Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE comprising many viruses, most of which are transmitted by Phlebotomus flies and cause PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER. The type species is RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE family. Previously a large group of serotypes, most are now considered separate species.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.

Mechanisms of arthropod transmission of plant and animal viruses. (1/307)

A majority of the plant-infecting viruses and many of the animal-infecting viruses are dependent upon arthropod vectors for transmission between hosts and/or as alternative hosts. The viruses have evolved specific associations with their vectors, and we are beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate the virus transmission process. A majority of plant viruses are carried on the cuticle lining of a vector's mouthparts or foregut. This initially appeared to be simple mechanical contamination, but it is now known to be a biologically complex interaction between specific virus proteins and as yet unidentified vector cuticle-associated compounds. Numerous other plant viruses and the majority of animal viruses are carried within the body of the vector. These viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to enable them to be transported through multiple tissues and to evade vector defenses. In response, vector species have evolved so that not all individuals within a species are susceptible to virus infection or can serve as a competent vector. Not only are the virus components of the transmission process being identified, but also the genetic and physiological components of the vectors which determine their ability to be used successfully by the virus are being elucidated. The mechanisms of arthropod-virus associations are many and complex, but common themes are beginning to emerge which may allow the development of novel strategies to ultimately control epidemics caused by arthropod-borne viruses.  (+info)

Genetic and fitness changes accompanying adaptation of an arbovirus to vertebrate and invertebrate cells. (2/307)

The alternating host cycle and persistent vector infection may constrain the evolution of arboviruses. To test this hypothesis, eastern equine encephalitis virus was passaged in BHK or mosquito cells, as well as in alternating (both) host cell passages. High and low multiplicities were used to examine the effect of defective interfering particles. Clonal BHK and persistent mosquito cell infections were also evaluated. Fitness was measured with one-step growth curves and competition assays, and mutations were evaluated by nucleotide sequencing and RNA fingerprinting. All passages and assays were done at 32 degrees C to eliminate temperature as a selection factor. Viruses passaged in either cell type alone exhibited fitness declines in the bypassed cells, while high-multiplicity and clonal passages caused fitness declines in both types of cells. Bypassed cell fitness losses were mosquito and vertebrate specific and were not restricted to individual cell lines. Fitness increases occurred in the cell line used for single-host-adaptation passages and in both cells for alternately passaged viruses. Surprisingly, single-host-cell passage increased fitness in that cell type no more than alternating passages. However, single-host-cell adaptation resulted in more mutations than alternating cell passages. Mosquito cell adaptation invariably resulted in replacement of the stop codon in nsP3 with arginine or cysteine. In one case, BHK cell adaptation resulted in a 238-nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region. Many nonsynonymous substitutions were shared among more than one BHK or mosquito cell passage series, suggesting positive Darwinian selection. Our results suggest that alternating host transmission cycles constrain the evolutionary rates of arboviruses but not their fitness for either host alone.  (+info)

Establishment and characterization of a new continuous cell line from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: psychodidae) and its susceptibility to infections with arboviruses and Leishmania chagasi. (3/307)

Embryonic tissue explants of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912) the main vector of Leishmania chagasi (Cunha and Chagas), were used to obtain a continuous cell line (Lulo). The tissues were seeded in MM/VP12 medium and these were incubated at 28 masculineC. The first subculture was obtained 45 days after explanting and 96 passages have been made to date. Lulo is composed of epithelioid cells, showed a 0.04 generations/hour exponential growth rate and population doubling time at 24.7 h. The cell line isoenzymatic profiles were determined by using PGI, PGM, MPI and 6-PGDH systems, coinciding with patterns obtained from the same species and colony's pupae and adults. The species karyotype characteristics were recognized (2n = 8), in which pair 1 is subtelocentric and pairs 2, 3 and 4 are metacentric. Lulo was free from bacterial, fungal, mycoplasmic and viral infection. Susceptibility to five arbovirus was determined, the same as Lulo interaction with Leishmania promastigotes.  (+info)

Complete sequence determination and genetic analysis of Banna virus and Kadipiro virus: proposal for assignment to a new genus (Seadornavirus) within the family Reoviridae. (4/307)

Arboviruses with genomes composed of 12 segments of double-stranded (ds) RNA have previously been classified as members or probable members of the genus Coltivirus within the family REOVIRIDAE: A number of these viruses have been isolated in North America and Europe and are serologically and genetically related to Colorado tick fever virus, the Coltivirus type species. These isolates constitute subgroup A of the coltiviruses. The complete genome sequences are now presented of two Asian arboviruses, Kadipiro virus (KDV) and Banna virus (BAV), which are currently classified as subgroup B coltiviruses. Analysis of the viral protein sequences shows that all of the BAV genome segments have cognate genes in KDV. The functions of several of these proteins were also indicated by this analysis. Proteins with dsRNA-binding domains or with significant similarities to polymerases, methyltransferases, NTPases or protein kinases were identified. Comparisons of amino acid sequences of the conserved polymerase protein have shown that BAV and KDV are only very distantly related to the subgroup A coltiviruses. These data demonstrate a requirement for the subgroup B viruses to be reassigned to a separate new genus, for which the name Seadornavirus is proposed.  (+info)

Kaeng Khoi virus from naturally infected bedbugs (cimicidae) and immature free-tailed bats. (5/307)

Kaeng Khoi virus was recovered from bedbugs (Stricticimex parvus and Cimex insuetus) and from suckling wrinkle-lipped bats (Tadarida plicata) collected in central Thailand. The data implicate bedbugs as possible vectors of this virus.  (+info)

Snail control in urban sites in Brazil with slow-release hexabutyldistannoxane and pentachlorophenol. (6/307)

Slow release formulations of hexabutyldistannoxane (TBTO) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were tested for the control of Biomphalaria tenagophila in 52 urban sites in Rio de Janeiro. TBTO acted faster and lasted longer than PCP and at 15 g/m(2) it eliminated snails from 76% of the treated sites for 1 year. Water pollution and rate of flow had no significant influence on the molluscicidal properties of either compound, but alkalinity lowered the activity of TBTO. Failure to control snail populations was due mainly to human interference and to the non-treatment of adjacent breeding sites that were temporarily dry and therefore overlooked.  (+info)

Assay of togavirus haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies by the micro method: loss of information and its rectification. (7/307)

Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) activity was assayed by the micro and macro methods in immune sera prepared against four togaviruses. HI titres were always 4 to 8 times lower by the micro method, and coincided with 4 to 8 times lower haemagglutinin titres in micro method assays. Because of this phenomenon, positive sera with HI macro method titres lower than 1: 80 will be false negative for HI by the micro method when tests begin at a 1: 10 serum dilution. This was confirmed for a number of human sera tested for West Nile virus HI activity. As a consequence of the difference between titres given by the two assay methods, results of seroepidemiological studies may be distorted. Use of a system that combines both the macro and micro methods could rectify this distortion.  (+info)

Inhibition of group B arbovirus antigen production and replication in cells enucleated with cytochalasin B. (8/307)

A comparative study of the growth of Sindbis (SIN) virus, a group A arbovirus (togavirus), and Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, a representative group B arbovirus (togavirus), was conducted in enucleate and nucleate cells. Immunofluorescent tests and yield measurements demonstrated that chicken embryo cells which had been enucleated and subsequently infected with SIN virus produced virus-specific antigens and infectious virus. By contrast, JE failed to replicate or produce virus-specific antigen in cells which had been enucleated before or even 2 h post infection. Studies of the effect of enulceation at various times after infection demonstrated that a nucleus must be present at least 2 and possibly as long as 4 h after infection to produce either JE-specific antigen or infectious JE virus. These studies demonstrate that the replication of SIN, a group A arbovirus (togavirus), which has no nuclear requirement, contrasts sharply with that of a group B arbovirus (togavirus), JE, which may have an initial dependence on a nucleus-associated process.  (+info)

Arboviruses are a group of viruses that are primarily transmitted to humans and animals through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sandflies. The term "arbovirus" is short for "arthropod-borne virus."

Arboviruses can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the individual host's immune response. Some common symptoms associated with arboviral infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In severe cases, arboviral infections can lead to serious complications such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), or hemorrhagic fever (bleeding disorders).

There are hundreds of different arboviruses, and they are found in many parts of the world. Some of the most well-known arboviral diseases include dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika virus infection, West Nile virus infection, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis.

Prevention of arboviral infections typically involves avoiding mosquito bites and other arthropod vectors through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito feeding times. Public health efforts also focus on reducing vector populations through environmental management and the use of larvicides. Vaccines are available for some arboviral diseases, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

Arbovirus infections are a group of diseases caused by viruses that are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. "Arbo" is short for "arthropod-borne."

There are over 150 different Arboviruses, but only a few cause significant illness in humans. Some of the most common Arbovirus infections include:

* Dengue fever
* Chikungunya fever
* Yellow fever
* Zika virus infection
* Japanese encephalitis
* West Nile fever
* Tick-borne encephalitis

The symptoms of Arbovirus infections can vary widely, depending on the specific virus and the individual infected. Some people may experience only mild illness or no symptoms at all, while others may develop severe, life-threatening complications.

Common symptoms of Arbovirus infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In more severe cases, Arbovirus infections can cause neurological problems such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain).

