Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The fundamental tenet of modern medicine that certain diseases are caused by microorganisms. It was confirmed by the work of Pasteur, Lister, and Koch.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.

Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. (1/166)

The serum dilution neutralization test was evaluated for serological diagnosis of California group arbovirus infections and identification of virus isolates. The technical advantages and the degree of subtype specificity of the serum dilution neutralization test over the hemagglutination inhibition test and the complement fixation test were demonstrated with paired specimens from human cases, single human survey sera, and sentinel rabbit sera. Twenty-one virus isolates from various geographical areas of the United States were also used to evaluate the efficacy of the serum dilution neutralization test for specific virus identification.  (+info)

Mechanisms of arthropod transmission of plant and animal viruses. (2/166)

A majority of the plant-infecting viruses and many of the animal-infecting viruses are dependent upon arthropod vectors for transmission between hosts and/or as alternative hosts. The viruses have evolved specific associations with their vectors, and we are beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate the virus transmission process. A majority of plant viruses are carried on the cuticle lining of a vector's mouthparts or foregut. This initially appeared to be simple mechanical contamination, but it is now known to be a biologically complex interaction between specific virus proteins and as yet unidentified vector cuticle-associated compounds. Numerous other plant viruses and the majority of animal viruses are carried within the body of the vector. These viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to enable them to be transported through multiple tissues and to evade vector defenses. In response, vector species have evolved so that not all individuals within a species are susceptible to virus infection or can serve as a competent vector. Not only are the virus components of the transmission process being identified, but also the genetic and physiological components of the vectors which determine their ability to be used successfully by the virus are being elucidated. The mechanisms of arthropod-virus associations are many and complex, but common themes are beginning to emerge which may allow the development of novel strategies to ultimately control epidemics caused by arthropod-borne viruses.  (+info)

El Nino and arboviral disease prediction. (3/166)

Recent El Nino events have stimulated interest in the development of modeling techniques to forecast extremes of climate and related health events. Previous studies have documented associations between specific climate variables (particularly temperature and rainfall) and outbreaks of arboviral disease. In some countries, such diseases are sensitive to El Nino. Here we describe a climate-based model for the prediction of Ross River virus epidemics in Australia. From a literature search and data on case notifications, we determined in which years there were epidemics of Ross River virus in southern Australia between 1928 and 1998. Predictor variables were monthly Southern Oscillation index values for the year of an epidemic or lagged by 1 year. We found that in southeastern states, epidemic years were well predicted by monthly Southern Oscillation index values in January and September in the previous year. The model forecasts that there is a high probability of epidemic Ross River virus in the southern states of Australia in 1999. We conclude that epidemics of arboviral disease can, at least in principle, be predicted on the basis of climate relationships.  (+info)

Langerhans cells migrate to local lymph nodes following cutaneous infection with an arbovirus. (4/166)

Whereas there has been recent interest in interactions between dendritic cells and pathogenic viruses, the role of dendritic cells in the initiation of protective immunity to such organisms has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine whether a resident dendritic cell population in the skin, Langerhans cells, respond to cutaneous viral infections which are effectively cleared by the immune system. We therefore characterized the ability of Langerhans cells to migrate to local draining lymph nodes following infection with the arthropod-borne viruses, West Nile virus or Semliki Forest virus. The data show that major histocompatibility complex class II+/NLDC145+/E-cadherin+ Langerhans cell numbers are increased in the draining lymph nodes of infected mice and this increase is accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the Langerhans cell density in the epidermis. Langerhans cell migration is associated with an accumulation of leukocytes in the lymph node, which is one of the earliest events in the initiation of an immune response. Both the migratory response and the draining lymph node leukocyte accumulation were abrogated if ultraviolet-inactivated instead of live viruses were used, suggesting the activation and subsequent migration of Langerhans cells requires a live, replicating antigen. Our findings are likely to have wider implications for the development of epidermally delivered vaccines and suggest that mobilization of dendritic cells may be involved in the development of immune responses to arthropod-borne viruses.  (+info)

H-2-linked control of cytotoxic T-cell responsiveness to alphavirus infection. Presence of H-2Dk during differentiation and stimulation converts stem cells of low responder genotype to T cells of responder phenotype. (5/166)

Secondary Tc cells generated against Sindbis virus (SIN) are restricted to Dk. All other H-2K or D regions tested show low specific responsiveness. F1 hybrids between low and high responders show dominance of responsiveness but lack complementation. When BALB/c (KdIdDd) low responder fetal liver stem cells were allowed to mature in irradiated high responder recipients C3H.OH (KdIdDk) a response to Dk plus SIN could be generated with Tc cells of BALB/c origin. This result, together with the failure of complementation in the F1 hybrids, implies that the lesion of low responsiveness is in the inability of viral antigen to stimulate a Tc-cell response in association with any self H-2K or H-2D molecule (of those tested) other than H-2Dk. Hypotheses compatible with these data are discussed.  (+info)

