An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)
A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.
A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).
A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
Enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of arachidonic acid to hydroperoxyarachidonates. These products are then rapidly converted by a peroxidase to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. The positional specificity of the enzyme reaction varies from tissue to tissue. The final lipoxygenase pathway leads to the leukotrienes. EC 1.13.11.- .
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
A dual inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. It exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The drug also enhances pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and has a protective effect after myocardial ischemia.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS.
20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that occur in the CYTOSOL.
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.
A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin G2.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta(1E,3E,5Z,8Z)))-3-(1,3,5,8-Tetradecatetraenyl)oxiranebutanoic acid. An unstable allylic epoxide, formed from the immediate precursor 5-HPETE via the stereospecific removal of a proton at C-10 and dehydration. Its biological actions are determined primarily by its metabolites, i.e., LEUKOTRIENE B4 and cysteinyl-leukotrienes. Alternatively, leukotriene A4 is converted into LEUKOTRIENE C4 by glutathione-S-transferase or into 5,6-di-HETE by the epoxide-hydrolase. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of a PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 enzyme.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASE.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
Cyclohexane ring substituted by one or more ketones in any position.
Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the syn-dehydrogenation of linoleol-CoA gamma-linolenoyl-CoA. It was formerly characterized as EC
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
Dioxygenases that catalyze the peroxidation of methylene-interrupted UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.
An anthracene derivative that disrupts MITOCHONDRIA function and structure and is used for the treatment of DERMATOSES, especially PSORIASIS. It may cause FOLLICULITIS.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
Compounds that inhibit the action of prostaglandins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Amides composed of unsaturated aliphatic FATTY ACIDS linked with AMINES by an amide bond. They are most prominent in ASTERACEAE; PIPERACEAE; and RUTACEAE; and also found in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE; BRASSICACEAE; CONVOLVULACEAE; EUPHORBIACEAE; MENISPERMACEAE; POACEAE; and SOLANACEAE. They are recognized by their pungent taste and for causing numbing and salivation.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
cis-13-Docosenoic Acids. 22-Carbon monounsaturated, monocarboxylic acids.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mortierellaceae, order MUCORALES. Its species are abundant in soil and can cause rare infections in humans and animals. Mortierella alpinais is used for production of arachidonic acid.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that contains both a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment and interfacial-binding region specific for PHOSPHATIDYL CHOLINE-containing membranes. This enzyme group may play a role in the release of ARACHIDONIC ACID from phospholipid membranes.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).
Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
A secreted phospholipase A2 subtype that contains a interfacial-binding region with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. This enzyme group may play a role in eliciting ARACHIDONIC ACID release from intact cellular membranes and from LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Members of this group bind specifically to PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Cell surface proteins that bind eicosanoids with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Among the eicosanoid receptors are receptors for the prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that are secreted from cells. They are 14 kDa proteins containing multiple disulfide-bonds and access their substrate via an interfacial binding site that interacts with phospholipid membranes. In addition specific PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS can bind to and internalize the enzymes.
An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC
A chemically diverse group of substances produced by various tissues in the body that cause slow contraction of smooth muscle; they have other intense but varied pharmacologic activities.
An anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic of the phenylalkynoic acid series. It has been shown to reduce bone resorption in periodontal disease by inhibiting CARBONIC ANHYDRASE.
Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.

Stimulation of renin release from rabbit renal cortex by arachidonic acid and prostaglandin endoperoxides. (1/3254)

The mechanism by which renal prostaglandins stimulate renin secretion in vivo is unknown. In this in vitro study we measured the effects of activation of the prostaglandin (PG) system on renin release from slices of rabbit renal cortex. The PG precursor arachidonic acid (C20:4), a natural PG endoperoxide (PGG2), two stable synthetic PG endoperoxide analogues (EPA I and II), PGE2, PGF2alpha, and two different PG synthesis inhibitors [indomethacin and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETA)] were used to evaluate the possibility of a direct action of the cortical PG system on renin secretion. Renin release increased significantly with time after addition of C20:4, PGG2, EPA I, and EPA II to the incubation medium. Stimulation of renin release was se-related for C20:4 in concentrations of 0.6 to 4.5 X 10(-6) M, for EPA I in concentrations of 0.7 to 2.8 X 10(-6) M, and for EPA II in concentrations of 1.4 to 14.0 X 10(-6) M. Indomethacin (10(-4) M) and ETA (10(-4) M) significantly decreased basal renin release as well as the renin release stimulated by C20:4 and EPA I. PGE2(10(-12) to 10(-6) M) had no effect on renin release, whereas PGF2alpha (10(-12) to 10(-6) M) decreased renin release in a dose-dependent manner. These data raise the possibility of a direct action of the renal cortical PG system on renin secretion. The results further indicate that stimulation of renin release by C20:4 may depend more specifically on the action of PG endoperoxides than on the primary prostaglandins.  (+info)

Cytosolic phospholipase A2 in rat decidual cells: evidence for its role in decidualization. (2/3254)

We investigated the existence and possible role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in rat decidualized uteri. PLA2 activity in the cytosol of a decidualized uterine horn, induced by intraluminal oil infusion, was significantly higher than that in contralateral intact horn. The activity was almost completely depressed by cPLA2 inhibitors including arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (ATK). The immunoreactive signals for cPLA2 were intense in decidua and glandular epithelial cells. In vivo administration of ATK (0.1-100 microg) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of decidualization. These results show the presence of cPLA2 and its probable implication in decidualization in rat uterus.  (+info)

Recent progress in the neurotoxicology of natural drugs associated with dependence or addiction, their endogenous agonists and receptors. (3/3254)

Nicotine in tobacco, tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) in marijuana and morphine in opium are well known as drugs associated with dependence or addiction. Endogenous active substances that mimic the effects of the natural drugs and their respective receptors have been found in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Such active substances and receptors include acetylcholine (ACh) and the nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) for nicotine, anandamide and CB1 for delta 9-THC, and endomorphins (1 and 2) and the mu (OP3) opioid receptor for morphine, respectively. Considerable progress has been made in studies on neurotoxicity, in terms of the habituation, dependence and withdrawal phenomena associated with these drugs and with respect to correlations with endogenous active substances and their receptors. In this article we shall review recent findings related to the neurotoxicity of tobacco, marijuana and opium, and their toxic ingredients, nicotine, delta 9-THC and morphine in relation to their respective endogenous agents and receptors in the CNS.  (+info)

Stage-specific excitation of cannabinoid receptor exhibits differential effects on mouse embryonic development. (4/3254)

Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine), an arachidonic acid derivative, is an endogenous ligand for both the brain-type (CB1-R) and spleen-type (CB2-R) cannabinoid receptors. We have previously demonstrated that preimplantation mouse embryos express mRNA for these receptors and that the periimplantation uterus contains the highest level of anandamide yet discovered in a mammalian tissue. We further demonstrated that 2-cell mouse embryos exposed to low levels of anandamide (7 nM) or other known cannabinoid agonists in culture exhibit markedly compromised embryonic development to blastocysts and that this effect is mediated by CB1-R. In contrast, the present study demonstrates that blastocysts exposed in culture to the same low levels of cannabinoid agonists exhibited accelerated trophoblast differentiation with respect to fibronectin-binding activity and trophoblast outgrowth. Again, these effects resulted from activation of embryonic CB1-R. There was a differential concentration-dependent effect of cannabinoids on the trophoblast, with an observed inhibition of differentiation at higher doses. These results provide evidence for the first time that cannabinoid effects are differentially executed depending on the embryonic stage and cannabinoid levels in the environment. Since uterine anandamide levels are lowest at the sites of implantation and highest at the interimplantation sites, the new findings imply that site-specific levels of anandamide and/or other endogenous ligands in the uterus may regulate implantation spatially by promoting trophoblast differentiation at the sites of blastocyst implantation.  (+info)

A role for N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide) as the mediator of sensory nerve-dependent Ca2+-induced relaxation. (5/3254)

We tested the hypothesis that an endogenous cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonist, such as N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide), is the transmitter that mediates perivascular sensory nerve-dependent Ca2+-induced relaxation. Rat mesenteric branch arteries were studied using wire myography; relaxation was determined after inducing contraction with norepinephrine. Cumulative addition of Ca2+ caused dose-dependent relaxation (ED50 = 2.2 +/- 0.09 mM). The relaxation was inhibited by 10 mM TEA and 100 nM iberiotoxin, a blocker of large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, but not by 5 microM glibenclamide, 1 mM 4-aminopyridine, or 30 nM apamin. Ca2+-induced relaxation was also blocked by the selective CB receptor antagonist SR141716A and was enhanced by pretreatment with 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (pefabloc; 30 microM), an inhibitor of anandamide metabolism. Anandamide also caused dose-dependent relaxation (ED50 =.72 +/- 0.3 microM). The relaxation was not inhibited by endothelial denudation, 10 microM indomethacin, or 1 microM miconazole, but was blocked by 3 microM SR141716A, 10 mM TEA, precontraction with 100 mM K+, and 100 nM iberiotoxin, and was enhanced by treatment with 30 microM pefabloc. Mesenteric branch arteries were 200-fold more sensitive to the relaxing action of anandamide than arachidonic acid (ED50 = 160 +/- 7 microM). These data show that: 1) Ca2+ and anandamide cause hyperpolarization-mediated relaxation of mesenteric branch arteries, which is dependent on an iberiotoxin-sensitive Ca2+-activated K+ channel, 2) relaxation induced by both Ca2+ and anandamide is inhibited by CB receptor blockade, and 3) relaxation induced by anandamide is not dependent on its breakdown to arachidonic acid and subsequent metabolism. These findings support the hypothesis that anandamide, or a similar cannabinoid receptor agonist, mediates nerve-dependent Ca2+-induced relaxation in the rat.  (+info)

Inhibition of the production of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor by cannabinoid receptor agonists. (6/3254)

1. The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, has been reported to induce an 'endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-like' relaxation in vitro. We therefore investigated the effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists; HU 210, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and anandamide, and a CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, SR 141716A, on nitric oxide (NO) and EDHF-mediated relaxation in precontracted rings of porcine coronary, rabbit carotid and mesenteric arteries. 2. In rings of mesenteric artery HU 210 and delta9-THC induced endothelium- and cyclo-oxygenase-independent relaxations which were sensitive to SR 141716A. Anandamide (0.03-30 microM) induced a slowly developing, endothelium-independent relaxation which was abolished by diclofenac and was therefore mediated by cyclo-oxygenase product(s). None of the CB1 agonists tested affected the tone of precontracted rings of rabbit carotid or porcine coronary artery. 3. In endothelium-intact segments, HU 210, delta9-THC and anandamide did not affect NO-mediated responses but under conditions of continuous NO synthase/cyclo-oxygenase blockade, significantly inhibited acetylcholine and bradykinin-induced relaxations which are attributed to the production of EDHF. The effects of HU 210 and delta9-THC were not observed when experiments were performed in the presence of SR 141716A suggesting the involvement of the CB1 receptor. 4. In a patch clamp bioassay of EDHF production, HU 210 decreased the EDHF-mediated hyperpolarization of detector smooth muscle cells when applied to the donor segment but was without effect on the membrane potential of detector cells. The inhibition of EDHF production was unrelated to alterations in Ca2+ -signalling or cytochrome P450 activity. 5. These results suggest that the activation of endothelial CB1 receptors appears to be negatively coupled to the production of EDHF.  (+info)

Insulin but not growth hormone stimulates protein anabolism in skin wound and muscle. (7/3254)

We have measured protein kinetics in the scalded skin and normal muscle in anesthetized rabbits. On the 7th day after ear scald, L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine was infused as a tracer, and the ear and hindlimb were used as arteriovenous units to reflect skin and muscle protein kinetics. Insulin was infused at 0.6 or 2.3-3.4 mU. kg-1. min-1 in the low-dose and high-dose insulin groups. In the growth hormone group, recombinant human growth hormone was administered at 2 mg. kg-1. day-1 after the ear was scalded. The results were compared with a control group in which the ear was scalded but otherwise was not treated. In the control group, net protein loss in the scalded skin and muscle was 23.1 +/- 21.4 and 3.9 +/- 1.5 micromol. 100 g-1. h-1, respectively. Insulin infusion at either high or low dose reduced net protein loss to near zero by inhibiting proteolysis. In contrast, growth hormone treatment had no anabolic effect on either tissue. In conclusion, insulin but not growth hormone has an anabolic effect on scalded skin and normal muscle; low-dose insulin is as effective in achieving an anabolic effect on both tissues, with less hypoglycemic response than high-dose insulin.  (+info)

Fatty-acid amide hydrolase is expressed in the mouse uterus and embryo during the periimplantation period. (8/3254)

Arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide) is an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors. We demonstrated previously that the periimplantation mouse uterus has high levels of anandamide and can synthesize and hydrolyse anandamide. In the present investigation, we examined the expression of the recently identified fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene, which is involved in hydrolyzing anandamide to arachidonic acid and ethanolamine, in the periimplantation mouse embryo and uterus. As previously reported, Northern blot hybridization detected a transcript of approximately 2.5 kilobases of FAAH mRNA in whole uterine poly(A)+ RNA samples. The levels of this mRNA were higher in the liver and brain than in the uterus. In the uterus, higher accumulation of FAAH mRNA occurred on Days 1-4 followed by declines on later days (Days 5-8) of pregnancy. In situ hybridization detected this mRNA primarily in uterine luminal and glandular epithelial cells on Days 1-4 of pregnancy. With the progression of implantation (Days 5-8), accumulation of this mRNA was retained in the luminal and glandular epithelia. In addition, implanting blastocysts showed accumulation of this mRNA. FAAH mRNA accumulation was absent or minimal in the myometrium during this period. Western blotting detected an approximately 60-kDa protein in uterine membrane preparations. In preimplantation embryos, FAAH mRNA was present in one-cell and two-cell embryos but was absent in embryos at the eight-cell/morula stage. However, this mRNA was again detected in Day 4 blastocysts. The presence of FAAH mRNA in one- and two-cell embryos reflects accumulation of maternal message, while its presence in blastocysts reflects embryonic gene activation. Collectively, our present and previous results provide evidence that FAAH is expressed in the mouse uterus and embryo during early pregnancy to modulate local levels of anandamide that could be important for embryo development and implantation.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Study on the action of PAF on IL-1 modulation in alveolar macrophages. T2 - Involvement of endogenous arachidonate metabolites and intracellular Ca++ mobilization. AU - Lee, J.. AU - Kim, W. K.. AU - Hah, J. S.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Platelet-activating factor (PAF) enhanced interleukin-1 (IL-1) activity by the interaction with a specific receptor in rat alveolar macrophages. In this study, we investigated the role of endogenous arachidonate metabolites and intracellular calcium mobilization in the PAF-induced IL-1 activity. Alveolar macrophages were preincubated with 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase inhibitors 30 min before the addition of PAF and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After 24h culture, IL-1 activity was measured in the supernate of sample using the thymocyte proliferation assay. Inhibition of 5-lipoxyenase by nordihydroguaiaretic acid and AA-861 completely blocked the PAF-induced enhancement of IL-1 activity with IC50 of 2 μM and 5 μM, respectively. In contrast, ...
Sodium arachidonate, 10(-5) g/kg per minute, was infused into the renal artery of a nonfiltering canine kidney in situ in order to determine the effects of enhanced prostaglandin synthesis on renal blood flow and its distribution in circumstances where prostaglandins produced in the medulla could not gain access to the cortex via tubular fluid. The contralateral normal kidney was also infused with sodium arachidonate and served as control. Radioactive microspheres were used to calculate the hemodynamic effects. In the nonfiltering kidney, the total renal blood flow increased after sodium arachidonate from a mean of 105 ml/min per 100 g to 146 ml/min per 100 g (P less than 0.01). This increase was completely abolished by prior treatment with indomethacin, 8 mg/kg, intravenously. The normal kidney responded qualitatively the same as the nonfiltering side. In both kidneys, blood flow increased significantly to all cortical zones except the outermost (zone 1), but the fractional distribution of ...
N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) is an endogenous signaling lipid with a wide variety of biological activity whose biosynthesis is poorly understood. Two primary biosynthetic pathways have been proposed. One suggests that NAGly is formed via an enzymatically regulated conjugation of arachidonic acid (AA) and glycine. The other suggests that NAGly is an oxidative metabolite of the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide (AEA), through an alcohol dehydrogenase. Here using both in vitro and in vivo assays measuring metabolites with LC/MS/MS we test the hypothesis that both pathways are present in mammalian cells. The metabolic products of deuterium-labeled AEA, D4AEA (deuterium on ethanolamine), indicated that NAGly is formed by the oxidation of the ethanolamine creating a D2NAGly product in both RAW 264.7 and C6 glioma cells. Significantly, D4AEA produced a D0NAGly product only in C6 glioma cells suggesting that the hydrolysis of AEA yielded AA that was used preferentially in a conjugation reaction. Addition of
I have postulated that arachidonic acid release from rat liver cells is associated with cancer chemoprevention. Since it has been reported that inhibition of proteasome activities may prevent cancer, the effects of proteasome inhibitors on arachidonic acid release from cells and on prostaglandin I2 production in rat liver cells were studied. The proteasome inhibitors, epoxomicin, lactacystin and carbobenzoxy-leucyl-leucyl-leucinal, stimulate the release of arachidonic acid from rat glial, human colon carcinoma, human breast carcinoma and the rat liver cells. They also stimulate basal and induced prostacycin production in the rat liver cells. The stimulated arachidonic acid release and basal prostaglandin I2 production in rat liver cells is inhibited by actinomycin D. Stimulation of arachidonic acid release and arachidonic acid metabolism may be associated with some of the biologic effects observed after proteasome inhibition, e.g. prevention of tumor growth, induction of apoptosis, stimulation of bone
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule (5z,8z,10e,12s,14z)-12-hydroperoxy-5,8,10,14-icosatetraenoic acid (C20H32O4) from the PQR.
Definition of Arachidonic acid cascade with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Purified human monocytes release and metabolize endogenous arachidonic acid (20:4) from phospholipid stores when challenged with particulate inflammatory stimuli or the calcium ionophore A23187. Using radiolabeled cultures, the percentage of total [3H]20:4 released was similar with each type of stimulus. However, the spectrum of 20:4 metabolites differed. With opsonized zymosan (OpZ) or Sephadex beads coated with IgG immune complexes (Ig-beads), the predominant product was thromboxane (25% of the total) together with smaller amounts of other cyclo-oxygenase products and lipoxygenase metabolites. Levels of thromboxane synthesis by monocytes were comparable to those by platelets, as measured by radioimmunoassay. In contrast, exposure to the nonspecific agent A23187 led to mainly lipoxygenase products (70% of the total). Monocytes isolated from mononuclear cell fractions of peripheral blood contain platelets specifically rosetted to their surfaces. These platelet contaminants were removed by ...
It is well recognized that the CYP-derived eicosanoids constitute a new member of the arachidonic acid cascade with important implications in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes. These metabolites are formed endogenously in various tissues and exert potent biological effects on cellular functions. Studies of their role in normal and diseased cells and tissues are impeded by the difficulty in selectively targeting their synthesis or their effects, because these metabolites are generated from multiple closely related proteins of the CYP superfamily. Consequently, the development of enzyme inhibitors that target specific isoforms/reactions should aid in the study of their pathophysiological roles.. We have synthesized a series of fatty acid/arachidonic acid analogs and tested their potency and selectivity in inhibiting arachidonic acid epoxidation and ω-hydroxylation reactions in rat renal microsomes. Our study confirms that the widely used, terminal acetylenic ...
The present study was designed to determine whether or not lipoxygenase-dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid are involved in the endothelium-dependent
BioAssay record AID 3623 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of [14C]arachidonic acid conversion to 5-HETE by broken cell 5-LO isolated from guinea pig PMN.
N-arachidonoyl-dopamine tunes synaptic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons by activating both cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors.: In the present study, we
The Ultimate Plateau Breaker!X-FACTOR™ is an arachidonic acid [ARASYN™] supplement for bodybuilders and athletes. An Omega-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid (ARA) supports the initiation of muscle protein synthesis following exercise. ARA is richly stored in muscle tissues, and these levels may vary. Further, they can be
just read a article about arachidonic acid,,,had sum great info on it,,,,was wondering if anyone here uses it while on / off cycle and does it really work or is
BioAssay record AID 274914 submitted by ChEMBL: Activity at COX1 assessed as inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced PGE2 production in J774 cells at 0.01 uM.
Arachidonic Acids Role in Stress and Shock April 3, 2012 Posted in General.. Comments Off on Arachidonic Acids Role in Stress and Shock ...
ethyl arachidonate 1808-26-0 NMR spectrum, ethyl arachidonate H-NMR spectral analysis, ethyl arachidonate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Scientists in Cambridge have discovered that a brain protein called syntaxin enables fatty molecules, used widely in health supplements, to work in the brain to make it function properly. Lead Scientist, Dr Bazbek Davletov and his colleague Dr Colin Rickman from the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK report their findings in the journal Chemistry and Biology.. ...
Dumex Dulac Boouc 1 information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Danone, Dumex Dulac Boouc 1 indications, usages and related health products lists
Use SelfDecode to get personalized health recommendations based on your genes. Get started today with an existing DNA file or order a SelfDecode DNA kit!
AuxInfo=1/1/N:1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22/E:(21,22)/rA:22nCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCOO/rB:s1;s2;s3;s4;s5;d6;s7;s8;d9;s10;s11;d12;s13;s14;d15;s16;s17;s18;s19;s20;d20;/rC:-7.3658,-.6188,0;-6.6513,-.2062,0;-5.9368,-.6188,0;-5.2224,-.2062,0;-4.5079,-.6188,0;-3.7934,-.2062,0;-2.9684,-.2062,0;-2.2539,-.6188,0;-1.5395,-.2062,0;-.7145,-.2062,0;0,-.6188,0;.7145,-.2062,0;1.5395,-.2062,0;2.2539,-.6188,0;2.9684,-.2062,0;3.7934,-.2062,0;4.5079,-.6188,0;5.2224,-.2062,0;5.9368,-.6188,0;6.6513,-.2062,0;7.3658,-.6188,0;6.6513,.6188,0 ...
This is a demo simulation of an experiment conducted by Schaechter JD et al. ( J Neurosci, 1993 ). This experiment looks at the activation of a subspecies of PKC by arachidonic acid in combination to Ca2+ and diacylglycerol (DAG). You can try changing the stimulus dose (between 0 to 200 uM) for the three stimuli. We will provide the stimuli in combination and compare it with experimental values from the paper. ...
N-Arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) is an endocannabinoid that acts as an agonist of the CB1 receptor and the transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) ion channel. NADA was first described as a putative endocannabinoid (agonist for the CB1 receptor) in 2000 and was subsequently identified as an endovanilloid (agonist for TRPV1) in 2002. NADA is an endogenous arachidonic acid based lipid found in the brain of rats, with especially high concentrations in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and striatum. It activates the TRPV1 channel with an EC50 of approximately of 50nM which makes it the putative endogenous TRPV1 agonist. In mice, NADA was shown to induce the tetrad of physiological paradigms associated with cannabinoids: hypothermia, hypo-locomotion, catalepsy, and analgesia. NADA has been found to play a regulatory role in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, and displays antioxidant and neuroprotectant properties. NADA has also been implicated in smooth muscle contraction and vasorelaxation in ...
Arachidonic acid supplementation in daily doses of 1,000-1,500 mg for 50 days has been well tolerated during several clinical studies, with no significant side effects reported. All common markers of health, including kidney and liver function,[35] serum lipids,[39] immunity,[40] and platelet aggregation[34] appear to be unaffected with this level and duration of use. Furthermore, higher concentrations of ARA in muscle tissue may be correlated with improved insulin sensitivity.[41] Arachidonic acid supplementation of the diets of healthy adults appears to offer no toxicity or significant safety risk. While studies looking at arachidonic acid supplementation in sedentary subjects have failed to find changes in resting inflammatory markers in doses up to 1,500 mg daily, strength-trained subjects may respond differently. One study reported a significant reduction in resting inflammation (via marker IL-6) in young men supplementing 1,000 mg/day of arachidonic acid for 50 days in combination with ...
A rat fecal peritonitis model of acute intraabdominal sepsis was investigated in order to evaluate the potential role of arachidonic acid metabolites in septic shock. Immunoreactive (i) Thromboxane (Tx) 8 2 , the stable metabolite of TXA2 and i6-keto-PGF 1a , the stable metabolite of prostacyclin, were measured by radioimmuonassay. plasma levels of iTXB2 rapidly increased from non-detectable (ND,200 pg/ml) to 1,066 -/+ 194 pg/ml (N=14) 1 hour after feces injction. iTxB2 then increased to 1,695 -/+ 218 pg/ml (N=16) at 4 hours and remained unchanged through 6 hours. Plasma i6-keto-PGF1a increased from ND to 3,777 -/+ 414 pg/ml (N=16) at 1 hour. Four hours after feces, i6-keto-PGF1a levels rose to 6,945 -/+ 732 pg/ml (N=16) then continued to rise to 9,465 -/+ 792 pg/ml (N=7) at 6 hours. Either essential fatty acid deficiency (arachidonic acid depletion) or indomethacin pretreatment (cyclooxygenase inhibition) significantly decreased (P,0.01) the elevations of plasma iTxB2 and i6-keto-PGF1a ...
A recognized feature of psoriasis and other proliferative dermatoses is accumulation in your skin from the unusual arachidonic acidity metabolite, 12hydrogen through the 10-carbon of arachidonate. included regions of epidermis in psoriasis possess PPARG improved concentrations of free of charge arachidonic acid and 12-HETE markedly. Chiral analysis from the 12-HETE in psoriasis revealed that the major enantiomer is 12390C404, encompassing the major M-PFB ions at 391 (unlabeled HETE) and 399 (d8 analogue), essentially as described previously (28). Experiments with Stereospecifically Labeled Arachidonic Acids. The specific activities of the two 10-3H-labeled arachidonic acids were approximately 10,000C20,000 disintegrations per min 3H per g. The pro-[10-3H]arachidonic acid was enriched in tritium by incubation with an 8as described in principle before (29). The stereospecifically labeled arachidonic acids were admixed with [14C]arachidonic acid, which served as an internal standard for measurement ...
In the present study, we investigated whether the protective effect of FK506 and cyclosporin A (CsA) against in vitro ischemic injury of astrocytes might be mediated through attenuation of cytosolic isoform of phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) expression and activity as well as inhibition of arachidonic acid (AA) release. On the 21st day in vitro, cultures of rat astrocytes were subjected to ischemia-simulating conditions (combined oxygen glucose deprivation) for 8 h and exposed to FK506 (10 - 1,000 nM) and CsA (0.25 - 10 microM). Obtained data suggest the cross-talk between the action of 0.25 - 10 microM CsA as well as 1 microM FK506 on calcineurin (CaN) and cPLA(2) in anti-apoptotic signal transduction pathways. Moreover, we have shown that immunosuppressants at these concentrations protected glial cells against ischemia-induced apoptosis through the increase of cell viability, mitochondrial function restoration, and attenuation of oxidative stress. Finally, in our study, low concentrations of FK506 (10
This topic has 3 study abstracts on Arachidonic Acid indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Mitochondrial Diseases, Oxidative Stress, and Alcoholic Liver Disease
BECA, T; HERNANDEZ, G y BASCONES, A. NSAIDs in the treatment of periodontal disease. Avances en Periodoncia [online]. 2007, vol.19, n.2, pp.101-113. ISSN 2340-3209.. SUMMARY A review about the application of antiinflammatories as an aid for the periodontal treatment is presented. After a brief introduction, we explain the immunological bases of periodontal inflamation and tissue destruction, focusing on arachidonic acid metabolism and the four most important inflammatory mediators now in periodontal tissue resorption: prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin F2a(PGF2a), leucotriene B4 (LTB4) and platelet activation factor (PAF), and explaining their actions and role in inflammation through matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and their relation with some other mediators in the inflammatory chain also related with tissue resorption. After, we expound some of the most used drugs for the inhibition of all of these mediators (non-steroid antiinflammatory drugs or NSAIDs, omega3 fatty acids, tetracyclines ...
Yau, T M. and Sun, G Y., The metabolism of (1-14c)arachidonic acid in the neutral glycerides and phosphoglycerides of mouse brain. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 89 ...
This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and is thought to be the predominant enzyme responsible for epoxidation of endogenous arachidonic acid in cardiac tissue. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016 ...
