sulfoxide elevated progress charge and biomass yield (with a concomitant lower in H2 ). Natronoarchaeal isolate AArc-S grew solely by respiration, both anaerobically with S0 or ...
Many of the bacteria and archaea species discovered were found to be extremophiles that thrived in harsh conditions that would have killed your average life form. Some were found to grow best at temperatures above the boiling point of water or in toxic, acidic waste. Others were found to live completely independent of sunlight and oxygen, feasting on sulfur bubbling up from deep sea vents.. ​​ ...
Researchers uncover a group of mobile genetic elements in bacteria and archaea encoding a Cas enzyme. Transposons are stretches of DNA that can hop to different sites in the genome and are commonly found in many types of organisms. In a study published in BMC Biology, researchers described a new type of transposon-like element in bacteria and archaea that encodes a Cas enzyme-well appreciated for its role in the CRISPR/Cas adaptive immune system in prokaryotes-which it in turn requires for integrating into a new genomic home ...
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Effect of temperature on carbon and electron flow and on the archaeal community in methanogenic rice field soil
The creation scenario described above is not embraced by the majority of biologists. They see the naturalistic process of evolution driving the appearance of millions of species of earth life, including the very recent appearance of modern man. Descent with modification and belief in LUCA, the last universal common ancestor, is the ruling paradigm to account for the diversity of Earth life. According to a common internet answer site, evolutionists insist the statement The basic biochemical processes of all organisms is very similar, despite the apparently arbitrary nature of many of these processes is a paramount support pillar of their evolutionary belief. They view the similarity of organisms as affirmation of belief in naturalistic evolutionary descent. An equally logical conclusion that the omnipotent and omniscient Creator would repeatedly use an identical genetic template is not even considered. ...
Biological methane oxidation by methanotrophic Verrucomicrobia under hot and acidic conditions; evolution of an ancient metabolic trait. NFR (FRIMEDBIO), 3.5 mill NOK ...
Strategies to reduce the Earth worming and raise animal production require new systems, where it must be considered methane and other gases emission that might cause environmental damages. The aim of this work was to evaluate the archaea methane production and the metagenomic evaluation of these bacteria present on the solid phase of the bovine ruminal content. For methane production analysis the ruminar content was collected followed by the proper manipulation for the fermentation process to take place and produced gas storage. The ribosomal 16S rRNA region was obtained by PCR amplification which was followed by cloning and DNA sequencing. The data was later analyzed by the software Sequencing Analysis 3.4, Phred/Phrap/Consed and BLAST. The highest methane production and acetate:propionate ratios were observed for the treatments containing 70% of roughage. The BLAST analysis allowed to identify 96 DNA sequences related to the Methanobacteriaceae family, 47 DNA sequences related to unculturable ...
So, first a bit of biology. This will make more sense to you if you are not a creationist. Somewhere back in the mists of time -- long before the universe was created 6,000 years ago -- actually somewhere around 2 billion years ago, it seems that 2 (or possibly 3) simple prokaryotic cells entered into an endosymbiotic relationship. We dont know exactly how this happened. Prokaryotic cells dont have a nucleus and are otherwise relatively simple in their internal structure. There are two major kinds, called archaea and bacteria. The most straightforward explanation of the origin of the eukaryotes is that an archaeal cell somehow engulfed a bacterium, but didnt digest it. Instead, the bacterium reproduced and its progeny started living happily within the cytoplasm of the archaea and its descendants. The endosymbiotic bacteria gradually lost most of their DNA -- they didnt need it because their environment was properly managed by the archaeal DNA, which is now our nuclear DNA -- and they settled ...
These creatures so dependent upon the cold, so specialized to the most frigid, high-pressure places on earth, that youd hardly even recognize them as being from this planet.
Lineage: cellular organisms; Archaea; Euryarchaeota; Stenosarchaea group; Halobacteria; Natrialbales; Natrialbaceae; Halostagnicola; Halostagnicola ...
transparent purple w/ white and black splatter vinyl (EU exclusive - limited to 100 copies). Tracked at Flatline Audio in Denver with long-serving producer Dave Otero (Cattle Decapitation, Cephalic Carnage), Apoptosis is Allegaeons fifth full-length, and the first to feature bassist Brandon Michael. Musically, Brandon brings a huge new dimension, vocalist Riley McShane enthuses. He has this wide breadth of music knowledge and stylistic proficiency that he draws from with excellent taste, and this makes a lot of the songs on Apoptosis come to life. The record also features a guest appearance by classical guitarist Christina Sandsengen, who duets with guitarist Greg Burgess on Colors of the Currents. On this record, I was more open to new ideas that we might not have used in past, states guitarist Michael Stancel. Rather than deleting something because its not Allegaeon-y enough, I would take a step back and see if that idea fit the song and decide if it was worth keeping. With that ...
The discovery reveals the role of a growth factor and endothelial cells in thymus repair, and could have implications for chemotherapy and radiation patients recovery following treatment.. 0 Comments. ...
Presenter: Sreejith Raveendran. Published: December 2013. Age: 18-22 and upwards. Views: 1364 views. Tags: extremophile,polysaccharides,bionano,biomedicine. Type: Postgraduate presentations. Source/institution: Bio-Nano Electronics Research CentreToyo University. ...
Viruses of archaea represent one of the most enigmatic parts of the virosphere. Most of the characterized archaeal viruses infect extremophilic hosts and
Lineage: cellular organisms; Archaea; Euryarchaeota; Archaeoglobi; Archaeoglobales; Archaeoglobaceae; Ferroglobus; Ferroglobus ...
Of all the molecular determinants for growth, the hydronium and hydroxide ions are found naturally in the widest concentration range, from acid mine drainage below pH 0 to soda lakes above pH 13. Most bacteria and archaea have mechanisms that maintain their internal, cytoplasmic pH within a narrower range than the pH outside the cell, termed
SEAS researchers have found that these pink-hued archaea -- called [I]Halobacterium salinarum[/I] -- use the same mechanisms to maintain size as bacteria and eukaryotic life, indicting that cellular division strategy may be shared across all domains of life.
This Aquarium COMBO set includes one ADA Cube Garden 90-P and one Archaea Wood Cabinet (for rimless aquariums with base dimensions: L 90cm x W 45cm). Four color choices are available for the cabinet, please select the desired color set when you place the order. ADA Cube Garden 90-P Ultra High Clarity rimless Aquarium:
This Aquarium COMBO set includes one ADA Cube Garden 90-P and one Archaea Wood Cabinet (for rimless aquariums with base dimensions: L 90cm x W 45cm). Four color choices are available for the cabinet, please select the desired color set when you place the order. ADA Cube Garden 90-P Ultra High Clarity rimless Aquarium:
Threonine--tRNA ligase; Catalyzes the attachment of threonine to tRNA(Thr) in a two-step reaction- L-threonine is first activated by ATP to form Thr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Thr). Also edits incorrectly charged L-seryl-tRNA(Thr); Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family (621 aa ...
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding each other. ...
In archaea[edit]. Crenarchaeota possess neither a cell wall nor the FtsZ mechanism. They use a primitive version of the ... Organisms in the domains of Archaea and Bacteria reproduce with binary fission. This form of asexual reproduction and cell ... Bernander, R; Ettema, TJ (December 2010). "FtsZ-less cell division in archaea and bacteria". Current Opinion in Microbiology. ... "Evolution of diverse cell division and vesicle formation systems in Archaea". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 8 (10): 731-41. ...
Archaea[edit]. Archaea is a domain of organisms that are prokaryotic, single-celled, and are thought to have developed 4 ... "Archaea". Microbe World. Microbe World. Retrieved 8 November 2015.. *^ Chambers, Cecilia R.; Patrick, Wayne M. (2015). " ... It studies the genetics of very small (micro) organisms; bacteria, archaea, viruses and some protozoa and fungi.[1] This ... Gene transfer and genetic exchange have been studied in the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium volcanii and the ...
"archaea , prokaryote". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2015-11-22.. *^ a b c d e f Gupta, G.N.; Srivastava, S.; Khare, S.K ... Bernstein H, Bernstein C. Sexual communication in archaea, the precursor to meiosis. pp. 103-117 in Biocommunication of Archaea ... "Extremophiles: Archaea and Bacteria" : Map of Life". www.mapoflife.org. Retrieved 2015-11-22.. ... Some archaea inhabit the most biologically inhospitable environments on earth, and this is believed to in some ways mimic the ...