There is no specific treatment for most Arbovirus infections. Treatment is generally supportive, with fluids and medications to relieve symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as dehydration or neurological problems.

Prevention of Arbovirus infections involves avoiding mosquito and tick bites, using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes and ticks. Vaccines are available to prevent some Arbovirus infections, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

Encephalitis viruses are a group of viruses that can cause encephalitis, which is an inflammation of the brain. Some of the most common encephalitis viruses include:

1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2: These viruses are best known for causing cold sores and genital herpes, but they can also cause encephalitis, particularly in newborns and individuals with weakened immune systems.
2. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV): This virus causes chickenpox and shingles, and it can also lead to encephalitis, especially in people who have had chickenpox.
3. Enteroviruses: These viruses are often responsible for summertime meningitis outbreaks and can occasionally cause encephalitis.
4. Arboviruses: These viruses are transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects. Examples include West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Western equine encephalitis virus.
5. Rabies virus: This virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal and can cause encephalitis in its later stages.
6. Measles virus: Although rare in developed countries due to vaccination, measles can still cause encephalitis as a complication of the infection.
7. Mumps virus: Like measles, mumps is preventable through vaccination, but it can also lead to encephalitis as a rare complication.
8. Cytomegalovirus (CMV): This virus is a member of the herpesvirus family and can cause encephalitis in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients.
9. La Crosse virus: This arbovirus is primarily transmitted through the bites of infected eastern treehole mosquitoes and mainly affects children.
10. Powassan virus: Another arbovirus, Powassan virus is transmitted through the bites of infected black-legged ticks (also known as deer ticks) and can cause severe encephalitis.

It's important to note that many of these viruses are preventable through vaccination or by avoiding exposure to infected animals or mosquitoes. If you suspect you may have been exposed to one of these viruses, consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

'Culicidae' is the biological family that includes all species of mosquitoes. It consists of three subfamilies: Anophelinae, Culicinae, and Toxorhynchitinae. Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that are known for their ability to transmit various diseases to humans and other animals, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The medical importance of Culicidae comes from the fact that only female mosquitoes require blood meals to lay eggs, and during this process, they can transmit pathogens between hosts.

"Aedes" is a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit various diseases, including Zika virus, dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These mosquitoes are typically found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. They are distinguished by their black and white striped legs and thorax. Aedes aegypti is the most common species associated with disease transmission, although other species such as Aedes albopictus can also transmit diseases. It's important to note that only female mosquitoes bite and feed on blood, while males feed solely on nectar and plant juices.

Ceratopogonidae is a family of small flies, also known as biting midges or no-see-ums. They are characterized by their slender segmented bodies, feathery antennae, and wings with extensive venation. Some species in this family are known to be vectors of various diseases, such as human and animal forms of filariasis, blue tongue virus in sheep, and several viral diseases in horses. The larvae of these flies are aquatic or semi-aquatic and can be found in a variety of habitats including wet soil, decaying vegetation, and freshwater bodies.

Insect vectors are insects that transmit disease-causing pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, parasites) from one host to another. They do this while feeding on the host's blood or tissues. The insects themselves are not infected by the pathogen but act as mechanical carriers that pass it on during their bite. Examples of diseases spread by insect vectors include malaria (transmitted by mosquitoes), Lyme disease (transmitted by ticks), and plague (transmitted by fleas). Proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and reducing standing water where mosquitoes breed, can help reduce the risk of contracting these diseases.

'Culex' is a genus of mosquitoes that includes many species that are vectors for various diseases, such as West Nile virus, filariasis, and avian malaria. They are often referred to as "house mosquitoes" because they are commonly found in urban environments. These mosquitoes typically lay their eggs in standing water and have a cosmopolitan distribution, being found on all continents except Antarctica. The life cycle of Culex mosquitoes includes four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Both male and female adults feed on nectar, but only females require blood meals to lay eggs.

St. Louis Encephalitis Virus (SLEV) is a type of arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) from the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus. It is the causative agent of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), a viral disease characterized by inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly Culex spp.

The SLEV infection in humans is often asymptomatic or may cause mild flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, nausea, and vomiting. However, in some cases, the virus can invade the central nervous system, leading to severe neurological manifestations like meningitis, encephalitis, seizures, and even coma or death. The risk of severe disease increases in older adults and people with weakened immune systems.

There is no specific antiviral treatment for SLE; management typically focuses on supportive care to alleviate symptoms and address complications. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites, using insect repellents, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes. Vaccines are not available for SLEV, but they have been developed and tested in the past, with potential for future use in high-risk populations during outbreaks.

"Alouatta" is a genus of species that are commonly known as howler monkeys. They are native to the forests of Central and South America. These monkeys are recognized for their loud howls, which can be heard miles away in the forest. The howls are used to communicate with other members of their group and establish territory. Howler monkeys have a strong grip and spend most of their time in the trees. They are primarily herbivores, eating mostly leaves, fruits, and buds.

Alphaviruses are a genus of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that belong to the family Togaviridae. They are enveloped viruses and have a icosahedral symmetry with a diameter of approximately 70 nanometers. Alphaviruses are transmitted to vertebrates by mosquitoes and other arthropods, and can cause a range of diseases in humans and animals, including arthritis, encephalitis, and rash.

Some examples of alphaviruses that can infect humans include Chikungunya virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These viruses are usually found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, and can cause outbreaks of disease in humans and animals.

Alphaviruses have a wide host range, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and insects. They replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and have a genome that encodes four non-structural proteins (nsP1 to nsP4) involved in viral replication, and five structural proteins (C, E3, E2, 6K, and E1) that form the virion.

Prevention and control of alphavirus infections rely on avoiding mosquito bites, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and reducing mosquito breeding sites. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for alphavirus infections, but supportive care can help manage symptoms. Vaccines are available for some alphaviruses, such as Eastern equine encephalitis virus and Western equine encephalitis virus, but not for others, such as Chikungunya virus.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The name "Chikungunya" is derived from a Makonde word meaning "to become contorted," which describes the stooped posture developed as a result of severe arthralgia (joint pain) that is a primary symptom of infection with this virus.

CHIKV infection typically causes a febrile illness, characterized by an abrupt onset of high fever, severe joint pain, muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue, and rash. While the symptoms are usually self-limiting and resolve within 10 days, some individuals may experience persistent or recurring joint pain for several months or even years after the initial infection.

There is no specific antiviral treatment available for Chikungunya virus infection, and management primarily focuses on relieving symptoms with rest, fluids, and over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, staying in air-conditioned or screened rooms, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes breed.

Chikungunya virus is found primarily in Africa, Asia, and the Indian subcontinent, but it has also caused outbreaks in Europe and the Americas due to the spread of its vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The virus can cause large-scale epidemics, with millions of cases reported during outbreaks. There is currently no approved vaccine for Chikungunya virus infection.

Bunyaviridae is a family of viruses that includes several genera capable of causing human disease. These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes and ticks, or through contact with infected rodents or their excreta.

Some of the diseases caused by Bunyaviridae infections include:

1. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS): This is a severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease caused by hantaviruses. It is transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their urine and droppings.
2. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF): This is a serious and often fatal viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the CCHF virus. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks, but can also be spread through contact with the blood or tissue of infected animals.
3. Rift Valley Fever (RVF): This is a viral disease that primarily affects animals, but can also infect humans. It is transmitted to humans through contact with the blood or tissue of infected animals, or through the bite of infected mosquitoes.
4. La Crosse Encephalitis: This is a viral disease transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. It primarily affects children and can cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis).
5. Toscana Virus Infection: This is a viral disease transmitted to humans through the bite of infected sandflies. It can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and meningitis.

Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents and their excreta, using insect repellent and wearing protective clothing to prevent mosquito and tick bites, and seeking prompt medical attention if symptoms of a Bunyaviridae infection develop.

Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) is a type of viral encephalitis that is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes. It is caused by the western equine encephalitis virus, which belongs to the family Togaviridae and the genus Alphavirus.

WEEV is most commonly found in North America, particularly in the western and central regions of the United States and Canada. The virus is maintained in a natural cycle between mosquitoes and birds, but it can also infect horses and humans.

In humans, WEEV infection can cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological manifestations such as encephalitis, meningitis, and seizures. The virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly Culex tarsalis.

The incubation period for WEEV is typically 4-10 days, after which symptoms may appear suddenly or gradually. Mild cases of WEEV may be asymptomatic or may cause fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. Severe cases may involve neck stiffness, disorientation, seizures, coma, and permanent neurological damage.

There is no specific treatment for WEEV, and management is primarily supportive. Prevention measures include the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and avoiding outdoor activities during peak mosquito hours. Public health authorities may also implement mosquito control measures to reduce the risk of transmission.

St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE) is a type of viral brain inflammation caused by the St. Louis Encephalitis virus. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, primarily Culex species. The virus breeds in warm, stagnant water and is more prevalent in rural and suburban areas.