Mancuso, P.; Mcnish, R.W.; Peters Golden, M.; Brock, T.G., 2001: Evaluation of phagocytosis and arachidonate metabolism by alveolar macrophages and recruited neutrophils from F344xBN rats of different ages
COX-2 Drugs were recently approved by FDA, USA. After the discovery of COX-2, several new medicines were produced and unlike the earlier NSAIDs, the side effects were significantly reduced. COX-2 medicines were proved to be safer than COX-1 medicines. Even the doctors are prescribing these COX-2 medicines only because of their advantages over COX-1 medicines.. There is a clear difference in DNA and mRNA structures of these two but the end results are same. Even the structure of these two enzymes is almost 60% similar. The effects of these enzymes on arachidonic acid are almost same but their functionality is different. COX-2 is localized to nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. COX-1 is localized to later one only. For prostaglandin synthesis, these two use different versions of arachidonate.. The best thing about COX-2 is it doesn’t affect the prostaglandins that cause these GI problems in any way. It just stops the synthesis and the user won’t face any discomforts like GI ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Factors that protect HepG2 cells by anandamide-induced cell death. AU - Giuliano, Michela. AU - Calvaruso, Giuseppe. AU - Pellerito, Ornella. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. UR - M3 - Other. SP - 45. EP - 54. ER - ...
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InChI=1S/C22H36ClNO/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-22(25)24-21-20-23/h6-7,9-10,12-13,15-16H,2-5,8,11,14,17-21H2,1H3,(H,24,25)/b7-6-,10-9-,13-12-,16-15- ...
Series three - made from EPA. The number one function of series 3 prostaglandins is to save you Arachidonic Acid release from cells.. Arachidonic Acid passing thru this pathway will increase irritation and the other problems noted in Series 2. Anything we will do to decrease interest because of the AA pathway is beneficial.. Remember that Omega-threes & Omega-6s can undergo the equal pathway. The Omega-3s are transformed at a lower charge resulting in a decrease quantity. The merchandise of this pathway are then degraded by enzymes.. This machine, like many in the frame, is in constant stability. However, once in a while the manufacturing exceeds metabolism resulting in accelerated inflammation. Omega-3s are inflammatory but to a lesser quantity. Additionally, theyre produced slower ensuing in fewer numbers. This is one of the many blessings of Omega-three fatty acids.. ...
Dutch Lady Step 2 information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Dutch Lady Milk Industries, Dutch Lady Step 2 indications, usages and related health products lists
Principal Investigator:MAIZUMI Yuji, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Biological pharmacy
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A new way to enhance the effects of anandamide - a natural, marijuana-like chemical in the body has been identified by Italian researchers.
Looking for online definition of 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid in the Medical Dictionary? 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid explanation free. What is 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid? Meaning of 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid medical term. What does 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid mean?
1. Since ageing has been associated with a decrease in both immune responses and antioxidant defences, this study was undertaken to compare the glutathione peroxidase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy elderly and young donors. The mean value of glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly lower in the aged group (−36%) than that observed in the young control group (n = 10).. 2. This defect was accompanied by a marked increase (+106%) in the oxygenated metabolism of endogenous arachidonic acid by lipoxygenases as judged by the radiolabel associated with hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids in [3H]arachidonic acid-prelabelled peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whereas the cyclo-oxygenase activity, estimated by the radiolabel associated with thromboxane B2, was not significantly altered.. 3. Upon stimulation by the mitogenic lectin concanavalin A, the radioactivity associated with total eicosanoids (free arachidonic acid plus hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids plus thromboxane ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arachidonic acid inhibits luteinizing hormone-stimulated progesterone production in hen granulosa cells. AU - Johnson, A. L.. AU - Tilly, J. L.. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. N2 - Arachidonic acid has been proposed to function as a hormone-induced second messenger in a variety of mammalian endocrine tissues. The present studies were conducted to evaluate whether arachidonic acid, either added exogenously or released endogenously following treatment with physiologic (phospholipase A2) or pharmacologic (melittin) agents, influences basal and/or luteinizing hormone (LH)-induced cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate (cAMP) and progesterone production in granulosa cells from domestic hens. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and melittin treatments failed to alter basal concentrations of progesterone, whereas arachidonic acid had a slight stimulatory effect (only at the 50-μM dose) on progesterone levels, and no effect on cAMP. By contrast, arachidonic acid, PLA2, and melittin each inhibited ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The endocannabinoid anandamide is a precursor for the signaling lipid N-arachidonyl glycine through two distinct pathways. AU - Hu, Shu-Jung. AU - Bradshaw, Heather. AU - Rimmerman, Neta. AU - Benton, Valery M.. AU - Stuart, Jordyn M.. AU - Masuda, Kim. AU - Cravatt, Benjamin F.. AU - ODell, David K.. N1 - SCI. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. M3 - Article. JO - BMCBiochemistry. JF - BMCBiochemistry. ER - ...
The subject of N-acyl amino acid conjugates has been rapidly growing in recent years, especially with regard to their analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions. The field is comprised of a large family of lipid signaling molecules whose importance is only now being fully realized. The most widely studied member is N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly), which differs structurally from the endocannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide) by a single oxygen atom and the two are metabolically related. Topics that are covered in this mini review are: biosynthetic pathways for N-acyl amino acids, receptors for N-acyl amino acids, physiological actions of N-acyl amino acids, pharmacological effects of N-acyl amino acids and molecular mechanisms believed to be responsible for their effects ...
The 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) product 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE), which is a potent chemoattractant for myeloid cells, is known to promote the survival of prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we found that PC3 prostate cancer cells and cell lines derived from breast (MCF7) and lung (A-427) cancers contain 5-hydroxyeicosanoid dehydrogenase (5-HEDH) activity and have the ability to synthesize 5-oxo-ETE from its precursor 5S-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) when added as an exogenous substrate. H2O2 strongly stimulated the synthesis of 5-oxo-ETE and induced dramatic increases in the levels of both glutathione disulfide and NADP+. The effects of H2O2 on 5-oxo-ETE and NADP+ were blocked by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), indicating that this effect was mediated by the glutathione reductase-dependent generation of NADP+, the cofactor required by 5-HEDH. 5-Oxo-ETE synthesis was also stimulated by agents that have cytotoxic effects on tumor cells, including ...
It is recommended to use the anandamide supplements if you want to boost your brain capacity. If you want to find the simplest way to increase the anandamide levels in your body then you can eat the dark chocolate. It is possible to regulate the inflammation and neuron signalling with the help of the anandamide supplement. The motivation and happiness can be removed with the help of the cannabinoid receptors in the brain cells. The breakdown of the anandamide supplements can be blocked can be stimulated with the help of the endocannabinoid receptors. The neuron signalling can be regulated in your body based on the inflammation of the anandamide. If you want to get detailed information about the anandamide supplements then you can visit our website. You can prefer to use the supplements if you are ready to make some changes in your life.. Find the right supplements:. The prolonged approach should be followed by the individuals in order to boost the anandamide in your body. The memory and ...
A complex structurally diverse series of eicosanoids arises from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The metabolic profile is further complicated by the enantioselectivity of eicosanoid formation and the variety of regioisomers that arise. In order to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in vitro or in vivo, targeted methods are advantageous in order to distinguish between the complex isomeric mixtures that can arise by different metabolic pathways. Over the last several years this targeted approach has become more popular, although there are still relatively few examples where chiral targeted approaches have been employed to directly analyze complex enantiomeric mixtures. To efficiently conduct targeted eicosanoid analyses, LC separations are coupled with collision induced dissociation (CID) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Product ion profiles are often diagnostic for particular regioisomers. The highest sensitivity that can be achieved involves the use of selected reaction monitoring
Endocannabinoid anandamide induces endothelium-dependent relaxation commonly attributed to stimulation of the G-protein coupled endothelial anandamide receptor. The study addressed the receptor-independent effect of anandamide on large conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channels expressed in endothelial cell line EA.hy926. Under resting conditions, 10µM anandamide did not significantly influence the resting membrane potential. In a Ca2+-free solution the cells were depolarized by ~10mV. Further administration of 10µM anandamide hyperpolarized the cells by ~8mV. In voltage-clamp mode, anandamide elicited the outwardly rectifying whole-cell current sensitive to paxilline but insensitive to GDPβS, a G-protein inhibitor. Administration of 70µM Mn2+, an agent used to promote integrin clustering, reversibly stimulated whole-cell current, but failed to further facilitate the anandamide-stimulated current. In an inside-out configuration, anandamide (0.1-30µM) facilitated single BKCa channel activity in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic exposure to sidestream smoke adversely alters 14C-(AA) arachidonic acid metabolism in platelets and aortas from rats. AU - Lubawy, W. C.. AU - Valentovic, M. A.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. UR - M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0021149080. VL - 43. SP - no. 2785. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 3. ER - ...
The endocannabinoid system is an important regulator of the nervous, neuroendocrine and immune systems, thus representing a novel therapeutic target for stress-related neuroinflammatory and psychiatric disorders. However, there is a paucity of data relating to the effects of endocannabinoids on neuroinflammatory mediators following an immune stress/challenge in vivo. This study investigated the effects of URB597, a selective inhibitor of fatty acid amine hydrolyase (FAAH), the enzyme that preferentially metabolises anandamide, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increases in the expression of immune mediators in the hypothalamus. Systemic administration of URB597 increased the levels of anandamide and the related N-acylethanolamines, N-palmitoyl ethanolamide and N-oleoyl ethanolamide, but not 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, in the hypothalamus and spleen. URB597 attenuated the LPS-induced increase in interleukin (IL)-1Beta expression while concurrently augmenting the LPS-induced increase in suppressor ...
Cannabidiol (CBD) binds to a G-coupled protein, TRPV-1, which influences inflammation, pain perception and body temperature. Multiple NIH studies show that CBD inhibits FAAH activity, which is responsible for the deterioration of N-arachidonoylethanolamine, commonly known as anandamide. CBD also inhibits anandamide reuptake. The scientists who discovered and isolated the neurotransmitter anandamide discovered that it contributes to elevated mood. Unfortunately, endogenous anandamide levels are very low, and the half-life is rapid. CBD plays an important role by inhibiting anandamide degradation and enhancing endogenous levels. CBG and CBC, other cannabinoids present in Harpers Gold, also increase anandamide levels.. The other cannabinoid compounds in Harpers Gold are valuable on their own, but they also help to realize CBDs anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and mood elevating potential by working synergistically, a phenomenon that scientific experts call the entourage effect.. ...
The endocannabinoid system is an important regulator of the nervous, neuroendocrine and immune systems, thus representing a novel therapeutic target for stress-related neuroinflammatory and psychiatric disorders. However, there is a paucity of data relating to the effects of endocannabinoids on neuroinflammatory mediators following an immune stress/challenge in vivo. This study investigated the effects of URB597, a selective inhibitor of fatty acid amine hydrolyase (FAAH), the enzyme that preferentially metabolises anandamide, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increases in the expression of immune mediators in the hypothalamus. Systemic administration of URB597 increased the levels of anandamide and the related N -acylethanolamines, N -palmitoyl ethanolamide and N-oleoyl ethanolamide, but not 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, in the hypothalamus and spleen. URB597 attenuated the LPS-induced increase in interleukin (IL)-1? expression while concurrently augmenting the LPS-induced increase in suppressor ...
Arachidonic acid may trigger brain inflammation. High blood levels have been associated with a greater risk of suicide and depressive episodes. On the other hand, diets high in carbohydrate and low in fat and protein (with little or no arachidonic acid) may be associated with lower levels of anxiety and depression, according to epidemiological studies.. In one study, overweight or diabetic employees who went on a whole food, plant-based diet reported increased energy, better sleep patterns and improved mental health compared to a control group given no diet restrictions. Their work productivity also showed improvement.. A similar subsequent study of employees at 10 corporate sites showed notable improvements in depression, anxiety and emotional well-being among those following a meat-free, plant-based diet.. ...
How much of 20:4 undifferentiated, eicosatetraenoic, arachidonic is present in Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, SENSITIVE (LACTOSE FREE) ready-to-feed, with ARA plus DHA (formerly ROSS) in details, quantity how high or low 20:4 undifferentiated, eicosatetraenoic, arachidonic nutrient content it has.
How much of 20:4 undifferentiated, eicosatetraenoic, arachidonic is present in Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, PM 60/40, powder not reconstituted (formerly ROSS) in details, quantity how high or low 20:4 undifferentiated, eicosatetraenoic, arachidonic nutrient content it has.
Introduction:. Excessive menstrual bleeding, or menorrhagia, is a common female complaint that may be entirely prevented by a simple herbal prescription - capsules of ginger. The chief cause of functional menorrhagia (i.e., not caused by the presence of uterine fibroids or endometriosis) involves abnormalities in the biochemical processes of the endometrium (the lining of the uterus).. One abnormality commonly found is an alteration in arachidonic acid metabolism. This fatty acid is derived from meat and dairy sources and is converted to hormone-like compounds known as prostaglandins. The endometrium of women who have menorrhagia concentrates arachidonic acid to a much greater extent than normal. The increased arachidonic acid release during menstruation results in increased production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which not only leads to excessive bleeding, but also menstrual cramps.. Background Data:. Historically, the majority of complaints for which ginger (Zingiber officinale) was used ...
Genes Encoding Enzymatic Activities Implicated in the Eicosanoid Cascade of Arachidonic Acid and their Receptors are Expressed at mRNA Levels in Human Meningiomas Abstract.
Lipoxygenases (LOs) constitute a heterogeneous family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to their corresponding hydroperoxy derivatives.1,2 In mammals, LOs are categorized with respect to their positional specificity of arachidonic acid oxygenation into 5-, 8-, 12-, and 15-LOs.1-3 These enzymes induce structural and metabolic changes in cells during a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as differentiation, carcinogenesis, inflammation, and atherogenesis. Accumulating studies have suggested diverse and opposing roles for the various LO pathways in the pathogenesis of human diseases, particularly cancer and atherosclerosis.2-5 Consistent with the existence of multiple isoforms of LOs, a variety of intermediate and end products of arachidonic acids are found in various cell types, and they in turn activate diverse signaling cascades, resulting in diverse outcomes. Therefore, sophisticated understanding of the ...