Standardization of immunoglobulin M capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for routine diagnosis of arboviral infections. (6/166)

Immunoglobulin M antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) is a rapid and versatile diagnostic method that readily permits the combination of multiple assays. Test consolidation is especially important for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) which belong to at least three virus families: the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Bunyaviridae. Using prototype viruses from each of these families and a panel of well-characterized human sera, we have evaluated and standardized a combined MAC-ELISA capable of identifying virus infections caused by members of each virus family. Furthermore, by grouping antigens geographically and utilizing known serological cross-reactivities, we have reduced the number of antigens necessary for testing, while maintaining adequate detection sensitivity. We have determined that a 1:400 serum dilution is most appropriate for screening antiviral antibody, using a positive-to-negative ratio of >/=2.0 as a positive cutoff value. With a blind-coded human serum panel, this combined MAC-ELISA was shown to have test sensitivity and specificity that correlated well with those of other serological techniques.  (+info)

Detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin G by using a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (7/166)

Monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin G (IgG ELISAs) were developed for a comprehensive array of medically important arboviruses from the Alphavirus, Flavivirus, and Bunyavirus genera. Tests were optimized and standardized so that maximum homology could be maintained among working parameters for the different viral agents, enabling a wide range of viruses to be easily tested for at one time. MAbs were screened for suitability as capture vehicles for antigens from the three genera. The final test configuration utilized group-reactive MAbs eastern equine encephalitis virus 1A4B-6, dengue 2 virus 4G2, and La Crosse encephalitis virus 10G5.4 to capture the specific inactivated viral antigens. Serum IgG was detected by using alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-human IgG (Fc portion). A dilution of 1:400 was chosen as the universal screening serum dilution, with endpoint titrations of serum samples testing positive eliminating occasional false-positive results. IgG ELISA results correlated with those of the standard plaque-reduction neutralization assays. As expected, some test cross-reactivity was encountered within the individual genera, and tests were interpreted within the context of these reactions. The tests were standardized for laboratory diagnosis of arboviral infections, with the intent that they be used in tandem with the corresponding IgM antibody-capture ELISAs.  (+info)

Molecular strategies for interrupting arthropod-borne virus transmission by mosquitoes. (8/166)

Arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) infections cause a number of emerging and resurgent human and veterinary infectious diseases. Traditional means of controlling arbovirus diseases include vaccination of susceptible vertebrates and mosquito control, but in many cases these have been unavailable or ineffective, and so novel strategies for disease control are needed. One possibility is genetic manipulation of mosquito vectors to render them unable to transmit arboviruses. This review describes recent work to test the concept of pathogen-derived resistance in arthropods by expression of viral genes in mosquito cell cultures and mosquitoes. Sense and antisense genome sequences from La Crosse virus (LAC) (a member of the Bunyaviridae) and dengue viruses serotypes 1 to 4 (DEN-1 to DEN-4) (members of the Flaviviridae) were expressed in mosquito cells from double-subgenomic and replicon vectors based on Sindbis virus (a member of the Togaviridae). The cells were then challenged with homologous or related viruses. For LAC, expression of antisense sequences from the small (S) genome segment, particularly full-length antisense S RNA, effectively interfered with replication of challenge virus, whereas expression of either antisense or sense RNA from the medium (M) segment was completely ineffective in LAC inhibition. Expression of sense and antisense RNA derived from certain regions of the DEN genome also blocked homologous virus replication more effectively than did RNA from other regions. Other parameters of RNA-mediated interference have been defined, such as the time when replication is blocked and the minimum size of effector RNA. The mechanism of RNA inhibition has not been determined, although it resembles double-stranded RNA interference in other nonvertebrate systems. Prospects for application of molecular strategies to control arbovirus diseases are briefly reviewed.  (+info)

Arbovirus infections are a group of diseases caused by viruses that are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. "Arbo" is short for "arthropod-borne."

There are over 150 different Arboviruses, but only a few cause significant illness in humans. Some of the most common Arbovirus infections include:

* Dengue fever
* Chikungunya fever
* Yellow fever
* Zika virus infection
* Japanese encephalitis
* West Nile fever
* Tick-borne encephalitis

The symptoms of Arbovirus infections can vary widely, depending on the specific virus and the individual infected. Some people may experience only mild illness or no symptoms at all, while others may develop severe, life-threatening complications.

Common symptoms of Arbovirus infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In more severe cases, Arbovirus infections can cause neurological problems such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain).

There is no specific treatment for most Arbovirus infections. Treatment is generally supportive, with fluids and medications to relieve symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as dehydration or neurological problems.

Prevention of Arbovirus infections involves avoiding mosquito and tick bites, using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes and ticks. Vaccines are available to prevent some Arbovirus infections, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

Arboviruses are a group of viruses that are primarily transmitted to humans and animals through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sandflies. The term "arbovirus" is short for "arthropod-borne virus."

