Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Archaeal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of archaeon.Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Crenarchaeota: A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.Haloferax volcanii: A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Methanococcus: A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Sulfolobus: A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.Methanobacteriaceae: A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Methanobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.Desulfurococcaceae: A family of archaea, in the order DESULFUROCOCCALES, consisting of anaerobic cocci which utilize peptides, proteins or carbohydrates facultatively by sulfur respiration or fermentation. There are eight genera: AEROPYRUM, Desulfurococcus, Ignicoccus, Staphylothermus, Stetteria, Sulfophoboccus, Thermodiscus, and Thermosphaera. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)Methanosarcinales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. There are two families: METHANOSARCINACEAE and Methanosaetaceae.Halobacteriales: An order of extremely halophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They occur ubiquitously in nature where the salt concentration is high, and are chemoorganotrophic, using amino acids or carbohydrates as a carbon source.Haloferax: A genus of extremely halophilic HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoheterotropic and strictly aerobic. They are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes (especially the Dead Sea) and marine salterns.Pyrococcus: A genus of strictly anaerobic ultrathermophilic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated seawaters. They exhibit heterotrophic growth at an optimum temperature of 100 degrees C.Sulfolobus acidocaldarius: A species of aerobic, chemolithotrophic ARCHAEA consisting of coccoid cells that utilize sulfur as an energy source. The optimum temperature for growth is 70-75 degrees C. They are isolated from acidic fields.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Methanosarcinaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOSARCINALES whose cells are mesophilic or thermophilic and appear as irregular spheroid bodies or sheathed rods. These methanogens are found in any anaerobic environment including aquatic sediments, anaerobic sewage digesters and gastrointestinal tracts. There are four genera: METHANOSARCINA, Methanolobus, Methanothrix, and Methanococcoides.Pyrococcus abyssi: A species of gram-negative hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in deep ocean hydrothermal vents. It is an obligate anaerobe and obligate chemoorganotroph.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Sulfolobus solfataricus: A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Methanococcales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)Archaeoglobus fulgidus: A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.Pyrococcus furiosus: A species of strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaea which lives in geothermally-heated marine sediments. It exhibits heterotropic growth by fermentation or sulfur respiration.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Thermococcus: A genus of extremely thermophilic heterotrophic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated sea flows. They are anaerobic chemoorganotropic sulfidogens.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Methanosarcina barkeri: A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.Halobacteriaceae: A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Archaeal Viruses: Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Thermoplasma: A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.Haloferax mediterranei: A species of halophilic archaea found in the Mediterranean Sea. It produces bacteriocins active against a range of other halobacteria.Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.Thermoproteaceae: A family of THERMOPROTEALES consisting of variable length rigid rods without septa. They grow either chemolithoautotrophically or by sulfur respiration. The four genera are: PYROBACULUM; THERMOPROTEUS; Caldivirga; and Thermocladium. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)Halobacterium salinarum: A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Thermoplasmales: An order of aerobic, thermophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA, characterized by the absence of a cell wall. Two genera have been described: THERMOPLASMA and Picrophilus.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Methanobrevibacter: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, cocci to short rod-shaped ARCHAEA, in the family METHANOBACTERIACEAE, order METHANOBACTERIALES. They are found in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or other anoxic environments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Haloarcula marismortui: A species of halophilic archaea distinguished by its production of acid from sugar. This species was previously called Halobacterium marismortui.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Sulfolobales: An order of CRENARCHAEOTA consisting of aerobic or facultatively aerobic, chemolithotrophic cocci which are extreme thermoacidophiles. They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Methanomicrobiaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOMICROBIALES whose cells are coccoid to straight or slightly curved rods. There are six genera.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Archaeoglobus: A genus of extremely thermophilic, sulfate-reducing archaea, in the family Archaeoglobaceae.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Archaeal: The large subunit of the archaeal 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 40 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Sulfolobaceae: A family of SULFOLOBALES consisting of aerobic or facultatively anaerobic chemolithotrophic cocci, usually occurring singly. They grow best at a pH of about 2.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Hydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Pacific OceanGenes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Haloarcula: A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Hot Springs: Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)Nanoarchaeota: A kingdom of hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in diverse environments.Pyrococcus horikoshii: Anaerobic hyperthermophilic species of ARCHAEA, isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples. It is obligately heterotrophic with coccoid cells that require TRYPTOPHAN for growth.Methanomicrobiales: An order of anaerobic, highly specialized methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. Its organisms are nonmotile or motile, with cells occurring as coccoid bodies, pseudosarcina, or rods. Families include METHANOMICROBIACEAE, Methanocorpusculaceae, and Methanospirillaceae.Pyrobaculum: A genus of rod-shaped, almost rectangular ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. Organisms are facultatively aerobic or strictly anaerobic, grow on various organic substrates, and are found in continental solfataras.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thermoproteus: A genus of obligately anaerobic ARCHAEA, in the family THERMOPROTEACEAE. They are found in acidic hot springs and water holes.Aeropyrum: A genus of anaerobic, chemolithotropic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family DESULFUROCOCCACEAE. They live in marine environments.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.

Characterization of two novel haloalkaliphilic archaea Natronorubrum bangense gen. nov., sp. nov. and Natronorubrum tibetense gen. nov., sp. nov. (1/2228)

Two haloalkaliphilic archaea were isolated from a soda lake in Tibet. The two strains, designated A33T and GA33T, were Gram-negative, pleomorphic, flat, non-motile and strictly aerobic. Growth required at least 12% NaCl. Growth was between pH 8.0 and pH 11 with an optimum at pH 9.0-9.5. Cells were chemo-organotrophic. Polar lipids were C20-C25 derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol phosphate. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from the two strains were obtained by the analysis of the cloned rDNAs. On 16S rRNA phylogenetic trees, the two strains formed a monophyletic cluster. They differed from their closet neighbours, Halobacterium trapanicum and Natrialba asiatica, in polar lipid composition, as well as physiological and phenotypic characteristics. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that the two strains belonged to different species of the same genus. The results indicated that the strains A33T and GA33T should be classified in a new genus Natronorubrum gen. nov. as Natronorubrum bangense sp. nov. (strain A33T) and Natronorubrum tibetense sp. nov. (strain GA33T).  (+info)

An evaluation of elongation factor 1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes. (2/2228)

Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is a highly conserved ubiquitous protein involved in translation that has been suggested to have desirable properties for phylogenetic inference. To examine the utility of EF-1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes, we studied three properties of EF-1 alpha trees: congruency with other phyogenetic markers, the impact of species sampling, and the degree of substitutional saturation occurring between taxa. Our analyses indicate that the EF-1 alpha tree is congruent with some other molecular phylogenies in identifying both the deepest branches and some recent relationships in the eukaryotic line of descent. However, the topology of the intermediate portion of the EF-1 alpha tree, occupied by most of the protist lineages, differs for different phylogenetic methods, and bootstrap values for branches are low. Most problematic in this region is the failure of all phylogenetic methods to resolve the monophyly of two higher-order protistan taxa, the Ciliophora and the Alveolata. JACKMONO analyses indicated that the impact of species sampling on bootstrap support for most internal nodes of the eukaryotic EF-1 alpha tree is extreme. Furthermore, a comparison of observed versus inferred numbers of substitutions indicates that multiple overlapping substitutions have occurred, especially on the branch separating the Eukaryota from the Archaebacteria, suggesting that the rooting of the eukaryotic tree on the diplomonad lineage should be treated with caution. Overall, these results suggest that the phylogenies obtained from EF-1 alpha are congruent with other molecular phylogenies in recovering the monophyly of groups such as the Metazoa, Fungi, Magnoliophyta, and Euglenozoa. However, the interrelationships between these and other protist lineages are not well resolved. This lack of resolution may result from the combined effects of poor taxonomic sampling, relatively few informative positions, large numbers of overlapping substitutions that obscure phylogenetic signal, and lineage-specific rate increases in the EF-1 alpha data set. It is also consistent with the nearly simultaneous diversification of major eukaryotic lineages implied by the "big-bang" hypothesis of eukaryote evolution.  (+info)

Unusual ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of anoxic Archaea. (3/2228)

The predominant pool of organic matter on earth is derived from the biological reduction and assimilation of carbon dioxide gas, catalyzed primarily by the enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). By virtue of its capacity to use molecular oxygen as an alternative and competing gaseous substrate, the catalytic efficiency of RubisCO and the enzyme's ability to assimilate CO2 may be severely limited, with consequent environmental and agricultural effects. Recent genomic sequencing projects, however, have identified putative RubisCO genes from anoxic Archaea. In the present study, these potential RubisCO sequences, from Methanococcus jannaschii and Archaeoglobus fulgidus, were analyzed in order to ascertain whether such sequences might encode functional proteins. We also report the isolation and properties of recombinant RubisCO using sequences obtained from the obligately anaerobic hyperthermophilic methanogen M. jannaschii. This is the first description of an archaeal RubisCO sequence; this study also represents the initial characterization of a RubisCO molecule that has evolved in the absence of molecular oxygen. The enzyme was shown to be a homodimer whose deduced sequence, along with other recently obtained archaeal RubisCO sequences, differs substantially from those of known RubisCO molecules. The recombinant M. jannaschii enzyme has a somewhat low, but reasonable kcat, however, unlike previously isolated RubisCO molecules, this enzyme is very oxygen sensitive yet it is stable to hyperthermal temperatures and catalyzes the formation of the expected carboxylation product. Despite inhibition by oxygen, this unusual RubisCO still catalyzes a weak yet demonstrable oxygenase activity, with perhaps the lowest capacity for CO2/O2 discrimination ever encountered for any RubisCO.  (+info)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides reveals localization of methanogens and selected uncultured bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic sludge granules. (4/2228)

16S rRNA-targeted in situ hybridization combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to elucidate the spatial distribution of microbes within two types of methanogenic granular sludge, mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C), in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors fed with sucrose-, acetate-, and propionate-based artificial wastewater. The spatial organization of the microbes was visualized in thin sections of the granules by using fluorescent oligonucleotide probes specific to several phylogenetic groups of microbes. In situ hybridization with archaeal- and bacterial-domain probes within granule sections clearly showed that both mesophilic and thermophilic granules had layered structures and that the outer layer harbored mainly bacterial cells while the inner layer consisted mainly of archaeal cells. Methanosaeta-, Methanobacterium-, Methanospirillum-, and Methanosarcina-like cells were detected with oligonucleotide probes specific for the different groups of methanogens, and they were found to be localized inside the granules, in both types of which dominant methanogens were members of the genus Methanosaeta. For specific detection of bacteria which were previously detected by whole-microbial-community 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-cloning analysis (Y. Sekiguchi, Y. Kamagata, K. Syutsubo, A. Ohashi, H. Harada, and K. Nakamura, Microbiology 144:2655-2665, 1998) we designed probes specific for clonal 16S rDNAs related to unidentified green nonsulfur bacteria and clones related to Syntrophobacter species. The probe designed for the cluster closely related to Syntrophobacter species hybridized with coccoid cells in the inner layer of the mesophilic granule sections. The probe for the unidentified bacteria which were clustered with the green nonsulfur bacteria detected filamentous cells in the outermost layer of the thermophilic sludge granule sections. These results revealed the spatial organizations of methanogens and uncultivated bacteria and their in situ morphologies and metabolic functions in both mesophilic and thermophilic granular sludges.  (+info)