In addition to conventional treatment, there are also nutritional means to deal with inflammation. In my practice, I have helped many individuals complaining of pain from various itis diseases. We address the source of the inflammation, rather than attempting to inhibit an enzyme. The real problem may be the over-abundance of Arachidonic acid that is available to enter the PGE2 inflammatory pathway. Therefore, the first step should be to reduce the dietary consumption of Arachidonic acid, which is only found in animal products. Secondly, supplementing with the omega3 fatty acids, such as DHA and EPA, commonly found in fish oil is also beneficial. One important role of omega3 fatty acids is to keep Arachidonic acids from escaping from our own cell membranes. This may account for the anti-inflammatory role that omega three fatty acids are credited with. I have even seen dramatic results when fish oil is used topically over an inflamed area. For example, many have found relief from the pain ...
AACOCF₃ - CAS 149301-79-1 - Calbiochem CAS 149301-79-1 A cell-permeable trifluoromethyl ketone analog of arachidonic acid. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
A compound of the formula ##STR1## wherein n is an integer from 2 to 4; m is an integer from 3 to 5; R is OM, OR1 or NR2 R3 where M is a pharmaceutically acceptable cation; R1, R2 and R3 are the same or different and selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1 -C12 branched, unbranched or cyclic alkyl, aryl and aralkyl; or R2 and R3 taken together form a group of the formula ##STR2## can be used as an inhibitor of the lipoxygenase pathway of the arachidonic acid cascade in animals.
GPR55, an orphan G‐protein coupled receptor, is activated by lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and the endocannabinoid anandamide, as well as by other compounds ...
(2011) Ugajin et al. American Journal of Pathology. Prostaglandin (PG) D2 and PGE2 are arachidonic acid metabolites that are generated though an isomerization reaction catalyzed by PG synthases. PGs have been implicated in immunologic reactions in addition to a wide range of physiological functio...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. anandamide ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Arachidonic acid[edit]. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-6 fatty acid, Arachidonic acid (AA, i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,15Z-eicosatrienoic acid ... Eicosapentaenoic acid[edit]. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-3 fatty acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, i.e. 4Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z- ... Mead acid[edit]. Mead acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid) is identical to AA except that has a single rather than double ... Docosahexaenoic acid[edit]. ALOX5 acts in series with ALOX15 to metabolize the omega 3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, i ...
Eicosanoids act as neuromodulators via the Arachidonic acid cascade. Orexins (-A and -B) are involved in a number of cognitive ... "Arachidonic Acid". Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress. Retrieved 2006-03-03. "Neurotrophic factors". ...
Arachidonic acid (AA) was identified as an ApoD ligand with a much better affinity than that of progesterone or pregnenolone. ... Morais Cabral JH, Atkins GL, Sánchez LM, López-Boado YS, López-Otin C, Sawyer L (June 1995). "Arachidonic acid binds to ... Kuehl FA, Jr; Egan, RW (28 November 1980). "Prostaglandins, arachidonic acid, and inflammation". Science. 210 (4473): 978-84. ... Other ApoD ligands include E-3-methyl-2-hexenoïc acid, a molecule present in axillary secretions; retinoic acid which is ...
These enzymes epoxidize the double bonds in arachidonic acid to form four regioisomers. Arachidonic acid is also the precursor ... There are epoxides of other lipids besides arachidonic acid such as the omega three docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and ... Moghaddam M, Motoba K, Borhan B, Pinot F, Hammock BD (August 1996). "Novel metabolic pathways for linoleic and arachidonic acid ... Spector AA (April 2009). "Arachidonic acid cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway". J. Lipid Res. 50 Suppl (Suppl): S52-6. doi: ...
Arachidonic acid can then go on into the cyclooxygenase pathway (producing prostoglandins (PGE1, PGE2, PGF2), prostacyclins ( ... It has been reported that the toxin activates the arachidonic acid cascade in isolated rat aorta. The toxin-induced contraction ... Piomelli, Daniele (1993-04-01). "Arachidonic acid in cell signaling" (PDF). Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 5 (2): 274-280. ... to platelet surface receptors can trigger the activation of phospholipase C to catalyze the release of arachidonic acid from ...
General: Arachidonic acid. *DAG (PKC, TRPC). *IP3 (IP3R, RyR) ... Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid ... Since diacylglycerol is synthesized via phosphatidic acid, it will usually contain a saturated fatty acid at the C-1 position ... or free fatty acids.(See Dietary sources of fatty acids, their digestion, absorption, transport in the blood and storage for ... to form lysophosphatidic acid, which is then acylated with another molecule of acyl-CoA to yield phosphatidic acid. ...
General: Arachidonic acid. *DAG (PKC, TRPC). *IP3 (IP3R, RyR) ... Mineralocorticoids (MR); Others: Bile acids (FXR). *Calcitriol ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 17 (13): 5385-6. doi:10.1093/nar/17.13.5385. PMC 318125. PMID 2762133.. ...
... -A synthase, an enzyme found in platelets, converts the arachidonic acid derivative prostaglandin H2 to thromboxane ... Omega-3 fatty acids are metabolized to produce higher levels of TxA,3 which is relatively less potent than TxA2 and PGI3; ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
These convert arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), the immediate precursor of prostacyclin. Since thromboxane (an ... PGI2 is derived from the ω-6 arachidonic acid. PGI3 is derived from the ω-3 EPA. ... Z)-5-[(4R,5R)-5-Hydroxy-4-((S,E)-3-hydroxyoct-1-enyl)hexahydro-2H-cyclopenta[b]furan-2-ylidene]pentanoic acid ... Fischer S, Weber PC (1985). "Thromboxane (TX)A3 and prostaglandin (PG)I3 are formed in man after dietary eicosapentaenoic acid ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007, 4 structures have been solved for this class of ... Enzymatic conversion into 5,6-dihydroxy-7,9,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid by mouse liver cytosolic epoxide hydrolase". J. Biol. ... "Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of leukotriene A4 hydrolase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (19): 6677-81. Bibcode ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007, 3 structures have been solved for this class of ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. Watanabe K, Shimizu T, Iguchi S, Wakatsuka H, Hayashi M, Hayaishi O ( ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. Orning L (December 1987). "Omega-oxidation of cysteine-containing ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007, 3 structures have been solved for this class of ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007[update], 7 structures have been solved for this class ... On the other hand, tyrosine is an ideal proton donor at higher pH because of its pKa value (10.1). The type of amino acid that ... The primary structure of prostaglandin F synthase consists of 323 amino acid residues. The secondary structure consists of 17 α ... and amino acid sequence. In addition, it is categorized as C3 (AKR1C3) because it is an isoform of 3α-hydroxysteroid ...
Regulation of arachidonic acid metabolites in macrophages. J. Exp. Med. 152:324-335. 1982 With W. A. Scott, N. A. Pawlowski, H ... Regulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by macrophage activation. J. Exp. Med. 155:1148-1160. With W. C. Van Voorhis, G. ... Bacterial lipopolysaccharides prime macrophages for enhanced release of arachidonic acid metabolites. J. Exp. Med. 164:165-179 ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. It employs one cofactor, heme. Romano MC, Eckardt RD, Bender PE, ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. Sok DE, Kang JB, Shin HD (1988). "15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid ... H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 15(S)-15-hydroxy-5,8,11-cis-13-trans- ...
Bundy GL, Nidy EG, Epps DE, Mizsak SA, Wnuk RJ (1986). "Discovery of an arachidonic acid C-8 lipoxygenase in the gorgonian ... This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for this class of ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. In March 2012 American scientists reported a discovery that shows this ...
... see 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, by a member of the 15-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism, 15(S)-HETE (see ... 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (12-HHT) as well as by three products of the 12-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid ... Eicosanoid receptor 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid ... Cabral M, Martín-Venegas R, Moreno JJ (Aug 2013). "Role of arachidonic acid metabolites on the control of non-differentiated ...
A further downstream event is activation of the arachidonic acid pathway. PGE2 release comes from the arachidonic acid pathway ... resulting in activation of the arachidonic acid pathway.[citation needed] Of these, IL-1β, TNF, and IL-6 are able to raise the ...
Leslie CC (2004). "Regulation of arachidonic acid availability for eicosanoid production". Biochem. Cell Biol. 82 (1): 1-17. ... 2006). "The LIFEdb database in 2006". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (Database issue): D415-8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkj139. PMC 1347501. PMID ...
However, it is unclear how arachidonic acid functions as an inhibitor. Two competing theories are that either arachidonic acid ... One other proposed regulatory strategy involves arachidonic acid. When arachidonic acid is added to tensed muscle tissue, the ... such as arachidonic acid and cAMP, also regulate the enzyme. Smooth muscle tissue is mostly made of actin and myosin, two ... Myosin's regulatory subunit MLC20 binds to both the hydrophobic and acid grooves of PP1 and MYPT1, the regulatory site on ...
Specialized pro-resolving mediators are cell-derived metabolites of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids viz.: arachidonic acid ... n-3 docosapentaenoic acid which is metabolized to the n-3 docosapentaenoic acid-derived resolvins and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid ... Shinohara M, Serhan CN (2016). "Novel Endogenous Proresolving Molecules:Essential Fatty Acid-Derived and Gaseous Mediators in ... which is metabolized to the lipoxins; eicosapentaenoic acid which is metabolized to the Resolvin E's; docosahexaenoic acid ...
Capric acid,[1] n-Capric acid, n-Decanoic acid, Decylic acid, n-Decylic acid, C10:0 (Lipid numbers) ... Decanoic acid (capric acid, C10:0) is a saturated fatty acid. Its formula is CH3(CH2)8COOH. Salts and esters of decanoic acid ... Two other acids are named after goats: caproic (a C6:0 fatty acid) and caprylic (a C8:0 fatty acid). Along with decanoic acid, ... Nonanoic acid, a medium-chain fatty acid, also with antiseizure activity. References[edit]. *^ a b c d n-Decanoic acid in ...
... is the first fatty acid produced during fatty acid synthesis and is the precursor to longer fatty acids. As a ... Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and ... Palmitic acid strongly boosts metastasis in mouse models of human oral cancer cells. Among all fatty acids, it has the ... Aluminium salts of palmitic acid and naphthenic acid were combined during World War II to produce napalm. The word "napalm" is ...
Fish oils provide alternative fatty acids to arachidonic acid. These acids can be turned into some anti-inflammatory ... "Conversion of acetaminophen to the bioactive N-acylphenolamine AM404 via fatty acid amide hydrolase-dependent arachidonic acid ... Arachidonic acid is then metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase, resulting in the synthesis of prostaglandins ... The specific reaction catalyzed is the conversion from arachidonic acid to Prostaglandin H2, via a short-living Prostaglandin ...
Examples: PIP3, DAG, phosphatidic acid, arachidonic acid and ceramide. They are involved in regulation of kinases and ... These include genes associated with bile acid metabolism, glycolysis metabolism and fatty acid metabolism pathways, supporting ... Yeh, C. S.; Wang, J. Y.; Cheng, T. L.; Juan, C. H.; Wu, C. H.; Lin, S. R. (2006). "Fatty acid metabolism pathway play an ... Kanehisa, M (2002). "The KEGG databases at GenomeNet". Nucleic Acids Res. 30 (1): 42-46. doi:10.1093/nar/30.1.42. PMC 99091. ...
... which catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotriene B4 (LTB4).[45] LTB4 promotes skin inflammation by acting on ... Salicylic acid[edit]. Salicylic acid is a topically applied beta-hydroxy acid that stops bacteria from reproducing and has ... "Topical azelaic acid, salicylic acid, nicotinamide, sulphur, zinc and fruit acid (alpha-hydroxy acid) for acne". Cochrane ... lactic acid, salicylic acid, Jessner's solution, or a lower concentration (20%) of trichloroacetic acid. These peels only ...
"MYRISTIC ACID". AroKor Holdings Inc. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 17 June 2014.. *↑ Playfair, Lyon (2009). "XX. On a new fat ... 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Tetradecanoic acid in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference ... വിക്കിമീഡിയ കോമൺസിലെ Myristic acid എന്ന വർഗ്ഗത്തിൽ ഇതുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട കൂടുതൽ പ്രമാണങ്ങൾ ലഭ്യമാണ്. ... acid in the butter of nutmegs". Philosophical Magazine. Series 3. 18 (115): 102-113. doi:10.1080/14786444108650255. ISSN 1941- ...
Agonists: Arachidonic acid metabolites (e.g., lipoxin A4, prostaglandin G2). *Dietary carotenoids ... which is a eucaryotic receptor for bacterial surface structures such as lipoteichoic acid. ...
In some cases, members of a class of arachidonic acid derivatives, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), have been found to ... These compounds are formed by epoxidation of any one of four double bonds of the arachidonic acid carbon backbone by cytochrome ... "Arachidonic acid metabolites, hydrogen peroxide, and EDHF in cerebral arteries". Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 289 (3): ...
... is inactivated by glucuronidation in the liver.[72] Lamotrigine is metabolized predominantly by glucuronic acid ... At high concentrations, it had no effect on spontaneous or potassium evoked amino acid release.[45] ... Early studies of lamotrigine's mechanism of action examined its effects on the release of endogenous amino acids from rat ... γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor-mediated neurotransmission in rat amygdala, suggest that a GABAergic mechanism may also ...
... (TTA) is a synthetic fatty acid used as a nutritional supplement. ... 2002). "Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance". Journal of Lipid Research. ... One Phase I study showed no significant changes in the blood lipids or free fatty acids[4] and another showed that TTA ... 2009). "Tetradecylthioacetic acid attenuates dyslipidaemia in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, possibly by dual ...
Tolfenamic acid. K2Ps. Blockers. *12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. *Arachidonic acid. *Fluoxetine ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... the free carboxylic acid), are agonists of the prostacyclin receptor, which leads to vasodilation in the pulmonary circulation. ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... The risk of bleeding increases with the concurrent medications clopidogrel, cefoperazone, valproic acid, cefotetan, ... Chemically ketorolac functions as a carboxylic acid derivative serving non-selectively to block the prostaglandin synthesis by ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... Carboxyalkanoyl and mercaptoalkanoyl amino acids". Biochemistry. 16 (25): 5484-91. doi:10.1021/bi00644a014. PMID 200262.. ... "Synthesis of captopril starting from an optically active .BETA.-hydroxy acid". Chem. Pharm. Bull. 30 (9): 3139-3146. doi ... 2S)-1-[(2S)-2-methyl-3-sulfanylpropanoyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid ...
MS can thus be considered a dual inhibitor of 5-LOX and COX pathways of arachidonic acid cascade. Further investigation with ... 5-LOX, whose crystal structure was recently identified (118), is a key enzyme in metabolizing arachidonic acid to leukotrienes ... Heinze VM, Actis AB (February 2012). "Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in mammary and prostate ... Qin X, Cui Y, Shen L, Sun N, Zhang Y, Li J, Xu X, Wang B, Xu X, Huo Y, Wang X (Jan 22, 2013). "Folic acid supplementation and ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... Mesalazine, also known as mesalamine or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a medication used to treat inflammatory bowel disease ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
... and arachidonic acid,20:4n-6 (ARA) from the mother to the fetus.[7] ... "Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. Retrieved 19 July 2016.. *^ "Editorial Team". Nutrients. Retrieved 5 ... Duttaroy, Asim K.; Spener, Friedrich (October 2017). Cellular Proteins and Their Fatty Acids in Health and Disease. Wiley-VCH, ... Duttaroy, A (2009). "Transport of fatty acids across the human placenta: A review". Progress in Lipid Research. 48 (1): 52-61. ...
... arachidonic acid,[17] and nitric oxide. Nitric oxide has received a great deal of attention in the past, but has recently been ...
Arachidonic acid 15-hydroperoxide. Eoxins. *A4. *C4. *D4. *E4 ...