Archaea typically have fewer disulfides than higher organisms.[13] In eukaryotes[edit]. In eukaryotic cells, in general, stable ... In bacteria and archaea[edit]. Disulfide bonds play an important protective role for bacteria as a reversible switch that turns ... "there is no evidence for disulfide bonds in proteins from archaea"". Extremophiles. 12 (1): 29-38. doi:10.1007/s00792-007-0076- ...
Archaea[edit]. Archaea have a single type of RNAP, responsible for the synthesis of all RNA. Archaeal RNAP is structurally and ... Archaea has the subunit corresponding to Eukaryotic Rpb1 split into two. There is no homolog to eukaryotic Rpb9 (POLR2I) in the ... The first analysis of the RNAP of an archaeon was performed in 1971, when the RNAP from the extreme halophile Halobacterium ... Bacteria and archaea only have one RNA polymerase. Eukaryotes have multiple types of nuclear RNAP, each responsible for ...
In archaea[edit]. Tungsten is essential for some archaea. The following tungsten-utilizing enzymes are known: *Aldehyde ... 1 April 2008). Archaea: New Models for Prokaryotic Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1904455271.. ... A wtp system is known to selectively transport tungsten in archaea: *WtpA is tungten-binding protein of ABC family of ... It is used by some bacteria and archaea,[82] but not in eukaryotes. For example, enzymes called oxidoreductases use tungsten ...
Archaea[edit]. *Strain 121, an archaeon living at 121 °C in the Pacific Ocean. ... Unique properties of hyperthermophilic archaea. References[edit]. *^ Stetter, K. (2006). "History of discovery of the first ... Pyrococcus furiosus, an archaeon which thrives at 100 °C, first discovered in Italy near a volcanic vent. ... Methanopyrus kandleri strain 116, an archaeon in 80-122 °C in a Central Indian Ridge. ...
Bernstein H, Bernstein C. Sexual communication in archaea, the precursor to meiosis. pp. 103-117 in Biocommunication of Archaea ... Archaea are prokaryotic unicellular organisms, and form the first domain of life, in Carl Woese's three-domain system. A ... Bacteria and archaea are almost always microscopic, while a number of eukaryotes are also microscopic, including most protists ... Carl Woese's 1990 phylogenetic tree based on rRNA data shows the domains of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryota. All are ...
Archaea[upraviť , upraviť zdroj]. Doména Archaea* (zast. Archaebacteria) - zast. archebaktérie [podľa (1), (2) a angl. wiki]: ... doména: Archaea - Woese je autorom pojmu "Archaea". *doména: eukaryoty - delenie iba naznačené: *ríša:Protista resp. viaceré ... Archaea - monofyletickosť skupiny sporná. *eukaryoty (podľa abecedy): *Alveolata - patrí sem Dinoflagellata, Apicomplexa, ...
Together with MscS, MscL, or its homologs, has been found in bacteria, archaea, fungi, and higher plants, but not animals. ... Kloda, Anna; Martinac, Boris (2002). "Common evolutionary origins of mechanosensitive ion channels in Archaea, Bacteria and ... cell-walled Eukarya". Archaea. 1 (1): 35-44. doi:10.1155/2002/419261. PMC 2685541. PMID 15803657. Kung C, Martinac B, Sukharev ...
Archaea. PMC 3892558. SUPERFAMILY database SCOP: Structural Classification of Proteins. ...
It is hypothesized that the symbiosis originated when ancient archaea, similar to modern methanogenic archaea, invaded and ... Hogan CM (2010). "Archaea". In Monosson E, Cleveland C (eds.). Encyclopedia of Earth. Washington, DC.: National Council for ... The archaeal origin of the nucleus is supported by observations that archaea and eukarya have similar genes for certain ... A similar proposal states that a eukaryote-like cell, the chronocyte, evolved first and phagocytosed archaea and bacteria to ...
"Identification and analysis of proton-translocating pyrophosphatases in the methanogenic archaeon Methansarcina mazei". Archaea ... The archaeon, Methanosarcina mazei Gö1, encodes within its genome two H+-translocating pyrophosphatases (PPases), Mvp1 and Mvp2 ... Full-length members of the H+-PPase family have been sequenced from numerous bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. These H+ pumping ... Those from respiratory and photosynthetic bacteria as well as archaea are less dependent upon K+. However, exceptions may exist ...
nov., a hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from a hydrothermal vent at the Okinawa Trough". Extremophiles. 2 (2): 123-130. doi ... Pyrococcus horikoshii is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic archaeon, first isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples obtained at ... Archaea. 2011: 1-9. doi:10.1155/2011/565127. ISSN 1472-3646. PMC 3227228. Ando, Susumu; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Ishida, Hiroyasu; ...
... is a thermophilic and obligately autotrophic archaeon. Its type strain is MarburgT. Its genome ... Archaea. 2011: 23. doi:10.1155/2011/973848. ISSN 1472-3646. PMC 3087415. PMID 21559116. 973848. Vitt, Stella; Ma, Kesen; ...
Archaea. 2017: 1-13. doi:10.1155/2017/2136287. PMC 5485487. PMID 28694737. Griebler, C.; Lueders, T. (2009). "Microbial ...
Archaea. 2014: 898453. doi:10.1155/2014/898453. PMC 3960522. PMID 24729742. "Zaida A. Luthey-Schulten". Chemistry Tree. ...
nov., a methane-producing archaeon, the first isolate of the lineage 'Rice Cluster I', and proposal of the new archaeal order ... Blainey PC, Mosier AC, Potanina A, Francis CA, Quake SR (February 2011). "Genome of a low-salinity ammonia-oxidizing archaeon ... July 2006). "The genome of the square archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi : life at the limits of water activity". BMC Genomics. 7: ... March 2010). Friedberg I (ed.). "The complete genome sequence of Haloferax volcanii DS2, a model archaeon". PLOS ONE. 5 (3): ...
nov., novel haloalkaliphilic archaea from soda lakes in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China". International Journal of ... Kamekura, M.; Seno, Y.; Dyall-Smith, M. (1996-05-23). "Halolysin R4, a serine proteinase from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax ... nov., a novel extremely halophilic, aerobic, non-pigmented member of the Archaea from Egypt that produces extracellular poly( ... Archaea. 2013: 373275. doi:10.1155/2013/373275. ISSN 1472-3646. PMC 3787623. PMID 24151449. Kozlowski, Lukasz P. (2017-01-04 ...
During this process, methane forming microorganisms (methanogenic archaea or methanogens) release enzymes that reduce the ... Archaea. 2013: 157529. doi:10.1155/2013/157529. PMC 3806361. PMID 24194675. Article ID 157529. "Power-to-Gas Energy Storage - ... "Selective microbial electrosynthesis of methane by a pure culture of a marine lithoautotrophic archaeon". Bioelectrochemistry. ...
... one of the most common tetraether lipid in archaea. Archaeol has been found in all analyzed archaea so far, at least trace ... Archaeol is one of the main core membrane lipids of archaea, one of the three domains of life. One of the key features that ... Similar to archaea, these lipids are thought to increase the resistivity of bacteria to adverse environments. More stunning is ... The synthesis of IPP and DMAPP in archaea follows an alternate MVA pathway which differs from the classic MVA pathway in the ...
Archaea. 2011: 608385. doi:10.1155/2011/608385. PMC 3270539. PMID 22312317. Hein PP, Landick R (November 2010). "The bridge ...
Reed CJ, Lewis H, Trejo E, Winston V, Evilia C (2013). "Protein adaptations in archaeal extremophiles". Archaea. 2013: 373275. ... nov., a new barophilic and hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated under high hydrostatic pressure from a deep-sea hydrothermal ... November 2011). "UV-inducible DNA exchange in hyperthermophilic archaea mediated by type IV pili" (PDF). Molecular Microbiology ... Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are hyperthermophilic archaea. Exposure of these organisms to the DNA ...
One study analyzed the Z curve for multiple species of Archaea and found that the oriC is located at a sharp peak on the curve ... Zhang R, Zhang CT (2005). "Identification of replication origins in archaeal genomes based on the Z-curve method". Archaea. 1 ( ... Zhang, Ren; Zhang, Chun-Ting (2002-09-20). "Single replication origin of the archaeon Methanosarcina mazei revealed by the Z ... Zhang, Ren; Zhang, Chun-Ting (2002-09-20). "Single replication origin of the archaeon Methanosarcina mazei revealed by the Z ...