Arboviruses can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the individual host's immune response. Some common symptoms associated with arboviral infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In severe cases, arboviral infections can lead to serious complications such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), or hemorrhagic fever (bleeding disorders).

There are hundreds of different arboviruses, and they are found in many parts of the world. Some of the most well-known arboviral diseases include dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika virus infection, West Nile virus infection, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis.

Prevention of arboviral infections typically involves avoiding mosquito bites and other arthropod vectors through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito feeding times. Public health efforts also focus on reducing vector populations through environmental management and the use of larvicides. Vaccines are available for some arboviral diseases, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infectious disease that causes inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks, primarily of the Ixodes species. The TBE virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae and has several subtypes, with different geographical distributions.

The illness typically progresses in two stages:

1. An initial viremic phase, characterized by fever, headache, fatigue, muscle pain, and sometimes rash, which lasts about a week.
2. A second neurological phase, which occurs in approximately 20-30% of infected individuals, can manifest as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), or meningoencephalitis (inflammation of both the brain and its membranes). Symptoms may include neck stiffness, severe headache, confusion, disorientation, seizures, and in severe cases, coma and long-term neurological complications.

Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and promptly removing attached ticks. Vaccination is available and recommended for individuals living or traveling to TBE endemic regions. Treatment is primarily supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and addressing complications as they arise. There is no specific antiviral treatment for TBE.

Arbovirus encephalitis is a type of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) caused by a group of viruses that are transmitted through the bite of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes or ticks. The term "arbovirus" stands for "arthropod-borne virus."

There are many different types of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis, including:

* La Crosse virus
* St. Louis encephalitis virus
* West Nile virus
* Eastern equine encephalitis virus
* Western equine encephalitis virus
* Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

The symptoms of arbovirus encephalitis can vary, but may include fever, headache, stiff neck, seizures, confusion, and weakness. In severe cases, it can lead to coma or death. Treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, as there is no specific antiviral treatment for most types of arbovirus encephalitis. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito and tick bites, using insect repellent, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes breed.

Encephalitis viruses are a group of viruses that can cause encephalitis, which is an inflammation of the brain. Some of the most common encephalitis viruses include:

1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2: These viruses are best known for causing cold sores and genital herpes, but they can also cause encephalitis, particularly in newborns and individuals with weakened immune systems.
2. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV): This virus causes chickenpox and shingles, and it can also lead to encephalitis, especially in people who have had chickenpox.
3. Enteroviruses: These viruses are often responsible for summertime meningitis outbreaks and can occasionally cause encephalitis.
4. Arboviruses: These viruses are transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects. Examples include West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Western equine encephalitis virus.
5. Rabies virus: This virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal and can cause encephalitis in its later stages.
6. Measles virus: Although rare in developed countries due to vaccination, measles can still cause encephalitis as a complication of the infection.
7. Mumps virus: Like measles, mumps is preventable through vaccination, but it can also lead to encephalitis as a rare complication.
8. Cytomegalovirus (CMV): This virus is a member of the herpesvirus family and can cause encephalitis in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients.
9. La Crosse virus: This arbovirus is primarily transmitted through the bites of infected eastern treehole mosquitoes and mainly affects children.
10. Powassan virus: Another arbovirus, Powassan virus is transmitted through the bites of infected black-legged ticks (also known as deer ticks) and can cause severe encephalitis.

It's important to note that many of these viruses are preventable through vaccination or by avoiding exposure to infected animals or mosquitoes. If you suspect you may have been exposed to one of these viruses, consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

'Culicidae' is the biological family that includes all species of mosquitoes. It consists of three subfamilies: Anophelinae, Culicinae, and Toxorhynchitinae. Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that are known for their ability to transmit various diseases to humans and other animals, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The medical importance of Culicidae comes from the fact that only female mosquitoes require blood meals to lay eggs, and during this process, they can transmit pathogens between hosts.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Arthropod vectors are living organisms, specifically arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and lice, that can transmit infectious agents (such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites) from one host to another. This process is called vector-borne transmission. The arthropod vectors become infected with the pathogen while taking a blood meal from an infected host, then transmit the pathogen to another host during subsequent feedings. The transmission can occur through various means, including biting, stinging, or even mechanical contact. It's important to note that not all arthropods are vectors, and only certain species within each group are capable of transmitting diseases.

The Germ Theory of Disease is a fundamental concept in microbiology and infectious disease medicine, which states that many diseases are caused by the presence and activity of pathogenic microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) within the body. According to this theory, these pathogens can invade the body, multiply, and release toxins or harmful substances, leading to tissue damage, inflammation, and the manifestation of specific signs and symptoms associated with a particular disease.

The Germ Theory of Disease was first proposed by the Polish scientist and physician Louis Pasteur in the mid-19th century, based on his extensive research on the role of microorganisms in fermentation, putrefaction, and infectious diseases. The theory challenged the prevailing miasma theory, which held that diseases were caused by "bad air" or foul odors emanating from rotting organic matter.