Arachidonic acidEdit. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-6 fatty acid, Arachidonic acid (AA, i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,15Z-eicosatrienoic acid), ... Eicosapentaenoic acidEdit. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-3 fatty acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, i.e. 4Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z- ... Mead acidEdit. Mead acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid) is identical to AA except that has a single rather than double ... Docosahexaenoic acidEdit. ALOX5 acts in series with ALOX15 to metabolize the omega 3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, i.e ...
The release of membrane phospholipids leads to increased production of arachidonic acid which in turn results in elevated ... "azelaic acid - Compound Summary". PubChem. Fitton, Andrew; Goa, Karen L (1991). "Azelaic acid: A review of its pharmacological ... Azerizin is claimed to be a proprietary blend of the natural ingredients nicotinamide, azelaic acid, quercetin and curcumin ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... including mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, flufenamic acid, and meclofenamic acid. These drugs are commonly referred to as " ... "anthranilic acid derivatives" or "fenamates" because fenamic acid is a derivative of anthranilic acid.[2]:235[3]:17[2] ... Fenamic acid is an organic compound, which, especially in its ester form, is called fenamate.[1]:458 serves as a parent ...
Omega-3 Fatty Acids *Studies have shown that adequate consumption of omega-3 fatty acids counteracts the effects of arachidonic ... Simopoulos, Artemis (2002). "Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases". Journal of the American College of ... This may be due to the fact that an imbalance in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which have opposing effects, is instrumental ... acids, which contribute to symptoms of autoimmune diseases. Human and animal trials suggest that omega-3 is an effective ...
3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Tridecanoic acid in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference ... 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Sigma-Aldrich Co., Tridecanoic acid. Retrieved on 2014-06-17. ... "MSDS of n-Tridecanoic acid". Fisher Scientific. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2014-06-17.. External link in ,website=. ( ... "On the crystal structures and melting point alternation of the n-alkyl carboxylic acids" (PDF). Royal ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... Simila S, Keinanen S, Kouvalainen K.Oral antipyretic therapy: evaluation of benorylate, an ester of acetylsalicylic acid and ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
... profile of common foods; Esterified fatty acids as percentage of total fat[10] Food. Lauric acid. Myristic acid. ... polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol". European Food Safety Authority. ... Some researchers have indicated that serum myristic acid[68][69] and palmitic acid[69] and dietary myristic[70] and palmitic[70 ... Butyric acid with 4 carbon atoms (contained in butter). *Lauric acid with 12 carbon atoms (contained in coconut oil, palm ...
This edema is explained by the action of lipoxygenase on arachidonic acid to form leukotrienes and the normal functioning of ... These five are alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and serine. There are six conditionally essential amino acids ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids, Institute of ... When amino acids are in excess of needs, the liver takes up the amino acids and deaminates them, a process converting the ...
n-Dodecanoic acid, Dodecylic acid, Dodecoic acid, Laurostearic acid, Vulvic acid, 1-Undecanecarboxylic acid, Duodecylic acid, ... 6.0 6.1 6.2 Dodecanoic acid in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database ... 2005). Fatty Acids and Atherosclerotic Risk. In Arnold von Eckardstein (Ed.) Atherosclerosis: Diet and Drugs. Springer. pp. 171 ... Vand, V.; Morley, W. M.; Lomer, T. R. (1951). "The crystal structure of lauric acid". Acta Crystallographica. 4 (4): 324-329. ...
1-monoacylglycerols where the fatty acid is attached to a primary alcohol, or a 2-monoacylglycerols where the fatty acid is ... Dietary sources of fatty acids, their digestion, absorption, transport in the blood and storage ... are a class of glycerides which are composed of a molecule of glycerol linked to a fatty acid via an ester bond.[1] As glycerol ... Omega-6 fatty acid. *Omega-9 fatty acid. Eicosanoids. *Arachidonic acid. *Prostaglandins ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... negative regulation of gastric acid secretion. • phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • ... "Functional interaction of the carboxylic acid group of agonists and the arginine residue of the seventh transmembrane domain ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
Eff ect of policosanol on platelet aggregation and serum levels of arachidonic acid metabolites in healthy volunteers. ... Carbajal D, Arruzazabala ML, Más R, Molina V, Valdés S. - Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1994 May;50(5):249-51. ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... Corey speculated that the cardiotoxicity may be associated with an organic acid anhydride formed when rofecoxib is exposed to ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
... via the action on arachidonic acid and NMDA receptors cascade.[101] ... 2-acetoxybenzoic acid. acetylsalicylate. acetylsalicylic acid. O-acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin (BAN UK), Aspirin (USAN US). ... Salicylic acid is treated with acetic anhydride, an acid derivative, causing a chemical reaction that turns salicylic acid's ... Acetylsalicylic acid is a weak acid, and very little of it is ionized in the stomach after oral administration. Acetylsalicylic ...
Capric acid[1]. n-Capric acid. n-Decanoic acid. Decylic acid. n-Decylic acid. C10:0 (Lipid numbers) ... కాప్రిక్ ఆమ్లం (Decanoic acid, or capric acid) ఒక సంతృప్త కొవ్వు ఆమ్లం. దీని రసాయన ఫార్ములా : CH3 (CH2) 8COOH. ఈ ఆమ్లపు లవణాలు ...
Health effects of arachidonic acid supplementation[edit]. Arachidonic acid supplementation in daily doses of 1,000-1,500 mg for ... Arachidonic acid is not one of the essential fatty acids. However, it does become essential if a deficiency in linoleic acid ... Arachidonic acid is also used in the biosynthesis of anandamide.[17]. *Some arachidonic acid is converted into ... Dietary arachidonic acid and inflammation[edit]. Increased consumption of arachidonic acid will not cause inflammation during ...
A polyunsaturated fatty acid, CH3(CH2)3(CH2CH:CH)4(CH2)3COOH, that is essential for growth in mammals (see eicosanoid [1]). It ... arachidonic acid A long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (20 : 4 ω6). Not strictly an essential fatty acid, since it can be ... arachidonic acid A polyunsaturated fatty acid, CH3(CH2)3(CH2CH:CH)4(CH2)3COOH, that is essential for growth in mammals (see ... arachidonic acid (ă-rak-i-don-ik) n. see essential fatty acid. ... "arachidonic acid." A Dictionary of Biology. . ...
14-Eicosatetraenoic acid; cis-5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid; icosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoic acid; (Z,Z,Z,Z)-5,8,11,14- ... Other names: 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid, (all-Z)-; Arachidonate; (all-Z)-5,8,11, ...
I spend a lot of time highlighting the importance of omega-3 fatty acids and downplaying their poly cohorts, omega-6s. Of ... If youre getting plenty of linoleic acid in your diet, your body can make arachidonic acid. First, linoleic acid, abundant in ... Actually, arachidonic acid may have little to do with ones intake of linoleic acid. All the same then, it probably isnt the ... Arachidonic acid is both a product of the bodys natural linoleic acid conversion and, as the question notes, an existing (but ...
... releases arachidonic acid. ANSWER QUESTION: What enyzme acts on arachidonic acid and begins the process through which ... Derivatives of an n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid. An important family of regulatory molecules is derived from arachidonic acid ... QUESTION: What molecule is the source of arachidonic acid and where is it found? ANSWER QUESTION: Name the enzyme that, when ... Derivatives of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. The above introduces regulatory molecules derived from arachidonic acid. These ...
Arachidonic Acid News and Research. RSS Arachidonic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid that is present in the phospholipids ( ... Fatty acids may be the culprit in Alzheimers According to new research from the U.S. controlling the level of a fatty acid in ... Fatty acids such as those found in corn oil turn on genes that stimulate tumor growth Omega-6 fatty acids--such as those found ... Altering fatty acid levels in diet may reduce prostate cancer growth rate UCLA researchers found that altering the fatty acid ...
Arachidonic acid is also used in the biosynthesis of anandamide.[17]. *Some arachidonic acid is converted into ... Health effects of arachidonic acid supplementationEdit. Arachidonic acid supplementation in daily dosages of 1,000-1,500 mg for ... Dietary arachidonic acid and inflammationEdit. Increased consumption of arachidonic acid will not cause inflammation during ... and phosphatidic acid. BrainEdit. Arachidonic acid is one of the most abundant fatty acids in the brain, and is present in ...
... polyunsaturated fatty acid or n-6 PUFA. It is made in the body from shorter omega-6 fatty acids found in vegetable oils, or ... Arachidonic acid, AA and sometimes ARA, is a 20 carbon long, omega-6, ... Arachidonic acid, AA and sometimes ARA, is a 20 carbon long, omega-6, polyunsaturated fatty acid or n-6 PUFA. It is made in the ... The Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition: Effects Of Arachidonic Acid Supplementation On Training ...
Arachidonic Acid. Arachidonic Acid. - Discussion:. - rate limiting step in prostaglandin and Thromboxane A2 biosynthesis is ... fatty acid available for metabolism by cyclooxygenase;. - Prostacyclin and Thromboxane are formed from arachidonic acid ... liberation of arachidonic acid from phospholipids, making free. ...
Arachidonic acid is oxygenated and further transformed into a variety of products which mediate or modulate inflammatory ... Oxygenation of arachidonic acid at C-12 and C-15 generates products (5S, 12S-DHETE and 14,15-DHETE) which can modulate various ... Arachidonic acid metabolism: role in inflammation Z Rheumatol. 1991;50 Suppl 1:3-6. ... Arachidonic acid is oxygenated and further transformed into a variety of products which mediate or modulate inflammatory ...
Arachidonic acid incubated with human platelets was converted into three compounds, 12L-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid ... The formation of the two latter compounds from arachidonic acid proceeded by pathways involving the enzyme, fatty acid cyclo- ... The observed transformations of arachidonic acid in platelets also explain the aggregating effect of this acid. ... Novel Transformations of Arachidonic Acid in Human Platelets. Mats Hamberg and Bengt Samuelsson. *. 1Department of Chemistry, ...
These are saturated fats, trans fats and (AA) arachidonic acid. I consider these to be really bad fats. Arachidonic acids are ... arachidonic acid into the same rabbits they are dead within three minutes. The human body needs some arachidonic acid, but ... Understanding (AA) Arachidonic Acid - (Omega 6 - Pro Inflammatory Fat). Dr. Barry Sears. Zone Living. There are two ... is stimulated to make increased levels of arachidonic acid. (AA) is a long-chain omega-6 fatty acid. Enchaned production of ...
Hanna, V. S., Gawish, A., Abou El-Dahab, M., Tallima, H., & El Ridi, R. (2018). Is arachidonic acid an endoschistosomicide? ... mansoni infection might be ascribed to stores of arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich lipids in liver. Several reports have previously ...
Arachidonic acid 5-hydroperoxide (5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 5-HPETE) is an intermediate in the metabolism of ... 5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid; or c) the specialized pro-resolving mediators of inflammation, ... arachidonic acid by the ALOX5 enzyme in humans or Alox5 enzyme in other mammals. The intermediate is then further metabolized ...
T 2370/09 (Arachidonic acid/MARTEK) of 26.5.2014. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:2014:T237009.20140526. ...
Arachidonic Acid Signals Spreading and Migration Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science ...
Arachidonic Acid Signals Spreading and Migration Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science ... R. A. Stockton, B. S. Jacobson, Modulation of cell-substrate adhesion by arachidonic acid: Lipoxygenase regulates cell ... produced from metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA). Stockton and Jacobson studied signals produced from AA during cell spreading ...
Get to know arachidonic acid and experience gains like the old days! ... Arachidonic acid isnt considered an essential fatty acid, because your body can synthesize it from linoleic acid in the liver ... Rett, B., & Whelan, J. (2011). Increasing Dietary Linoleic Acid Does Not Increase Tissue Arachidonic Acid Content in Adults ... WHAT IS ARACHIDONIC ACID?. Basically, ARA is the primary fatty acid responsible for inflammation in muscle tissue. This 20- ...
... acid, were also indetectable in these lipids. On the basis of these results, it appears that the arachidonic acid cascade is ... Evidence that arachidonic acid is deficient in phosphatidylinositol of Drosophila heads.. Yoshioka T, Inoue H, Kasama T, Seyama ... Since arachidonic acid is considered to be a key molecule in phosphatidylinositol turnover in the brain, it is of interest that ... We have found that arachidonic (20 : 4) acid is indetectable in phosphatidylinositol and diacyglycerol extracted from ...
Naturally occurring, weight training can reduce levels creating a need for supplemental Arachidonic Acid. ... Arachidonic Acid is an Omega-6 fatty acid essential for muscle hypotrophy. ... Arachidonic Acid Chemical Composition. (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-icosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoic acid. Formula: C20 H32 O2 ... Arachidonic acid (AA) is a naturally occurring omega-6 essential fatty acid. Its the principle building block for the synthesis ...
T 0633/13 (Arachidonic acid Mortierella alpina/DSM) of 17.10.2018. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:2018: ... The presence of arachidonic acid in the supernatants or cell extracts obtained when performing the methods described in ... point VIII supra) and the absence of any quantitative requirement regarding the yield of arachidonic acid in claim 1, the board ... 1. A process for obtaining an oil from microbial cells which are Mortierella alpina cells, the oil comprising arachidonic acid ...
Arachidonic acid (ARA) is one of the two main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the brain, especially in neuronal cells, ... Arachidonic Acid: Sources, Biosynthesis and Health Effects. Jason M. OKeefe (Editor). Series: Biochemistry Research Trends. ... Home / Shop / Books / Science and Technology / Chemistry / Arachidonic Acid: Sources, Biosynthesis and Health Effects. ... Chapter 4 - Arachidonic Acid, Cyclooxygenase and Hepatic Inflammation (pp. 127-134). Sura Wanessa Santos Rocha and Christina ...
Arachidonic acid and acetylcholine had no effect on denuded rabbit aorta. Incubation of rabbit aorta with [14C]arachidonic acid ... and the effect of various agents on arachidonic acid- and acetylcholine-induced relaxations was examined. Arachidonic acid ... had little or no effect on arachidonic acid-induced relaxations. In contrast, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, metyrapone, NG- ... Arachidonic acid- and acetylcholine-induced relaxations of rabbit aorta.. S L Pfister, W B Campbell ...
K. Yang, W. Ma, H. Liang, Q. Ouyang, C. Tang, and L. Lai, "Dynamic simulations on the arachidonic acid metabolic network," PLoS ... S. H. Hong, I. Avis, M. D. Vos, A. Martínez, A. M. Treston, and J. L. Mulshine, "Relationship of arachidonic acid metabolizing ... Y. Cao, A. T. Pearman, G. A. Zimmerman, T. M. McIntyre, and S. M. Prescott, "Intracellular unesterified arachidonic acid ... In devising therapeutic strategies, with the arachidonic acid products, greater attention to the impact of levels of mediators ...
Evidence that proline-directed phosphorylation is not required for mobilization of arachidonic acid by cPLA," Journal of ... M. A. Balboa, J. Balsinde, and E. A. Dennis, "Involvement of phosphatidase phosphohydrolase in arachidonic acid mobilization in ... LysoPC and PAF Trigger Arachidonic Acid Release by Divergent Signaling Mechanisms in Monocytes. ... "Phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A and the release of arachidonic acid in human neutrophils," Journal of Immunology, ...
Arachidonic acid is found in animal products, like poultry and eggs. The amount of arachidonic acid found in just one egg a day ... Arachidonic Acid and Mental Health. Arachidonic acid may trigger brain inflammation. High blood levels have been associated ... Inflammatory Remarks about Arachidonic Acid. Arachidonic acid may play a role in cancer, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, ... Arachidonic acid is an inflammatory omega-6 fatty acid. Our bodies produce this nutrient, and its excess may lead to ...
Arachidonic Acid in Cell Signaling has 2 available editions to buy at Alibris ... Arachidonic Acid in Cell Signaling by Daniele Piomelli starting at $61.69. ... Arachidonic acid may serve as an intracellular second messenger in many cell types, as well as precursor for biologically ... Arachidonic acid may serve as an intracellular second messenger in many cell types, as well as precursor for biologically ...
Arachidonic acid may play a role in cancer, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and other autoimmune ... Arachidonic acid is produced in the body from linoleic acid (LA) by three enzymes. More arachidonic acid is made if the ratio ... Is there enough arachidonic acid & palmitic acid in peanuts to justify limiting their consumption? ... This, coupled with a diet rich in vegetable oils, means the mutated gene turns fatty acids into arachidonic acid. ...