In 1977, archaea were first classified as a separate group of prokaryotes in the three-domain system of Carl Woese and George E ... Many archaea possess a rotating motility structure that at first seemed to resemble the bacterial and eukaryotic flagella. The ... Thomas NA, Mueller S, Klein A, Jarrell KF (November 2002). "Mutants in flaI and flaJ of the archaeon Methanococcus voltae are ... Woese CR, Kandler O, Wheelis ML (June 1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria ...
With the exception of two halophilic archaea the DUF1608 domain is exclusive to the methanogenic Archaea of the order ... The first S-layers were discovered in bacteria in the 1950s and the presence of S-layers in many Archaea was determined through ... The S-layer, which is found in most Archaea, and in many bacteria, serves many crucial functions including protection from ... Archaea. 2012: 1-10. doi:10.1155/2012/873589. PMC 3361143. PMID 22666082. 873589. Arbing MA, Chan S, Shin A, Phan T, Ahn CJ, ...
The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria (2nd ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-0-387-98771-2. ... Archaea. 2010: 690737. doi:10.1155/2010/690737. PMC 3017947. PMID 21234345. Boone, DR (2001). "Genus IV. Methanohalophilus ...
... and the Unique Energy Metabolism of Methanogenic Archaea". Archaea. 2010: 1-14. doi:10.1155/2010/453642. ISSN 1472-3646. PMC ... Srinivasan, G; James, C. M.; Krzycki, J. A. (2002-05-24). "Pyrrolysine encoded by UAG in Archaea: charging of a UAG-decoding ... By contrast, in methanogenic archaea it was not possible to identify any unambiguous UAG stop signal. Because there was only ... The occurrence in Desulfitobacterium is of special interest, because bacteria and archaea are separate domains in the three- ...
In bacteria and archaea, these enzymes include methionine synthase, ribonucleotide reductase, glutamate and methylmalonyl-CoA ... Cobalamin biosynthesis is the process by which bacteria and archea make cobalamin, vitamin B12. Many steps are involved in ... Archaea. 1 (6): 375-384. doi:10.1155/2005/903614. PMC 2685584. PMID 16243778. R. Caspi (2007-04-23). "Pathway: ... an amidohydrolase enzyme required for salvaging the coenzyme B12 precursor cobinamide in archaea". Proceedings of the National ...
Hook, Sarah; McBride, Brian (December 2010). "Methanogens: Methane Producers of the Rumen and Mitigation Strategies". Archaea. ... unusual for archaea, but common for bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts) along with an A-type ATPase. The fusaro strain of ... Bergey's Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 1-15, doi:10.1002/9781118960608.gbm00519, ...
Pages in category "Archaea". The following 2 pages are in this category, out of 2 total. This list may not reflect recent ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Archaea&oldid=766848270" ...
Archea (common misspelling). Etymology[edit]. From Ancient Greek ἀρχαῖα (arkhaîa, "ancient"), neuter plural of ἀρχαῖος ( ... Archaea at the Tree of Life Web Project. References[edit]. *↑ 1.0 1.1 Ruggiero MA, Gordon DP, Orrell TM, Bailly N, Bourgoin T, ... Archaea. *Single-celled organisms lacking nuclei, formerly called archaebacteria, but now known to differ fundamentally from ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Archaea&oldid=48382434" ...
Archaea publishes original research articles as well as review articles dealing with all aspects of archaea, providing a unique ... Archaea publishes original research articles as well as review articles dealing with all aspects of archaea, providing a unique ... Archaea maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by ... This study is aimed at screening 33 halophilic archaea isolated from three enrichment cultures from Tunisian hypersaline lake, ...
... There are no movies to show in Archaea. You might want to try its parent group, Life on Earth. ...
The word archaea means ancient or primitive. In some classification systems, the archaea constitute one of three great ... Archaea, any of a group of single-celled prokaryotic organisms with distinct molecular characteristics separating them from ... archaea, (domain Archaea), any of a group of single-celled prokaryotic organisms (that is, organisms whose cells lack a defined ... Habitats of the archaea. Archaea are microorganisms that define the limits of life on Earth. They were originally discovered ...
SEAS researchers have found that these pink-hued archaea -- called [I]Halobacterium salinarum[/I] -- use the same mechanisms to ... SEAS researchers have found that these pink-hued archaea -- called Halobacterium salinarum -- use the same mechanisms to ... Archaea (image). Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences ...
The archaea in the genus Pyrodictium thrive in the temperature range of 80 to 110 °C (176 to 230 °F), temperatures at which the ... The archaea in the genus Pyrodictium thrive in the temperature range of 80 to 110 °C (176 to 230 °F), temperatures at which the ...
Archaea Archaea. Archaea are nowadays known as the third domain of life. Before 1970 archaea were thought to belong to the ... These archaea were grouped into the new archaeal superphylum Asgard archaea. This phylum contains Thor-, Odin-, Helmdall- and ... Archaea. Since then more and more data accumulated which show that Archaea indeed belong to a separate domain. ... Halophilic archaea are generally easy to grow in the lab. Haloferax can also be genetically manipulated and we can use CRISPRi ...
Summons a Demonic Circle for 15 min. Cast Demonic Circle: Teleport to teleport to its location and remove all movement slowing effects. You also learn: Demonic Circle: Teleport Teleports you to your Demonic Circle and removes all movement slowing effects ...
Archaea represent a third domain of life with unique properties not found in the other domains. Archaea actively compete for ... Archaea represent a third domain of life with unique properties not found in the other domains. Archaea actively compete for ... Biocommunication of Archaea. Editors. * Guenther Witzany Copyright. 2017. Publisher. Springer International Publishing. ... This allows archaea to coordinate appropriate response behaviors in a differentiated manner to their current developmental ...
There are four general phenotypic groups of archaea: the methanogens, the extreme halophiles, the sulfate-reducing archaea, and ... Archaea (archaebacteria) are a phenotypically diverse group of microorganisms that share a common evolutionary history. ... Phylogenetic and nucleotide signature analyses of these cloned rDNAs revealed the presence of two lineages of archaea, each ... The abundance and distribution of these archaea in oxic coastal surface waters suggests that these microorganisms represent ...
... and other species of archaea fix carbon, but unlike plants and cyanobacteria, no known species of archaea does both. Archaea ... Archaea and bacteria are generally similar in size and shape, although a few archaea have very different shapes, such as the ... Archaea are particularly numerous in the oceans, and the archaea in plankton may be one of the most abundant groups of ... In some archaea, the lipid bilayer is replaced by a monolayer. In effect, the archaea fuse the tails of two phospholipid ...
TYW3_archaea (MF_00266). Accession MF_00266 Integration. tRNA(Phe) 7-((3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-4-demethylwyosine(37)-N(4))- ...
Decarboxylase MfnA, archaea (IPR020931). Short name: MfnA Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent ...
Many Archaea live in places where no light ever penetrates: deep inside the rock or ice or the oceanic floor. Some Archaea are ... But the other large group - the Third Domain: Archaea - eluded us thus far. After all, Archaea are notoriously difficult to ... Do Archaea have clocks? We did not know. Until now. A couple of weeks ago, PLoS ONE published a paper that is the first to ... Once we know there is a clock in Archaea - and now we do due to this paper - we can start studying it in detail. ...
Published since 2002, Archaea provides a unique venue for exchanging information about these extraordinary prokaryotes. Archaea ... Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles dealing with all aspects of archaea, ... To receive news and publication updates for Archaea, enter your email address in the box below. ...
Arogalea archaea is a moth of the family Gelechiidae. It is found in Mexico (Guerrero). The wingspan is about 13 mm. The ...
Archea (Archaea, z řec. ἀρχαῖα, archaia - starobylý[1]), jednotné číslo archeon či v latinizované podobě archeum[pozn. 2], ... Zde mohou právě archea sloužit k produkci bioplynu.[162] V hornictví možná najdou své místo archea, která jsou schopná ... Archea se rozmnožují výhradně nepohlavně, a to binárním dělením, fragmentací či pučením. Všichni potomci jednoho archea mají ... Na Zemi se archea objevila již před 3,5 miliardami let. Ačkoliv se mnohá archea vyskytují v pestrém spektru různých prostředí, ...