The acceptance and application of the Germ Theory of Disease revolutionized medicine, leading to the development of modern sterilization techniques, aseptic surgical procedures, vaccines, antibiotics, and other antimicrobial therapies that have significantly reduced morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Today, the Germ Theory of Disease remains a cornerstone of medical practice and research, guiding our understanding of the causes, transmission, prevention, and treatment of infectious diseases.

Arthropods are a phylum of animals characterized by the presence of a segmented body, a pair of jointed appendages on each segment, and a tough exoskeleton made of chitin. This phylum includes insects, arachnids (spiders, scorpions, mites), crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, shrimp), and myriapods (centipedes, millipedes). They are the largest group of animals on Earth, making up more than 80% of all described species. Arthropods can be found in nearly every habitat, from the deep sea to mountaintops, and play important roles in ecosystems as decomposers, pollinators, and predators.

Fever, also known as pyrexia or febrile response, is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation in core body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) due to a dysregulation of the body's thermoregulatory system. It is often a response to an infection, inflammation, or other underlying medical conditions, and it serves as a part of the immune system's effort to combat the invading pathogens or to repair damaged tissues.

Fevers can be classified based on their magnitude:

* Low-grade fever: 37.5-38°C (99.5-100.4°F)
* Moderate fever: 38-39°C (100.4-102.2°F)
* High-grade or severe fever: above 39°C (102.2°F)

It is important to note that a single elevated temperature reading does not necessarily indicate the presence of a fever, as body temperature can fluctuate throughout the day and can be influenced by various factors such as physical activity, environmental conditions, and the menstrual cycle in females. The diagnosis of fever typically requires the confirmation of an elevated core body temperature on at least two occasions or a consistently high temperature over a period of time.

While fevers are generally considered beneficial in fighting off infections and promoting recovery, extremely high temperatures or prolonged febrile states may necessitate medical intervention to prevent potential complications such as dehydration, seizures, or damage to vital organs.