Most people infected with SLE virus do not develop symptoms or only experience mild flu-like illness. However, some individuals, particularly the elderly, can develop severe illness characterized by sudden onset of fever, headache, neck stiffness, disorientation, coma, seizures, and spastic paralysis. There is no specific treatment for SLE, and management is focused on supportive care, including hydration, respiratory support, and prevention of secondary infections. Vaccination against SLE is not available, and prevention measures include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating standing water around homes to reduce mosquito breeding sites.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Togaviridae and the genus Alphavirus. It is the causative agent of Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), a rare but serious viral disease that can affect humans, horses, and some bird species.

EEEV is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the Culiseta and Coquillettidia genera. The virus is maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and wild birds, primarily passerine birds. Horses and humans are considered dead-end hosts, meaning they do not develop high enough levels of viremia to infect feeding mosquitoes and perpetuate the transmission cycle.

EEE is most commonly found in the eastern and Gulf Coast states of the United States, as well as in parts of Canada, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. The disease can cause severe neurological symptoms, including inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), meningitis, and neuritis. In severe cases, EEE can lead to seizures, coma, and death. There is no specific treatment for EEE, and prevention efforts focus on reducing mosquito populations and avoiding mosquito bites.

Bunyaviridae is a family of enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses that includes more than 350 different species. These viruses are named after the type species, Bunyamwera virus, which was first isolated in 1943 from mosquitoes in Uganda.

The genome of Bunyaviridae viruses is divided into three segments: large (L), medium (M), and small (S). The L segment encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which is responsible for replication and transcription of the viral genome. The M segment encodes two glycoproteins that form the viral envelope and are involved in attachment and fusion to host cells. The S segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein, which packages the viral RNA, and a non-structural protein that is involved in modulation of the host immune response.

Bunyaviridae viruses are transmitted to humans and animals through arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sandflies. Some members of this family can cause severe disease in humans, including Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Rift Valley fever.

Prevention and control measures for Bunyaviridae viruses include avoiding contact with vectors, using insect repellent and wearing protective clothing, and implementing vector control programs. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for most Bunyaviridae infections, although ribavirin has been shown to be effective against some members of the family. Vaccines are available for a few Bunyaviridae viruses, such as Hantavirus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, but they are not widely used due to limitations in production and distribution.

West Nile Virus (WNV) is an Flavivirus, which is a type of virus that is spread by mosquitoes. It was first discovered in the West Nile district of Uganda in 1937 and has since been found in many countries throughout the world. WNV can cause a mild to severe illness known as West Nile fever.

Most people who become infected with WNV do not develop any symptoms, but some may experience fever, headache, body aches, joint pain, vomiting, diarrhea, or a rash. In rare cases, the virus can cause serious neurological illnesses such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord). These severe forms of the disease can be fatal, especially in older adults and people with weakened immune systems.

WNV is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, but it can also be spread through blood transfusions, organ transplants, or from mother to baby during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. There is no specific treatment for WNV, and most people recover on their own with rest and supportive care. However, hospitalization may be necessary in severe cases. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites by using insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito activity hours.

There is no medical definition or specific virus named "Encephalitis Virus, California." However, there are several viruses that can cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and some of them have been identified in California. Some examples include:

1. West Nile Virus: A mosquito-borne virus that is the most common cause of encephalitis in the United States, including California.
2. St. Louis Encephalitis Virus: Another mosquito-borne virus that is less common but can cause encephalitis, particularly in older adults. It has been identified in California.
3. Californian serogroup viruses (La Crosse, Jamestown Canyon, Snowshoe Hare): These are transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes and have been known to cause encephalitis, particularly in children. They are named after California because they were first identified there.
4. Tick-borne encephalitis viruses: There are several tick-borne viruses that can cause encephalitis, including Powassan virus and deer tick virus. These have been reported in California but are rare.

It's important to note that any virus that causes an infection in the body has the potential to spread to the brain and cause encephalitis, so there are many other viruses that could potentially be associated with encephalitis in California or any other location.

Alphavirus infections refer to a group of diseases caused by viruses belonging to the Alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae family. These viruses are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific virus and the individual's immune response.

Some of the more common alphaviruses that cause human disease include:

* Chikungunya virus (CHIKV): This virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and can cause a fever, rash, and severe joint pain. While most people recover from CHIKV infection within a few weeks, some may experience long-term joint pain and inflammation.
* Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV): This virus is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on both birds and mammals, including humans. EEEV can cause severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, seizures, and coma. It has a high mortality rate of up to 30-50% in infected individuals.
* Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV): This virus is also transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on both birds and mammals. WEEV can cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, and seizures. It has a lower mortality rate than EEEV but can still cause significant illness.
* Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV): This virus is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on horses and other mammals, including humans. VEEV can cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, and seizures. It is considered a potential bioterrorism agent due to its ability to cause severe illness and death in large populations.

There are no specific treatments for alphavirus infections other than supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito hours. Public health efforts also focus on reducing mosquito populations through environmental controls such as eliminating standing water and using insecticides.

Arthropod vectors are living organisms, specifically arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and lice, that can transmit infectious agents (such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites) from one host to another. This process is called vector-borne transmission. The arthropod vectors become infected with the pathogen while taking a blood meal from an infected host, then transmit the pathogen to another host during subsequent feedings. The transmission can occur through various means, including biting, stinging, or even mechanical contact. It's important to note that not all arthropods are vectors, and only certain species within each group are capable of transmitting diseases.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests are a type of serological assay used in medical laboratories to detect and measure the amount of antibodies present in a patient's serum. These tests are commonly used to diagnose viral infections, such as influenza or HIV, by identifying the presence of antibodies that bind to specific viral antigens and prevent hemagglutination (the agglutination or clumping together of red blood cells).

In an HI test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of the viral antigen, which has been treated to attach to red blood cells. If the patient's serum contains antibodies that bind to the viral antigen, they will prevent the antigen from attaching to the red blood cells and inhibit hemagglutination. The degree of hemagglutination inhibition can be measured and used to estimate the amount of antibody present in the patient's serum.

HI tests are relatively simple and inexpensive to perform, but they have some limitations. For example, they may not detect early-stage infections before the body has had a chance to produce antibodies, and they may not be able to distinguish between different strains of the same virus. Nonetheless, HI tests remain an important tool for diagnosing viral infections and monitoring immune responses to vaccination or infection.

A disease vector is a living organism that transmits infectious pathogens from one host to another. These vectors can include mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and other arthropods that carry viruses, bacteria, parasites, or other disease-causing agents. The vector becomes infected with the pathogen after biting an infected host, and then transmits the infection to another host through its saliva or feces during a subsequent blood meal.

Disease vectors are of particular concern in public health because they can spread diseases rapidly and efficiently, often over large geographic areas. Controlling vector-borne diseases requires a multifaceted approach that includes reducing vector populations, preventing bites, and developing vaccines or treatments for the associated diseases.

West Nile Fever is defined as a viral infection primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The virus responsible for this febrile illness, known as West Nile Virus (WNV), is maintained in nature between mosquito vectors and avian hosts. Although most individuals infected with WNV are asymptomatic, some may develop a mild, flu-like illness characterized by fever, headache, fatigue, body aches, skin rash, and swollen lymph glands. A minority of infected individuals, particularly the elderly and immunocompromised, may progress to severe neurological symptoms such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), or acute flaccid paralysis (sudden weakness in the limbs). The diagnosis is confirmed through laboratory tests, such as serological assays or nucleic acid amplification techniques. Treatment primarily focuses on supportive care, as there are no specific antiviral therapies available for West Nile Fever. Preventive measures include personal protection against mosquito bites and vector control strategies to reduce mosquito populations.

Arbovirus encephalitis is a type of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) caused by a group of viruses that are transmitted through the bite of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes or ticks. The term "arbovirus" stands for "arthropod-borne virus."

There are many different types of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis, including:

* La Crosse virus
* St. Louis encephalitis virus
* West Nile virus
* Eastern equine encephalitis virus
* Western equine encephalitis virus
* Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

The symptoms of arbovirus encephalitis can vary, but may include fever, headache, stiff neck, seizures, confusion, and weakness. In severe cases, it can lead to coma or death. Treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, as there is no specific antiviral treatment for most types of arbovirus encephalitis. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito and tick bites, using insect repellent, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes breed.

Flavivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Flaviviridae. They are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that are primarily transmitted by arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks. Many flaviviruses cause significant disease in humans, including dengue fever, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and Zika fever. The name "flavivirus" is derived from the Latin word for "yellow," referring to the yellow fever virus, which was one of the first members of this genus to be discovered.

Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) is a rare but serious viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. It is caused by the Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), which is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito.

EEE is most commonly found in the eastern and Gulf Coast states of the United States, as well as parts of Canada, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. The disease is more common in the summer and early fall months when mosquitoes are most active.

Symptoms of EEE can include sudden onset of fever, headache, stiff neck, disorientation, seizures, and coma. In severe cases, EEE can lead to permanent neurological damage or death. There is no specific treatment for EEE, and care is primarily supportive. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites and using insect repellent.

EEE is a serious disease that requires prompt medical attention. If you experience symptoms of EEE or have been exposed to mosquitoes in an area where the virus is known to be present, it is important to seek medical care immediately.

Orbivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Sedoreoviridae, order Reovirales. They are non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses with an icosahedral symmetry and a genome consisting of 10 segments. Orbiviruses infect various species of animals, including humans, causing a range of diseases such as African horse sickness, blue tongue disease, and Colorado tick fever. The virus is typically transmitted through the bite of arthropod vectors, such as ticks and mosquitoes, or through contact with infected animal secretions or contaminated food and water.

Hemagglutination is a process where red blood cells (RBCs) agglutinate or clump together. Viral hemagglutination refers to the ability of certain viruses to bind to and agglutinate RBCs. This is often due to viral surface proteins known as hemagglutinins, which can recognize and attach to specific receptors on the surface of RBCs.

In virology, viral hemagglutination assays are commonly used for virus identification and quantification. For example, the influenza virus is known to hemagglutinate chicken RBCs, and this property can be used to identify and titrate the virus in a sample. The hemagglutination titer is the highest dilution of a virus that still causes visible agglutination of RBCs. This information can be useful in understanding the viral load in a patient or during vaccine production.

"California encephalitis" is not a medical term used to describe a specific type of encephalitis. Instead, it refers to a group of related viral infections that are common in California and other western states. These viruses are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes.

The most common cause of California encephalitis is the California serogroup of viruses, which includes the La Crosse virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, and Snowshoe Hare virus. These viruses can cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) and can lead to symptoms such as fever, headache, vomiting, confusion, seizures, and coma.

California encephalitis is typically a mild illness, but in some cases, it can be severe or even life-threatening. Treatment usually involves supportive care, such as fluids and medication to manage symptoms. There is no specific antiviral treatment for California encephalitis. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites, using insect repellent, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes breed.

Orthobunyavirus is a genus of viruses in the family Peribunyaviridae, order Bunyavirales. These are enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses. The genome consists of three segments: large (L), medium (M), and small (S). The L segment encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the M segment encodes two glycoproteins (Gn and Gc) and a nonstructural protein (NSm), and the S segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein (N) and a nonstructural protein (NSs).

Orthobunyaviruses are primarily transmitted by arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges, and can cause disease in humans and animals. The diseases caused by orthobunyaviruses range from mild febrile illness to severe hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis. Some of the notable orthobunyaviruses include California encephalitis virus, La Crosse encephalitis virus, Oropouche virus, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

Phlebovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Bunyaviridae. These viruses have a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome and are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected insects, such as sandflies or ticks. Some examples of diseases caused by Phleboviruses include sandfly fever, Toscana virus infection, and Rift Valley fever.

The term "Phlebovirus" comes from the Greek word "phleps," which means "vein," reflecting the viruses' tendency to cause febrile illnesses characterized by symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. The virus was first identified in the 1960s and has since been found in many parts of the world, particularly in areas with warm climates where sandflies and ticks are more common.

Phleboviruses have a complex structure, consisting of three segments of RNA enclosed within a lipid membrane derived from the host cell. The viral membrane contains two glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, which are important for attachment to and entry into host cells. Once inside the cell, the virus uses its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to replicate its genome and produce new virions, which can then infect other cells or be transmitted to a new host through the bite of an infected insect.

Prevention and treatment of Phlebovirus infections are focused on avoiding exposure to infected insects and reducing symptoms through supportive care. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for these infections, although research is ongoing to develop effective therapies. Vaccines are also being developed for some Phleboviruses, such as Rift Valley fever, which can cause severe illness and death in humans and animals.

Simbu virus, also known as SIMBU or SV, is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) from the family *Phenuiviridae*, genus *Seadornavirus*. It is primarily maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and ruminant animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. The virus can cause asymptomatic or mild illness in humans, with symptoms like fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. However, severe disease or long-term complications are rare.

Simbu virus is geographically widespread across Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Pacific islands. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, mainly from the genus *Culex*. The virus has been isolated from various mosquito species, indicating its broad host range.

Research on Simbu virus is essential for understanding its ecology, transmission dynamics, and potential impacts on human health. It also provides insights into the evolution and emergence of related viruses in the family *Phenuiviridae*.

Dengue virus (DENV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

The DENV genome contains approximately 11,000 nucleotides and encodes three structural proteins (capsid, pre-membrane/membrane, and envelope) and seven non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5). There are four distinct serotypes of DENV (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), each of which can cause dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease.

Infection with one serotype provides lifelong immunity against that particular serotype but only temporary and partial protection against the other three serotypes. Subsequent infections with different serotypes can increase the risk of developing severe dengue, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and original antigenic sin phenomena.

DENV is a significant public health concern in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, with an estimated 390 million annual infections and approximately 100-400 million clinical cases. Preventive measures include vector control strategies to reduce mosquito populations and the development of effective vaccines against all four serotypes.

La Crosse virus (LACV) is an orthobunyavirus that belongs to the California serogroup and is the most common cause of pediatric arboviral encephalitis in the United States. It is named after La Crosse, Wisconsin, where it was first identified in 1963.

LACV is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected eastern treehole mosquitoes (Aedes triseriatus), which serve as the primary vector and amplifying host for the virus. The virus can also be found in other mosquito species, such as Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus.

The transmission cycle of LACV involves mosquitoes feeding on infected small mammals, particularly chipmunks and squirrels, which serve as the natural reservoirs for the virus. The virus then replicates in the salivary glands of the mosquito, making it possible to transmit the virus through their bite.

LACV infection can cause a range of symptoms, from mild flu-like illness to severe neurological complications such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord). Most cases occur in children under the age of 16, with peak transmission during summer months.

Preventive measures for LACV include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, eliminating standing water around homes to reduce mosquito breeding sites, and staying indoors during peak mosquito activity hours (dawn and dusk). There is currently no specific antiviral treatment available for LACV infection, and management typically involves supportive care to address symptoms.

A medical definition of "ticks" would be:

Ticks are small, blood-sucking parasites that belong to the arachnid family, which also includes spiders. They have eight legs and can vary in size from as small as a pinhead to about the size of a marble when fully engorged with blood. Ticks attach themselves to the skin of their hosts (which can include humans, dogs, cats, and wild animals) by inserting their mouthparts into the host's flesh.

Ticks can transmit a variety of diseases, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis. It is important to remove ticks promptly and properly to reduce the risk of infection. To remove a tick, use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin's surface as possible and pull upward with steady, even pressure. Do not twist or jerk the tick, as this can cause the mouthparts to break off and remain in the skin. After removing the tick, clean the area with soap and water and disinfect the tweezers.

Preventing tick bites is an important part of protecting against tick-borne diseases. This can be done by wearing protective clothing (such as long sleeves and pants), using insect repellent containing DEET or permethrin, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors.

Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease that's transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The "yellow" in the name refers to the jaundice that can occur in some patients, resulting from liver damage caused by the virus. The disease is endemic in tropical regions of Africa and Central and South America.

The yellow fever virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. It's closely related to other mosquito-borne viruses like dengue and Zika. The virus has three distinct geographical variants (West African, East African, and South American), each with different epidemiological patterns and clinical features.

The incubation period for yellow fever is typically 3 to 6 days after infection. The initial symptoms include fever, chills, headache, back pain, myalgia, and fatigue. Most patients recover after this initial phase, but around 15% of those infected enter a more severe phase characterized by high fever, jaundice, abdominal pain, vomiting, bleeding, and often rapid death within 7 to 10 days.

There is no specific treatment for yellow fever, and management is focused on supportive care, including fluid replacement, blood transfusions, and addressing any complications that arise. Prevention relies on vaccination and mosquito control measures. The yellow fever vaccine is safe and highly effective, providing immunity in 95% of those who receive it. A single dose offers lifelong protection in most individuals. Mosquito control efforts, such as reducing breeding sites and using insecticide-treated materials, can help prevent the spread of the virus in affected areas.

Sindbis virus is an alphavirus that belongs to the Togaviridae family. It's named after the location where it was first isolated, in Sindbis, Egypt, in 1952. This virus is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes and can infect a wide range of animals, including birds and humans. In humans, Sindbis virus infection often causes a mild flu-like illness characterized by fever, rash, and joint pain. However, some people may develop more severe symptoms, such as neurological disorders, although this is relatively rare. There is no specific treatment for Sindbis virus infection, and management typically involves supportive care to alleviate symptoms.

'Bird diseases' is a broad term that refers to the various medical conditions and infections that can affect avian species. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or toxic substances and can affect pet birds, wild birds, and poultry. Some common bird diseases include:

1. Avian influenza (bird flu) - a viral infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, decreased appetite, and sudden death in birds.
2. Psittacosis (parrot fever) - a bacterial infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, fever, and lethargy in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
3. Aspergillosis - a fungal infection that can cause respiratory symptoms and weight loss in birds.
4. Candidiasis (thrush) - a fungal infection that can affect the mouth, crop, and other parts of the digestive system in birds.
5. Newcastle disease - a viral infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, neurological signs, and decreased egg production in birds.
6. Salmonellosis - a bacterial infection that can cause diarrhea, lethargy, and decreased appetite in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
7. Trichomoniasis - a parasitic infection that can affect the mouth, crop, and digestive system in birds.
8. Chlamydiosis (psittacosis) - a bacterial infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, lethargy, and decreased appetite in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
9. Coccidiosis - a parasitic infection that can affect the digestive system in birds.
10. Mycobacteriosis (avian tuberculosis) - a bacterial infection that can cause chronic weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and skin lesions in birds.