... scientifically known as Archaea in the Encyclopedia of Life. Includes Overview; Brief Summary; Comprehensive D... ... Archaea resemble normal bacteria, but are very different internally. They can live under extreme conditions: there are archaea ... Microbes consume methane: ANME-1 and ANME-2 Archaea The metabolism of ANME-1 and ANME-2 Archaea allows survival in anoxic ... Proteins function in saline environments: archea Proteins of halophilic archea resist the denaturing effect of highly saline ...
Roman and Medieval periods in the Netherlands at Archeon. Youll learn everything about the daily lives of people living ... Accommodations near Archeon. You can spend the night at several holiday parks near Archeon. Many holiday parks are located by ... Archeon is a unique experience, especially for younger visitors. You will not experience a single dull moment in this ancient ... As you walk through Archeon youll learn everything about the daily life of people who lived hundreds of year ago. You will ...
"myoviridae"[MeSH Terms] OR "myoviridae"[All Fields]) AND ("archaea"[MeSH Terms] OR "archaea"[All Fields]). Search. ... Utilization of virus φCh1 elements to establish a shuttle vector system for Halo(alkali)philic Archaea via transformation of ... Utilization of virus φCh1 elements to establish a shuttle vector system for Halo(alkali)philic Archaea via transformation of ... Evaluation of the genomic diversity of viruses infecting bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes using a common bioinformatic platform ...
The Archaea (/ɑːrˈkiːə/ (. listen) or /ɑːrˈkeɪə/ ar-KEE-ə or ar-KAY-ə) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms. ... Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[92] In most archaea the wall is assembled from surface ... Biocommunication of Archaea. Springer, Switzerland, ISBN 978-3-319-65535-2. *^ Eckburg P; Lepp P; Relman D (2003). "Archaea and ... These microbes (archaea; singular archaeon) are prokaryotes, meaning they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound ...
bosanski: Archaea. български: Археи. català: Arqueobacteri. čeština: Archea. Cymraeg: Archaea. dansk: Archaea. Deutsch: ... hrvatski: Archaea. íslenska: Forngerlar. italiano: Archaea. עברית: חיידקים קדומים. Kapampangan: Archaea. Kiswahili: Archaea. ... Tagalog: Archaea. தமிழ்: ஆர்க்கீயா. ไทย: อาร์เคีย. Tiếng Việt: Vi khuẩn cổ. Türkçe: Arkea. українська: Археї. Winaray: Archaea ... asturianu: Archaea. azərbaycanca: Arxeya. Bahasa Indonesia: Archaea. Bahasa Melayu: Arkea. বাংলা: আর্কিয়া. Bân-lâm-gú: Kó͘- ...
Find archaea bacteria articles , the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource. ... archaea bacteria Articles. * Rich microbial communities inhabit water treatment biofilters and are differentially affected by ... CRISPR is a ubiquitous family of clustered repetitive DNA elements present in 90% of Archaea and 40% of sequenced Bacteria. ... Abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria on biological activated carbon in a pilot-scale drinking ...
Consequently, the research of Archaea in general and hyperthermophiles in particular has entered a new phase, with many ... Molecular biology of hyperthermophilic Archaea Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 1998;61:87-115. doi: 10.1007/BFb0102290. ... An overview is given of recent insight in the molecular biology of hyperthermophilic Archaea, as well as of a number of ... Such systems would allow the application of this class of Archaea as so-called "cell factories": (i) expression of certain ...
We have used two independent methods to determine the genome copy number in halophilic archaea, 1) cell lysis … ... Regulated polyploidy in halophilic archaea PLoS One. 2006 Dec 20;1(1):e92. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000092. ... We have used two independent methods to determine the genome copy number in halophilic archaea, 1) cell lysis in agarose blocks ... Our results indicate that polyploidy might be more widespread in archaea (or even prokaryotes in general) than previously ...
Similar Decks to Archeon Tarot. Theme: Dark & Gothic Category: Available Decks More About These Cards. Name: Archeon Tarot. ... Archeon Tarot. The Archeon Tarot features a mix of traditional and non-traditional imagery in dream-like digital collage, ... The Archeon Tarot by Timothy Lantz could have been Pauls subject. The glowing, swirling images are dark, a bit mottled, and ... Archeon Tarot review by Dionysius S. Badarian. Paul of Tarsus, the persecutor of Christians, later convert, apostle, and saint ...
Tag: archaea. Atheism Cell biology Evolution Intelligent Design theism Archaea discoverer Carl Woeses theological reflections ... Archeon life form eats fragments of meteorites. At ScienceAlerts: This particular mineral connoisseur loves to dine on far more ... Its a good question whether Woese would have recognized the Archaea for what they were, had he not been in the habit of ... The slingshot of life? According to this version of the tale, the eukaryotes are descended from the Asgard archaea. ...
High abundance of Archaea in Antarctic marine picoplankton.. DeLong EF1, Wu KY, Prézelin BB, Jovine RV. ... Pelagic Archaea constituted up to 34% of the prokaryotic biomass in coastal Antarctic surface waters, and they were also ... Archaea (archaebacteria) constitute one of the three major evolutionary lineages of life on Earth. Previously these prokaryotes ... Recently, novel (uncultivated) phylotypes of Archaea have been detected in coastal and subsurface marine waters, but their ...
However, Archaea are resistant to many of the antibiotics routinely used for selection in the Bacteria, and a number of ... strategies specific to the Archaea have been developed. In addition, examples utilizing the genetic systems developed for each ... Updated clusters of orthologous genes for Archaea - Biology Direct From www. .biology-direct. .com - December 28, 2012 10:49 AM ... Microbes known as archaea are as distinct from bacteria as plants and animals are, they wrote in a published paper.. ...