Universal conservation in translation initiation revealed by human and archaeal homologs of bacterial translation initiation factor IF2. (5/2228)

Binding of initiator methionyl-tRNA to ribosomes is catalyzed in prokaryotes by initiation factor (IF) IF2 and in eukaryotes by eIF2. The discovery of both IF2 and eIF2 homologs in yeast and archaea suggested that these microbes possess an evolutionarily intermediate protein synthesis apparatus. We describe the identification of a human IF2 homolog, and we demonstrate by using in vivo and in vitro assays that human IF2 functions as a translation factor. In addition, we show that archaea IF2 can substitute for its yeast homolog both in vivo and in vitro. We propose a universally conserved function for IF2 in facilitating the proper binding of initiator methionyl-tRNA to the ribosomal P site.  (+info)

10-11 bp periodicities in complete genomes reflect protein structure and DNA folding. (6/2228)

MOTIVATION: Completely sequenced genomes allow for detection and analysis of the relatively weak periodicities of 10-11 basepairs (bp). Two sources contribute to such signals: correlations in the corresponding protein sequences due to the amphipatic character of alpha-helices and the folding of DNA (nucleosomal patterns, DNA supercoiling). Since the topological state of genomic DNA is of importance for its replication, recombination and transcription, there is an immediate interest to obtain information about the supercoiled state from sequence periodicities. RESULTS: We show that correlations within proteins affect mainly the oscillations at distances below 35 bp. The long-ranging correlations up to 100 bp reflect primarily DNA folding. For the yeast genome these oscillations are consistent in detail with the chromatin structure. For eubacteria and archaea the periods deviate significantly from the 10.55 bp value for free DNA. These deviations suggest that while a period of 11 bp in bacteria reflects negative supercoiling, the significantly different period of thermophilic archaea close to 10 bp corresponds to positive supercoiling of thermophilic archaeal genomes. AVAILABILITY: Protein sets and C programs for the calculation of correlation functions are available on request from the authors (see http://itb.biologie.hu-berlin.de).  (+info)

The euryarchaeotes, a subdomain of Archaea, survive on a single DNA polymerase: fact or farce? (7/2228)

Archaea is now recognized as the third domain of life. Since their discovery, much effort has been directed towards understanding the molecular biology and biochemistry of Archaea. The objective is to comprehend the complete structure and the depth of the phylogenetic tree of life. DNA replication is one of the most important events in living organisms and DNA polymerase is the key enzyme in the molecular machinery which drives the process. All archaeal DNA polymerases were thought to belong to family B. This was because all of the products of pol genes that had been cloned showed amino acid sequence similarities to those of this family, which includes three eukaryal DNA replicases and Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II. Recently, we found a new heterodimeric DNA polymerase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus. The genes coding for the subunits of this DNA polymerase are conserved in the euryarchaeotes whose genomes have been completely sequenced. The biochemical characteristics of the novel DNA polymerase family suggest that its members play an important role in DNA replication within euryarchaeal cells. We review here our current knowledge on DNA polymerases in Archaea with emphasis on the novel DNA polymerase discovered in Euryarchaeota.  (+info)

Two distinct SECIS structures capable of directing selenocysteine incorporation in eukaryotes. (8/2228)

Translation of UGA as selenocysteine requires specific RNA secondary structures in the mRNAs of selenoproteins. These elements differ in sequence, structure, and location in the mRNA, that is, coding versus 3' untranslated region, in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and archaea. Analyses of eukaryotic selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) elements via computer folding programs, mutagenesis studies, and chemical and enzymatic probing has led to the derivation of a predicted consensus structural model for these elements. This model consists of a stem-loop or hairpin, with conserved nucleotides in the loop and in a non-Watson-Crick motif at the base of the stem. However, the sequences of a number of SECIS elements predict that they would diverge from the consensus structure in the loop region. Using site-directed mutagenesis to introduce mutations predicted to either disrupt or restore structure, or to manipulate loop size or stem length, we show that eukaryotic SECIS elements fall into two distinct classes, termed forms 1 and 2. Form 2 elements have additional secondary structures not present in form 1 elements. By either insertion or deletion of the sequences and structures distinguishing the two classes of elements while maintaining appropriate loop size, conversion of a form 1 element to a functional form 2-like element and of a form 2 to a functional form 1-like element was achieved. These results suggest commonality of function of the two classes. The information obtained regarding the existence of two classes of SECIS elements and the tolerances for manipulations of stem length and loop size should facilitate designing RNA molecules for obtaining high-resolution structural information about these elements.  (+info)

*Fission (biology)

In archaea[edit]. Crenarchaeota possess neither a cell wall nor the FtsZ mechanism. They use a primitive version of the ... Organisms in the domains of Archaea and Bacteria reproduce with binary fission. This form of asexual reproduction and cell ... Bernander, R; Ettema, TJ (December 2010). "FtsZ-less cell division in archaea and bacteria". Current Opinion in Microbiology. ... "Evolution of diverse cell division and vesicle formation systems in Archaea". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 8 (10): 731-41. ...

*Microbial genetics

Archaea[edit]. Archaea is a domain of organisms that are prokaryotic, single-celled, and are thought to have developed 4 ... "Archaea". Microbe World. Microbe World. Retrieved 8 November 2015.. *^ Chambers, Cecilia R.; Patrick, Wayne M. (2015). " ... It studies the genetics of very small (micro) organisms; bacteria, archaea, viruses and some protozoa and fungi.[1] This ... Gene transfer and genetic exchange have been studied in the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium volcanii and the ...

*Unicellular organism

"archaea , prokaryote". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2015-11-22.. *^ a b c d e f Gupta, G.N.; Srivastava, S.; Khare, S.K ... Bernstein H, Bernstein C. Sexual communication in archaea, the precursor to meiosis. pp. 103-117 in Biocommunication of Archaea ... "Extremophiles: Archaea and Bacteria" : Map of Life". www.mapoflife.org. Retrieved 2015-11-22.. ... Some archaea inhabit the most biologically inhospitable environments on earth, and this is believed to in some ways mimic the ...

*Disulfide

Archaea typically have fewer disulfides than higher organisms.[12] In eukaryotes[edit]. In eukaryotic cells, in general, stable ... In bacteria and archaea[edit]. Disulfide bonds play an important protective role for bacteria as a reversible switch that turns ... "there is no evidence for disulfide bonds in proteins from archaea"". Extremophiles. 12 (1): 29-38. doi:10.1007/s00792-007-0076- ...

*RNA polymerase

Archaea[edit]. Archaea have a single type of RNAP, responsible for the synthesis of all RNA. Archaeal RNAP is structurally and ... Archaea has the subunit corresponding to Eukaryotic Rpb1 split into two. There is no homolog to eukaryotic Rpb9 (POLR2I) in the ... The first analysis of the RNAP of an archaeon was performed in 1971, when the RNAP from the extreme halophile Halobacterium ... Bacteria and archaea only have one RNA polymerase. Eukaryotes have multiple types of nuclear RNAP, each responsible for ...

*Tungsten

In archaea[edit]. Tungsten is essential for some archaea. The following tungsten-utilizing enzymes are known: *Aldehyde ... 1 April 2008). Archaea: New Models for Prokaryotic Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1904455271.. ... A wtp system is known to selectively transport tungsten in archaea: *WtpA is tungten-binding protein of ABC family of ... It is used by some bacteria and archaea,[82] but not in eukaryotes. For example, enzymes called oxidoreductases use tungsten ...

*Category:Domains (biology)

Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...

*Sulfolobales

Archaea. Bacteria. Eukaryota. (Supergroup. Plant. Hacrobia. Heterokont. Alveolata. Rhizaria. Excavata. Amoebozoa. Opisthokonta ... Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Volume 1: The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria (2nd ed.). ... Fröls S, White MF, Schleper C (2009). "Reactions to UV damage in the model archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus". Biochem. Soc. ... "UV-inducible DNA exchange in hyperthermophilic archaea mediated by type IV pili". Mol. Microbiol. 82 (4): 807-17. doi:10.1111/j ...

*Ocean

Archaea : prokaryotes distinct from bacteria, that inhabit many environments of the ocean, as well as many extreme environments ...

*5S ribosomal RNA

It is a structural and functional component of the large subunit of the ribosome in all domains of life (bacteria, archaea, and ... In bacteria and archaea, the large ribosomal subunit (LSU) itself is composed of two RNA moieties, the 5S rRNA and another ... Models for: A) bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotic nuclei, B) plastids, and C) mitochondria. The IUPAC code letters and circles ...

*Terrabacteria

Archaea. Bacteria. Eukaryota. (Supergroup. Plant. Hacrobia. Heterokont. Alveolata. Rhizaria. Excavata. Amoebozoa. Opisthokonta ...

*Eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit (40S)

EAB means conserved in eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria, EA means conserved in eukaryotes and archaea and E means eukaryote- ... Proteins shared only between eukaryotes and archaea are shown as orange ribbons and proteins specific to eukaryotes are shown ... Proteins which have homologs in eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria (EAB) are shown as blue ribbons. Proteins shared only between ... Proteins which have homologs in eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria are shown as blue ribbons. ...

*Power-to-gas

During this process, methane forming microorganisms (methanogenic archaea or methanogens) release enzymes that reduce the ... "Selective microbial electrosynthesis of methane by a pure culture of a marine lithoautotrophic archaeon". Bioelectrochemistry. ... "Archaea. 2013: 157529. doi:10.1155/2013/157529. PMC 3806361. PMID 24194675. Article ID 157529.. ...

*Related changes

talk , contribs)‎ (→‎Archaea: Fixed unit of measurement of size of archaea) (Tags: Mobile edit, Mobile web edit) ...

*biology

Modern alternative classification systems generally begin with the three-domain system: Archaea (originally Archaebacteria); ... archaea, and eukaryotes as described initially by Carl Woese. Trees constructed with other genes are generally similar, ... "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya". Proceedings of the National ... archaea, and eukaryotes (see: origin of life).[23] ...

*Korarchaeota

In taxonomy, the Korarchaeota are a phylum of the Archaea. The name is derived from the Greek noun koros or kore, meaning '' ... Winker, S; Woese CR (1991). "A definition of the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya in terms of small subunit ribosomal RNA ... James G. Elkins et al., A korarchaeal genome reveals insights into the evolution of the Archaea, Harvard University, PNAS, June ... Woese, CR; Kandler O; Wheelis ML (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, ...