Arboviruses can affect both animals (including humans) and plants. In humans, symptoms of arbovirus infection generally occur 3 ... Preliminary diagnosis of arbovirus infection is usually based on clinical presentations of symptoms, places and dates of travel ... This puts intravenous drug users and healthcare workers at risk for infection in regions where the arbovirus may be spreading ... Arbovirus is an informal name for any virus that is transmitted by arthropod vectors. The term arbovirus is a portmanteau word ...
pdf Hanson, R. P.; Sulkin, S. E.; Buescher, E. L.; Hammon, W. McD.; McKinney, R. W.; Work, T. H. (1967). "Arbovirus Infections ... A laboratory-acquired infection or LAI is an infection that is acquired in a laboratory, usually as part of a medical research ... Prior to 1950, few reports were made on laboratory-acquired infections, due to the lower level of awareness concerning the ... In 1951, a paper from Sulkin and Pike presented data on viral infections contracted in laboratories, which advised caution on ...
"Arbovirus Infections among Laboratory Personnel in Ibadan, Nigeria". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 30 ... Emond, R T; Evans, B; Bowen, E T; Lloyd, G (27 August 1977). "A case of Ebola virus infection". British Medical Journal. 2 ( ... Mole, Beth (2023-02-04). "Freak infection with an eradicated form of polio shows virus' craftiness". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. ... Siengsanan-Lamont, Jarunee; Blacksell, Stuart D. (2018). "A Review of Laboratory-Acquired Infections in the Asia-Pacific: ...
2016). "Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal". Malar J. 15: 47. doi:10.1186/s12936-016 ... It is endemically present in the Kédougou Region, from which it takes its name, together with other arboviruses of the genus ... Kedougou virus (KEDV) is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus, belongs to the IV group of a ((+) ssRNA) ... While there is serological evidence for previous infection in humans, and one isolate from humans identified in the Central ...
Morgan D (2006). "Control of arbovirus infections by a coordinated response: West Nile Virus in England and Wales". FEMS ... Some zoonotic infections are often "dead ends", in that after the initial outbreak the rate of subsequent infections subsides ... References to influenza infections date from the late 15th and early 16th centuries, but infections almost certainly occurred ... a bacterial infection - is probably the most notorious. Except for smallpox and influenza, documented outbreaks of infections ...
Hawkes, Royle A.; Naim, Helen M.; Wild, Jenny; Chapman, Brian; Boughton, Clement R. (1985). "Arbovirus infections of humans in ... like all other arboviruses, is transmitted from a host reservoir to humans through a viral vector. Some arboviruses can be ... Arboviruses are a continuing threat to public health in Papua New Guinea especially because of lack of surveillance and ... Fever as a result of Sepik virus infection has only been seen in Papua New Guinea and has remained isolated from the rest of ...
Short report: Experimental infections of Oryzomys couesi with sympatric arboviruses from Mexico. American Journal of Tropical ... Chiapas O. couesi easily survive experimental infection with several arboviruses, including the Venezuelan equine encephalitis ... a common cause of hantavirus infections in the United States. No hantavirus infections in humans have been linked to O. couesi ... Experimental infection of potential reservoir hosts with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Mexico. Emerging Infectious ...
Arbovirus infection Myiasis Delusional parasitosis Insect indicators of abuse or neglect Vingerhoets, Ad (June 2001). "An ...
Culex and Culiseta are vectors of tularemia, as well as arbovirus infections such as West Nile virus. Zika, recently notorious ... α/β during early mosquito-borne virus infection. The contribution of type I interferons (IFN) in recovery from infection with ... Sawada A, Inoue M, Kawa K (April 2017). "How we treat chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection". International Journal of ... Warning signs of severe dengue infection include vomiting blood, bleeding from the gums or nose, and stomach tenderness/pain. ...
Buckley, Sonja M. "Arbovirus infection of vertebrate and insect cell cultures, with special emphasis on Mokola, Obodhiang, and ... Buckley, Sonja M. "Susceptibility of the Aedes albopictus and A. aegypti cell lines to infection with arboviruses." Proceedings ... In 1964, those labs were transferred to Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, and became known as the Arbovirus Research ... Specimens were sent to four different laboratories, including the Arbovirus Research Unit, where virologists attempted to ...
Arbovirus infections are acquired from bites by infected insects (called epidemic encephalitis). Viral central nervous system ... Existing and emerging viral CNS infections are major sources of human morbidity and mortality. Virus infections usually begin ... including up to 15 years after infection.[additional citation(s) needed] List of central nervous system infections Aging brain ... Many viral infections of the central nervous system occur in seasonal peaks or as epidemics, whereas others, such as herpes ...
The follow-up experiment confirmed the fact that pre-infection of mosquitoes prevents transmission of harmful arbovirus. ... However, the virus could be inoculated (at the thorax region) with successful infection in the C. annulirostris, Aedes aegypti ... since a mosquito generally do not carry mixed infection. The PCV genome encodes a polyprotein that consists of 3,364 amino ... "The insect-specific Palm Creek virus modulates West Nile virus infection in and transmission by Australian mosquitoes". ...
Arbovirus infections transmitted by various species of Culex include West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis ... The diseases they vector include arbovirus infections such as West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis, or St. Louis encephalitis ... Nematode infections, mainly forms of filariasis may be borne by Culex species, as well as by other mosquitoes and bloodsucking ...
... and tick bites in order to prevent arbovirus infection. Many viruses are capable of causing encephalitis during infection, ... For example, arbovirus infections are seasonal and cause viral encephalitis at the highest rate during the summer and early ... Widespread presence of white blood cells and microglia in the CNS is common as a response to CNS infection. For some forms of ... Most infections are asymptomatic, lacking symptoms, whereas most symptomatic cases are mild illnesses. Virus-specific symptoms ...