  • Archaea publishes original research articles as well as review articles dealing with all aspects of archaea, providing a unique venue for exchanging information about these extraordinary prokaryotes. (hindawi.com)
  • archaea , (domain Archaea), any of a group of single-celled prokaryotic organisms (that is, organisms whose cells lack a defined nucleus ) that have distinct molecular characteristics separating them from bacteria (the other, more prominent group of prokaryotes) as well as from eukaryotes (organisms, including plants and animals , whose cells contain a defined nucleus). (britannica.com)
  • These names were subsequently changed to bacteria and archaea (the archaea being distinctly different from bacteria), but Woese's splitting of the prokaryotes into two groups has remained, and all living organisms are now considered by many biologists to fall into one of three great domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. (britannica.com)
  • singular archaeon ) are prokaryotes , meaning they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles in their cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results indicate that polyploidy might be more widespread in archaea (or even prokaryotes in general) than previously assumed. (nih.gov)
  • Respiration in Archaea and Bacteria summarizes the achievements of the past decade in the biochemistry, bioenergetics, structural and molecular biology of respiratory processes in selected groups of prokaryotes. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea , which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth's biosphere. (mdpi.com)
  • He noticed that the sequencing of the prokaryotes were a distinct form of life in itself- he called them archaea. (wikibooks.org)
  • This transformed the previous 5-kingdom system (plantae, animalia, fungi, protists, and prokaryotes) drawn by Lynn Margulis into 3 equally distinct groups (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya). (wikibooks.org)
  • Archaea are a class of prokaryotes. (wikibooks.org)
  • Archaea are similar to other prokaryotes in most aspects of cell structure and metabolism. (wikibooks.org)
  • Bacteria and archaea are the only prokaryotes. (waterindustry.org)
  • Archaea are single-celled organisms that do not have cell nuclei, which makes them prokaryotes-until recently, they were thought to be a form of bacteria. (phys.org)
  • Although probable prokaryotic cell fossils date to almost 3.5 billion years ago, most prokaryotes do not have distinctive morphologies and fossil shapes cannot be used to identify them as Archaea . (primidi.com)
  • Unlike members of the domain Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes . (coursehero.com)
  • Woese and Fox's 1977 paper on the discovery of the Archaea triggered a revolution in the field of evolutionary biology by showing that life was divided into not only prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Rather, they revealed that prokaryotes comprise two distinct types of organisms, the Bacteria and the Archaea. (diva-portal.org)
  • Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) are one of the most abundant prokaryotes in the ocean and span diverse oceanic provinces. (washington.edu)
  • Although many of the cultured archaea are extremophiles , these organisms in their respective extreme habitats represent only a minority of the total diversity of the Archaea domain. (britannica.com)
  • Currently these archaea could not be cultivated in the laboratory, only the genomes of these organisms could be assembled from the metagenomic sequences. (uni-ulm.de)
  • These highly diverse competences show us that this is possible owing to sign(aling)- mediated communication processes within archaeal cells (intra-organismic), between the same, related and different archaeal species (interorganismic), and between archaea and nonarchaeal organisms (transorganismic). (springer.com)
  • singular archaeon /ɑːrˈkiːən/) constitute a domain of single-celled organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first observed archaea were extremophiles, living in extreme environments, such as hot springs and salt lakes with no other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaea are particularly numerous in the oceans, and the archaea in plankton may be one of the most abundant groups of organisms on the planet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word archaea comes from the Ancient Greek ἀρχαῖα, meaning "ancient things", as the first representatives of the domain Archaea were methanogens and it was assumed that their metabolism reflected Earth's primitive atmosphere and the organisms' antiquity, but as new habitats were studied, more organisms were discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. (wikimedia.org)
  • Archaea are simple single-celled organisms that comprise one of the three domains of life on Earth. (newswise.com)
  • More generally, the prevalence of unlinked rRNA genes in poorly-studied taxa serves as a reminder that paradigms derived from model organisms do not necessarily extend to the broader diversity of bacteria and archaea. (nature.com)
  • Howland normally specializes in biochemistry and how organisms attain energy, but was interested in writing something for a general, rather than scholarly audience, and he decided the Archaea were the right topic. (bowdoin.edu)
  • Because of the Archaea s ability to live in environments hostile to most forms of life, they could one day supply enzymes capable of working in the same conditions in which the organisms live. (bowdoin.edu)
  • But there is a purer reason to study the Archaea for the knowledge they will bring about how they survive in seemingly hostile environments, and for the knowledge they will lead to about evolutionary history and the organisms that inhabited the earth long ago. (bowdoin.edu)
  • Archaea and bacteria are single celled prokaryotic organisms. (khanacademy.org)
  • The three domains include diverse life forms such as the Eukarya (organisms, including humans, yeast, and plants, whose cells have a DNA-containing nucleus) as well as Bacteria and Archaea (two distinct groups of unicellular microorganisms whose DNA floats around in the cell instead of in a nucleus). (wordnik.com)
  • He says: The micro-organisms in the Dead Sea water mainly belong to the domain Archaea and they number around 1,000-10,000 per ml much lower than regular sea water. (wordnik.com)
  • Researchers have reported the first experimental evidence of epigenetics in the single-celled organisms known as archaea. (nsf.gov)
  • Dridi B, Raoult D and Drancourt M 2011 Archaea as emerging organisms in complex human microbiomes. (springer.com)
  • The organisms he revealed -- the archaea -- are fascinating and abundant creatures, yet are hardly ever discussed in depth, even within the confines of microbiology classes. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Eukaryotes are organisms that have DNA in the form of chromosomes in a nucleus-they include all known living things except eubactearia and archaea. (phys.org)
  • Woese argued that the bacteria , archaea, and eukaryotes represent separate lines of descent that diverged early on from an ancestral colony of organisms. (primidi.com)
  • It is possible that the last common ancestor of the bacteria and archaea was a thermophile, which raises the possibility that lower temperatures are "extreme environments" in archaeal terms, and organisms that live in cooler environments appeared only later. (primidi.com)
  • The two prokaryotic domains, Bacteria and Archaea, contain diverse single-celled organisms that exhibit a wide variety of metabolic abilities. (coursehero.com)
  • The genome sequence helped to further establish the validity of the Archaea through the finding of similarities to higher eukaryotic organisms and differences from Bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaea (archaebacteria) are a phenotypically diverse group of microorganisms that share a common evolutionary history. (pnas.org)
  • Archaea were initially classified as bacteria, receiving the name archaebacteria (in the Archaebacteria kingdom), but this term has fallen out of use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaea were initially classified as bacteria , receiving the name archaebacteria (in the Archaebacteria kingdom), but this classification is outdated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaea (archaebacteria) constitute one of the three major evolutionary lineages of life on Earth. (nih.gov)
  • Despite this morphological similarity to bacteria, archaea possess genes and several metabolic pathways that are more closely related to those of eukaryotes, notably for the enzymes involved in transcription and translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaea use more energy sources than eukaryotes: these range from organic compounds, such as sugars, to ammonia, metal ions or even hydrogen gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers who discovered this, Woese and his colleagues, proposed the addition of the "domain" as a taxonomic level above that of kingdom, with all life classified within one of three domains, now called Bacteria, Eukaryotes, and Archaea. (eol.org)
  • Evaluation of the genomic diversity of viruses infecting bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes using a common bioinformatic platform: steps towards a unified taxonomy. (nih.gov)
  • According to this version of the tale, the eukaryotes are descended from the Asgard archaea. (uncommondescent.com)
  • Although found in every type of environment, including the human body, archaea are poorly understood compared to the other two domains: bacteria and eukaryotes, which include mammals such as humans. (newswise.com)
  • The three primary divisions of life now comprise the familiar bacteria and eukaryotes, along with the Archaea . (wordnik.com)
  • Whereas both bacteria and archaea lack a nuclear envelope and membrane-bound organelles, archaea and eukaryotes have similarities beyond those seen between bacteria and eukaryotic cells. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Bacteria have only a single kind of RNA polymerase, whereas archaea and eukaryotes have several kinds. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The simplicity of archaea -- combined with the fact that their cells resemble eukaryotes' in some important ways -- may allow researchers to investigate epigenetic questions in humans much faster and more easily than was possible before, the authors say. (nsf.gov)
  • Genetic work places archaea closer than bacteria to eukaryotes, but biochemically and morphologically, archaea are closer to bacteria than to eukaryotes. (natureasia.com)
  • [1] Woese argued that the bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes each represent a primary line of descent that diverged early on from an ancestral progenote with poorly developed genetic machinery. (wikibooks.org)
  • Archaea are evolutionarily more related to eukaryotes than they are to eubacteria, even though eubacteria and archaea are both prokaryotic groups. (wikibooks.org)
  • Both bacteria and eukaryotes have membranes composed mainly of glycerol-ester lipids, whereas archaea have membranes composed of glycerol-ether lipids. (wikibooks.org)