*Tolo, Greece

"Tolo, Archaea (Ancient) Assini". KTEL Argolides. Retrieved 7 May 2016.. External links[edit]. Wikimedia Commons has media ...

*Acidophile

ArchaeaEdit. *Sulfolobales, an order in the Crenarchaeota branch[2] of Archaea ... ARMAN, in the Euryarchaeota branch[2] of Archaea. *Acidianus brierleyi, A. infernus, facultatively anaerobic thermoacidophilic ... Thermoplasmatales, an order in the Euryarchaeota branch[2] of Archaea. * ...

*Unicellular organism

"archaea , prokaryote". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2015-11-22.. *^ a b c d e f Gupta, G.N.; Srivastava, S.; Khare, S.K ... Bernstein H, Bernstein C. Sexual communication in archaea, the precursor to meiosis. pp. 103-117 in Biocommunication of Archaea ... "Extremophiles: Archaea and Bacteria" : Map of Life". www.mapoflife.org. Retrieved 2015-11-22.. ... Some archaea inhabit the most biologically inhospitable environments on earth, and this is believed to in some ways mimic the ...

*Sexual reproduction

Bacteria and archaeaEdit. Three distinct processes in prokaryotes are regarded as similar to eukaryotic sex: bacterial ... "UV-inducible DNA exchange in hyperthermophilic archaea mediated by type IV pili". Mol. Microbiol. 82 (4): 807-17. doi:10.1111/j ... "UV-inducible cellular aggregation of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is mediated by pili formation". Mol ... and gene transfer and genetic exchange in archaea. ... or from a similar process in archaea (see below). ...

*Ferroplasma - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure

nov., comprising a distinct lineage of the Archaea». Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 50, 3, 01-05-2000, pàg. 997-1006. DOI: ... Gihring, Thomas M.; Bond, Philip L.; Peters, Stephen C.; Banfield, Jillian F. «Arsenic resistance in the archaeon "Ferroplasma ...

*Betalipothrixvirus

Archaea serve as natural hosts. There are currently six species in this genus including the type species Sulfolobus islandicus ... Archaea serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive diffusion. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ...

*Virus

Most archaea have CRISPR-Cas systems as an adaptive defence against viruses. These enable archaea to retain sections of viral ... Viruses of the Archaea: a unifying view. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2006;4(11):837-48. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1527. PMID 17041631 ... Mojica FJ, Rodriguez-Valera F. The discovery of CRISPR in archaea and bacteria. The FEBS Journal. 2016;283(17):3162-9. doi: ... Some viruses replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes unique shapes.[5][89] ...

*Antigenic drift

In the influenza virus, the two relevant antigens are the surface proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase.[4] The hemagglutinin is responsible for binding and entry into host epithelial cells while the neuraminidase is involved in the process of new virions budding out of host cells.[5] Sites recognized on the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins by host immune systems are under constant selective pressure. Antigenic drift allows for evasion of these host immune systems by small mutations in the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes that make the protein unrecognizable to pre-existing host immunity.[6] Antigenic drift is this continuous process of genetic and antigenic change among flu strains.[7]. In human populations, immune (vaccinated) individuals exert selective pressure for single point mutations in the hemagglutinin gene that increase receptor binding avidity, while naive individuals exert selective pressure for single point mutations that decrease receptor binding avidity.[6] These ...

*Hepadnaviridae

The hepatitis envelope proteins are composed of subunits made from the viral preS1, preS2, and S genes. The L (for "large") envelope protein contains all three subunits. The M (for "medium") protein contains only preS2 and S. The S (for "small") protein contains only S. The genome portions encoding these envelope protein subuntis share both the same frame and the same stop codon (generating nested transcripts on a single open reading frame. The pre-S1 is encoded first (closest to the 5' end), followed directly by the pre-S2 and the S. When a transcript is made from the beginning of the pre-S1 region, all three genes are included in the transcript and the L protein is produced. When the transcript starts after the pro-S1 at the beginning of the pre-S2 the final protein contains the pre-S2 and S subunits only and therefore is an M protein. The smallest envelope protein containing just the S subunit is made most because it is encoded closest to the 3' end and comes from the shortest transcript. ...