Marshall ID, Brown BK, Keith K, Gard GP, Thibos E (1982). "Variation in arbovirus infection rates in species of birds sampled ... Following infection, a person has lifelong immunity to the virus. When a patient appears to show MVE symptoms and has been in ... Although the arbovirus is endemic to Northern Australia, it has occasionally spread to the southern states during times of ... Human infection occurs only through bites from infected mosquitoes; the virus cannot be transmitted from person to person. The ...
... is a form of arbovirus infection that results from tick bites. It can occur as a co-infection with Lyme disease, as both are ...
Bangladeshi alternative rock band Arbovirus encephalitis, encephalitis diseases caused by an arbovirus infection This ... Look up arbovirus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Arbovirus is a shortened name given to viruses that are transmitted by ... Arbovirus may also refer to: Arbovirus (band), ... page lists articles associated with the title Arbovirus. If an ...
The department focuses on the study of insect vectors in the transmission of arbo-virus infections, and the study of other ... Other noteworthy arboviruses discovered at the institute include Chikungunya virus, West Nile virus, Bwamba virus, Semliki ... This department focuses on the comprehensive study of how the human body protects itself against infection. The department ... Emerging Infections in Asia. pp. 179-192. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-75722-3_11. ISBN 978-0-387-75721-6. Kaddumukasa, M. A.; Mutebi ...
... infection-associated markers from the acute to the chronic phase of arbovirus-induced arthralgia". PLOS Neglected Tropical ... Macrophages are better able to resist infection by HIV-1 than CD4+ T cells, although susceptibility to HIV infection differs ... TH1 cells also help recruit more monocytes, the precursor to macrophages, to the infection site. TH1 secretion TNF-α and LT-α ... Macrophages secrete many chemokines such as CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL8 (IL-8) that attract neutrophils to the site of infection. ...
"Aedes vigilax". NSW Arbovirus Surveillance & Vector Monitoring Program. The New South Wales Arbovirus Surveillance and Mosquito ... Terrestrial alphavirus infections are spread by insect vectors such as mosquitoes. Once a human is bitten by the infected ... The neutralizing antibodies also play an important role to prevent further infection and spread. Diagnoses is based on clinical ... Calisher CH (January 1994). "Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 7 ...
... and hence are classified as arboviruses. Human infections with most of these arboviruses are incidental, as humans are unable ... The known non-arboviruses of the flavivirus family reproduce in either arthropods or vertebrates, but not both, with one odd ... St Leger J, Wu G, Anderson M, Dalton L, Nilson E, Wang D (2011). "West Nile virus infection in a killer whale, Texas, USA, 2007 ... The JEV hairpin is significantly over-represented upon host cell infection and it has been suggested that the hairpin structure ...
However, Wolbachia infections can also enhance pathogen transmission. Wolbachia has enhanced multiple arboviruses in Culex ... This effect is not seen in DNA virus infection and in some cases Wolbachia infection has been associated or shown to increase ... Wolbachia infection can also increase mosquito resistance to malaria, as shown in Anopheles stephensi where the wAlbB strain of ... These bacteria can infect many different types of organs, but are most notable for the infections of the testes and ovaries of ...
VSIV is an arbovirus, and its replication occurs in the cytoplasm. Natural VSIV infections encompass two steps, cytolytic ... Cases of human infection with vesicular stomatitis virus have been described. Most of these cases have been among laboratory ... In insects, infections are noncytolytic persistent. One confirmed vector of the virus is the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia ... In most cases, VSV infection has resulted in a short 3 to 5 day illness characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, weakness and ...
It has a high potential to spill-over or spill-back into sylvatic cycles as was the case with the similar arbovirus that was ... and capillaria infections were found in gorillas that maintained more frequent contact with humans than those that did not. ... The animal reservoir of the virus maintains a suitable virus level in the blood to allow the infection of a vector mosquito. A ... There does not seem to be any deleterious effects to the mosquito as a result of the parasitic infection. The Plasmodium ...
... in particular infection with viruses such as herpesviruses, enteroviruses, and arboviruses such as West Nile virus. The most ... The route of infection is usually, but not always, by a bite. In many cases, the infected animal is exceptionally aggressive, ... The last infection in the UK occurred in 1922, and the last death from indigenous rabies was in 1902. Sweden and mainland ... Among the 89 infections acquired in the United States, 62 (70%) were attributed to bats. The most recent rabies death in the ...
... epitome of the case fatality rates and communicable infection rates where the coastal populace was afflicted by the arbovirus ... During the nineteenth century, the Texas coastal counties encountered a disease vector which inflicted an arbovirus on the ... The predatorial Aedes aegypti yield a mosquito-borne disease aggressively disseminating an infection known as yellow fever on ...
... arboviruses). He contributed several epidemiological and virological studies on viral infections in France and in Africa. With ... Panthier, R; Hannoun, C; de Looze, L (1965). "Recherche d'anticorps (virus amaril et autres arbovirus) dans des sérums prélevés ... en Ethiope de 1954 à 1961" [Detection of antibodies (amaril virus and other arboviruses) in sera taken in ethiopia from 1954 to ... his collaborators, he isolated in France strains of arboviruses pathogenic for humans, including West Nile virus (1964). In ...
"Victorian Arbovirus Disease Control Program mosquito monitoring report". trove.nla.gov.au. Archived from the original on 14 ... This project aims to reduce the incidence of human infection through surveillance, virus detection, education and control. ... Lynch is the Executive Officer for the Victorian Arbovirus Taskforce, a subject matter expert panel who examine the risk of ... Lynch's team is responsible for the veterinary diagnostic serology testing of zoonotic arboviruses in Victoria. As part of an ...