Crystall Swarbrick, Noelia Roman and Jade K. Forwood (December 16th 2011). Role of ACOT7 in Arachidonic Acid Production and ... Crystall Swarbrick, Noelia Roman and Jade K. Forwood (December 16th 2011). Role of ACOT7 in Arachidonic Acid Production and ... Role of ACOT7 in Arachidonic Acid Production and Inflammation. By Crystall Swarbrick, Noelia Roman and Jade K. Forwood ... ...
  • Arachidonic acid in the human body usually comes from dietary animal sources (meat, eggs) or is synthesized from linoleic acid. (
  • However, it does become essential if a deficiency in linoleic acid exists or if there is an inability to convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid occurs. (
  • Some mammals lack the ability or have a very limited capacity to convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, making it an essential part of their diets. (
  • It can be synthesized from linoleic acid . (
  • Not strictly an essential fatty acid, since it can be formed from linoleic acid , but three times more potent than linoleic acid in curing the signs of essential fatty acid deficiency. (
  • Arachidonic acid is both a product of the body's natural linoleic acid conversion and, as the question notes, an existing (but modest) component of animal-based foods like egg yolk and meat - as well as human breastmilk. (
  • Much of people's AA content is likely determined by (and derived from) their high linoleic acid intake (in the forms of corn, soy and vegetable oils). (
  • Since linoleic acid consumption doesn't seem to affect levels of arachidonic acid in plasma/serum or erythrocytes, it is uncertain if humans can in fact convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid. (
  • Arachidonic acid isn't considered an essential fatty acid, because your body can synthesize it from linoleic acid in the liver. (
  • However, this is an inefficient process, and simply improving your linoleic acid intake-as happens when you eat more healthy fats and oils-doesn't predictably improve levels of ARA. (
  • Arachidonic acid is not an essential fatty acid, meaning it is not necessary to have it in the diet, since it can be synthesised within the body from linoleic acid . (
  • However this process has a limiting step, meaning a greater amount of arachidonic acid in the body cannot be reached through supplementation with/higher levels of dietary linoleic acid, since it won't be converted. (
  • This may be related to the decline in conversion of linoleic acid that is seen as people age. (
  • In most mammals, linoleic acid is converted to arachidonic acid. (
  • In addition, swelling-inducing properties of linoleic (18:2) or stearic (18:0) acid were analyzed for evaluation of the specificity of glial swelling induced by AA. (
  • Whereas stearic acid (0.1 mM) failed to induce a swelling response, linoleic acid (0.1 mM) was found to be effective. (
  • Further, glial swelling from AA or linoleic acid was completely inhibited by the aminosteroid U-74389F, an antagonist of lipid peroxidation. (
  • Every day the average Westerner consumes about 15 grams of the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid. (
  • Using this linoleic acid as a precursor, the body synthesizes about 30 milligrams of arachidonic acid, another omega-6 fatty acid daily. (
  • The bulk of the arachidonic acid in the human body - of which a surprisingly high percentage can be found in muscle tissue - is not synthesized from linoleic acid, but comes directly from the diet. (
  • Linoleic acid was the sole polyunsaturated fatty acid in the linoleic acid group. (
  • The a-linolenic and arachidonic acids were contained at the 1 % level in the diet at the expense of linoleic acid in the α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid groups, respectively. (
  • The concentration of serum triglyceride, phospholipid and liver triglyceride were significantly lower in the α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid groups than in the linoleic acid group. (
  • Hepatic phospholipids were significantly higher in the α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid groups as compared to the linoleic acid group. (
  • Dietary arachidonic acid, but not α-linolenic acid, resulted in a marked reduction of linoleic acid and increased arachidonic and n -6 docosapenta-enoic acids in heart cardiolipin. (
  • Platelet thromboxane (TX) A 2 production tended to be lower in the α-linolenic acid group as compared to the linoleic acid and arachidonic acid groups. (
  • There was no difference in TXA2 production between the linoleic acid and arachidonic acid groups. (
  • The ratios of TXA 2 and PGI 2 in the linoleic acid and arachidonic acid groups were comparable, whereas they were significantly higher than that in the α-linolenic acid group. (
  • The results demonstrate that dietary arachidonic acid enriches the arachidonic acid content in tissue phospholipids more effectively than linoleic acid, whereas the effect on the production of TXA 2 and PGI 2 was comparable under these experimental conditions. (
  • Most is metabolized from linoleic acid. (
  • A common unsaturated fat, linoleic acid is a significantly more abundant omega-6 fatty acid that is found in many plant oils. (
  • There is a dose-dependant relationship between dietary arachidonic and linoleic acid consumption, and plasma ArA levels. (
  • In the standard western diet, linoleic acid consumption is great enough to limit the amount of plasma ArA in the body, but supplementation with arachidonic allows one to exceed this limit, which can directly increase plasma levels. (
  • it's introduced trough the diet or it may arise from linoleic acid (essential fatty acid). (
  • D6D is a key enzyme in synthesizing HUFA from the precursor dietary essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA, 18:2ω6) or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3ω3). (
  • To evaluate human oocyte ability to undergo fertilization and subsequent preimplantation embryonic development in relation to a wide panel of follicular fluid (FF) arachidonic acid derivatives (AAD) and linoleic acid derivatives (LAD) of prospectively selected patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). (
  • Ironically, the higher your insulin levels, the more your body is stimulated to make increased levels of arachidonic acid. (
  • Increasing levels of arachidonic acid may enhance muscle growth if taken in combination with exercise, since stress on the muscle cell is required to induce the chemical changes. (
  • We aimed to investigate whether plasma Lp(a) concentration was associated with dietary n-6 FA intake and plasma levels of arachidonic acid (AA) in subjects with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). (
  • Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B challenge of monkeys: correlation of plasma levels of arachidonic acid cascade products with occurrence of illness. (
  • The release of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids , particularly diacylglycerol, is triggered by certain hormones. (
  • It is a prominent phospholipid component of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL), and we have earlier shown that secretory phospholipase A 2 - (sPLA 2 -) modified LDL [ 2 ] and lysoPC alone [ 3 ] can induce proinflammatory activation of human-derived monocytes by increased release of arachidonic acid (AA). (
  • Bacterial lipopolysaccharides prime macrophages for enhanced release of arachidonic acid metabolites. (
  • More specifically, the effect of these substances on the β2 integrins were studied in regard to: i) the activity (i.e. affinity and avidity) of β2 integrins, ii) the signalling capacity of β2 integrins (i.e. detected as release of arachidonic acid, and the production of reactive oxygen species, and iii) the signal transduction mediated by the β2 integrins (i.e. phosphorylation of Pyk2). (
  • 5. Furthermore, the concanavalin A-induced release of arachidonic acid from the phosphoinositide pool was also decreased in the elderly group as compared with the control group. (
  • Glutamate has been shown to enhance the release of arachidonic acid (AA) in brain tissue and cultured astrocytes. (
  • Arachidonic acid ( AA , sometimes ARA ) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6) [ citation needed ] , or 20:4(5,8,11,14). (
  • Arachidonic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in the phospholipids (especially phosphatidylethanolamine , phosphatidylcholine , and phosphatidylinositides ) of membranes of the body's cells , and is abundant in the brain , muscles , and liver . (
  • Skeletal muscle is an especially active site of arachidonic acid retention, accounting for roughly 10-20% of the phospholipid fatty acid content typically. (
  • Arachidonic acid is freed from a phospholipid molecule by the enzyme phospholipase A2 (PLA 2 ), which cleaves off the fatty acid , but can also be generated from DAG by diacylglycerol lipase . (
  • arachidonic acid A polyunsaturated fatty acid, CH 3 (CH 2 ) 3 (CH 2 CH:CH) 4 (CH 2 ) 3 COOH, that is essential for growth in mammals (see eicosanoid ). (
  • arachidonic acid A long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (20 : 4 ω6). (
  • Although the Primal Blueprint promotes a healthy fatty acid balance - one that parallels that of our hunter-gatherer ancestors - I still get questions about omega-6s, particularly reservations about the role arachidonic acid (part of the omega-6 fatty acid family) plays in the PB. (
  • An important family of regulatory molecules is derived from arachidonic acid , which is an n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid. (
  • In this case, the phospholipase A2 acts on a membrane phospholipid that contains arachidonic acid, which, as described earlier, is a polyunsaturated fatty acid. (
  • According to new research from the U.S. controlling the level of a fatty acid in the brain could help treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). (
  • UCLA researchers found that altering the fatty acid ratio found in the typical Western diet to include more omega-3 fatty acids and decrease the amount of omega-6 fatty acids may reduce prostate cancer tumor growth rates and PSA levels. (
  • Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6), or 20:4(5,8,11,14). (
  • see essential fatty acid interactions and the enzyme and metabolite linkages given in the previous paragraph for more details. (
  • Arachidonic acid, AA and sometimes ARA, is a 20 carbon long, omega-6, polyunsaturated fatty acid or n-6 PUFA. (
  • What Is a Long-Chain Fatty Acid? (
  • The formation of the two latter compounds from arachidonic acid proceeded by pathways involving the enzyme, fatty acid cyclo-oxygenase, in the initial step and with the prostaglandin endoperoxide, PGG 2 , as an intermediate. (
  • Aspirin and indomethacin inhibited the fatty acid cyclo-oxygenase but not the lipoxygenase, whereas 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid inhibited both enzymes. (
  • AA) is a long-chain omega-6 fatty acid. (
  • Basically, ARA is the primary fatty acid responsible for inflammation in muscle tissue. (
  • This 20-carbon omega-6 fatty acid resides in the cell membranes of our muscles, known as the sarcolemma. (
  • After careful examinations of the lipid extraction processes and fatty acid detection system (gas-liquid chromatography), we excluded the possibility of the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids or of having overlooked a trace amount of the fatty acid. (
  • Arachidonic acid (AA) is a naturally occurring omega-6 essential fatty acid. (
  • Arachidonic acid is an inflammatory omega-6 fatty acid. (
  • The effect of ethanol feeding on the essential fatty acid content of tissues has been contradictory. (
  • To define the effect, we analyzed fatty acid profiles in various tissues from five miniature pigs fed daily 105 kJ basal diet/kg body wt and 146 kJ ethanol/kg body wt, and also five control pigs pair-fed the same amount of basal diet but with corn starch substituted for ethanol. (
  • After 12 mo, biopsy samples were taken, and tissue fatty acid profiles were analyzed. (
  • Arachidonic acid (AA or ARA) is an extremely important fatty acid involved in cell regulation. (
  • It is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (20:4n6) covalently bound in esterified form in membrane phospholipids of most body cells. (
  • A rachidonic acid is a major essential (must have/can't make) omega-6 fatty acid. (
  • A low ratio of serum eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (EPA/AA) has been reported to correlate with coronary heart disease ( 1 - 3 ), and no previous studies have investigated serum polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels exclusively in patients with diabetes, in whom atherosclerotic diseases are commonly found. (
  • In part 1 I outlined the background on ARA and why it traditionally has been, and still is in certain circles is, deemed the "bad guy" fatty acid. (
  • Their study showed that the fatty acid strengthens the anabolic stimulus of strength training at molecular level. (
  • It's an omega-6 fatty acid that the body makes by converting other omega-6 fatty acids. (
  • In the present issue of Clinical Science , Keane and co-workers show that the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid protects the β-cell against the toxic effects of palmitate. (
  • Arachidonic acid (ARA), an omega-6 fatty acid, is a potent schistosomicide that displayed significant and safe therapeutic effects in Schistosoma mansoni -infected schoolchildren in S. mansoni low-prevalence regions. (
  • Several reports have indicated the presence of specific fatty acid (FA) alterations in CF patients, most notably decreased levels of plasmatic and tissue docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the precursor of Specialized Pro-resolving Mediators (SPMs). (
  • After DHA supplementation, not only DHA/AA ratio and highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) index were significantly increased (p (
  • Fatty acid structure affects cellular activities through changes in membrane lipid composition and the generation of a diversity of bioactive derivatives. (
  • We compared the peroxidation kinetics of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules with different fatty acid compositions (i.e. 18:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 at the sn-2 and 16:0 at sn-1 position) either as molecules free in solution or formed into liposomes. (
  • Fatty acid levels, oxygen consumption plus lipid hydroperoxide and malondialdehyde production were measured from the same incubations, at the same time during maximal elicitable peroxidation. (
  • Rats were fed semipurified diets containing 10% fat with a constant polyunsaturated/monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio of 1:1:1. (
  • It's a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid and it's pro-inflammatory, which can cause muscle and joint pain. (
  • Understanding how HUFA maintain tissue homeostasis will help in the development of treatments for diseases that result from an altered essential fatty acid metabolism. (
  • Arachidonic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in the human cell membranes. (
  • Arachidonic acid is metabolized in the body through dietary intake, especially through a fatty acid-rich food, however, this ability is not developed in newborn babies. (
  • Figure 2) While metabolizing arachidonic acid primarily to PGG2, COX-2 also converts this fatty acid to small amounts of a racemic mixture of 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acids (i.e., 15-HETEs) composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE stereoisomers as well as a small amount of 11(R)-HETE. (
  • The conversion of arachidonic acid to PGG2 can be shown as a series of radical reactions analogous to polyunsaturated fatty acid autoxidation. (
  • The second possibility is for lipoxygenase (LOX) to act on the arachidonic acid. (
  • The enzyme 5-lipoxygenase catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE), which in turn converts to various leukotrienes (i.e., leukotriene B4, leukotriene C4, leukotriene D4, and leukotriene E4 as well as to 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) which may then be further metabolized to 5-HETE's more potent 5-keto analog, 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) (also see 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. (
  • The enzyme 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12) catalyzes oxidation of arachidonic acid to 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE), which may then be metabolized to 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and to hepoxilins. (
  • The cDNAs for human 5-lipoxygenase and LTA4-hydrolase have recently been cloned and the amino acid sequences for the enzymes have been deduced. (
  • The first mentioned compound was formed from 12L-hydroperoxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, which in turn was formed from arachidonic acid by the action of a novel lipoxygenase. (
  • R. A. Stockton, B. S. Jacobson, Modulation of cell-substrate adhesion by arachidonic acid: Lipoxygenase regulates cell spreading and ERK1/2-inducible cyclooxygenase regulates cell migration in NIH-3T3 cells. (
  • Treatment with the lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid completely blocked but the cytochrome P450 inhibitor metyrapone had no effect on arachidonic acid-induced relaxation. (
  • The mediator was not one of the stable end-products of either limb of the lipoxygenase pathway: 12- or 5-hy-droxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) (0.5-2000 ng/ml) did not alter insulin release, whereas 11-HETE, 15-HETE, leukotriene (LT)B 4 and the δ 6 trans isomers of LTB 4 , LTC 4 and 11- trans LTC 4 all inhibited insulin release. (
  • Possible vasoconstrictor mediators include arachidonic acid-derived lipoxygenase (LO) metabolites. (
  • 3) Phospholipase A2 inhibitors (quinacrine and bromophenacyl bromide) and a lipoxygenase inhibitor (nordihydroguaiaretic acid) prevented overrecovery, without affecting the rate or extent of IM inhibition significantly. (