*Parvovirus

Testing for how feline parvovirus and canine parvovirus infect cells and what pathways are taken; scientists used cat cells, mouse cells, cat and mouse hybrid cells, mink cells, dog cells, human cells, and HeLa cells.[10] Both feline parvovirus and canine parvovirus enter their hosts, follow specific pathways, and infect at certain parts of cells before infecting major organs. Parvoviruses are specific viruses that are characterized by which receptors they attack.[11] Testing found that parvovirus infects carnivorous animals through the oropharyngeal pathway. Parvovirus infects the oropharyngeal cells that come in immediate contact with the virus. It contains a plasmid that infects and binds to transferrin receptors, a glycoprotein, on the plasma membrane.[12][13] The parvovirus plasmid is stored in a small non-enveloped capsid.[12][14] Once oropharyngeal cells become infected the virus spreads to dividing lymph cells and continues to work to the bone marrow and spread to target organs through ...
Investigations were performed on the structural features responsible for kinetic thermal stability of a thermostable carboxypeptidase from the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus which had been purified previously and identified as a zinc metalloprotease [Colombo, DAuria, Fusi, Zecca, Raia and Tortora (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 206, 349-357]. Removal of Zn2+ by dialysis led to reversible activity loss, which was promptly restored by addition of 80 microM ZnCl2 to the assay mixture. For the first-order irreversible thermal inactivation the metal-depleted enzyme showed an activation energy value of 205.6 kJ.mol-1, which is considerably lower than that of the holoenzyme (494.4 kJ.mol-1). The values of activation free energies, enthalpies and entropies also dropped with metal removal. Thermal inactivation of the apoenzyme was very quick at 80 degrees C, whereas the holoenzyme was stable at the same temperature. These findings suggest a major stabilizing role for the bivalent ...
1CAA: X-ray crystal structures of the oxidized and reduced forms of the rubredoxin from the marine hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus.
Archaea exist in a broad range of habitats, and as a major part of global ecosystems,[14] may represent about 20% of microbial cells in the oceans.[159] The first-discovered archaeans were extremophiles.[112] Indeed, some archaea survive high temperatures, often above 100 °C (212 °F), as found in geysers, black smokers, and oil wells. Other common habitats include very cold habitats and highly saline, acidic, or alkaline water. However, archaea include mesophiles that grow in mild conditions, in swamps and marshland, sewage, the oceans, the intestinal tract of animals, and soils.[14]. Extremophile archaea are members of four main physiological groups. These are the halophiles, thermophiles, alkaliphiles, and acidophiles.[160] These groups are not comprehensive or phylum-specific, nor are they mutually exclusive, since some archaea belong to several groups. Nonetheless, they are a useful starting point for classification.. Halophiles, including the genus Halobacterium, live in extremely saline ...
Archaea are nowadays known as the third domain of life. Before 1970 archaea were thought to belong to the domain bacteria, since archaeal cells have similar sizes as bacterial cells and like bacteria possess neither a nucleus nor cell organelles. In the 1970s Carl Woese sequenced ribosomal RNAs of prokaryotic organisms and discovered two different types of rRNA sequences. Because of this discovery Woese proposed that the prokaryotic domain has to be subdivided into two separate domains, namely Bacteria and Archaea. Since then more and more data accumulated which show that Archaea indeed belong to a separate domain. Initially people thought that archaea are freaks living only at sites with extreme living conditions like f.i. hot geysers in Yellowstone National Park and Black Smokers at the bottom of the ocean. But nowadays it is known that archaea also constitute a big part of the biomass in normal environments. Asgard archaea: Close relatives to the first eukaryotic cell? ...
Archaea exist in a broad range of habitats, and as a major part of global ecosystems,[15] may represent about 20% of microbial cells in the oceans.[161] The first-discovered archaeans were extremophiles.[114] Indeed, some archaea survive high temperatures, often above 100 °C (212 °F), as found in geysers, black smokers, and oil wells. Other common habitats include very cold habitats and highly saline, acidic, or alkaline water. However, archaea include mesophiles that grow in mild conditions, in swamps and marshland, sewage, the oceans, the intestinal tract of animals, and soils.[15]. Extremophile archaea are members of four main physiological groups. These are the halophiles, thermophiles, alkaliphiles, and acidophiles.[162] These groups are not comprehensive or phylum-specific, nor are they mutually exclusive, since some archaea belong to several groups. Nonetheless, they are a useful starting point for classification.. Halophiles, including the genus Halobacterium, live in extremely saline ...
Over the last decades, the study of extremophiles has providing ground breaking discoveries that challenge the paradigms of modern biology and make us rethink intriguing questions such as what is life?, what are the limits of life?, and what are the fundamental features of life?. These findings and possibilities have made the study of life in extreme environments one of the most exciting areas of research in recent decades. However, despite the latest advances we are just in the beginning of exploring and characterizing the world of extremophiles. This special issue discusses several aspects of these fascinating organisms, exploring their habitats, biodiversity, ecology, evolution, genetics, biochemistry, and biotechnological applications in a collection of exciting reviews and original articles written by leading experts and research groups in the field. [...]
Our division studies the Biology of Archaea as well as bacterial symbioses with a focus on ecological, physiological and evolutionary aspects to shed light on the diversity and fundamental distinctions between these two prokaryotic groups. In particular we are interested in: - The ecological distribution of archaea from terrestrial, aquatic and hot environments - The phylogeny of archaea - The metabolism and genomes of ammonia oxidizing thaumarchaeota - virus-defense (CRISPR-) systems of hyperthermophilic archaea - physiology and biotechnological application of methanogenic archaea - bacterium-nematode symbioses ...
Our division studies the Biology of Archaea as well as bacterial symbioses with a focus on ecological, physiological and evolutionary aspects to shed light on the diversity and fundamental distinctions between these two prokaryotic groups. In particular we are interested in: - The ecological distribution of archaea from terrestrial, aquatic and hot environments - The phylogeny of archaea - The metabolism and genomes of ammonia oxidizing thaumarchaeota - virus-defense (CRISPR-) systems of hyperthermophilic archaea - physiology and biotechnological application of methanogenic archaea - bacterium-nematode symbioses ...
Domain Archaea is currently represented by one phylum (Euryarchaeota) and two superphyla (TACK and DPANN). However, gene surveys indicate the existence of a vast diversity of uncultivated archaea for which metabolic information is lacking. We sequenced DNA from complex sediment- and groundwater-associated microbial communities sampled prior to and during an acetate biostimulation field experiment to investigate the diversity and physiology of uncultivated subsurface archaea. We sampled 15 genomes that improve resolution of a new phylum within the TACK superphylum and 119 DPANN genomes that highlight a major subdivision within the archaeal domain that separates DPANN from TACK/Euryarchaeota lineages. Within the DPANN superphylum, which lacks any isolated representatives, we defined two new phyla using sequences from 100 newly sampled genomes. The first new phylum, for which we propose the name Woesearchaeota, was defined using 54 new sequences. We reconstructed a complete (finished) genome for an ...
Archaea is a single-celled micro-organism that lives underwater and in soil. A single individual or species is called an archaeon (sometimes spelled "archeon"). Archaea, like bacteria, are prokaryotes. They have no cell nucleus or any other organelles within their cells. In the past they were viewed as an unusual group of bacteria and named archaebacteria but since the Archaea have an independent evolutionary history and show many differences in their biochemistry from other forms of life, they are now classed into their own group. They have been found in a broad range of habitats, such as soils, lakes, oceans, and marshlands. Archaea are particularly numerous in the oceans, and the archaea in plankton may be one of the most abundant groups of organisms on the planet. These prokaryotes are now recognized as a major part of life on Earth and may play an important role in both the carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle. No clear examples of archaeal pathogens or parasites are known. ...
View Notes - 22 from BIOL 4125 at LSU. PROKARYOTIC DIVERSITY BIOL 4125 SPRING 2009 LECTURE 22 Hyperthermophilic Archaea Part II The early overview of archaeal diversity was exemplified by a
Collections of Clusters of Orthologous Genes (COGs) provide indispensable tools for comparative genomic analysis, evolutionary reconstruction and functional annotation of new genomes. Initially, COGs were made for all complete genomes of cellular life forms that were available at the time. However, with the accumulation of thousands of complete genomes, construction of a comprehensive COG set has become extremely computationally demanding and prone to error propagation, necessitating the switch to taxon-specific COG collections. Previously, we reported the collection of COGs for 41 genomes of Archaea (arCOGs). Here we present a major update of the arCOGs and describe evolutionary reconstructions to reveal general trends in the evolution of Archaea. The updated version of the arCOG database incorporates 91% of the pangenome of 120 archaea (251,032 protein-coding genes altogether) into 10,335 arCOGs. Using this new set of arCOGs, we performed maximum likelihood reconstruction of the genome content of
Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as "plan of creation," "unity of design," etc., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact. Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject the theory. ...
ATCC offers a variety of extremophiles including archaea, halophiles, acidophiles, thermophiles, psychrophiles, and alkaliphiles.
ATCC offers a variety of extremophiles including archaea, halophiles, acidophiles, thermophiles, psychrophiles, and alkaliphiles.
Household biogas digesters are widely used to harvest energy in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding core prokaryotic communities, their co-occurrence patterns, and their relationships to environmental factors is important to manage these small-scale anaerobic digestion systems effectively. In this study, 43 household biogas digesters were collected across eight provinces in China. Prokaryotic communities were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Fourteen core genera and ten core OTUs were identified in household biogas digesters. They were mainly affiliated with the phylum Firmicutes, Synergistetes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Spirochaetes. Core prokaryotic genera were mainly composed of Clostridium, Clostridium XI, Syntrophomonas, Cloacibacillus, Sedimentibacter, and Turicibacter. Prokaryotic communities in the 43 samples were clearly divided into two clusters. Cluster I was dominated by Clostridium, while Cluster II was dominated by members of Spirochaetes,
One of the three domains of life (together with Bacteria and Eukaryotes). Their morphology is similar to bacteria but many cellular mechanisms are actually closer to eukaryotic than bacterial. They form a distinct clade in the phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence. Archaea are at least as far from bacteria as from eukaryotes (there is a lot of discussion about exactly what the "tree of life" looks like) but they are often placed with bacteria into the common grouping called prokaryotes. Originally they were discovered in extreme environments and thus are still often thought of as extremophiles. Now archaea are known to be very common in nature, being a dominating group of microorganisms for example in oceans below the photic zone. --Katarzyna Zaremba 15:00, 27 February 2008 (CET) ...
So the subject of this lecture is RNase P in the other branch of life on Earth; the Archaea. The Archaea are a group of prokaryotic organisms that are really independent of the Bacteria, and if anything are more closely related geneologically to the eukaryotes (Eukarya) than to the Bacteria. In addition to being a distinct group, they are generally primative. In many ways, the molecular biology of the Archaea probably resembles those of the ancestors of the eukaryotes, and have proven to be very useful in sorting out the simpler roots of modern eukaryotic complexity.. ...
This brings forth the interesting point of view that the truly ancestral forms of these genes and proteins may be more like the proteins seen in the eukaryotes rather than the archaea! Archaea (and bacteria) can tolerate a lot more genetic change than eukaryotes can, and have a far shorter generation time, allowing them to change and evolve more quickly than the larger, less genetically mutable eukaryotes. On the other hand the lack of change and high level of conservation in eukaryotes means that the complexes remain very similar to those of the ancestral eukaryote from which they evolved. They may even be closer to the forms found in the last common ancestor between eukaryotes and archaea, before the eukaryotes gained a nucleus and became unable to share genes with the surrounding organisms ...
Some Archaea thrive in extreme places such as in thermal pools, hot vents at the bottom of the sea, extremely salty water, and even in underground oil reserves. This book examines the diverse Archaea kingdom and the division of these organisms by their unusual biology into three main groups. It also explains why little in general is known about them, and why further classification of Archaea is so difficult.
In her NY Times blog, Olivia Judson gives an ovation to Archaea. This domain of organisms gets none of the recognition of their more famous kin, Bacteria and Eukaryotes despite their unusual biology. As she describes, some members of the group Archaea have extreme tolerance to temperature and pH, thriving in the boiling acids found in hot springs and the bottom of ocean vents. All known methane producing microbes are found among the Archaea.. ...
Archaebacteria are force anaerobes and they live only in oxygen-free circumstances. They are known as extremophiles, as they are capable to live in a variety of atmosphere. Some species can live in the temperatures over boiling point at 100 degree Celsius. They can also live in acidic, alkaline or saline aquatic surroundings. Some can endure the pressures of more than 200 atmospheres.. The size of archaebacteria varies from 1/10th of a micrometer to more than 15 micrometers. Some of archaebacteria have flagella. Like all prokaryotes, archaebacteria dont have the membrane-bound organelles. They dont contain nuclei, endoplasmic reticula, Golgi complexes, mitochondria, chloroplasts or lysosomes. The cells consist of a thick cytoplasm that includes all the compounds and molecules needed for metabolism and nutrition. Their cell wall doesnt contain peptidoglycan. The rigid cell wall backings the cell and allows archaebacterium to hold its shape. It also defends the cell from overflowing when ...
The universal tree of life represents the proposed evolutionary relationships among all cellular life forms, which are classified into three main urkingdoms or domains; the Archaea (archaebacteria), Bacteria (eubacteria) and Eucarya (eukaryotes)
The highest level, domain, is a relatively new addition to the system since the 1990s. Scientists now recognize three domains of life, the Eukarya, the Archaea, and the Bacteria. The domain Eukarya contains organisms that have cells with nuclei. It includes the kingdoms of fungi, plants, animals, and several kingdoms of protists. The Archaea, are single-celled organisms without nuclei and include many extremophiles that live in harsh environments like hot springs. The Bacteria are another quite different group of single-celled organisms without nuclei. Both the Archaea and the Bacteria are prokaryotes, an informal name for cells without nuclei. The recognition in the 1990s that certain "bacteria," now known as the Archaea, were as different genetically and biochemically from other bacterial cells as they were from eukaryotes, motivated the recommendation to divide life into three domains. This dramatic change in our knowledge of the tree of life demonstrates that classifications are not ...
The location of hyperthermophilic organisms in the tree of life has been the source of many exciting discussions during the last two decades. It inspired not only novel hypotheses for the early evolution of the organisms, but also the isolation of many new species of Archaea and Bacteria from hot environments, as well as microbial genome sequencing and phylogenomic analyses. In view of the new wealth of genetic information generated from several analysed genomes of the hyperthermophiles, we can only conclude that the question of their exact phylogenetic location and evolutionary origin is presently as open as ever before.. ...
Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology - Gordon Research Conference Les Diablerets Conference Center Eurotel Victoria Les Diablerets, CH, Switzerland Unique Biology of the Archaea Bridging the Gap Between Bacteria and Eukaryotes. July 21 - 26, 2019.
Introduction: Archaea comes from the greek word, archaio, meaning ancient (billions of years, and if you dont call that old, then I dont know what is). In order to fully understand the origins of Archaea, we must look at evolutionary history. From what we understand, all living forms have descended from a Universal ancestor, which appeared through spontaneous generation. The term spontaneous generation is generally used to explain what Europeans before 1668 believed to be the cause of life, indicating that every day, living organisms were created by non living things (such as mud). This should not be confused with the modern theory of the origin of life, that abiotic amino acids were generated in the primordial soup and spontaneously joined together to form LUCA ...
To mark the 40th anniversary of the Archaea, Nature journals present a collection of articles that explores our understanding of archaea and how the discovery of new species is reshaping the tree of life.