It is important to note that some bird diseases can be transmitted to humans and other animals, so it is essential to practice good hygiene when handling birds or their droppings. If you suspect your bird may be sick, it is best to consult with a veterinarian who specializes in avian medicine.

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV) is a type of alphavirus that can cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in horses and humans. It is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes, although it can also be spread through contact with contaminated food or water, or by aerosolization during laboratory work or in bioterrorism attacks.

VEEV infection can cause a range of symptoms in humans, from mild flu-like illness to severe encephalitis, which may result in permanent neurological damage or death. There are several subtypes of VEEV, some of which are more virulent than others. The virus is endemic in parts of Central and South America, but outbreaks can also occur in other regions, including the United States.

VEEV is considered a potential bioterrorism agent due to its ease of transmission through aerosolization and its high virulence. There are no specific treatments for VEEV infection, although supportive care can help manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites in endemic areas, using personal protective equipment during laboratory work with the virus, and implementing strict biocontainment procedures in research settings.

Complement fixation tests are a type of laboratory test used in immunology and serology to detect the presence of antibodies in a patient's serum. These tests are based on the principle of complement activation, which is a part of the immune response. The complement system consists of a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body.

In a complement fixation test, the patient's serum is mixed with a known antigen and complement proteins. If the patient has antibodies against the antigen, they will bind to it and activate the complement system. This results in the consumption or "fixation" of the complement proteins, which are no longer available to participate in a secondary reaction.

A second step involves adding a fresh source of complement proteins and a dye-labeled antibody that recognizes a specific component of the complement system. If complement was fixed during the first step, it will not be available for this secondary reaction, and the dye-labeled antibody will remain unbound. Conversely, if no antibodies were present in the patient's serum, the complement proteins would still be available for the second reaction, leading to the binding of the dye-labeled antibody.

The mixture is then examined under a microscope or using a spectrophotometer to determine whether the dye-labeled antibody has bound. If it has not, this indicates that the patient's serum contains antibodies specific to the antigen used in the test, and a positive result is recorded.

Complement fixation tests have been widely used for the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, such as syphilis, measles, and influenza. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern serological techniques, like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), due to their increased sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use.

Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonotic disease that primarily affects animals, but can also have serious consequences for humans. It is caused by the Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus.

The disease is transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes or through contact with the blood, milk, or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, and camels. In humans, RVF can cause a range of symptoms, from mild fever and headache to severe complications such as retinitis, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal in some cases.

RVF is endemic in parts of Africa, particularly in the Rift Valley region, and has also been reported in the Arabian Peninsula. It poses a significant public health and economic threat to affected regions due to its potential to cause large-scale outbreaks with high mortality rates in both animals and humans. Prevention and control measures include vaccination of animals, vector control, and avoidance of mosquito bites.

Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is a type of flavivirus that is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, a mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex species mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus.

JEV is endemic in many parts of Asia, including China, Japan, Korea, India, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is estimated to cause around 68,000 clinical cases and 13,000-20,000 deaths each year. The virus is maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts, primarily pigs and wading birds.

Most JEV infections are asymptomatic or result in mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle aches. However, in some cases, the infection can progress to severe encephalitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the brain, leading to neurological symptoms such as seizures, tremors, paralysis, and coma. The case fatality rate for Japanese encephalitis is estimated to be 20-30%, and around half of those who survive have significant long-term neurological sequelae.

Prevention of JEV infection includes the use of insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding outdoor activities during peak mosquito feeding times. Vaccination is also an effective means of preventing Japanese encephalitis, and vaccines are available for travelers to endemic areas as well as for residents of those areas.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, most commonly Aedes and Haemagogus species. The virus is named for the jaundice that can occur in some patients, giving their skin and eyes a yellowish color.

Yellow fever is endemic in tropical regions of Africa and South America, with outbreaks occurring when large numbers of people are infected. After an incubation period of 3 to 6 days, symptoms typically begin with fever, chills, headache, back pain, and muscle aches. In more severe cases, the infection can progress to cause bleeding, organ failure, and death.

Prevention measures include vaccination, mosquito control, and personal protective measures such as wearing long sleeves and using insect repellent in areas where yellow fever is endemic or outbreaks are occurring.

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. They are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi that naturally infect non-human animals and can sometimes infect and cause disease in humans through various transmission routes like direct contact with infected animals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or vectors like insects. Some well-known zoonotic diseases include rabies, Lyme disease, salmonellosis, and COVID-19 (which is believed to have originated from bats). Public health officials work to prevent and control zoonoses through various measures such as surveillance, education, vaccination, and management of animal populations.

Equine encephalomyelitis is a viral disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) of horses and other equids such as donkeys and mules. The term "encephalomyelitis" refers to inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and spinal cord (myelitis). There are three main types of equine encephalomyelitis found in North America, each caused by a different virus: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE), and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE).

EEE is the most severe form of the disease. It is transmitted to horses through the bite of infected mosquitoes, primarily Culiseta melanura and Coquillettidia perturbans. The virus multiplies in the horse's bloodstream and then spreads to the brain and spinal cord, causing inflammation and damage to nerve cells. Clinical signs of EEE include high fever, depression, loss of appetite, weakness, unsteady gait, muscle twitching, paralysis, and potentially death within 2-3 days after the onset of symptoms. The mortality rate for horses with EEE is approximately 75-90%.

WEE is less severe than EEE but can still cause significant illness in horses. It is also transmitted to horses through mosquito bites, primarily Culex tarsalis. Clinical signs of WEE include fever, depression, loss of appetite, muscle twitching, weakness, and unsteady gait. The mortality rate for horses with WEE is around 20-50%.

VEE is the least severe form of equine encephalomyelitis in horses, but it can still cause significant illness. It is primarily transmitted to horses through mosquito bites, mainly Culex (Melanoconion) spp., and also by direct contact with infected animals or their secretions. Clinical signs of VEE include fever, depression, loss of appetite, muscle twitching, weakness, and unsteady gait. The mortality rate for horses with VEE is around 5-20%.

Prevention measures for equine encephalomyelitis include vaccination, mosquito control, and avoiding exposure to infected animals or their secretions. There are vaccines available for EEE and WEE, which can provide protection against these diseases in horses. Mosquito control measures such as removing standing water, using insect repellents, and installing screens on windows and doors can help reduce the risk of mosquito-borne illnesses. Additionally, avoiding contact with infected animals or their secretions can help prevent the spread of VEE.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) viruses are a group of related viruses that are primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks. The main strains of TBE viruses include:

1. European tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-Eu): This strain is found mainly in Europe and causes the majority of human cases of TBE. It is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes ricinus.
2. Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-Sib): This strain is prevalent in Russia, Mongolia, and China, and is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes persulcatus.
3. Far Eastern tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-FE): Also known as Russian spring-summer encephalitis (RSSE) virus, this strain is found in Russia, China, and Japan, and is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes persulcatus.
4. Louping ill virus (LIV): This strain is primarily found in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Portugal, and Spain, and is transmitted by the tick species Ixodes ricinus. It mainly affects sheep but can also infect humans.
5. Turkish sheep encephalitis virus (TSEV): This strain is found in Turkey and Greece and is primarily associated with ovine encephalitis, although it can occasionally cause human disease.
6. Negishi virus (NGS): This strain has been identified in Japan and Russia, but its role in human disease remains unclear.

TBE viruses are members of the Flaviviridae family and are closely related to other mosquito-borne flaviviruses such as West Nile virus, dengue virus, and Zika virus. The incubation period for TBE is usually 7-14 days after a tick bite, but it can range from 2 to 28 days. Symptoms of TBE include fever, headache, muscle pain, fatigue, and vomiting, followed by neurological symptoms such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Severe cases can lead to long-term complications or even death. No specific antiviral treatment is available for TBE, and management typically involves supportive care. Prevention measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and promptly removing attached ticks. Vaccination is also recommended for individuals at high risk of exposure to TBE viruses.

Emerging communicable diseases are infections whose incidence has increased in the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future. These diseases can be caused by new microbial agents, or by previously known agents that have newly acquired the ability to cause disease in humans. They may also result from changes in human demographics, behavior, or travel patterns, or from technological or environmental changes. Examples of emerging communicable diseases include COVID-19, Ebola virus disease, Zika virus infection, and West Nile fever.

Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) is an alphavirus in the Togaviridae family, which is primarily transmitted to vertebrates through mosquito vectors. The virus was initially isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest of Uganda and has since been found in various parts of Africa and Asia. SFV infection in humans can cause a mild febrile illness characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. However, it is more commonly known for causing severe disease in animals, particularly non-human primates and cattle, where it can lead to encephalitis or hemorrhagic fever. SFV has also been used as a model organism in laboratory studies of virus replication and pathogenesis.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "birds." Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and lightweight but strong skeletons. Some birds, such as pigeons and chickens, have been used in medical research, but the term "birds" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

... is an informal name for any virus that is transmitted by arthropod vectors. The term arbovirus is a portmanteau word ... Arboviruses can affect both animals (including humans) and plants. In humans, symptoms of arbovirus infection generally occur 3 ... To see the epidemiology of specific arboviruses, the following resources hold maps, fact sheets, and reports on arboviruses and ... In the past, arboviruses were organized into one of four groups: A, B, C, and D. Group A denoted members of the genus ...
Arbovirus may also refer to: Arbovirus (band), Bangladeshi alternative rock band Arbovirus encephalitis, encephalitis diseases ... Look up arbovirus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Arbovirus is a shortened name given to viruses that are transmitted by ... caused by an arbovirus infection This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Arbovirus. If an internal ...
Arbovirus is a Bangladeshi rock band formed in 2001 in Dhaka. They have released four Studio Albums, one EP, and twelve singles ... infected by Arbovirus". The Daily Star. Retrieved 13 January 2017. "Rock Strata: One Last Live". The Daily Sun. Retrieved 15 ... On 26 January 2006, Arbovirus performed their first international show at the Salt Lake Stadium on the eve of Indian Republic ... On June 25, 2023 Suharto received legal notice from the original members to refrain from performing under the name 'ARBOVIRUS ...
Hunt, M. "Arboviruses". University of South Carolina School of Medicine. Fisher, Bruce; Harvey, Richard P.; Champe, Pamela C. ( ...
Muñoz, Manuel; Navarro, Juan Carlos (2012). "Virus Mayaro: un arbovirus reemergente en Venezuela y Latinoamérica" [Mayaro virus ... Figueiredo LT (2007). "Emergent arboviruses in Brazil". Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. 40 (2): 224-9. ... A re-emerging arboviruses in Venezuela and Latin America]. Biomédica. 32 (2). doi:10.7705/biomedica.v32i2.647. Netto M.C.M.G., ... but these signs and symptoms are unspecific to distinguish from other arboviruses. The MAYV infection can be confirmed by ...
Like malaria, arboviruses do not have a vaccine. (The only exception is yellow fever.) Prevention is focused on reducing the ... The arboviruses have expanded their geographic range and infected populations that had no recent community knowledge of the ... Mosquitoes carrying such arboviruses stay healthy because their immune systems recognizes the virions as foreign particles and ... There is a re-emergence of mosquito vectored viruses (arthropod-borne viruses) called arboviruses carried by the Aedes aegypti ...
Batovska J, Lynch SE, Rodoni BC, Sawbridge TI, Cogan NO (2017). "Metagenomic arbovirus detection using MinION nanopore ... for the surveillance of arboviruses. Binning Epidemiology and sewage Metaproteomics Microbial ecology Pathogenomics Wooley JC, ... "Sensitivity and specificity of metatranscriptomics as an arbovirus surveillance tool". Sci Rep. 9 (1): 19398. Bibcode:2019NatSR ...
The La Crosse encephalitis virus is a type of arbovirus called a bunyavirus. The Bunyavirales are mainly arboviruses. Most ... La Crosse encephalitis is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector ( ...
34: Mosquito-Borne Arboviruses". In Palmer, S. R.; Lord Soulsby; Simpson, D. I. H. (eds.). Zoonoses; Biology, Clinical Practice ... highlights the potential for arboviruses to cause severe problems far from their source enzootic foci. The causative Rocio ...
Nuttall PA, Jones LD, Labuda M, Kaufman WR (January 1994). "Adaptations of arboviruses to ticks". Journal of Medical Entomology ...
Webb, Patricia Ann; Holbrook, Frederick R. (1988). "Chapter 47: Vesicular Stomatitis". The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and ...
Different arboviruses may cause diverse diseases. Here, we summarize examples of Meyer's outstanding discoveries in this area. ... Meyer also investigated what are called arbovirus diseases, among them equine encephalitis. Several diseases transmitted from ...
Unlike other reoviruses, orbiviruses are arboviruses. They can infect and replicate within a wide range of arthropod and ...
Infected by Arbovirus". January 13, 2017. Navidson, Will (April 27, 2023). "Hear Attila Break Out Clean Vocals for First Time ... Ant Farm Alpha Wolf AM Conspiracy Amatory Amen American Head Charge Anew Revolution Apartment 26 The Apex Theory AqME Arbovirus ...
Tospoviruses are arboviruses usually vectored by thrips. At least ten species of thrips belonging to family Thripidae have been ...
25-6.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) Tesh, R.B. (1984). "Transovarial transmission of arboviruses ...
... a potential vector of arboviruses and filariae". Parasites & Vectors. 4 (1): 188. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-4-188. ISSN 1756-3305. ... "Biological Control Strategies for Mosquito Vectors of Arboviruses". Insects. 8 (1): 21. doi:10.3390/insects8010021. ISSN 2075- ...
"The Insect Microbiome Modulates Vector Competence for Arboviruses". Viruses. 6 (11): 4294-4313. doi:10.3390/v6114294. PMC ...
Tesh, R.B. (1984). "Transovarial transmission of arboviruses in their invertebrate vectors". In K.F. Harris (ed.). Current ...
"Epidemiological Investigation for Arboviruses in Jamaica, West Indies". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. ...
Unlike other arboviruses, BTV lacks a lipid envelope. The particle has a diameter of 86 nm. The structure of the 70 nm core was ...
pdf Hanson, R. P.; Sulkin, S. E.; Buescher, E. L.; Hammon, W. McD.; McKinney, R. W.; Work, T. H. (1967). "Arbovirus Infections ...
Pfeffer M, Dobler G (April 2010). "Emergence of zoonotic arboviruses by animal trade and migration". Parasites & Vectors. 3 (1 ...
Among these, Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria, filariasis, and arboviruses; Aedes aegypti mosquitoes carry dengue fever ...
"A Sequential Immunization Procedure against Certain Group B Arboviruses". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene ...
... like all other arboviruses, is transmitted from a host reservoir to humans through a viral vector. Some arboviruses can be ... Arboviruses are a continuing threat to public health in Papua New Guinea especially because of lack of surveillance and ... Arboviruses cause outbreaks when the virus that infects an endemic population spreads through a vector like mosquitoes or ticks ... Arboviruses, mainly highly pathogenic ones like Yellow Fever virus or Dengue virus, are important emerging pathogens in many ...
... has enhanced multiple arboviruses in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes. In another study, West Nile Virus (WNV) infection ... "Scaled deployment of Wolbachia to protect the community from dengue and other Aedes transmitted arboviruses". Gates open ... stable transinfection of Wolbachia into heterologous mosquito hosts clearly produces antiviral effects against arboviruses ...
... arboviruses and public health in Europe". Antiviral Research. 100 (1): 102-113. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.07.020. ISSN 0166- ... arboviruses, and nonviral animal pathogens. Historically, numbers were managed with the insecticide DDT as with Leptoconops ...
... and Arboviruses". Current Opinion in Virology. Elsevier. 37: 26-36. doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2019.05.005. PMC 6768729. PMID ...
Carpenter, S.; Veronesi, E.; Mullens, B.; Venter, G. (April 2015). "Vector competence of Culicoides for arboviruses: three ... arboviruses and public health in Europe". Antiviral Research. 100 (1): 102-113. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.07.020. ISSN 1872- ...
Arbovirus is an informal name for any virus that is transmitted by arthropod vectors. The term arbovirus is a portmanteau word ... Arboviruses can affect both animals (including humans) and plants. In humans, symptoms of arbovirus infection generally occur 3 ... To see the epidemiology of specific arboviruses, the following resources hold maps, fact sheets, and reports on arboviruses and ... In the past, arboviruses were organized into one of four groups: A, B, C, and D. Group A denoted members of the genus ...
Arboviruses such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika are being detected in new regions that are ill prepared to confront them. ... The WHO has urged countries to pay particular attention to the spread of arboviruses, declaring, for its part, to be committed ... The World Health Organization (WHO) is sounding the alarm about a recent increase in arbovirus cases in various regions around ... "Weve seen a significant increase in the number of cases of arboviruses, primarily dengue and chikungunya," he explained. " ...
Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov ...
The collection also serves as an arbovirus repository for reference strains.. *The ARC houses reference quantities of reagents ... Wed like to collaborate with you! You can support public health by depositing your isolates in CDCs Arbovirus Reference ... In 2004, accepted the remaining Yale Arbovirus Research Unit (YARU) collection (see photo) ... provides reagents to public health laboratories for arbovirus diagnostics for which no commercial assays are available. ...
Instructions for Sending Diagnostic Specimens to the DVBD Arbovirus Diagnostic Laboratory ... ATTN: Arbovirus Diagnostic Laboratory. 3156 Rampart Road. Fort Collins, CO 80521. Further assistance. Additional assistance may ... Brief clinical summary (located on second page, top of page), include the name(s) of the arbovirus(es) for which you are ... Reporting times for test results may be longer during summer months or when arbovirus activity increases. Initial serological ...
Cao-Lormeau, V. (2016). Tropical Islands as New Hubs for Emerging Arboviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 22(5), 913-915. ... Cao-Lormeau V. Tropical Islands as New Hubs for Emerging Arboviruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(5):913-915. doi: ... Tropical Islands as New Hubs for Emerging Arboviruses. Volume 22, Number 5-May 2016 ... Tropical Islands as New Hubs for Emerging Arboviruses. ... Tropical Islands as New Hubs for Emerging Arboviruses On This ...
... has supported the strengthening of laboratory networks and capabilities for timely detection of Dengue and other Arboviruses, ... It is essential to continue strengthening the network to address the challenges related to the spread of other Arboviruses, ... Present the current situation and challenges faced in laboratory surveillance of the main Arboviruses in the region.. • Review ... 14th Annual Meeting - The Arbovirus Diagnosis Laboratory Network of the Americas (RELDA) ...
Many arboviruses, such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis, are endemic and mostly affect children in the country. This ...