  • Millions of years later, the ancestors of today's eukaryotes split off from the archaea. (waterindustry.org)
  • Over the past several years, researchers have been studying the relationship between eukaryotes and Archaea and the Archaeal tree and have discovered that there is a superphylum called Asgard. (phys.org)
  • Their study did not clear up the evolutionary relationship between Asgard archaea and eukaryotes, however. (phys.org)
  • But the team did find support for the idea that eukaryotes should be thought of as a sister group or as a higher branch of eukaryotes as ancestors with the archaea group. (phys.org)
  • Expanded diversity of Asgard archaea and their relationships with eukaryotes, Nature (2021). (phys.org)
  • Since the Archaea and Bacteria are no more related to each other than they are to eukaryotes, the term prokaryote' s only surviving meaning is "not a eukaryote", limiting its value. (primidi.com)
  • In subsequent years, molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that eukaryotes and the Archaea represent sister groups in the tree of life. (diva-portal.org)
  • Although it has been generally accepted for some time that mitochondria descend from endosymbiotic alphaproteobacteria, the precise evolutionary relationship between eukaryotes and archaea has continued to be a subject of debate. (diva-portal.org)
  • Before 1970 archaea were thought to belong to the domain bacteria, since archaeal cells have similar sizes as bacterial cells and like bacteria possess neither a nucleus nor cell organelles. (uni-ulm.de)
  • These archaea were grouped into the new archaeal superphylum Asgard archaea. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Such systems would allow the application of this class of Archaea as so-called "cell factories": (i) expression of certain archaeal enzymes for which no suitable conventional (mesophilic bacterial or eukaryal) systems are available, (ii) selection for thermostable variants of potentially interesting enzymes from mesophilic origin, and (iii) the development of in vivo production systems by metabolic engineering. (nih.gov)
  • Also, here's a 2017 Abstract from Nature, noting that "Our results expand the known repertoire of 'eukaryote-specific' proteins in Archaea, indicating that the archaeal host cell already contained many key components that govern eukaryotic cellular complexity. (uncommondescent.com)
  • Although N-glycosylation was first reported in archaea almost 40 years ago, detailed insights into this process have become possible only recently, with the availability of complete genome sequences for almost 200 archaeal species and the development of appropriate molecular tools. (scoop.it)
  • As a result of these advances, recent efforts have not only succeeded in delineating the pathways involved in archaeal N-glycosylation, but also begun to reveal how such post-translational protein modification helps archaea to survive in some of the harshest environments on the planet. (scoop.it)
  • However, the archaeal communities in these soils also contained other methanogenic archaea at high temperature. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Many surface structures in archaea including various types of pili and the archaellum (archaeal flagellum) are homologous to bacterial type IV pili systems (T4P). (frontiersin.org)
  • We propose a scenario where methanogenesis is possibly the most ancient energetic metabolism in the Archaea, and was lost many times independently during archaeal evolution or evolved into methanotrophy and short-chain alkane oxidation," Borrel and Gribaldo said. (phys.org)
  • While the signal transduction system is conserved throughout archaea and bacteria, the archaeal flagellar apparatus is different from the bacterial one. (sciencechatforum.com)
  • The proteins constituting the flagellar motor and its switch in archaea have not yet been identified, and the connection between the bacterial-like chemotaxis signal transduction system and the archaeal motility apparatus is unknown. (sciencechatforum.com)
  • But nowadays it is known that archaea also constitute a big part of the biomass in 'normal' environments. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Archaea in coastal marine environments. (pnas.org)
  • The abundance and distribution of these archaea in oxic coastal surface waters suggests that these microorganisms represent undescribed physiological types of archaea, which reside and compete with aerobic, mesophilic eubacteria in marine coastal environments. (pnas.org)
  • For a long time, archaea were seen as extremophiles that exist only in extreme habitats such as hot springs and salt lakes, but by the end of the 20th century, archaea had been identified in non-extreme environments as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • After all, Archaea are notoriously difficult to culture in the laboratory and it took some time to figure out how to keep them alive outside of their natural extreme environments. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Archaea were initially viewed as extremophiles living in harsh environments, such as hot springs and salt lakes , but they have since been found in a broad range of habitats , including soils, oceans, and marshlands . (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaea were first found in extreme environments, such as volcanic hot springs . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pelagic Archaea constituted up to 34% of the prokaryotic biomass in coastal Antarctic surface waters, and they were also abundant in a variety of other cold, pelagic marine environments. (nih.gov)
  • Earth's climate has calmed down since then, so today, archaea are found in some of the world's most extreme environments, in underwater hydrothermal vents, in oil wells, in volcanic hot springs, even acidic mine drainage. (khanacademy.org)
  • Many strains of archaea are capable of living in environments with high salt concentrations, and others are able to produce methane, but only a few can do both. (uncommondescent.com)
  • The two strains-part of a class the authors named "Methanonatronarchaeia"-appear to be most closely related to the Halobacteria, a class of archaea found in salt-rich environments worldwide. (uncommondescent.com)
  • Other extremophile Archaea love to live in very salty, called hypersaline, environments. (windows2universe.org)
  • They are strictly anaerobic archaea and occupy a wide variety of anoxic environments. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Archaea represent the third domain of life, evolutionarily distinct from the Eukarya and Bacteria, and were previously thought to inhabit mostly extreme environments ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Interactions between hyperthermophilic archaea and minerals occur in hydrothermal deep-ea vents, one of the most extreme environments for life on Earth. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Extremely halophilic archaea are a diverse group of euryarchaeota that inhabit hypersaline environments (3-5 M) such as salt lakes, salt ponds, and marine salterns. (springer.com)
  • Compared to other extremophiles, halophilic archaea are considered as cell factories for PHB production by using renewable, inexpensive carbon sources, thus decreasing the fermentation cost. (hindawi.com)
  • This study is aimed at screening 33 halophilic archaea isolated from three enrichment cultures from Tunisian hypersaline lake, Chott El Jerid, using starch as the sole carbon source by Nile Red/Sudan Black staining and further confirmed by PCR amplification of phaC and phaE polymerase genes. (hindawi.com)
  • We are working with halophilic archaea ( Haloferax volcanii , Halorubrum lacusprofundi and Natrialba magadii ), which require a lot of salt to grow. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Halophilic archaea are generally easy to grow in the lab. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Extreme halophilic and hyperthermophilic microbes were also included in Archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have used two independent methods to determine the genome copy number in halophilic archaea, 1) cell lysis in agarose blocks and Southern blot analysis, and 2) Real-Time quantitative PCR. (nih.gov)
  • They also found genomic evidence that this class of archaea copes with high salt concentrations by transporting potassium ions into their cells, rather than by excluding salt, behavior that is more similar to halophilic archaea than to other methanogens. (uncommondescent.com)
  • Opsin-Mediated Inhibition of Bacterioruberin Synthesis in Halophilic Archaea. (harvard.edu)
  • In spite of their common hypersaline environment, halophilic archaea are surprisingly different in their nutritional demands and metabolic pathways. (springer.com)
  • The comparative study reveals different sets of enzyme genes amongst halophilic archaea, e.g. in glycerol degradation, pentose metabolism, and folate synthesis. (springer.com)
  • The metabolic diversity of halophilic archaea has not yet been investigated at the genomic level by metabolic reconstruction and comparative analysis. (springer.com)
  • In early work (1980's), he discovered mobile genetic elements in halophilic Archaea, while a graduate student with H. Gobind Khorana (Nobel laureate) and Uttam L. RajBhandary at MIT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post-genomic research in his laboratory established the core and signature proteins in halophilic Archaea, and the function of many genes and genetic elements, including multiple replication origins, general transcription factors, and DNA repair systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • DasSarma proposed that retinal pigments originally discovered in halophilic Archaea may have predated chlorophyll pigments in the early earth, named the "Purple Earth" hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Snapshot of a Large Dynamic Replicon in a Halophilic Archaeon: Megaplasmid or Minichromosome? (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaea are microorganisms that define the limits of life on Earth. (britannica.com)
  • Archaea is a group of single-celled microorganisms that come in a variety of shapes and survive extreme conditions. (reference.com)
  • Various groups of microorganisms - bacteria, archaea, algae and even fungi - have adapted to a life in a hypersaline environment. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Archaea , now a star of modern biology, weren t even discovered until the 1970s, and John Howland is hoping to make more people aware of this group of microorganisms with amazing abilities. (bowdoin.edu)
  • In contrast, microorganisms from the domain Archaea are ubiquitous and often abundant in the ocean ( 8 - 10 ), but their biogeochemical role remains unclear. (pnas.org)
  • Archaea are a branch of the three-domain system of life that contains single-celled microorganisms. (wikibooks.org)
  • singular archaeon ) constitute a domain or kinrick o single-celled microorganisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other Archaea species are not extremophiles and live in ordinary temperatures and salinities. (windows2universe.org)