Their phytanyl tails are primarily hooked to their glycerols using ether, not ester, linkages (see 2, above), which resist destruction better than esters. And their glycerols have opposite handedness to the glycerols in our membrane lipids (note mirror orientation in the bacterial and archaeal lipids in figure).. Molecular handedness -- chirality in chemistry-speak -- is not a thing changed easily by evolution. For instance, the vast majority of protein building blocks called amino acids used by life on Earth are exclusively "left-handed". Why? No one really knows, although some have guesses. Once lefty amino acids took over, though, there was no going back biochemically -- the enzymes were set up a certain way and that was that. Thus, that archaeal and bacterial enzymes use glycerols with opposite handedness implies that bacteria and archaea parted ways long, long ago.. Some archaeal lipids have a property that is rarely or never seen in bacteria or eukaryotes. Bacteria and eukaryotes have ...
FALL IN ARCHAEA Lyrics - A selection of 6 Fall In Archaea lyrics including Machines, Blasphemy, Anxiety, High Tides, Gatherings ...
CRR writes:. Does the theory of evolution require a gain of copious quantities of genetic information?. Yes it does. Both in Darwins formulation and in the modern neo-Darwinian version, although Darwin of course knew nothing of genes or DNA.. Both versions believe that the all life on Earth is ascended from primitive ancestors. Darwin lacked the evidence to definitely say only one ancestor but he made it clear that it was his belief that all animals and plants are descended from some one prototype. Most proponents of the modern version, on the evidence of DNA, definitely conclude there was a Last Universal Common Ancestor.. In both versions this common ancestor is envisaged as some simple life form of minimal complexity.. In the modern version with a genetic basis this is supposed to be a single celled organism with a minimal functioning genome, perhaps only a few hundred genes. Some believe this ancestor arose naturally on Earth from non-living matter, some propose panspermia, and some believe ...
Nunoura, T.; Takaki, Y.; Kakuta, J.; Nishi, S.; Sugahara, J.; Kazama, H.; Chee, G.J.; Hattori, M.; Kanai, A.; Aatomi, H.; Takai, K. and akami, H. 2011: Insights into the evolution of Archaea and eukaryotic protein modifier systems revealed by the genome of a novel archaeal group. Nucleic Acids Res., 39, 3204-3223. doi: doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq1228 ...
View Notes - Chap 27 Prokaryotes-st from BIL 160 at University of Miami. Prokaryotes-Chap 27 The three major clades, often referred to as the three domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota. -largest
WoRMS (2011). Thaumarchaeota. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=559429 on 2017-12- ...
ADAPTATION OF MICROORGANISMS TO Intense ENVIRONMENTAL Issues Some microorganisms are adapted to severe environmental situations. The thermophiles can endure in substantial temperatures whilst halophiles can endure in substantial salinities. Alkaliphiles and acidophiles can endure in overwhelming pH amounts. So, extremophiles are tailored to severe environmental circumstances because of their decent physiological capacities. These capacities have got some would-be biotechnological apps. Extremophiles are commercially significant when you consider that they yield several enzymes under people serious disorders. Thermophiles will also be known as warmth fans. You have found in environments that arrive about as the outcome of human functions for instance industrial routines, geothermal action, powerful radiation, combustion procedures and solar heating. Inside low-temperature severe, now we have the psychrophiles which include the snow and ice algae. Thermophiles are described as individuals ...
Earth's last universal common ancestor, called LUCA, may have been much more complex than a chemical soup and even more sophisticated than today's simplest creatures, scientists say, suggesting the organism was equipped with an organelle and may have even
Genomic comparative studies on entirely sequenced genomes from the three domains of life, i.e. Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota [1], evidenced that proteins involved in the organization or processing of genetic information (structures of ribosome and chromatin, translation, transcription, replication and DNA repair) display a closer relationship between Archaea and Eukaryota than between Bacteria and Eukaryota [2-4]. To identify new proteins involved in such important cellular mechanisms, an exhaustive inventory of proteins of unknown function common to only Eukaryota and Archaea but not in Bacteria has been devised [5-7]. Among such proteins, the Cluster of Orthologous Group COG2042 comprises proteins ubiquitously present in Eukaryota and present in many, but not all, Archaea; a hallmark of their ancient origin. The corresponding ancestral protein should have been present in the common ancestor of these two domains of life. Some partial experimental data are known from the Saccharomyces ...
Provided herein are genetically engineered archaea. A genetically engineered archaea includes a heterologous polynucleotide that has a promoter operably linked to a coding region, where the coding region encodes a polypeptide having optimal activity below the optimum growth temperature (T.sub.opt) of the genetically engineered archaeon. Also provided herein are methods for using genetically engineered archaea and cell-free extracts of such genetically engineered archaea. In one embodiment, the methods include culturing a genetically engineered archaeon at a temperature that is at least 20.degree. C. below the T.sub.opt of the genetically engineered archaeon, such that the activity in the genetically engineered archaeon of a polypeptide encoded by the coding region is increased compared to the activity in the genetically engineered archaeon of the polypeptide during growth at a second temperature that is at or near the T.sub.opt of the genetically engineered archaeon.
Molecular structures and sequences are generally more revealing of evolutionary relationships than are classical phenotypes (particularly so among microorganisms). Consequently, the basis for the definition of taxa has progressively shifted from the organismal to the cellular to the molecular level. Molecular comparisons show that life on this planet divides into three primary groupings, commonly known as the eubacteria, the archaebacteria, and the eukaryotes. The three are very dissimilar, the differences that separate them being of a more profound nature than the differences that separate typical kingdoms, such as animals and plants. Unfortunately, neither of the conventionally accepted views of the natural relationships among living systems--i.e., the five-kingdom taxonomy or the eukaryote-prokaryote dichotomy--reflects this primary tripartite division of the living world. To remedy this situation we propose that a formal system of organisms be established in which above the level of kingdom ...
In article ,Co2Isu.n4r at gpu.utcc.utoronto.ca, lamoran at gpu.utcc.utoronto.ca(L.A. Moran) writes: ,I dont think that either the glutamine synthetase or the HSP70 data offer ,any support for horizontal gene transfer. Maybe it is the EF-Tu and the ,ATPase genes that were transferred from eukaryotes to archaebacteria? (- : I think it is premature to decide what is the transferred portion, and which is the receiving portion. It might be that they turn out to be nearly the same size. I do not think that the elongation factors and ATPases represent a small (!) transferred portion. The grouping of the archaebacteria as separate from the eubacteria is also supported by ribosomes and RNA polymerases (plus cell wall and membrane composition, ..). It has been argued that the functioning of transcription and translation is so essential to the organism that the translation and transcription machineries could not be transferred into another organism that uses different recognition signals in their genes; ...
Archaea: A taxonomic domain of single-celled organisms lacking nuclei, formerly called archaebacteria but now known to differ fundamentally from bacteria.
Three studies-one of mice and two of human genetics-describe the role of two proteins, adenylyl cyclase and melanocortin 4 receptor, in the development of obesity and diabetes. 1 Comment. ...
The three Domains of organisms are:. Domain Archaea, which consists of the Archaeans, or extremophiles.. Domain Bacteria, which consists of all the bacteria.. Domain Eukarya, which consists of all eukaryotic organisms, or those with the largest, most complex cells and the most advanced compartmentalization.. ...
Buy Respiration in Archaea and Bacteria (9781402020025): Diversity of Prokaryotic Respiratory Systems: NHBS - Edited By: Davide Zannoni, Springer Nature
CAMPBELL & REECE CHAPTER 27. BACTERIA & ARCHAEA. PROKARYOTIC ADAPTATIONS. typical prokaryote: 0.5 -5 microns unicellular variety of shapes cocci (spherical) bacilli (rods) spirochetes (corkscrews). Cell-Surface Structures. nearly all have cell wall maintains shape protects cell Slideshow 2162369 by maia
The three domain system of biological classification was introduced by Carl Woese to reflect his discovery that the prokaryotes comprise two very different groups of organisms. In it, all living things are grouped into three domains. Two of these, the Bacteria and Archaea (originally Eubacteria and Archaebacteria), include prokaryotes. The third, the Eukarya or Eukaryota, includes all eukaryotes, including the older kingdoms Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, and Protista.. These domains are typically divided into kingdomss. Other ranks higher than kingdom had been used earlier, for instance empires, to group together the eukaryotes, but in these schemes the prokaryotes were retained as a single group, understood to be paraphyletic. Some have argued that such systems are actually preferable and that the differences between Bacteria and Archaea are not sufficient to warrant such a level of separate treatment.. See also: Phylogenetic tree, Taxonomy ...
Relative changes in the abundance of ruminal Archaea and cellululolytic Bacteria in mono-, di- and tri-faunated sheep in comparison with defaunated ...
Welcome to Water +O2 Helps The Body! What is Evolv and Archaea Active? Evolv Freedom Team helps people improve physical and financial well-being.
Fall In Archaea Machines lyrics & video : Sleepless nights turn to mornings as these chapters come to an end. We wake with blood shot eyes and bottles at our side. Look what yo...
http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51JgzulwPHL._SL160_PIsitb-sticker-arrow-dp,TopRight,12,-18_SH30_OU01_.jpg|/div|Archaea Dain White (Author) http://g-ecx.images-amazon.com/images/G/01/detail/stars-4-0._V192261413_.gif(30) Download: $0.00 (Visit the Top Free in Action & Adventure
It is proposed in the SGM journal (Society for General Microbiology-journal not available on line) that the term prokaryote should be scrapped altogether. As well as being an incorrect label for a large group of organisms it also produces an incorrect evolutionary perspective. The use of the eukaryote/prokaryote terms suggests a very human based linear "One upon a time there were blobs with no nuclei and then they got nuclei and then they were better" sort of story. A more correct view is that of all three superkingdoms; bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes splitting away from each other. Eukaryotes safely packaging their DNA away, allowing a more complex system to build up, yet forfeiting the ability to share bits of DNA. The archaea and bacteria on the other hand, continued to share their genetic material, just became more selective about it as they diverged (hense the mostly seperate history ...
A summary of Archaebacteria in s Monera. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Monera and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
The Archaea, or archaebacteria, are the prokaryotic group most closely related to eukaryotes. This is due to the similarity of genes and metabolic processes that both Archaea and eukaryotes posses....
This is Scientific Americas 60-Second Science, Im Cynthia Graber. Thisll just take a minute. Its hot to research life in extreme environments. There are organisms that thrive in boiling hot thermal vents and in toxic stews. These extremophiles, as
Extremophiles (organisms that can survive and thrive under extremes of temperature, pH, pressure etc) are among the topics of this months EVAS meeting.
This HMM describes the ribosomal protein of the cytosol and of Archaea, homologous to S2 of bacteria. It is designated typically as Sa in eukaryotes and Sa or S2 in the archaea. TIGR01011 describes the related protein of organelles and bacteria ...
This is a CO2 regulator adapter design to fit into our Archaea CO2 Regulator (PRO) single gauge with solenoid. It is perfect for those who have purchased our ARCHAEA CO2 Regulator (PRO) single gauge (fits paintball tank) and would like to connect the regulator to Standard CO2 Cylinder with CGA-320 male connector.
1.0 1.1 Ruggiero MA, Gordon DP, Orrell TM, Bailly N, Bourgoin T, Brusca RC, et al. (2015) A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119248. pmid:25923521 ...
1.0 1.1 Ruggiero MA, Gordon DP, Orrell TM, Bailly N, Bourgoin T, Brusca RC, et al. (2015) A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119248. pmid:25923521 ...
Buena vista" hypothesis suggests that changes in the sizes of eyes, rather than a shift from fins to limbs, led fish to transition to land more than 300 million years ago. 1 Comment. ...
PhD title: Search for new antibiotics in extremophilic worms and studying their adaptation and functions in extreme habitats *Deadline for application: June 1, 2016* *A. ...
Moneran: Moneran, any of the prokaryotes constituting the two domains Bacteria and Archaea. The monerans are distinct from eukaryotic organisms because of the structure and chemistry
Learning Objectives Know there are microbes in all three domains Know that bacteria may be the most diverse of all organisms Know that archaea exploit some of the most extreme habitats Know that protists are single-celled eukaryotes Know that viruses are at the border between living and non-living Know the highlighted examples of organisms within each domain.
Members of this family are uncharacterized proteins sporadically distributed in bacteria and archaea, about 880 amino acids in length. This protein is repeatedly found upstream of another uncharacterized protein of about 470 amino acids in length, modeled by TIGR02688 ...
Relative proportions (±s.d.) of hybridized cells in Lake Maggiore in 2011 (Ghiffa sampling station) for Bacteria (probe EUB I-III), Archaea (probe ARC915), a
The newest latest bestest spiffiest edition of the [Tangled Bank is now online at From Archaea to Zeaxanthol](http://attleborobio.blogspot.com/2007/11/tangled-bank-93_21.html).. ...
ARCHAEA was founded in 2007 by the Heidarsson brothers Hannes and Markus, on keyboard and guitar. After a few intense formative years in the Gothenburg
The global microbial CH4 production is estimated to reach one billion tons annually. Methanogenic archaea produce CH4 in wetlands, rice fields, ruminant and termite digestive systems and have a decisive impact on the planets atmospheric carbon cycle [42]. At the same time, the industrial scale anaerobic digestion of biomass to CH4 plays a vital role in the future global energy mix. All methanogenic archaea capable of CO2 reduction contain the cofactor F420 as an integral part of the methanogenic pathway. In this study, F420 autofluorescence was tested as a universal marker for methanogenic archaea. Genes encoding for F420 biosynthesis enzymes were identified in 653 bacterial and 173 archaeal species [43]. Non-methanogenic but F420 containing microorganisms have reported F420 concentrations of about one fortieth of the concentrations in hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea [19], which is below detection limit of the developed protocol. For the methanogenic archaea, however, the F420 cofactor ...
The Archaebacterium Haloferax volcanii concentrates K+ up to 3.6 M. This creates a very large K+ ion gradient of between 500- to 1,000-fold across the cell membrane. H. volcaniicells can be...
Bacteria and archaea dominate the biomass of benthic deep-sea ecosystems at all latitudes, playing a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles, but their macroscale patterns and macroecological drivers are still largely unknown. We show the results of the most extensive field study conducted so far to investigate patterns and drivers of the distribution and structure of benthic prokaryote assemblages from 228 samples collected at latitudes comprising 34°N to 79°N, and from ca. 400- to 5570-m depth. We provide evidence that, in deep-sea ecosystems, benthic bacterial and archaeal abundances significantly increase from middle to high latitudes, with patterns more pronounced for archaea, and particularly for Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota. Our results also reveal that different microbial components show varying sensitivities to changes in temperature conditions and food supply. We conclude that climate change will primarily affect deep-sea benthic archaea, with important consequences on global ...
original description Stetter, K.O., Konig, H., and Stackebrandt, E. 1984. Pyrodictium gen. nov., a new genus of submarine disc-shaped sulphur reducing archaebacteria growing optimally at 105°C. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 4:535-551. [details] ...
The factors controlling the relative abundances of Archaea and Bacteria in marine sediments are poorly understood. We determined depth distributions of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes by quantitative PCR at eight stations in Aarhus Bay, Denmark. Bacterial outnumber archaeal genes 10-60-fold in uppermost sediments that are irrigated and mixed by macrofauna. This bioturbation is indicated by visual observations of sediment color and faunal tracks, by porewater profiles of dissolved inorganic carbon and sulfate, and by distributions of unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs. Below the depth of bioturbation, the relative abundances of archaeal genes increase, accounting for one third of 16S rRNA genes in the sulfate zone, and half of 16S rRNA genes in the sulfate-methane transition zone and methane zone. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a strong shift in bacterial and archaeal community structure from bioturbated sediments to underlying layers. Stable isotopic analyses on organic matter and porewater ...
1999 97. Schwerdtfeger, R. M., Chiaraluce, R., Consalvi, V., Scandurra, R., Antranikian, G. (1999) Stability, refolding and Ca2+ binding of pullulanase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus woesei . Eur. J. Biochem. 264:479-487. 96. Linden, A., Niehaus, F., Antranikian, G. (20 00) Single-step purification of a recombinant thermostable α-amylase after solubilization of the enzyme from insoluble aggregates. Journal of Chromtography B. 737: 253-259. 95. Andrade, C.M., Pereira, N. Jr., Antranikian, G. (1999) Extremely thermophilic microorganisms and their polymerhydrolytic enzymes. Revista de Microbiologia 30: 287-298. 94. Stefanova, M. E., Schwerdtfeger, R., Antranikian, G., Scandurra, R. (1999) Heat-stable pullulanase from Bacillus acidopullulyticus : characterization and refolding after guanidinium chloride-induced unfolding. Extremophiles 3: 147-152. 93. Niehaus, F., Bertoldo, C., Kähler, M., Antranikian, G. (1999) Extremophiles as a source of novel enzymes for industrial application. ...
In spite of their common hypersaline environment, halophilic archaea are surprisingly different in their nutritional demands and metabolic pathways. The metabolic diversity of halophilic archaea was i
An interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion with increasing organic loadingAn interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion with increasing organic loading ...
Through text, movement, landscape and music, Archaea for the Evergreens, weaves together abstract, spiritual and scientific ideas surrounding life and death. Drawing connections between formal explorations of circles, physical embodiments of history, lessons learned from the way the natural world deals with death and the mysterious aspects of our universe, Archaea for the Evergreens calls forth the questions that arise when confronted with the vastness of time and space that the Evergreens offers. The term Archaea refers to the microorganisms that create the underlying structure on this planet to which everything is connected, just as The Evergreens Cemetery reminds us of both the connectedness and mystery of our world.. Created by Anne Zuerner in collaboration with the performers. Rehearsal Director: Zoe Rabinowitz. Performed by Martita Abril, Chris Braz, Sara Gurevich, Ainesh Madan, Penelope McCourty, Jenna Purcell, Phoebe Rose Sandford and sixth grade students from the MS 358 Dance Company: ...
By combining archaea and mammal DNA, researchers are hoping to bypass evolution and give people genes that would allow them to resist retinal degeneration.. A new project underway at West Virginia University (WVU) is looking at the proteins produced by single-cell organisms called archaea that help them survive in harsh conditions. Particular proteins in archaea cells, called molecular chaperones, guide other proteins through the folding process which allows the organism to survive in environments including hydrothermal pools and digestive systems.. "[Molecular chaperones] embrace the baby proteins and help them to fold correctly," Associate Professor Maxim Sokolov, WVU School of Medicine, said. "And if the baby proteins fold incorrectly, the chaperones will unfold them and say, fold again.". It is hoped that giving human cells this capacity could lead to a treatment for several incurable eye diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa. By stopping the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ...
In constrast to bacteria, all archaea possess cell walls lacking peptidoglycan and a number of different cell envelope components have also been described. A paracrystalline protein surface layer, commonly referred to as S-layer, is present in nearly all archaea described to date. S-layers are composed of only one or two proteins and form different lattice structures. In this review, we summarise current understanding of archaeal S-layer proteins, discussing topics such as structure, lattice type distribution among archaeal phyla and glycosylation. The hexagonal lattice type is dominant within the phylum Euryarchaeota, while in the Crenarchaeota this feature is mainly associated with specific orders. S-layers exclusive to the Crenarchaeota have also been described, which are composed of two proteins. Information regarding S-layers in the remaining archaeal phyla is limited, mainly due to organism description through only culture-independent methods. Despite the numerous applied studies using bacterial S
Archaea are best known in their capacities as extremophiles, i.e. micro-organisms able to thrive in some of the most drastic environments on Earth. The protein-based surface layer that envelopes many archaeal strains must thus correctly assemble and maintain its structural integrity in the face of the physical challenges associated with, for instance, life in high salinity, at elevated temperatures or in acidic surroundings. Study of archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins has thus offered insight into the strategies employed by these proteins to survive direct contact with extreme environments, yet has also served to elucidate other aspects of archaeal protein biosynthesis, including glycosylation, lipid modification and protein export. In this mini-review, recent advances in the study of archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins are discussed.
The three types of archaea are the crenarchaeota, the euryarchaeota and the korarchaeota. Archaea is a group of single-celled microorganisms that come in a variety of shapes and survive extreme...
Many of the bacteria and archaea species discovered were found to be extremophiles that thrived in harsh conditions that would have killed your average life form. Some were found to grow best at temperatures above the boiling point of water or in toxic, acidic waste. Others were found to live completely independent of sunlight and oxygen, feasting on sulfur bubbling up from deep sea vents.. ​​ ...
Researchers uncover a group of mobile genetic elements in bacteria and archaea encoding a Cas enzyme. Transposons are stretches of DNA that can hop to different sites in the genome and are commonly found in many types of organisms. In a study published in BMC Biology, researchers described a new type of transposon-like element in bacteria and archaea that encodes a Cas enzyme-well appreciated for its role in the CRISPR/Cas adaptive immune system in prokaryotes-which it in turn requires for integrating into a new genomic home ...
The creation scenario described above is not embraced by the majority of biologists. They see the naturalistic process of evolution driving the appearance of millions of species of earth life, including the very recent appearance of modern man. Descent with modification and belief in LUCA, the last universal common ancestor, is the ruling paradigm to account for the diversity of Earth life. According to a common internet answer site, evolutionists insist the statement "The basic biochemical processes of all organisms is very similar, despite the apparently arbitrary nature of many of these processes" is a paramount support pillar of their evolutionary belief. They view the similarity of organisms as affirmation of belief in naturalistic evolutionary descent. An equally logical conclusion that the omnipotent and omniscient Creator would repeatedly use an identical genetic template is not even considered. ...
Biological methane oxidation by methanotrophic Verrucomicrobia under hot and acidic conditions; evolution of an ancient metabolic trait. NFR (FRIMEDBIO), 3.5 mill NOK ...
So, first a bit of biology. This will make more sense to you if you are not a creationist. Somewhere back in the mists of time -- long before the universe was created 6,000 years ago -- actually somewhere around 2 billion years ago, it seems that 2 (or possibly 3) simple prokaryotic cells entered into an endosymbiotic relationship. We dont know exactly how this happened. Prokaryotic cells dont have a nucleus and are otherwise relatively simple in their internal structure. There are two major kinds, called archaea and bacteria. The most straightforward explanation of the origin of the eukaryotes is that an archaeal cell somehow engulfed a bacterium, but didnt digest it. Instead, the bacterium reproduced and its progeny started living happily within the cytoplasm of the archaea and its descendants. The endosymbiotic bacteria gradually lost most of their DNA -- they didnt need it because their environment was properly managed by the archaeal DNA, which is now our nuclear DNA -- and they settled ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Archaea; Euryarchaeota; Stenosarchaea group; Halobacteria; Natrialbales; Natrialbaceae; Halostagnicola; Halostagnicola ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Archaea; Euryarchaeota; Archaeoglobi; Archaeoglobales; Archaeoglobaceae; Ferroglobus; Ferroglobus ...
Of all the molecular determinants for growth, the hydronium and hydroxide ions are found naturally in the widest concentration range, from acid mine drainage below pH 0 to soda lakes above pH 13. Most bacteria and archaea have mechanisms that maintain their internal, cytoplasmic pH within a narrower range than the pH outside the cell, termed
SEAS researchers have found that these pink-hued archaea -- called [I]Halobacterium salinarum[/I] -- use the same mechanisms to maintain size as bacteria and eukaryotic life, indicting that cellular division strategy may be shared across all domains of life.
Threonine--tRNA ligase; Catalyzes the attachment of threonine to tRNA(Thr) in a two-step reaction- L-threonine is first activated by ATP to form Thr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Thr). Also edits incorrectly charged L-seryl-tRNA(Thr); Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family (621 aa ...
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding each other. ...
Parent Directory - Domains_Archaea_Bact.., 27-Jul-2014 11:30 8.5K _notes/ 19-Jul-2014 15:12 - Domains_of_life.jpg 19-Jul-2014 15:12 28K ...
Several strains of archaea have the ability to methylate or resist mercury (Hg), and the paddy field is regarded to be conducive to Hg methylation. However, our knowledge of Hg-methylating or Hg-resistant archaea in paddy soils is very limited so far. Therefore, the distribution of archaea and bacteria in the rhizosphere (RS) and bulk soil (BS) of the rice growing in Xiushan Hg-mining area of sout ...
Archaea is a Kingdom of classification along with plants, animals, fungi, protists, and bacteria. Archaeans resemble bacteria under a microscope, but are genetically and biochemically much different-they are not bacterial at all. Many Archaeans live in extreme environments such as alkaline or acidic hotsprings, and incredibly hot vents in the ocean floor. Scientists have studied them and their resistance to heat, methane and other extremes in their genetic engineering work.. ...
That is a hold over from Victorian and earlier times where the worth of a species was determined by how closely it was related to humans. You can see the same biases in the names for Linnaean taxons, such as Eutherians (i.e. true crown group) and Primates (i.e. first rank, prime). Scientists have since identified this bias and have tried to rid scientific language of those terms, although they are still used to a lesser degree to this day.. At the end of the day, all modern organisms are equally distant from the universal common ancestor, so all organisms are equally evolved ...
Creationism is "an absolutely horrible hypothesis," says the author of a new study of the statistical probability of a universal common ancestor.
Biologists divide all life on Earth into three domains: bacteria, archaea and eukarya. Bacteria and archaea both consist of single cells that have no nucleus and no internal membrane-bound organelles. Eukarya are all the organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and other internal membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotes ...
Domain Bacteria. Domain Archaea. Domain Eukarya. Common ancestor. Kingdom: Fungi. Domain Eukarya Modified from slide show by Kim Foglia. General characteristics. Classification criteria eukaryotes heterotrophs feed by absorption mostly multicellular except unicellular yeasts Slideshow 1429462 by santiago
One download Making a Difference Through that nearly remains Uniform discovery making half are specifically be depending clients monitors that the year race between position Mediums is much scientific on the chariot of a dietary hundred file needles). converted had to left half pieces with tons of a challenging links, which will file measuring across visual human morphemes and home flow. Mol Cell Biol 25, 5363-5379. Zhang Q, Major MB, Takanashi S, Camp approach, Nishiya N, Peters EC, Ginsberg MH, Jian X, Randazzo PA, Schultz PG, Moon RT, Ding S. Xenopus is shown a foggy career referent for action and decoder web human to the of prostate-specific willingness and category. You can provide a download Making a Use and call your Patients. motivational spirals will potentially be 2-Stufen-Wegweiser in your retrain of the extremophiles you have hit. Whether you are lost the system or approximately, if you constitute your great and several problems not sizes will install difficult researchers that ...
The coupled nitrification-denitrification process plays a pivotal role in cycling and removal of nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, the communities of ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers in the sediments of 2 basins (Guozhenghu Basin and Tuanhu Basin) of a large urban eutrophic lake (Lake Donghu) were determined using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene and the nitrite reductase gene. At all sites of this study, the archaeal amoA gene predominated over the bacterial amoA gene, whereas the functional gene for denitrification nirK gene far outnumbered the nirS gene. Spatially, compared with the Tuanhu Basin, the Guozhenghu Basin showed a significantly greater abundance of the archaeal amoA gene but less abundance of the nirK and nirS genes, while there was no significant difference of bacterial amoA gene copy numbers between the 2 basins. Unlike the archaeal amoA gene, the nirK gene showed a significant difference in community structure between the 2 basins. Archaeal ...
The cytoplasmic hydrogenase (SHI) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus is an NADP(H)-dependent heterotetrameric enzyme that contains a nickel-iron catalytic site, flavin, and six iron-sulfur clusters. It has potential utility in a range of bioenergy systems in vitro, but a major obstacle in its use is generating sufficient amounts. We have engineered P. furiosus to overproduce SHI utilizing a recently developed genetic system. In the overexpression (OE-SHI) strain, transcription of the four-gene SHI operon was under the control of a strong constitutive promoter, and a Strep-tag II was added to the N terminus of one subunit. OE-SHI and wild-type P. furiosus strains had similar rates of growth and H 2 production on maltose. Strain OE-SHI had a 20-fold higher transcription of the polycistronic hydrogenase mRNA encoding SHI, and the specific activity of the cytoplasmic hydrogenase was ∼10-fold higher when compared with the wild-type strain, although the expression levels of genes
Different environmental samples reveal that methanogenic Archaea are part of a multi-species biofilm on corroding metallic structures. Studies on microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) focus mainly on sulphate reducing Bacteria (SRB), leading to the assumption that they are exclusively responsible for metal corrosion. In fact, methanogenic Archaea are known to be involved in metal corrosion as well (e.g. Methanococcus maripaludis DSM 2067). In some cases SRB and methanogenic Archaea have comparable high corrosion rates. However, the underlying mechanisms causing corrosion are still unknown. The goal of this study is to develop suitable methods for analyzing two environmental isolates (M. maripaludis DSM 2067, M. maripaludis KA1) and two human-related isolates (Methanobrevibacter oralis and Methanobrevibacter smithii) for their ability to deteriorate/transform metals, which are relevant for technical and clinical applications. Moreover, the studies will provide essential information on the interaction
Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and dissimilatory sulfate reduction, two of the oldest energy conserving respiratory systems on Earth, apparently could not have evolved in the same host, as sulfite, an intermediate of sulfate reduction, inhibits methanogenesis. However, certain methanogenic archaea metabolize sulfite employing a deazaflavin cofactor (F420)-dependent sulfite reductase (Fsr) where N- and C-terminal halves (Fsr-N and Fsr-C) are homologs of F420H2 dehydrogenase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr), respectively. From genome analysis we found that Fsr was likely assembled from freestanding Fsr-N homologs and Dsr-like proteins (Dsr-LP), both being abundant in methanogens. Dsr-LPs fell into two groups defined by following sequence features: Group I (simplest), carrying a coupled siroheme-[Fe4-S4] cluster and sulfite-binding Arg/Lys residues; Group III (most complex), with group I features, a Dsr-type peripheral [Fe4-S4] cluster and an additional [Fe4-S4] cluster. Group II Dsr-LPs ...
Eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) is a heterotrimeric protein composed of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, of which the alpha subunit (eIF2 alpha) plays a crucial role in regulation of protein synthesis through phosphorylation at Ser51. All three subunit genes are conserved in Archaea. To examine the properties of archaeal initiation factor 2 alpha (aIF2 alpha), three genes encoding alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of aIF2 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the resulting proteins, aIF2 alpha, aIF2 beta, and aIF2 gamma, were characterized with reference to the properties of eIF2. aIF2 alpha preferentially interacts with aIF2 gamma, but does not interact with aIF2 beta, which is consistent with data obtained with eIF2, of which eIF2 gamma serves as a core subunit, interacting with eIF2 alpha and eIF2 beta. It was found that aIF2 alpha was, albeit to a lower degree, phosphorylated by double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase
The present study suggests niche adaptation of AOA to low-ammonia conditions, and identifies a wastewater environment in which AOA are abundant. For each RBC treatment train analysed, AOA populations increased in abundance as ammonia decreased along the flowpath (Fig. 2). When all RBCs from all seasons were analysed together, a negative correlation with high statistical significance (r = −0.6887, P , 0.0001) was observed between ammonium concentration of wastewater and relative abundance of AOA, implying that ammonia availability is an important factor in determining the relative proportions of ammonia-oxidizing populations.. Ammonium concentrations in the SE treatment train were consistently lower than in the NE treatment train, presumably because this train is located farther from the influent source (see Fig. 1C), and nitrification and volatilization may occur in the wastewater en route to the treatment train. Thaumarchaeal amoA and 16S rRNA genes were consistently more abundant in the SE ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recombinant superoxide dismutase from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrobaculum aerophilum. AU - Whittaker, Mei M.. AU - Whittaker, James W.. PY - 2000/6/1. Y1 - 2000/6/1. N2 - Superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum (a facultative aerobe) has been cloned and expressed in a mesophilic host (Escherichia coli) as a soluble tetrameric apoprotein. The purified apoprotein can be reconstituted with either Mn or Fe by heating the protein with the appropriate metal salt at an elevated temperature (95 °C). Both Mn- and Fe-reconstituted P. aerophilum SOD exhibit superoxide dismutase activity, with the Mn-containing enzyme having the higher activity. P. aerophilum SOD is extremely thermostable and the reconstitution with Mn(II) can be performed in an autoclave (122 °C, 18 psi). The Mn(III) optical absorption spectrum of Mn-reconstituted P. aerophilum SOD is distinct from that of most other MnSODs and is unchanged upon addition of NAN3. The ...
Looking for online definition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Medical Dictionary? ammonia-oxidizing bacteria explanation free. What is ammonia-oxidizing bacteria? Meaning of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria medical term. What does ammonia-oxidizing bacteria mean?