Sera from all patients were serologically and antigenically tested for seven arboviruses known to occur in Guerrero. Eighteen ... with concurrent or recent sequential infections between SARS-CoV-2 and select arboviruses, exemplifying the importance of ... We provide evidence of concurrent and close sequential infections between SARS-CoV-2 and select arboviruses-namely, chikungunya ... Arbovirus surveillance near the Mexico-U.S. border: isolation and sequence analysis of chikungunya virus from patients with ...
... isolation and and identification of arboviruses from clinical human blood samples Journal of the Egyptian-German Society of ... isolation and and sic identification of arboviruses from clinical human blood samples. Ali, S.M.; Tantawy, T.A.. ...
... emergence of an arthritic arbovirus in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia ... Chikungunya virus: emergence of an arthritic arbovirus in ...
Other Arbovirus Infections - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Arbovirus Overview of Arbovirus, Arenavirus, and Filovirus Infections Arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) is defined as any virus ... Zika virus infection is typically... read more ) (1 Arbovirus references Arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) applies to any virus ... Cases occur in the late spring to mid-fall, when ticks are most active (4 Arbovirus references Arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus ...
Seroprevalence of Rift Valley Fever, Sheep and goats in Zambezia, Metagenomic study of arboviruses in ticks, Ticks. ... Mozambique and preparations for a metagenomic study of arboviruses in ticks. Second cycle, A2E. Uppsala: SLU, Dept. of ... Mozambique and preparations for a metagenomic study of arboviruses in ticks. ...
... and counting mosquitoes for an arbovirus study.This technician is collecting data in a highly systematized manner, taking care ... Laboratory Technician Sorting and Counting Mosquitoes Used in an Arbovirus Study - Picture of a CDC laboratory technician is ... arbovirus, arbovirus study, cdc employees, female, health care, laboratorian, laboratorians, laboratory technician, laboratory ... Free Picture: Laboratory Technician Sorting and Counting Mosquitoes Used in an Arbovirus Study. Image URL ...
Arboviruses infecting people primarily exist in urban transmission cycles involving urban mosquitoes in densely populated ... Lambert AJ, Lanciotti R. Laboratory diagnosis of arboviruses. In: Gubler DJ, Vasilakis N, editors. Arboviruses: molecular ... Sylvatic cycles of arboviruses in non-human primates. *Matthew John Valentine. ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-5584-78131 na1, ... Detection of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living New World primates (Sapajus spp.; Alouatta caraya) captured ...
Arbovirus Workshop 2021. March, 2021 - Webinar. Course aims and structure. Dr. Maria Cassia Mendes-Correa - Instituto de ... Arboviruses as a global health threat. Dr. Aluisio Augusto Cotrim Segurado - Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de ... Arbovirus infections clinical diagnosis. Dr. Clarisse Martins Machado - Instituto de Medicina Tropical da Universidade de São ... Laboratory algorithms for arbovirus infections: a clinical approach. Dr. Otilia Lupi - Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Brazil) ...
Arboviruses. Like West Nile virus, mosquito-borne dengue viruses (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and zika virus (ZIKV) have ... What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted arbovirus infection? HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection and how is it prevented? ... What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted arbovirus infection?. How is transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus (CMV) ...
Project: Arbovirus science based on blood transfusions Acronym ArboFusion (Reference Number: ERANet17/HLH-0231) ...
Arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) are viruses transmitted primarily by arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, flies, ticks ... Arboviruses in Southern Europe: Current Status and Future Threats. Global warming is broadening the geographical range of the ... In the first release of ArboCat, we will limit our focus to three of the main arboviruses: dengue, chikungunya and Zika. ... Most important arboviruses are naturally sustained by strong anthroponotic transmission cycles. Basically, this means that ...
Genetic and phylodynamics diversity of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses (DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV) in the Northeast and ... In this context, this study aims to understand the dynamics of urban spread of emerging and re-emerging arbovirus (DENV, ZIKV ... Elucidating the spread of emerging and reemerging arboviruses in Brazil in time and space is central to understanding of its ... Genomic epidemiology of emerging arbovirus using heterogeneous data sources in the.... Phylogeny and molecular evolution of ...
Targeted indoor residual insecticide applications shift Aedes aegypti age structure and arbovirus transmission potential. ...
Arboviruses. Like West Nile virus, mosquito-borne dengue viruses (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and zika virus (ZIKV) have ... What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted arbovirus infection? HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection and how is it prevented? ... What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted arbovirus infection?. How is transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus (CMV) ...
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Arbovirus Insecticide Resistance Meeting Report Mosquito Review Standardization Strategic Planning Vector Control WIN Network ... Erratum to: International workshop on insecticide resistance in vectors of arboviruses, December 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ... Tracking Insecticide Resistance in Mosquito Vectors of Arboviruses: The Worldwide Insecticide resistance Network (WIN) Cite ... International workshop on insecticide resistance in vectors of arboviruses, December 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ...
Possible Arbovirus Select Agent. No SALS Level. 3 SALS Basis. Isufficient experience with virus; i.e., experience factor from ... Arbovirus Catalog Browse the Catalog ArboCat Home. Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. ...
Arbovirus Catalog Browse the Catalog ArboCat Home. Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. ...
"Encephalitis, Arbovirus" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Encephalitis, Arbovirus" by people in this website by year, ... Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Encephalitis, Arbovirus" by people in Profiles. ...
Arbovirus Disease The Science Of Health: Arbovirus Diseases, Sleeping Sickness - Insect-Borne Illnesses. July 9, 2023. by Admin ...
  • We've seen a significant increase in the number of cases of arboviruses, primarily dengue and chikungunya," he explained. (medscape.com)
  • One of the speakers was Raman Velayudhan, PhD, the unit head of the WHO's Global Program on the Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases for coordinating the dengue and arbovirus initiatives. (medscape.com)
  • The outbreaks of dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Zika virus infection that occurred on islands in the Indian Ocean, the Pacific, and the Caribbean over the past decade have demonstrated the potential of these arboviruses to pose a global public health threat. (cdc.gov)
  • Since 2008, RELDA has supported the strengthening of laboratory networks and capabilities for timely detection of Dengue and other Arboviruses, strengthening surveillance and control programs for these diseases in the Americas Region. (paho.org)
  • Some arboviruses, like dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV), have become fully adapted to urban cycles and no longer require NHPs, forest mosquitoes and a sylvatic cycle for their maintenance [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the first release of ArboCat, we will limit our focus to three of the main arboviruses: dengue, chikungunya and Zika. (arbocat.cat)
  • Recently, dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease, however no specific treatment or vaccine is available for them. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Este artículo consiste en un análisis de las redes sociales de los habitantes de una comunidad en Betim, Minas Gerais, Brasil , buscando comprender cómo pueden ser utilizadas en las estrategias de movilización social para el enfrentamiento del dengue , virus del zika y chikungunya en el territorio. (bvsalud.org)
  • Les examens ont été réalisés au Centre d' Infectiologie Charles Mérieux (CICM) de Bamako avec le dépistage du génome des virus responsables de la Dengue , de la fièvre de la Vallée du Rift , et du Zika à l'aide de la technique de la RT-PCR en temps réel. (bvsalud.org)
  • Arbovirus is an informal name for any virus that is transmitted by arthropod vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • For arboviruses, vectors are commonly mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies and other arthropods that consume the blood of vertebrates for nutritious or developmental purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arboviruses ( ar thropod- bo rne viruses ) are viruses transmitted primarily by arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, flies, ticks and fleas. (arbocat.cat)
  • The global expansion of these arboviruses was preceded by the global spread of their vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This report summarizes the main outputs of the second international conference of the Worldwide Insecticide resistance Network (WIN) on "Integrated approaches and innovative tools for combating insecticide resistance in arbovirus vectors" held in Singapore, 1-3 October 2018. (unl.pt)
  • The observed proficiency for arbovirus diagnostics between 2013 and 2016 is an indicator of laboratory quality improvement in the Region. (who.int)
  • At the end of 2013, CHIKV emerged in the Caribbean and subsequently spread to the continental Americas, resulting in 1,726,539 suspected and 60,746 laboratory-confirmed CHIKV infections in the region as of December 18, 2015 ( http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&Itemid=&gid=30198&lang=en ). (cdc.gov)
  • When humans infected in the forest enter urban environments, arbovirus infections can rapidly spread amongst people transmitted by highly anthrophilic, urban mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the natural forest habitats of the NHPs, arboreal mosquitoes transmit arboviruses from infected to naïve animals in what is termed a sylvatic transmission cycle (NHP-mosquito-NHP-mosquito, etc. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We work collaboratively with local councils (as relevant public health authorities for their areas) to support arbovirus prevention and mosquito surveillance and control programs. (sa.gov.au)
  • These conditions usually correspond with reduced mosquito and arbovirus activity. (sa.gov.au)
  • Tan, R , Ksiazek, TG & Olson, JG 1981, ' Comparative sensitivity of mosquito inoculation and mammalian cell culture for isolation of some arboviruses in Indonesia ', Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health , vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 544-548. (utmb.edu)
  • The most common way mosquito females become infected with an arbovirus is by blood feeding on a viremic host, which is known as horizontal transmission 12 . (nature.com)
  • In this context, this study aims to understand the dynamics of urban spread of emerging and re-emerging arbovirus (DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV) in the Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil (states of Sergipe and São Paulo), and identify the demographics and socioeconomic factors associated with the dynamics of viral movement that can provide new opportunities for control and intervention strategies. (fapesp.br)