... and dengue infection of infants born to dengue immune mothers. In 1965 Halstead left Bangkok to join the Yale Arbovirus ... where the antibodies generated from a first dengue infection can sometimes worsen the symptoms from a second infection. A ... In 1967 he presented the first paper describing severe dengue hemorrhagic fever as the result of a second infection by one of ... More cases were likely after vaccination due to a subsequent dengue infection. That led to the vaccine being banned in the ...
... is difficult to diagnose Zika virus infection based on clinical signs and symptoms alone due to overlaps with other arboviruses ... Zika infections in adults can result in Guillain-Barré syndrome. In approximately one in five cases, Zika virus infections ... "As first imported case of Zika virus infection identified in Taiwan, Taiwan CDC to list Zika virus infection as Category II ... Prior to the outbreak, Zika was considered a mild infection, as most infections are asymptomatic, making it difficult to ...
... those with imported arbovirus infection and those with nonarbovirus infection. Acute/recent arbovirus infection was diagnosed ... for whom acute arbovirus infection is an infrequent diagnosis); among travelers, arbovirus infection was the second most ... the proportion of arbovirus infections compared with the total was considered, and increased arbovirus infections were observed ... and arbovirus infections (3.8%). Among travelers, the second most prevalent diagnosis was arbovirus infections (8.2%), which ...
Other Arbovirus Infections - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Arbovirus Overview of Arbovirus, Arenavirus, and Filovirus Infections Arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) is defined as any virus ... Zika virus infection is typically... read more ) (1 Arbovirus references Arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) applies to any virus ... and babesiosis Babesiosis Babesiosis is infection with Babesia species of protozoa. Infections can be asymptomatic or cause a ...
Arbovirus research project. by University of Ibadan (Nigeria).. Material type: Text; Format: print Language: Publication ... The arboviruses : dengue, yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis / by Norman G. Gratz. by Gratz, Norman G , Vector Biology and ... Les arbovirus et leur rôle dans la pathologie humaine : rapport d un groupe scientifique de l OMS [réuni à Genève du 26 ... Los arbovirus y su importancia en patologia humana : informe de un Grupo Cientifico de la OMS [se reunio en Ginebra del 26 ...
Arbovirus infections in Sarawak: the role of the domestic pig. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1976;70:66-72. CrossRefexternal icon ... Artsob H, Spence L. Imported arbovirus infections in Canada 1974-89. Can J Infect Dis 1991;2:95-100. CrossRefexternal icon ... Passive immunity for arbovirus infection. I. Artificially induced prophylaxis in man and mouse for Japanese (B) encephalitis. ... Passive immunity for arbovirus infection. II. Quantitative aspects of naturally and artificially acquired protection in mice ...
What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted arbovirus infection? HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection and how is it prevented? ... What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted arbovirus infection?. How is transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus (CMV) ... What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted HAV and HEV infection?. What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV infection? ... The risk of severe infection is particularly high in patients who have HIV infection, have had a splenectomy, or are ...
Arboviruses can affect both animals (including humans) and plants. In humans, symptoms of arbovirus infection generally occur 3 ... Preliminary diagnosis of arbovirus infection is usually based on clinical presentations of symptoms, places and dates of travel ... This puts intravenous drug users and healthcare workers at risk for infection in regions where the arbovirus may be spreading ... Arbovirus is an informal name for any virus that is transmitted by arthropod vectors. The term arbovirus is a portmanteau word ...
What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted arbovirus infection? HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection and how is it prevented? ... What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted arbovirus infection?. How is transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus (CMV) ... What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted HAV and HEV infection?. What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV infection? ... The risk of severe infection is particularly high in patients who have HIV infection, have had a splenectomy, or are ...
Experimental Infections of Oryzomys couesi with Sympatric Arboviruses from Mexico Eleanor R. Deardorff ... Infection Dynamics of Sylvatic Dengue Virus in a Natural Primate Host, the African Green Monkey ... Antibody Prevalence of Select Arboviruses in Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes Region and Atlantic Coast of the ...
Corrigendum: The plasma virome of febrile adult Kenyans shows frequent parvovirus B19 infections and a novel arbovirus ( ... Corrigendum: The plasma virome of febrile adult Kenyans shows frequent parvovirus B19 infections and a novel arbovirus ( ...
Imported Arbovirus Infections in Spain, 2009-2018. Norman FF, Henríquez-Camacho C, Díaz-Menendez M, Chamorro S, Pou D, Molina I ... Update on the major imported protozoan infections in travelers and migrants. Norman FF, Comeche B, Chamorro S, Pérez-Molina JA ...
... prevalent or emerging human respiratory viruses that have been associated with possible pathogenic processes in CNS infection, ... Beckham, J.D.; Tyler, K.L. Arbovirus Infections. Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2015, 21, 1599-1611. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [ ... However, viral infections related to diseases that are rare manifestations of an infection (like long term chronic neurological ... human respiratory virus; human coronavirus; respiratory viral infection; neuroinvasion; CNS infection; acute and chronic ...