  • These types of archaea are often labeled "extremophiles," meaning creatures that love extreme conditions. (waterindustry.org)
  • Not all the archaea are extremophiles. (waterindustry.org)
  • Archaea is one of the three domains of life (the other two being bacteria and eukarya ). (conservapedia.com)
  • How many times did the molecular characters that define Woese's three domains [Bacteria, Archaea , Eukarya] evolve? (wordnik.com)
  • archaea and eukarya lack this polymer. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. (harvard.edu)
  • Eukarya and archaea are noted to have many similarities especially in regards to metabolic pathways. (wikibooks.org)
  • For example, enzymes present in transcription and translation of archaea are more closely related to those of Eukarya than bacteria. (wikibooks.org)
  • The relationship between archaea and Eukarya remains an important problem. (wikibooks.org)
  • The information, Inskeep added, could also help in the search for a last common ancestor between Archaea and Eukarya. (phys.org)
  • In this study, we simultaneously investigated the community structure and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the Grand Canal (the Zhenjiang section). (environmental-expert.com)
  • The results "suggest that ammonia-oxidizing archaea likely play an important role in N 2 O production in the near-surface ocean," the researchers write. (acs.org)
  • Here, we report molecular evidence for the widespread presence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in marine water columns and sediments. (pnas.org)
  • Cell surface proteins of hyperthermophilic Archaea actively participate in intercellular communication, cellular uptake, and energy conversion to sustain survival strategies in extreme habitats. (scoop.it)
  • In spite of this, knowledge on glycosylation of proteins other than S-layer proteins in Archaea is quite limited. (scoop.it)
  • Introns and DNA-associated histone proteins-a defining characteristic of eukaryotic cells-are absent (histones) or rarely seen (introns) in bacteria but are present in some archaea species. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The team also found evidence of eukaryotic signatures proteins in the Asgard archaea. (phys.org)
  • When the researchers attempted to trace consumption of Archaea through lipid types and other mechanisms, they failed because the chemicals and proteins broke down within the worms. (underwatertimes.com)
  • The two winged-helix domains are located at both ends of the coiled coil, with putative DNA-recognition helices separated by approximately 34 A. A structural homology search indicated that the winged-helix domain shared a high level of homology with those found in B-DNA- or Z-DNA-binding proteins from various species, including archaea, bacteria, and human, despite a low level of sequence similarity. (rcsb.org)
  • Further molecular analysis has shown that domain Archaea consists of two major subdivisions, the Crenarchaeota and the Euryarchaeota , and one minor ancient lineage, the Korarchaeota . (britannica.com)
  • As of 2010 more than 250 species of Archaea had been described, most fitting into one of two groups, Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. (eol.org)
  • The three types of archaea are the crenarchaeota, the euryarchaeota and the korarchaeota. (reference.com)
  • Nonextremophilic archaea (Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota) are now recognized to be widespread in the ocean ( 12 , 13 ), but our current understanding of their physiology and biogeochemical function remains largely speculative. (pnas.org)
  • The domain Archaea is subdivided into different phyla: Euryarchaeota, TACK (containing Thaum-, Aig-, Cren- and Korarchaeota) and Asgard archaea. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Archaea - at that time only the methanogens were known - were first classified separately from bacteria in 1977 by Carl Woese and George E. Fox based on their ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's a good question whether Woese would have recognized the Archaea for what they were, had he not been in the habit of thinking for himself. (uncommondescent.com)
  • Among several other accomplishments, Woese has been celebrated for the discovery of the domain Archaea and for establishing rRNA as the 'Rosetta Stone' of evolutionary and environmental microbiology. (scoop.it)
  • and thank you to the late, great Carl Woese , for my post about both -- Archaea Are More Wonderful Than You Know -- was a finalist in the Best Biology Post category in this year's ScienceSeeker Blog Awards . (scientificamerican.com)
  • If you are interested in learning more about Woese and Archaea, I encourage you to listen to this Woese-themed This Week in Microbiology podcast featuring Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Stanley Maloy (start listening about 3:55 to skip the San Diego weather report). (scientificamerican.com)
  • The archaea, as it happens, were only discovered comparatively recently and identified by the decidedly non-Darwinian Carl Woese. (uncommondescent.com)
  • He also showed that transcriptional promoters in Archaea were different from those in common Bacteria, which contributed to the acceptance of the three Domain view of evolution proposed by Carl Woese. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four general phenotypic groups of archaea: the methanogens, the extreme halophiles, the sulfate-reducing archaea, and the extreme thermophiles. (pnas.org)
  • Methanogens are also used in biogas production and sewage treatment, and biotechnology exploits enzymes from extremophile archaea that can endure high temperatures and organic solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • One key group of the archaea are the methanogens. (khanacademy.org)
  • However, these archaea became abundant upon incubation of the soil at 45°C. Thermophilic RC-I methanogens were also found in the rice field soils from Pavia, Pila and Gapan. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • What Are the Three Types of Archaea? (reference.com)
  • To answer this, the researchers performed a laboratory study during which they fed two types of Archaea to the worms, as well as meals of bacteria, spinach or rice, and the worms thrived on all of the food sources, growing at the same rate. (underwatertimes.com)
  • I give them the worksheet with the types of Archaea and a brief definition first. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • They need to put the word "Archaea" in the center and then branch off the 6 types of Archaea from there. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • The Gordon Research Seminar on Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology is a unique forum for graduate students, post-docs, and other scientists with comparable levels of experience and education to present and exchange new data and cutting-edge ideas. (grc.org)
  • For the second time in its history, the Gordon Research Conference on Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology, will be accompanied by a Gordon Research Seminar, a specific platform aimed at early-career scientists. (grc.org)
  • This GRS will be held in conjunction with the "Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology" Gordon Research Conference (GRC). (grc.org)
  • Diversity and ubiquity of thermophilic methanogenic archaea in te. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Among these is the formation of isoleucine via the pyruvate pathway, which, based on 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance labeling studies ( 7-9 , 15 ), is the major pathway for isoleucine formation in many species of methanogenic archaea. (asm.org)
  • SEAS researchers have found that these pink-hued archaea -- called Halobacterium salinarum -- use the same mechanisms to maintain size as bacteria and eukaryotic life, indicting that cellular division strategy may be shared across all domains of life. (eurekalert.org)
  • Culture-independent studies have shown that archaea are abundant and fulfill important ecological roles in cold and temperate ecosystems. (britannica.com)
  • Because they can make up a significant fraction of picoplankton biomass in the vast habitats encompassed by cold and deep marine waters, these pelagic Archaea represent an unexpectedly abundant component of the Earth's biota. (nih.gov)
  • CORVALIS, Oregon -- A team of scientists has documented for the first time that animals can and do consume Archaea a type of single-celled microorganism thought to be among the most abundant life forms on Earth. (underwatertimes.com)
  • Archaea weren't even discovered until 1977, and were thought to be rare and unimportant, but we are beginning to realize that they not only are abundant, but they have roles that have not fully been appreciated. (underwatertimes.com)
  • The advantages to the use of archaea as a model for studying the organization of DNA during cellular growth in humans -- and the relationship between that organization and the activation of genes that may trigger cancers -- is their relative simplicity. (newswise.com)
  • Ribosomes are essential to cellular life and the genes for their RNA components are the most conserved and transcribed genes in bacteria and archaea. (nature.com)
  • They also identified a set of 38 marker genes that serve as a core set of genes present in archaea with metabolisms involving methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR), the final step in methanogenesis, or MCR-like complexes, likely involved in short-chain alkane oxidation. (phys.org)
  • Asgard archaea: Close relatives to the first eukaryotic cell? (uni-ulm.de)
  • Reconstruction and evolution of key metabolic processes in Asgard archaea. (phys.org)
  • In their paper published in the journal Nature , the group describes their analysis of multiple complete or mostly complete genomes of Asgard archaea. (phys.org)
  • In this new effort, the researchers sought to find that answer by analyzing the genomes of 162 Asgard archaea, which included 75 that had not been studied before. (phys.org)
  • A closer look at Wukongarchaeota showed it to be an obligate hydrogenotrophic acetogen, which is dramatically different from other known Asgard archaea -that was why the team chose a character known for creating havoc in a heavenly realm as its namesake. (phys.org)
  • Salt-tolerant archaea (the Haloarchaea) use sunlight as an energy source, and other species of archaea fix carbon, but unlike plants and cyanobacteria, no known species of archaea does both. (wikipedia.org)
  • unlike bacteria, no known species of Archaea form endospores. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, unlike plants and cyanobacteria , no known species of archaea does both. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to single-species aggregates, consortia of metabolically interdependent bacteria and archaea are found in methane-rich sediments. (sciencemag.org)
  • These Archaea species live in extreme heat near deep sea vents. (windows2universe.org)
  • Archeon is situated in Alphen aan den Rijn and hosts many events all year round. (holland.com)