  • The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of most prevalent arboviruses in Brazil (DFV, ZIKV, CHIKV) regarding the main features, physiopathology, and ocular involvement (Table 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Due to the absence of MAYV-specific antiviral, treatment is symptomatic with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics to relieve pain and fever, the same treatment used for other arboviruses like CHIKV. (fapesp.br)
  • Due to the similarity of the clinic caused by MAYV when compared to other arboviruses such as CHIKV, studies show that there is still an ineffective epidemiological surveillance in endemic areas due to the supposed underreporting. (fapesp.br)
  • In addition to the rise in temperatures and the changes in rainfall patterns, which favor the proliferation of disease-transmitting mosquitoes, the WHO mentioned a few other reasons for the increase in the incidence of arboviruses worldwide: the acceleration of urbanization, which is associated with basic sanitation problems, and the fact that people are out and about again, travelling around locally and internationally now that COVID-19 restrictions have been lifted. (medscape.com)
  • Picture of a CDC laboratory technician is shown here sorting, and counting mosquitoes for an arbovirus study. (imageenvision.com)
  • Arboviruses infecting people primarily exist in urban transmission cycles involving urban mosquitoes in densely populated tropical regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • People can become infected if they encroach on forest habitat (either through deforestation, hunting, agriculture, or urbanization) and are fed upon by mosquitoes carrying arboviruses, or if infected forest mosquitoes move into areas of human habitation to obtain a blood meal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They also calculated how transmission of the arboviruses spread by these mosquitoes would change based on temperature. (contagionlive.com)
  • Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes and ticks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Blood transfusions, organ transplantation, and the use of blood products can transmit arboviruses if the virus is present in the donor's blood or organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to used needles may also transmit arboviruses if they have been used by an infected person or animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many medically important and emergent arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) originated in non-human primates (NHPs), which typically show no clinical signs of infection but become viraemic and help maintain the virus in nature [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Urban transmission cycles of arboviruses in densely populated tropical regions can result in explosive epidemics and pandemics, although there can also be low levels of transmission only sufficient to maintain the viruses in the population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They may act as refugia for arboviruses which enable re-emergence once human epidemics have passed and immunity in the population (herd immunity) has waned. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arbovirus disease epidemics are on the increase in the Region. (who.int)
  • Most arthropods require warm and humid conditions to survive and arboviruses are, therefore, encountered mainly in the tropics, where the weather conditions ensure the year-round-or at least seasonal-presence of the vector. (arbocat.cat)
  • Viruses transmitted by arthropods (arboviruses) are responsible for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases in different areas of the world, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. (fapesp.br)
  • The aim of the Workshop is to convey how spatial data analysis can be used to improve arbovirus surveillance and control activities in Latin America. (caddecentre.org)
  • Target Audience: Public health professionals, researchers and graduate students in the area of arbovirus control from Brazil and Latin America. (caddecentre.org)
  • Preliminary diagnosis of arbovirus infection is usually based on clinical presentations of symptoms, places and dates of travel, activities, and epidemiological history of the location where infection occurred. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below we review the methods used to investigate sylvatic cycles and available epidemiological data on sylvatic cycles of arboviruses in NHPs, primarily focusing on the most recent and largest arbovirus outbreaks in people (Fig. 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unlike most other virus classifications, the arbovirus grouping is based on an epidemiological criterion-the most common route of infection-rather than on phenotypical criteria. (arbocat.cat)
  • Zoonotic transmission cycles, in which wild or domestic animals are involved in the epidemiological cycle, are also common for most arboviruses but are generally less important from an epidemiological standpoint. (arbocat.cat)
  • By the end of the year, Brazil had declared an outbreak, and the virus had spread to several neighboring countries ( http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&Itemid=&gid=30198&lang=en ). (cdc.gov)
  • Elucidating the spread of emerging and reemerging arboviruses in Brazil in time and space is central to understanding of its epidemiology. (fapesp.br)
  • Relevance of social networks in social mobilization to deal with arboviruses in the municipality of Betim, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil]. (bvsalud.org)
  • As stated by Kuno & Chang [ 15 ], "The three commonly used data for identifying vertebrate reservoirs for arboviruses have been (i) virus isolation from suspected animals, (ii) relatively high antibody prevalence in the animals captured in the field and (iii) demonstration of viraemia (of higher virus titre and duration) in the suspected animals typically obtained under laboratory conditions" [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Encephalitis, Arbovirus" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Encephalitis, Arbovirus" by people in this website by year, and whether "Encephalitis, Arbovirus" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (rush.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Encephalitis, Arbovirus" by people in Profiles. (rush.edu)
  • The arboviruses include a wide variety of RNA virus including the flaviviruses (genus Flavivirus, one of three genera in the family Flaviviridae) and the alphaviruses (genus Alphavirus, one of two genera in the family Togaviridae). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brief clinical summary (located on second page, top of page), include the name(s) of the arbovirus(es) for which you are requesting testing, if known. (cdc.gov)
  • The illnesses caused by the arbovirus have very similar/overlapping clinical presentation with prominent fever, headache, rash, myalgia and arthralgia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The collection also serves as an arbovirus repository for reference strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Further, they might provide selective environments where new strains of arboviruses can develop with increased (or decreased) virulence for people. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additional assistance may be obtained from the DVBD Arbovirus Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory at 970-221-6400 or on CDC's Test Directory website using test codes 10280 , 10282 , and 10283 . (cdc.gov)
  • Present the current situation and challenges faced in laboratory surveillance of the main Arboviruses in the region. (paho.org)
  • Review and update the detection guidelines and methodologies for laboratory surveillance of endemic, emerging, reemerging, and neuroinvasive Arboviruses. (paho.org)
  • This puts intravenous drug users and healthcare workers at risk for infection in regions where the arbovirus may be spreading in human populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is essential to continue strengthening the network to address the challenges related to the spread of other Arboviruses, which have resurged due to climate change and globalization. (paho.org)
  • Most important arboviruses are naturally sustained by strong anthroponotic transmission cycles. (arbocat.cat)
  • It is critical to use an integrated approach to study arbovirus cycles, as they are complex systems that cannot be understood by considering isolated elements. (grantome.com)
  • Arboviruses are a polyphyletic group, belonging to various viral genera and therefore exhibiting different virologic characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arboviruses consist of more than 500 viruses from different viral families, all given the common name "ar-bo," for arthropod-borne disease. (medscape.com)
  • Arboviruses maintain themselves in nature by going through a cycle between a host, an organism that carries the virus, and a vector, an organism that carries and transmits the virus to other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • and 3) to determine the impact of multiple vector species on arbovirus systems. (grantome.com)
  • see photo), provides reagents to public health laboratories for arbovirus diagnostics for which no commercial assays are available. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2011, to ensure test proficiency, the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific piloted an external quality assessment (EQA) programme for arbovirus diagnostics. (who.int)
  • In humans, symptoms of arbovirus infection generally occur 3-15 days after exposure to the virus and last three or four days. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incubation period - the time between when infection occurs and when symptoms appear - varies from virus to virus, but is usually limited between 2 and 15 days for arboviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arboviruses continue to pose serious public health threats in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region. (who.int)
  • Yale Arbovirus Research Unit collection housed at DVBD. (cdc.gov)
  • We have decided to postpone the CADDE Workshop on Spatial Analysis for Decision Making on Arbovirus Control due to the increasing impact of COVID-19 worldwide. (caddecentre.org)
  • The First Edition of CADDE Workshop on Spatial Analysis for Decision Making on Arbovirus Control will take place in Sāo Paulo, 25 to 29 May 2020. (caddecentre.org)
  • The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of transmission of certain arboviruses through blood donation at the CNTS of Bamako. (bvsalud.org)
  • Arboviruses can affect both animals (including humans) and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term arbovirus is a portmanteau word (arthropod-borne virus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Den andra delen är en metagenomik-studie som syftar till att söka efter mygg- och fästingburna virus, inklusive RVFV, i samma område. (slu.se)
  • Familia de virus, principalmente arbovirus, que constan de un ARN monocatenario. (bvsalud.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) is sounding the alarm about a recent increase in arbovirus cases in various regions around the world. (medscape.com)
  • This study proves that the risk of transmission of certain arboviruses through blood donation exists, but it seems to be minimal at the CNTS of Bamako. (bvsalud.org)
  • You can support public health by depositing your isolates in CDC's Arbovirus Reference Collection (ARC). (cdc.gov)
  • Identify barriers to the sustainable, integrated and operational use of spatial data for arbovirus control. (caddecentre.org)