  • The ability of corticosteroids and BW755C to reduce the gastric damage, haemoconcentration and plasma exudation suggests that lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid may contribute to these actions of Paf. (
  • Inhibition of lipoxygenase (LO) enzymes significantly reduced both Ang II- and AA-stimulated I K , and the 12-LO metabolite of AA 12 S -hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12 S -HETE) stimulated I K . These data indicate the involvement of a PLA 2 , AA, and LO metabolite intracellular pathway in the AT 2 receptor-mediated stimulation of neuronal I K by Ang II. (
  • W. Pignat, R. Kienzle and I. Bottcher, How specific is the arachidonic acid induced mouse ear oedema for lipoxygenase (LO) and cyclooxygenase (CO) inhibitors? . (
  • Arachidonic acid is not one of the essential fatty acids . (
  • the cat is a common example having inability to desaturate essential fatty acids. (
  • See essential fatty acids . (
  • As maligned as omega-6s are these days, however, they're still essential fatty acids. (
  • According to a small human study that sports scientist James Markworth, from the University of Auckland in New Zealand, published in Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids, there is no cause for concern. (
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid -- or EPA -- and docosahexaenoic acid -- or DHA -- are omega 3 long chain PUFA. (
  • The improvement was not significantly correlated with changes in either EPA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) but was highly significantly positively correlated with rises in red cell membrane AA. (
  • Brain arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid [7] cascades are selectively altered by drugs, diet and disease. (
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term therapy with ARA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the cytotoxic effects of the NK cells of young rats, which were fed on a nonfish oil diet for two generations. (
  • Yui K, Koshiba M, Nakamura S, Kobayashim Y, Ohnishi M (2011) Efficacy of Adding Large Doses of Arachidonic Acid to Docosahexaenoic Acid against Restricted Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Placebo-Controlled Trial. (
  • The polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonicacid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) play key roles in the maturation of the brain network. (
  • Some FADS alleles are associated with lower DHA and ARA status assessed by the relative amount of arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma and red blood cell (RBC) phospholipids (PL). We determined two FADS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a cohort of pregnant women and examined the relationship of FADS1rs174533 and FADS2rs174575 to DHA and ARA status before and after supplementation with 600 mg per day of DHA. (
  • The net overlapping effects of the three mood stabilizers are decreased turnover of arachidonic acid, but not of docosahexaenoic acid, in rat brain phospholipids, as well as decreased brain cyclo-oxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E 2 . (
  • The physiological roles of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), mainly arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4ω6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3), are not completely understood. (
  • It reacts with the molecule Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and forms a nutritious compound which is responsible for cognitive and behavioral functions in the humans. (
  • Some arachidonic acid is converted into hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by epoxygenase. (
  • Indomethacin selectively inhibited prostaglandin formation, nordihydroguaiaretic acid attenuated both prostaglandins and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, and metyrapone blocked the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. (
  • Our data show that non-differentiated Caco-2 cells cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) synthesize appreciable amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 5-, 12 and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) but not LTD4, 20-HETE and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. (
  • In conjunction with our previously reported observation that several analogues of the unstable epoxide LTA 4 (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids) increase insulin release, these data are compatible with the hypothesis that reactive, labile intermediates derived from the lipoxygenation of AA (and possibly other polyunsaturated fatty acids) could provide an "on" signal for glucose-induced insulin release. (
  • In contrast, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are synthesized by the vascular endothelium and have opposite effects on VSM (hyperpolarization and vasodilatation). (
  • Human family 1 cytochromes P450 had unique regional specificities for arachidonate oxidation: the major metabolites of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 were 75% terminal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic fatty acids (HETEs), 52% epoxyeicosatrienoic fatty acids (EETs), and 54% mid-chain HETEs, respectively. (
  • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) are oxidative products of arachidonic acid, some of which participate in the regulation of vascular tone. (
  • We have previously shown that astrocytes metabolize AA to vasodilator products, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), and express a P-450 AA epoxygenase, P-450 2C11. (
  • In the presence of NADPH and oxygen, P450 metabolizes AA to epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) metabolites. (
  • Alternatively, arachidonic acid may be cleaved from phospholipids after phospholipase C (PLC) cleaves off the inositol trisphosphate group, yielding diacylglycerol (DAG), which subsequently is cleaved by DAG lipase to yield arachidonic acid. (
  • Enzymes that can mediate AA release are the PLA 2 enzymes that hydrolyze fatty acids from the sn-2 position in membrane phospholipids. (
  • Arachidonic acid is stored in cell membranes throughout the body and is especially abundant in the brain and muscles as a component of phospholipids, which are used for intracellular signaling purposes. (
  • As an extension of this theory, drugs that are thought to induce switching to mania, especially when administered during bipolar depression (fluoxetine and imipramine), up-regulate enzymes of the arachidonic acid cascade and turnover of arachidonic acid in rat brain phospholipids. (
  • The particular beef with arachidonic acid revolves around its common conversion to omega-6 derived, "pro-inflammatory" eicosanoids , compounds (e.g. prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, etc.) that play a role in the intercellular signaling that directs, among other key activities, neurological function and immune response - including inflammatory response. (
  • Remember, long chain omega-6 fatty acids (found in high concentrations in vegetable oils) are the building blocks used to manufacture 'bad' eicosanoids. (
  • As cells interact with substrates and engage their integrins, several signaling cascades are initiated, including one involving eicosanoids [leukotrienes (LTs) and prostaglandins (PGs)] produced from metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA). (
  • Arachidonic acid may serve as an intracellular second messenger in many cell types, as well as precursor for biologically active molecules such as the eicosanoids (a family of oxygenated metabolites that may act as second messengers or as local mediators), and anandamide (an endogenous cannabinoid substance). (
  • A complex structurally diverse series of eicosanoids arises from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. (
  • This review article provides an overview of arachidonic acid metabolism and targeted chiral methods that have been utilized for the analysis of the structurally diverse eicosanoids that arise. (
  • Arachidonic acid [6] is an important building substance for the eicosanoids. (
  • What function do the eicosanoids have that are derived from arachidonic acid [6] ? (
  • Eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid [6] are pro-inflammatory, pro-blood clotting, and constrict blood vessels in opposition to those derived from the omega-3 fatty acids which do the opposite in order to keep a balance in the body. (
  • NK cell activity is regulated partly by eicosanoids, which are produced from arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acid. (
  • 3. Upon stimulation by the mitogenic lectin concanavalin A, the radioactivity associated with total eicosanoids (free arachidonic acid plus hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids plus thromboxane B 2 ) was significantly increased over basal levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of both the elderly and the control groups. (
  • Once freed, ArA can be metabolised into a category of compounds named eicosanoids, which are end-metabolic products of many fatty acids. (
  • The arachidonic acid is a precursor in the synthesis of eicosanoids: through the action of cyclooxygenase and peroxidase, it gives rise to prostaglandins then is converted into differ-ent substances involved in inflammation and in many physiological reactions as protectors of gastric mucosa. (
  • Abstract Recent evidence has suggested that arachidonic acid (AA) may be an important signaling molecule in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. (
  • Arachidonic acid 5-hydroperoxide (5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 5-HPETE) is an intermediate in the metabolism of arachidonic acid by the ALOX5 enzyme in humans or Alox5 enzyme in other mammals. (
  • In order to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in vitro or in vivo , targeted methods are advantageous in order to distinguish between the complex isomeric mixtures that can arise by different metabolic pathways. (
  • The metabolites were chromatographically separated by reversed-phase HPLC and identified by negative ESI tandem mass spectrometry and this method was used to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid with an endothelial cell line. (
  • P450 enzymes are considered one of the major metabolic pathways for the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) in addition to cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. (
  • The enzymes cyclooxygenase -1 and -2 (i.e. prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 and 2 { PTGS1 and PTGS2 }) metabolize arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2 and prostaglandin H2 , which in turn may be converted to various prostaglandins , to prostacyclin , to thromboxanes , and to the 17-carbon product of thromboxane metabolism of prostaglandin G2/H2, 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (12-HHT). (
  • A novel prostaglandin derivative formed from arachidonic acid by rat stomach homogenates. (
  • E. E. Opas, R. J. Bonney and J. L. Humes, Prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis in mouse ears inflammed by arachidonic acid . (
  • As compared to COPD patients, CF subjects showed increased concentrations of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), while the concentrations of DHA metabolites were not different in the two groups. (
  • Differential Expression of Prostaglandin I2 Synthase Associated with Arachidonic Acid Pathway in the Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. (
  • All prostaglandins are synthesized from fatty acids, however the particular compounds of note here are prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGF2 alpha), [6] both of which are elevated by ArA supplementation. (
  • The plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) did not vary significantly throughout the 8-h experiment for saline-treated controls, nor did they differ from the concentrations found in the plasma of monkeys just before administration of SEB. (
  • It is involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, an important precursor of prostacyclin, which is expressed in inflammation. (
  • PTGS2 (COX-2), converts arachidonic acid (AA) to prostaglandin endoperoxide H2. (
  • Incubation of rabbit aorta with [14C]arachidonic acid resulted in the synthesis of major radioactive metabolites that comigrated with the prostaglandins and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. (
  • Basal and A23187-stimulated release of 15-, 5-, and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) from females and males were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. (
  • On incubation of uterine enymes with AA, the LOX products formed were identified as 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE), 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (12- and 15-HETEs), based on their separation on TLC and HPLC. (
  • Indeed, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is produced by vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells and is a potent vasoconstrictor that depolarizes VSM by blocking large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels. (
  • Schwartzman ML, Falck JR, Yadagiri P, Escalante B. Metabolism of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid by cyclooxygenase. (
  • 2. This defect was accompanied by a marked increase (+106%) in the oxygenated metabolism of endogenous arachidonic acid by lipoxygenases as judged by the radiolabel associated with hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids in [ 3 H]arachidonic acid-prelabelled peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whereas the cyclo-oxygenase activity, estimated by the radiolabel associated with thromboxane B 2 , was not significantly altered. (
  • Upon concanavalin A stimulation, the radioactivity of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids was increased by only 96% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the elderly group compared with 350% in control cells. (
  • 4. Reverse phase h.p.l.c. of the hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids showed that, in unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the 12-hydroxyeicosatetra-enoic acid level tended to be higher in the elderly group than in the control group, which might be indicative of an hyperactivity of the contaminating platelets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elderly subjects. (
  • Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis identified acids with the highest sensitivity and specificity: 5oxo-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic, 16-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic, 9-hydroxyoctadecadieneoic and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic. (
  • These are prescribed to selectively counter inflammation without stimulating the secretion of stomach acid. (
  • A substance related to NSAIDs, acetaminophen , has been a puzzle because, while it supresses pain and fever, it has relatively little effect on inflammation and the secretion of stomach acid. (
  • In the treatment of pain, inflammation and fever, non-steroid anti-rheumatic drugs (NSAR) such as acetylsalicylic acid - more commonly known as Aspirin - or Ibuprofen have always been popular choices. (
  • Arachidonic acid may trigger brain inflammation . (
  • Role of ACOT7 in Arachidonic Acid Production and Inflammation, Inflammatory Diseases Amit Nagal, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/26475. (
  • This study provides structural and pharmacological evidence for an association between vimentin, hGIIA, and arachidonic acid metabolism in synovial inflammation, avenues for selective interrogation of hGIIA signaling, and new strategies for therapeutic hGIIA inhibitor design. (
  • As Type 2 diabetes is characterized by subclinical inflammation, and arachidonic acid and metabolites thereof are produced during states of inflammation, it is possible that pancreatic β-cells use arachidonic acid as a compound for self-protection. (
  • We hypothesized that an imbalance between arachidonic acid (AA)- and DHA-derived products could contribute to the chronic pulmonary inflammation observed in CF subjects. (
  • Increasing arachidonic acid consumption by 1.5 g/day arachidonic acid for 4-weeks in healthy young men participating in resistance exercise training promotes greater changes in plasma and muscle lipid arachidonic acid abundance compared to placebo, but this is not associated with any evidence of a heightened systemic or intramuscular basal inflammation", Markworth wrote. (
  • Therefore, short term increases in dietary arachidonic acid intake at least up to 1.5 g/day do not influence local inflammation in healthy young men participating in regular resistance exercise training. (
  • For example, inflammation caused by exercise triggers the release of phospholipase subtype 2a, which then increases plasma arachidonic levels. (
  • The amount of arachidonic acid found in just one egg a day elevated arachidonic acid levels in the bloodstream, Japanese researchers learned. (
  • This suggests that supplementation with arachidonic acid is an excellent way to increase the amount of arachidonic acid in the muscles. (
  • Several observations suggest that arachidonic acid (AA) may be involved in overrecovery: (1) AA enhanced IM in a dose- dependent and reversible manner, with an IC50 of 2.8 microM. (
  • Our findings suggest that arachidonic acid supplementation can positively augment strength-training induced adaptations in resistance-trained males", the researchers concluded. (
  • These studies suggest that arachidonic acid cascade metabolites were a consequence of SEB intoxication and may provide a logical site for metabolic interference in SEB-induced toxicity. (
  • Arachidonic acid acts as a precursor to several biologically active compounds, including prostaglandins , and plays an important role in membrane production and fat metabolism. (
  • Arachidonic acid is also a precursor to anandamide. (
  • Arachidonic acid, the precursor for both pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoid, induced an increase in the β2 integrin activity (both affinity and avidity), but had no effect on the signal transduction. (
  • Arachidonic acid is the precursor of all kinds of inflammatory factors, such as PGFs and PGEs. (