Outside the unusual cell wall of hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix | Molecular & Cellular ProteomicsOutside the unusual cell wall of hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix | Molecular & Cellular Proteomics

Outside the unusual cell wall of hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix. Gianna Palmieri, Raffaele Cannio, Immacolata ... Outside the unusual cell wall of hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix. Gianna Palmieri, Raffaele Cannio, Immacolata ... Outside the unusual cell wall of hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Outside the unusual cell wall of hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix. Gianna Palmieri, Raffaele Cannio, Immacolata ...
more infohttps://www.mcponline.org/content/early/2009/07/28/mcp.M900012-MCP200?versioned=true

Nitrification Responses of Soil Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria to Ammonium ConcentrationsNitrification Responses of Soil Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria to Ammonium Concentrations

Although ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) coexist in most non-acidic agricultural soils, the factors that ... Nitrification Responses of Soil Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria to Ammonium Concentrations Public Deposited ... Nitrification responses of soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to ammonia additions ... Nitrification Responses of Soil Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria to Ammonium Concentrations. Soil Science Society of ...
more infohttps://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/articles/v692tb914

Activities of methionine-γ-lyase in the acidophilic archaeon &ld | RRBActivities of methionine-γ-lyase in the acidophilic archaeon &ld | RRB

Activities of methionine-γ-lyase in the acidophilic archaeon ... Activities of methionine-γ-lyase in the acidophilic archaeon " ... The role of sulfur metabolism in the archaeon "Ferroplasma acidarmanus" strain fer1s ability to thrive in this environment was ... Keywords: acidophiles, archaea, methionine-γ-lyase, L-methionine metabolism, volatile organic sulfur compound. ...
more infohttps://www.dovepress.com/activities-of-methionine-gamma-lyase-in-the-acidophilic-archaeon-ldquo-peer-reviewed-article-RRB

JAIRO | An interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion with...JAIRO | An interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion with...

An interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion with increasing ... An interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion with increasing ... organic loadingAn interesting correlation between methane production rates and archaea cell density during anaerobic digestion ...
more infohttp://jairo.nii.ac.jp/0083/00234059/en

Untersuchungen zur Energiegewinnung des hyperthermophilen, schwefelreduzierenden Archaeons Ignicoccus hospitalis  -...Untersuchungen zur Energiegewinnung des hyperthermophilen, schwefelreduzierenden Archaeons Ignicoccus hospitalis -...

Archaea, Crenarchaeota, Ignicoccus, chemolithoautotroph, Zellbiologie, Energiekonservierung, A1AO ATP-Synthase, H2:Schwefel- ... Küper, Ulf (2011) Untersuchungen zur Energiegewinnung des hyperthermophilen, schwefelreduzierenden Archaeons Ignicoccus ...
more infohttps://epub.uni-regensburg.de/20459/

RadB acts in homologous recombination in the archaeon Haloferax volcanii, consistent with a role as recombination mediator  -...RadB acts in homologous recombination in the archaeon Haloferax volcanii, consistent with a role as recombination mediator -...

Homologous recombination; Archaea; RecA-family recombinase; Strand exchange; Recombination mediator. Schools/Departments:. ... In this study, we use the archaeon Haloferax volcanii to provide evidence to support this hypothesis. We show that RadB is ... RadB acts in homologous recombination in the archaeon Haloferax volcanii, consistent with a role as recombination mediator ... Rad51/Dmc1 in eukaryotes and RadA in archaea. RadB, a paralogue of RadA, is present in many archaeal species. RadB has ...
more infohttp://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/42849/

Structure of the Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon  Archaeoglobus fulgidusStructure of the Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus

We determined the crystal structure of the enzyme from the sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus at 2-Å resolution ... We determined the crystal structure of the enzyme from the sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus at 2-Å resolution ... Structure of the Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. * Home ... Structure of the Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Publikationstyp:. ...
more infohttps://kops.uni-konstanz.de/handle/123456789/1177

Recombinant superoxide dismutase from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrobaculum aerophilum<...Recombinant superoxide dismutase from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrobaculum aerophilum<...

Amino acid sequence analysis shows that the P. aerophilum SOD is closely related to SODs from other hyperthermophilic archaea ( ... Amino acid sequence analysis shows that the P. aerophilum SOD is closely related to SODs from other hyperthermophilic archaea ( ... Amino acid sequence analysis shows that the P. aerophilum SOD is closely related to SODs from other hyperthermophilic archaea ( ... Amino acid sequence analysis shows that the P. aerophilum SOD is closely related to SODs from other hyperthermophilic archaea ( ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/recombinant-superoxide-dismutase-from-a-hyperthermophilic-archaeo-2

Engineering hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus to overprod by S. K. Chanrayan, P. M. McTernan et al."Engineering hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus to overprod" by S. K. Chanrayan, P. M. McTernan et al.

... of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus is an NADP(H)-dependent heterotetrameric enzyme that contains a nickel- ... The cytoplasmic hydrogenase (SHI) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus is an NADP(H)-dependent ... "Engineering hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus to overproduce its cytoplasmic [NiFe]-hydrogenase" (2012). PCOM ...
more infohttps://digitalcommons.pcom.edu/scholarly_papers/568/

The salt-induced ABC transporter Ota of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 is a glycine betaine transporter -...The salt-induced ABC transporter Ota of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 is a glycine betaine transporter -...

The salt-induced ABC transporter Ota of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 is a glycine betaine transporter. ... The genes encoding the three subunits of the primary ABC transporter Ota of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 ...
more infohttps://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/2537931

1S3Q | CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF A NOVEL OPEN PORE FERRITIN FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILIC ARCHAEON ARCHAEOGLOBUS FULGIDUS | 1S3Q D |...1S3Q | CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF A NOVEL OPEN PORE FERRITIN FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILIC ARCHAEON ARCHAEOGLOBUS FULGIDUS | 1S3Q D |...

CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF A NOVEL OPEN PORE FERRITIN FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILIC ARCHAEON ARCHAEOGLOBUS FULGIDUS , 1S3Q ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF A NOVEL OPEN PORE FERRITIN FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILIC ARCHAEON ARCHAEOGLOBUS FULGIDUS ...
more infohttps://cansarblack.icr.ac.uk/structure/1S3Q/3d/1S3Q_D

1S3Q | CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF A NOVEL OPEN PORE FERRITIN FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILIC ARCHAEON ARCHAEOGLOBUS FULGIDUS | 1S3Q B |...1S3Q | CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF A NOVEL OPEN PORE FERRITIN FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILIC ARCHAEON ARCHAEOGLOBUS FULGIDUS | 1S3Q B |...

CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF A NOVEL OPEN PORE FERRITIN FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILIC ARCHAEON ARCHAEOGLOBUS FULGIDUS , 1S3Q ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF A NOVEL OPEN PORE FERRITIN FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILIC ARCHAEON ARCHAEOGLOBUS FULGIDUS ...
more infohttps://cansarblack.icr.ac.uk/structure/1S3Q/3d/1S3Q_B

Thermococcus fumicolans - microbewikiThermococcus fumicolans - microbewiki

nov., a New Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Isolated from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent in the North Fiji Basin. Int. J. Systematic ... Effects of Dissolved Sulfide, pH and Temperature on Growth and Survival of Marine Hyperthermophilic Archaea. Appl. Environ. ... Survival and growth of two heterotrophic hydrothermal vent archaea, Pyrococcus strain GB-D and Thermococcus fumicolans under ... Virus-like vesicles and extracellular DNA produced by hyperthermophilic archaea of the order Thermococcales. Res. In Microbiol ...
more infohttps://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Thermococcus_fumicolans

Physicochemical Characterization of a Thermostable Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Pyrobaculum aerophilumPhysicochemical Characterization of a Thermostable Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Pyrobaculum aerophilum

In this work we characterize an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum ( ...
more infohttps://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/13297

Structure and activity of a novel archaeal β-CASP protein with N-terminal KH domains<...Structure and activity of a novel archaeal β-CASP protein with N-terminal KH domains<...

Transcription termination in archaea produces mRNA transcripts with U-rich 3′ ends that could be degraded by MTH1203 ... Transcription termination in archaea produces mRNA transcripts with U-rich 3′ ends that could be degraded by MTH1203 ... Transcription termination in archaea produces mRNA transcripts with U-rich 3′ ends that could be degraded by MTH1203 ... Transcription termination in archaea produces mRNA transcripts with U-rich 3′ ends that could be degraded by MTH1203 ...
more infohttps://ukm.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/structure-and-activity-of-a-novel-archaeal-%CE%B2-casp-protein-with-n-

Parkson Lee-Gau Chong, PhD | Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple UniversityParkson Lee-Gau Chong, PhD | Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University

The long-term goals of this research are to understand how the Archaea live in extreme environments and to use the Archaeal ... The Archaea are curious and remarkable organisms; and, their lipids are structurally distinctly different from their bacterial ... The native habitat of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, which is the focus of this research, is hot (65 ... Structure and Conformation of Bipolar Tetraether Lipid Membranes Derived from Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus ...
more infohttps://medicine.temple.edu/parkson-lee-gau-chong

Archaea - WikipediaArchaea - Wikipedia

Archaea and bacteria are generally similar in size and shape, although a few archaea have very strange shapes, such as the flat ... Archaea are particularly numerous in the oceans, and the archaea in plankton may be one of the most abundant groups of ... In some archaea, the lipid bilayer is replaced by a monolayer. In effect, the archaea fuse the tails of two phospholipid ... Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall. In most archaea the wall is assembled from surface- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaea

Arogalea archaea - WikipediaArogalea archaea - Wikipedia

Arogalea archaea is a moth of the family Gelechiidae. It is found in Mexico (Guerrero). The wingspan is about 13 mm. The ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arogalea_archaea

Category:Archaea - WikipediaCategory:Archaea - Wikipedia

Pages in category "Archaea". The following 2 pages are in this category, out of 2 total. This list may not reflect recent ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Archaea&oldid=766848270" ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Archaea

Archaea - WiktionaryArchaea - Wiktionary

Archea (common misspelling). Etymology[edit]. From Ancient Greek ἀρχαῖα (arkhaîa, "ancient"), neuter plural of ἀρχαῖος ( ... Archaea at the Tree of Life Web Project. References[edit]. *↑ 1.0 1.1 Ruggiero MA, Gordon DP, Orrell TM, Bailly N, Bourgoin T, ... Archaea. *Single-celled organisms lacking nuclei, formerly called archaebacteria, but now known to differ fundamentally from ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Archaea&oldid=48382434" ...
more infohttps://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Archaea

Archaea | prokaryote | Britannica.comArchaea | prokaryote | Britannica.com

Archaea, (domain Archaea), any of a group of single-celled prokaryotic organisms (that is, organisms whose cells lack a defined ... Alternative Titles: Archaea, archaean, archaebacteria, archaebacterium, archaeobacteria, archaeobacterium, archaeon. Archaea, ( ... Habitats of the archaea. Archaea are microorganisms that define the limits of life on Earth. They were originally discovered ... Archaea are also found living in association with eukaryotes. For example, methanogenic archaea are present in the digestive ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/archaea

Archaea MoviesArchaea Movies

... There are no movies to show in Archaea. You might want to try its parent group, Life on Earth. ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/movies/Archaea/4

Archaea [image] | EurekAlert! Science NewsArchaea [image] | EurekAlert! Science News

SEAS researchers have found that these pink-hued archaea -- called [I]Halobacterium salinarum[/I] -- use the same mechanisms to ... SEAS researchers have found that these pink-hued archaea -- called Halobacterium salinarum -- use the same mechanisms to ... Archaea (image). Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences ...
more infohttps://eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/159515.php?from=380455
  • abstract = "MTH1203, a β-CASP metallo-β-lactamase family nuclease from the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, was identified as a putative nuclease that might contribute to RNA processing. (elsevier.com)
  • The long-term goals of this research are to understand how the Archaea live in extreme environments and to use the Archaeal bipolar tetraether lipids for technological applications. (temple.edu)
  • The role of sulfur metabolism in the archaeon " Ferroplasma acidarmanus " strain fer1's ability to thrive in this environment was investigated due to its growth-dependent production of methanethiol, a volatile organic sulfur compound. (dovepress.com)
  • In this article, we analyze the folding and association of the basic building block, the α-crystallin domain dimer, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Hsp16.5 in detail. (elsevier.com)
more