  • The korarchaeota is a hodge-podge of other archaea that do not fit into the other categories. (reference.com)
  • In some systems for classifying all of life , the archaea constitute one of three great domains of living creatures. (britannica.com)
  • Archaea represent a third domain of life with unique properties not found in the other domains. (springer.com)
  • DNA replication is a fundamental cellular process that is functionally conserved across all three domains of life (bacteria, archaea, and eukaryote). (frontiersin.org)
  • Bacteria and archaea, meanwhile, are their own prokaryotic domains. (khanacademy.org)
  • Phylogenomics of 10,575 genomes reveals evolutionary proximity between domains Bacteria and Archaea. (harvard.edu)
  • Archaea are considered one of the three "domains of life" on Earth, along with bacteria and eukaryota (plants and animals). (underwatertimes.com)
  • Although members of the domains (largest taxonomic groupings) Bacteria and Archaea have many important differences, they are united by their general cell type. (coursehero.com)
  • Archaea resemble normal bacteria, but are very different internally. (eol.org)
  • If it weren't found at the bottom of the sea or buried inside of rocks, Archaea might resemble blue-green algae . (windows2universe.org)
  • The archaea very much resemble bacteria, so much so that they were once thought to be a weird group of bacteria. (waterindustry.org)
  • In a study published today (May 26) in Nature Microbiology, researchers identified and cultured two lineages of methane-generating archaea that thrive in salty lakes. (uncommondescent.com)
  • Initially people thought that archaea are 'freaks' living only at sites with extreme living conditions like f.i. hot geysers in Yellowstone National Park and Black Smokers at the bottom of the ocean. (uni-ulm.de)
  • It is thought that archaea and bacteria diverged early in their existence because of all the dissimilarities between the two groups. (wikibooks.org)
  • The simplicity of archaea means that they've got the potential to be a terrific model to help understand the fundamentally related -- but much more complicated -- cellular processes in humans. (newswise.com)
  • The abundance and enormous diversity of T4P in hyperthermophilic archaea present a major enigma. (frontiersin.org)
  • Baker probed the gene fragments more thoroughly to turn up three Archaea from a totally unknown group, probably representing a new phylum among the several dozen known phyla of Archaea. (wordnik.com)
  • Phylogenomic analysis suggests that at least one T4P system was present in the last common ancestor of the extant archaea. (frontiersin.org)
  • The microbial community was analyzed using a Bacteria- and Archaea-targeting 16S rRNA gene-based Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism approach. (environmental-expert.com)
  • 16S rRNA gene sequences specific to Archaea were amplified from pooled faecal DNA in each group, sequenced, and aligned against the NCBI database. (springer.com)
  • The authors compared representative genomes of the two lineages to each other, as well as to the genomes of other archaea. (uncommondescent.com)
  • Although the initial discovery of a CRISPR structure was made fortuitously in Escherichia coli in 1987, the acronym was coined in 2002, after similar structures were observed in genomes of various Bacteria and Archaea ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Italian architects Studio Archea have sent us these images of their pavilion in the Urban Best Practice Area at the Shanghai Expo 2010 . (dezeen.com)
  • He has been editor-in-chief of the international magazine Architettura Area since 1997 and has been co-editor-in-chief, along with Paolo Portoghesi, of Materia magazine since 1999, both published by Gruppo 24 ORE. In 1988, he founded Studio Archea with Laura Andreini and Giovanni Polazzi, and in 1999 Silvia Fabi joined the firm. (moroso.it)
  • Italian architects Studio Archea have sent us images of the pavilion they designed for the Urban Best Practice Area at the Shanghai Expo 2010 . (contemporist.com)
  • Karen L. Casciotti and Alyson E. Santoro of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and their colleagues now show that cultures of marine archaea produce N 2 O via ammonia oxidation. (acs.org)
  • Although some planktonic archaea may be heterotrophic because of their uptake of amino acids ( 14 , 15 ), there is evidence that some marine archaea may be chemoautotrophs ( 16 ), capable of light-independent carbon (C) fixation ( 15 , 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • In order to optimally exploit many unique features that are now emerging, the development of genetic systems for hyperthermophilic Archaea is an absolute requirement. (nih.gov)
  • An overview is given of recent insight in the molecular biology of hyperthermophilic Archaea, as well as of a number of promising developments that should result in the generation of suitable genetic systems in the near future. (nih.gov)
  • Greigite nanocrystals produced by hyperthermophilic archaea of Thermococcales order. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Archaea are nowadays known as the third domain of life. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Since then more and more data accumulated which show that Archaea indeed belong to a separate domain. (uni-ulm.de)
  • Phylogenetic and nucleotide signature analyses of these cloned rDNAs revealed the presence of two lineages of archaea, each sharing the diagnostic signatures and structural features previously established for the domain Archaea. (pnas.org)
  • But the other large group - the Third Domain: Archaea - eluded us thus far. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Archaea, the third domain of life, use a single or multiple origin(s) to initiate replication of their circular chromosomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast, focus on DNA replication origins in archaea, the third domain of life, commenced only approximately a decade ago. (frontiersin.org)
  • Howland s enthusiasm for Archaea led him to write The Surprising Archaea:Discovering Another Domain of Life (Oxford University Press,2000), which he hopes will inform a general audience of the Archaea s "rise from obscurity to their current prominent place in molecular and evolutionary biology. (bowdoin.edu)
  • Inhabitants of domain Archaea are more closely related to eukaryotic cells than they are to bacteria. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Domain Archaea contains some prokaryotic cells that live in conditions that are too extreme for other forms of life. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. (mdpi.com)
  • Cavicchioli R 2011 Archaea--timeline of the third domain. (springer.com)
  • Despite their abundance, no member of the Archaea domain has been known to be part of a food web. (underwatertimes.com)
  • Archaea are further divided into multiple recognized phyla. (wikipedia.org)
  • High abundance of Archaea in Antarctic marine picoplankton. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, novel (uncultivated) phylotypes of Archaea have been detected in coastal and subsurface marine waters, but their abundance, distribution, physiology and ecology remain largely undescribed. (nih.gov)
  • Considering the abundance of nonextremophilic archaea in the ocean, our results suggest that AOA may play a significant, but previously unrecognized, role in the global nitrogen cycle. (pnas.org)
  • The Archeon Tarot by Timothy Lantz could have been Paul's subject. (aeclectic.net)
  • The archaea in the genus Pyrodictium thrive in the temperature range of 80 to 110 °C (176 to 230 °F), temperatures at which the water remains liquid only because of the extremely high pressures. (britannica.com)
  • For the spider genus, see Archaea (spider) . (wikipedia.org)
  • An image of Sulfolobus, a genus of archaea that prefers high temperatures. (newswise.com)
  • The study was conducted using Sulfolobus, a genus of archaea that thrives at extremely high temperatures, because their physical durability allows them to be more easily used in experiments. (newswise.com)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Methanosarcina barkeri is a genus of archaea (archaebacterium) that produces methane (methanotrophic). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Improved molecular detection tools led to the discovery of archaea in almost every habitat, including soil, oceans, and marshlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • His work inspired many scientists in various fields of biology, and among them was Wolfram Zillig, who is credited with the discovery of several unique molecular features of archaea. (scoop.it)
  • Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was the model organism used in the analysis, says the research team's co-leader Sonja-Verena Albers, who heads the MPI's Molecular Biology of Archaea research group, "because this is one of the few well established model systems in which genetics works well. (lbl.gov)
  • Rani SB, Balamurugan R and Ramakrishna BS 2017 Molecular analysis of the human faecal archaea in a southern Indian population. (springer.com)
  • Archaea are a major part of Earth's life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaea are a major part of Earth's life and may play roles in both the carbon cycle and the nitrogen cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaea were probably the earliest living things, and their adaptability is probably what allowed them to take root in Earth's early kinda groddy environment. (khanacademy.org)
  • Recent discoveries of "deep life" in cracks in the Earth's crust indicate that some bacteria and many Archaea can live in cracks in hot rocks in which there is effectively no gaseous atmosphere at all, and in which liquid water is only intermittently available. (wordnik.com)
  • Billions of years ago, methane-producing archaea likely played a key role in determining the composition of the Earth's atmosphere and regulating the global climate for life to flourish. (phys.org)
  • Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) mediated by anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) is the primary process that provides energy to cold seep ecosystems by converting methane into inorganic carbon. (nature.com)
  • Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) is the primary energetic process in cold seeps and is catalyzed by a consortium of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) of the Deltaproteobacteria 6 , 7 , 8 . (nature.com)
  • Archaea Energy is preparing for exponential growth following the business combination with Aria Energy led by RAC that was announced on April 7, 2021. (yahoo.com)
  • The theme of the 2021 seminar, mirroring the main conference, is centered around roots and branches of archaea. (grc.org)
  • Archaea at Midway Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. (britannica.com)
  • The Midway Geyser Basin at Yellowstone National Park, teeming with colorful archaea and bacteria. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This report provides evidence for the widespread occurrence of unusual archaea in oxygenated coastal surface waters of North America. (pnas.org)