  • Arachidonic acid elicited a concentration-related relaxation that was potentiated by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. (
  • 6 Several other studies suggested that a cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid mediates endothelium-dependent contractions of blood vessels. (
  • Following irritation or injury, arachidonic acid is released and oxygenated by enzyme systems leading to the formation of an important group of inflammatory mediators, to the prostaglandins products (PGE₂) by the cyclooxygenase enzyme. (
  • Cyclooxygenase (COX) catalyzes the conversion of ara-chidonic acid into prostaglandins (PGs), which play a sig-nificant role in health and disease in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and in the renal, skeletal, and ocular systems. (
  • On the basis of these results, it appears that the arachidonic acid cascade is essentially absent in Drosophila head, including the brain and compound eyes. (
  • This book is about the arachidonic acid cascade, its biochemistry, its pharmacology, and its roles in signal transduction. (
  • Increasingly evidence indicates that enzymes, receptors and metabolites of the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade play a role in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and colorectal tumorigenesis. (
  • It has been shown that the arachidonic acid cascade plays an important role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity. (
  • Hopefully this review can disclose potential antifungal targets based on the arachidonic acid cascade and provide a prevailing strategy to alleviate Candida albicans biofilm formation. (
  • The arachidonic acid (AA) cascade is essential for mediating human biological activity and plays an important role in fungal morphogenesis and growth. (
  • Is the brain arachidonic acid cascade a common target of drugs used to manage bipolar disorder? (
  • In the present paper, I review studies in unanaesthetized rats using a neuropharmacological approach, combined with kinetic, biochemical and molecular biology techniques, demonstrating that chronic administration of three commonly used mood stabilizers (lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine), at therapeutically relevant doses, selectively target the brain arachidonic acid cascade. (
  • Arachidonic acid cascade products have been shown to be increased in vitro in Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB)-treated epithelial cell cultures in our laboratory. (
  • The observed relation between extent and rate of overrecovery, and the action of arachidonic acid metabolism inhibitors can be accounted for by a model proposing that the agonist alters the equilibrium between three pools of M-channels. (
  • The effects of several inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on gastric necrosis, hypotension, haemoconcentration, leukopenia and plasma exudation induced by platelet-activating factor (Paf) were studied in the rat. (
  • Those who maintain sedentary (inactive) lifestyles should not supplement with Arachidonic acid unless a dietary need has been medically identified, as deficiency in this group is uncommon. (
  • Arachidonic acid is known to be important in skeletal muscle processes such as protein synthesis. (
  • In the muscles of the animals that had been given arachidonic acid the researchers not only observed increased synthesis of muscle protein, but also greater amounts of activated Akt. (
  • In addition, arachidonic acid boosted the synthesis of the anabolic molecules myoD and myogenin. (
  • The absence of endoperoxide-containing products derived from 10,10-difluoroarachidonic acid has been thought to indicate the importance of a C-10 carbocation in PGG2 synthesis. (
  • On the other hand, diets high in carbohydrate and low in fat and protein (with little or no arachidonic acid) may be associated with lower levels of anxiety and depression , according to epidemiological studies. (
  • These studies indicate that cyclo-oxygenase products of arachidonic acid are unlikely to contribute significantly to the gastric damage or the prolonged hypotension induced by Paf. (
  • Carroll MA, McGiff JC, Ferreri NR. Products of arachidonic acid metabolism. (
  • The arachidonic acid released from the phospholipid is now the substrate for one of two enzymes. (
  • Arachidonic acid is freed from phospholipid by hydrolysis, catalyzed by the phospholipase A2 (PLA2). (
  • In the phospholipid fraction from the ethanol group there was a uniform decrease in arachidonic acid (AA) and an increase in oleic acid in liver, serum, and muscle. (
  • Purified human monocytes release and metabolize endogenous arachidonic acid (20:4) from phospholipid stores when challenged with particulate inflammatory stimuli or the calcium ionophore A23187. (
  • Studies addressed the specific hypothesis that differences in arachidonic acid metabolism by LO(s) contribute to the increased endothelium-dependent pulmonary vasoconstriction in females compared with males. (
  • Redness, swelling and pain are normal primary effects of arachidonic acid. (
  • This paper describes the positive health effects of arachidonic acid on malaria and other tropical diseases. (
  • The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of arachidonic acid (ARA) supplementation on functional performance and body composition in trained males. (
  • Direct supplementation with arachidonic acid can side step this process and increase stores within the body. (
  • Supplementation with arachidonic acid did not lead to statistically significant changes in body composition - but well, the duration of the study was too short for that. (
  • Supplementation with arachidonic acid increased the production of MyoG and MyoD1 in the muscle cells. (
  • Also the leukotrienes comprise a family of products of the 5-lipoxigenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. (
  • His company Molecular Nutrition produces the supplement X-Factor, which contains arachidonic acid. (
  • Arachidonic acid generated for signaling purposes appears to be derived by the action of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA 2 , 85 kDa), whereas inflammatory arachidonic acid is generated by the action of a low-molecular-weight secretory PLA 2 (sPLA 2 , 14-18 kDa). (
  • Arachidonic acid for signaling purposes appears to be derived by the action of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2, 85 kDa), whereas inflammatory arachidonic acid is generated by the action of a low-molecular-weight secretory PLA2 (sPLA2, 14-18 kDa). (
  • Upon chronic administration, lithium and carbamazepine decrease the binding activity of activator protein-2 and, in turn, the transcription, translation and activity of its arachidonic acid-selective calcium-dependent phospholipase A 2 gene product, whereas chronic valproic acid non-competitively inhibits long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. (
  • Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a transcription factor which plays a pivotal involvement in pancreatic cancer owing to its connection at the downstream stage of many signaling cascades including arachidonic acid (AA) pathway. (
  • Altered expression of JA and SA pathway genes in EP plants shows that eicosapolyenoic acids effectively modulate stress-responsive transcriptional networks. (
  • Knowledge of the types of compounds formed from the C20-unsaturated fatty acids eicosatrienoic, eicosatetraenoic (arachidonic) and eicosapentaenoic acids, and their actions on the human gut, is therefore important. (
  • Arachidonic acid was mainly metabolised to HETEs with product levels ranging from 59.3 to 460 ng 10(-6) cells. (
  • The ability of COXs to convert arachidonic acid to prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxane A 2 was recognized over 50 years ago [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (
  • In addition to being involved in cellular signaling as a lipid second messenger involved in the regulation of signaling enzymes, such as PLC -γ, PLC-δ, and PKC -α, -β, and -γ isoforms, arachidonic acid is a key inflammatory intermediate and can also act as a vasodilator . (
  • As a result of inflammatory stimulation, arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism produces proliferation mediators through complex and dynamic interactions of the products of the LOX/COX enzymes. (
  • A large number of biologically active eicosanoid metabolites are produced from arachidonic acid via pathways including epoxidation, allylic oxidation, and ω-hydroxylation, by a number of enzymes, including cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and lipoxygenases ( Capdevila and Falck, 2001 ). (
  • In conclusion, isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy alters arachidonic acid metabolism and its associated P450 enzymes, suggesting their role in the development and/or progression of cardiac hypertrophy. (
  • The PTGS (COX) enzymes catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins in two steps. (
  • Considerable evidence has accumulated over the last decade implicating a role of cytochrome P450 (CYP)- dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) in the pathogenesis of hypertension. (
  • A. Sarkis and R. J. Roman, " Role of Cytochrome P450 Metabolites of Arachidonic Acid in Hypertension", Current Drug Metabolism (2004) 5: 245. (
  • Omata K, Abraham NG, Schwartzman ML. Renal cytochrome P-450-arachidonic acid metabolism: localization and hormonal regulation in SHR. (
  • Carroll M.A., Ferreri N.R., Escalante B.A., Oyekan A.O., McGiff J.C. (2003) Cytochrome P450 Arachidonic Acid Metabolites Modulate Renal Tubular Function. (
  • The anandamide, or arachidonoiletanolammide (AEA), is part of a new class of lipid mediators, acting predomi-nantly olocrina and paracrine, collectively known as en-docannabinoids. (
  • Some chemistry sources define 'arachidonic acid' to designate any of the eicosatetraenoic acids . (
  • Since arachidonic acid is considered to be a key molecule in phosphatidylinositol turnover in the brain, it is of interest that Drosophila brain and eyes do not require arachidonic acid for their functions. (
  • Exogenous application of various fatty acids to wild-type and JA-deficient mutants confirmed AA as the signaling molecule. (
  • Recent studies in cardiac muscle cells have suggested that arachidonic acid (AA) may be an important signaling molecule in the modulation of cardiac contractile function via alterations in Ca 2+ cycling. (
  • The goal of this work was to produce new compounds (1-9) obtained by adding a series of amines to the arachi-donic acid molecule and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory activity, preliminarily on NO production by LPS-induce macrophages. (
  • Possible explanations for this general reduction in tissue AA with ethanol feeding include decreased activities of delta 6 and delta 5 desaturases, and a displacement of AA from lipid fractions by other fatty acids. (
  • schmuckeri microorganisms or lipid isolated from such microorganisms to enhance the arachidonic acid content of the food product. (
  • The compounds investigated were lipid (arachidonate) and retinoids (retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid). (
  • We aim to examine the central effect of n-6 PUFA, arachidonic acid (ARA) on leptin sensitivity and leptin-regulated hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. (
  • Mounting evidence from studies with Arabidopsis thaliana plants defective in stearoyl-acyl carrier protein-desaturase, the enzyme responsible for conversion of stearic acid (18:0) to oleic acid (18:1 Δ 9 ), has established that the levels of 18:1 are a critical regulator of salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defense signaling in the plant (A. (
  • Kinetic analysis indicated that the V max of the enzyme was increased with increasing concentrations of ionized Mg 2+ for both oleic acid and arachidonic acid. (
  • NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine and nitro-L-arginine, compounds that inhibit the nitric oxide-like endothelium-derived relaxing factor, had little or no effect on arachidonic acid-induced relaxations. (
  • Most studies to date have concerned PGE and PGF α compounds, but we have now extended this to include other metabolites of arachidonic acid. (
  • A. Crummey G. P. Harper, E. A. Boyle and F. R. Mangan, Inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced ear oedema as a model for topical anti-inflammatory compounds . (
  • We exploited transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants (designated EP) producing eicosadienoic, eicosatrienoic, and arachidonic acid (AA), aimed at mimicking pathogen release of these compounds. (
  • Arachidonic acid compounds are inflammatory in nature, contrasting with the metabolites of omega-3 fatty acids, such as EPA and DHA, which are anti-inflammatory. (
  • Two new studies by a University of Pittsburgh research team suggest that omega-3 fatty acids - substances that are found in high concentrations in fish oils and certain seeds and nuts - significantly inhibit the growth of liver cancer cells. (
  • These ratios decreased significantly in both groups after treatment with 1.5 g/day of omega-3 fatty acids: 9.0 +/- 4.2 in healthy subjects and 10.3 +/- 8.8 in patients with CAD. (
  • Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids did not significantly affect hs-CRP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or blood glucose levels. (
  • Triglyceride levels were not reduced in patients with CAD but were significantly decreased in healthy subjects (by 20% decrease with omega-3 fatty acids 1.5 g/day and by 32% decrease with 3 g/day). (
  • Treatment with omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduced AA:EPA ratios in both healthy subjects and in patients with stable CAD. (
  • Acute pretreatment with dexamethasone (2 mg kg-1 i.v.) 15 min before Paf, or with indomethacin (5 mg kg-1 s.c.), acetylsalicylic acid (10 mg kg-1 i.v.) or 1-benzylimidazole (50 mg kg-1 s.c.) did not significantly affect the gastric damage induced by Paf. (
  • in contrast, they were significantly higher in the arachidonic acid group. (
  • Epidemiological evidence suggests that the consumption of a diet high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with the development of leptin resistance and obesity. (
  • In what is believed to be the first direct comparison of blood cell testing in both sexes of 81 milligrams of acetyl salicylic acid a day, Hopkins researchers found aspirin therapy prevents the clumping together of these clot-forming cells, called platelets. (
  • The use of arachidonic acid (AA) to stimulate platelets is considered as a specific approach to study aspirin treatment efficacy. (
  • Furthermore, aspirin-treated COX-2 metabolizes arachidonic acid almost exclusively to 15(R)-HETE which product can be further metabolized to epi-lipoxins. (
  • Heart microsomal protein from control or isoproterenol treated rats was incubated with 50 μM arachidonic acid, and arachidonic acid metabolites were determined by liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry. (
  • Isolated thoracic aortic rings were precontracted with a submaximal concentration of norepinephrine, and the effect of various agents on arachidonic acid- and acetylcholine-induced relaxations was examined. (
  • In the current study using monolayer cultures of neonatal rat islet cells, exogenous arachidonic acid (AA) (5 μg/ml) potently stimulated insulin release in the presence of a substimulatory glucose concentration, and potentiated release induced by glucose. (
  • Reduced tissue arachidonic acid concentration with chronic ethanol feeding in miniature pigs. (
  • During the supplementation period, the concentration of arachidonic acid in white blood cells [PBMC] and muscle cells increased by 8 and 4 percent respectively. (
  • The median of 8,9-EET and 14,15-EET was 14.5 and 17.7 ng 10(-6) cells, respectively, whereas 5,6-EET and 11,12-EET were below 2 ng 10(-6) cells in a 5-min incubation assay at a 30 microM arachidonic acid substrate concentration. (
  • The observed transformations of arachidonic acid in platelets also explain the aggregating effect of this acid. (
  • The present study investigated the role of arachidonic acid and acetylcholine in mediating endothelium-dependent relaxations of rabbit aorta. (
  • Arachidonic acid may play a role in cancer, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and other autoimmune disorders. (
  • Role of arachidonic acid metabolites on the control of non-differentiated intestinal epithelial cell growth. (
  • Therefore, the current study was designed to more completely characterize the role of arachidonic acid metabolites in the sex-related differences in vascular responses in males versus females. (
  • In 1983 already it was claimed that PGE₂ derived from arachidonic acid plays a clear role in the regulation of cellular and humoral responses (JS Godwin et al. (
  • The resulting arachidonic acid then becomes the raw material for making inflammatory factors - and these play a role in muscle growth. (
  • These results indicate that 1) NA activates LOE 908-sensitive Ca 2+ -permeable nonselective cation channels (NSCCs) in CHO-α 1A , CHO-α 1B , and CHO-α 1D , and 2) the Ca 2+ influx through NSCCs may play an important role in the NA-induced enhancement of arachidonic acid release in these cells. (
  • Hence, the demand for arachidonic acid, which plays an important role in the development of the brain and visual cognitive processing in babies, has been incorporated in the infant formulae products and fed to babies. (
  • Regulatory bodies have played an important role in the arachidonic acid market, as approval of the arachidonic acid has opened gateways for arachidonic acid manufacturers to tap into the market potential. (
  • Arachidonic acid is also a vasodilator similar to nitric oxide , and would enhance blood flow to the muscles. (
  • Arachidonic acid is a potent vasodilator [11] as a result of the same characteristics that lead to its anabolic effects. (
  • Here, we determined that Ang II stimulates [ 3 H]arachidonic acid (AA) release from cultured neurons via AT 2 receptors. (