Categories: Arbovirus Infections Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Staphylococcal Skin Infection typically on the extremities or face; some lesions may have honey-colored crust ... Arbovirus Infection. *Arenavirus Infection. *Other Causes. *Disseminated Gonococcus. *Staphylococcal Sepsis. *Thrombotic ...
Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal. Sow A, Loucoubar C, Diallo D, Faye O, Ndiaye Y, ... A Screen of FDA-Approved Drugs for Inhibitors of Zika Virus Infection. Barrows NJ, Campos RK, Powell ST, Prasanth KR, Schott- ... Outbreak of Zika Virus Infection, Chiapas State, Mexico, 2015, and First Confirmed Transmission by Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in ...
... with only a few clinical cases of neuroinvasive infections reported. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus is a neglected ... Several arboviruses have emerged in Croatia in recent years. Tick-borne encephalitis is endemic in continental counties; ... Island of Brač-Focus of arbovirus infections. In Arboviruses in the Mediterranean Countries; Vesenjak-Hirjan, J., Ed.; Gustav ... Three laboratory BHAV infections as well as one natural infection detected in a patient with meningoencephalitis and spastic ...
Posted in: Medical Research News , Disease/Infection News. Tags: Arbovirus, Autophagy, Chikungunya, DNA, DNA Damage, Fever, ... This would be to engineer the mosquitoes so that arbovirus infections trigger the loss of their tolerance mechanisms, perhaps ... Aedes aegypti Argonaute 2 controls arbovirus infection and host mortality was co-authored by Shengzhang Dong and George ... Dong, S., & Dimopoulos, G. (2023). Aedes aegypti Argonaute 2 controls arbovirus infection and host mortality. Nature ...
We looked for evidence of POWV infection among candidate wildlife host species and ticks collected from mammals and birds in ... Reported human cases have increased in recent years; these infections can be fatal or lead to long-term neurologic sequelae. ... Arbovirus infections in several Ontario mammals, 1975-1980. Can J Vet Res 50: 42-46. ... Arbovirus infections in several Ontario mammals, 1975-1980. Can J Vet Res 50: 42-46. ...
Since DENV infection dynamics vary among wild-type viruses and vector populations, vertical transmission rates can also vary ... Gu, W. & Novak, R. J. Short report: detection probability of arbovirus infection in mosquito populations. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg ... Gu, W., Lampman, R. & Novak, R. J. Assessment of arbovirus vector infection rates using variable size pooling. Med. Vet. ... Minimum infection rate (MIR). We compared the overall Minimum Infection Rate (MIR = 0.35), which was calculated based on all ...
... www.merckmanuals.com/home/infections/arboviruses,-arenaviruses,-filoviruses/dengue. *Johns Hopkins Medicine [Internet]. The ... Dengue fever is a viral infection spread to people through bites from infected mosquitos. You cant catch the virus from a ... You most likely have a dengue infection.. *A negative test result means that the dengue virus wasnt found in your blood sample ... If an infection is suspected, you will get a blood test to check for the dengue virus. ...
In this condensed note, the diseases reported are: arbovirus infections; rabies; Newcastle disease; Q fever; bacterial diseases ... including anthrax, brucellosis, enterobacterial infections, sal-monellosis, leptospirosis and tuberculosis; fungal diseases, ...
pi - post infection * PRNT - plaque-reduction neutralization test * QIMR - Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, ...
Infections with Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin) producing E. Coli (SLTEC/VTEC).. 11. Includes congenital syphilis.. 12. NSW, Qld: ... Complete data for gonococcal infection were not received from Victoria this period. ...
This discovery has led to the setting up of the Arbovirus Infection study (AVI). ... One of the findings of the study was that arboviruses were the cause of many of the acute febrile illnesses detected ( ... arboviruses are viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, flies, sand flies, lice, fleas, ticks, and mites). ... convalesce in order to help determine how to better diagnose and manage future patients presenting with these infections. ...
Chikungunya: an arbovirus infection in the process of establishment and expansion in Brazil  Honório, Nildimar Alves et al. , ... Chikungunya: an arbovirus infection in the process of establishment and expansion in Brazil  Honório, Nildimar Alves et al. , ... High-Throughput Method for Detection of Arbovirus Infection of Saliva in Mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus  Honório ... Diversity of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors in a heterogeneous landscape endemic for arboviruses  Câmara, Daniel ...
V. A. (1971). Ornithosis and mixed infection in wild birds in combined foci of ornithosis and arboviruses. Mater. 6. Simp. ... 1971). Survival of arboviruses in Ceratixodes putus Pick. -Camb. Ticks in connection with the ectoparasite ecology. Mater. 6. ... TAGILTSEV, A. A. and TARASEVICH, L. N. (1971). Contribution to the study of interrelationships between group B arboviruses and ... Detection of antibodies to arboviruses in migratory birds of southern Kazakhstan. Mater. 6. Simp. Izuch. Virus. Ekol. Svyazan. ...
Wang S et al. PEBP balances apoptosis and autophagy in whitefly upon arbovirus infection. Nat Commun 13:846 (2022). PubMed: ...
Arbovirus Infections. Vector Borne Diseases. Infections. Virus Diseases. Flavivirus Infections. Flaviviridae Infections. RNA ... With a current or previous infection with a flavivirus such as dengue, Zika, YF, JE, WN fever, tick-borne encephalitis or ... Participants with a clinically significant active infection (as assessed by the investigator) or body temperature ≥38°C (≥100.4 ...
It is important to rule out dengue virus infection, because proper clinical management of dengue can improve outcome. ... Overview of Arbovirus, Arenavirus, and Filovirus Infections. Chikungunya Disease. Dengue. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock ...
The Antiviral RNA Interference Response Provides Resistance to Lethal Arbovirus Infection and Vertical Transmission in ... Surviving Infection with the Help of Microbes. When a person contracts an infectious disease, what dictates whether they remain ... RNA sequencing in mice that show no signs of illness 8 days after infection with 50x the lethal dose of an infectious bacteria ... In every cohort, some animals succumb to the infection, while others remain healthy. Analysis of both cohorts vital organs at ...

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