An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)
A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.
A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).
A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
Enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of arachidonic acid to hydroperoxyarachidonates. These products are then rapidly converted by a peroxidase to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. The positional specificity of the enzyme reaction varies from tissue to tissue. The final lipoxygenase pathway leads to the leukotrienes. EC 1.13.11.- .
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
A dual inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. It exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The drug also enhances pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and has a protective effect after myocardial ischemia.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS.
20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that occur in the CYTOSOL.
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.
A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin G2.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta(1E,3E,5Z,8Z)))-3-(1,3,5,8-Tetradecatetraenyl)oxiranebutanoic acid. An unstable allylic epoxide, formed from the immediate precursor 5-HPETE via the stereospecific removal of a proton at C-10 and dehydration. Its biological actions are determined primarily by its metabolites, i.e., LEUKOTRIENE B4 and cysteinyl-leukotrienes. Alternatively, leukotriene A4 is converted into LEUKOTRIENE C4 by glutathione-S-transferase or into 5,6-di-HETE by the epoxide-hydrolase. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of a PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 enzyme.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASE.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
Cyclohexane ring substituted by one or more ketones in any position.
Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the syn-dehydrogenation of linoleol-CoA gamma-linolenoyl-CoA. It was formerly characterized as EC
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
Dioxygenases that catalyze the peroxidation of methylene-interrupted UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.
An anthracene derivative that disrupts MITOCHONDRIA function and structure and is used for the treatment of DERMATOSES, especially PSORIASIS. It may cause FOLLICULITIS.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
Compounds that inhibit the action of prostaglandins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Amides composed of unsaturated aliphatic FATTY ACIDS linked with AMINES by an amide bond. They are most prominent in ASTERACEAE; PIPERACEAE; and RUTACEAE; and also found in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE; BRASSICACEAE; CONVOLVULACEAE; EUPHORBIACEAE; MENISPERMACEAE; POACEAE; and SOLANACEAE. They are recognized by their pungent taste and for causing numbing and salivation.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
cis-13-Docosenoic Acids. 22-Carbon monounsaturated, monocarboxylic acids.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mortierellaceae, order MUCORALES. Its species are abundant in soil and can cause rare infections in humans and animals. Mortierella alpinais is used for production of arachidonic acid.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that contains both a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment and interfacial-binding region specific for PHOSPHATIDYL CHOLINE-containing membranes. This enzyme group may play a role in the release of ARACHIDONIC ACID from phospholipid membranes.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).
Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
A secreted phospholipase A2 subtype that contains a interfacial-binding region with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. This enzyme group may play a role in eliciting ARACHIDONIC ACID release from intact cellular membranes and from LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Members of this group bind specifically to PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Cell surface proteins that bind eicosanoids with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Among the eicosanoid receptors are receptors for the prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that are secreted from cells. They are 14 kDa proteins containing multiple disulfide-bonds and access their substrate via an interfacial binding site that interacts with phospholipid membranes. In addition specific PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS can bind to and internalize the enzymes.
An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC
A chemically diverse group of substances produced by various tissues in the body that cause slow contraction of smooth muscle; they have other intense but varied pharmacologic activities.
An anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic of the phenylalkynoic acid series. It has been shown to reduce bone resorption in periodontal disease by inhibiting CARBONIC ANHYDRASE.
Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.

Stimulation of renin release from rabbit renal cortex by arachidonic acid and prostaglandin endoperoxides. (1/3254)

The mechanism by which renal prostaglandins stimulate renin secretion in vivo is unknown. In this in vitro study we measured the effects of activation of the prostaglandin (PG) system on renin release from slices of rabbit renal cortex. The PG precursor arachidonic acid (C20:4), a natural PG endoperoxide (PGG2), two stable synthetic PG endoperoxide analogues (EPA I and II), PGE2, PGF2alpha, and two different PG synthesis inhibitors [indomethacin and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETA)] were used to evaluate the possibility of a direct action of the cortical PG system on renin secretion. Renin release increased significantly with time after addition of C20:4, PGG2, EPA I, and EPA II to the incubation medium. Stimulation of renin release was se-related for C20:4 in concentrations of 0.6 to 4.5 X 10(-6) M, for EPA I in concentrations of 0.7 to 2.8 X 10(-6) M, and for EPA II in concentrations of 1.4 to 14.0 X 10(-6) M. Indomethacin (10(-4) M) and ETA (10(-4) M) significantly decreased basal renin release as well as the renin release stimulated by C20:4 and EPA I. PGE2(10(-12) to 10(-6) M) had no effect on renin release, whereas PGF2alpha (10(-12) to 10(-6) M) decreased renin release in a dose-dependent manner. These data raise the possibility of a direct action of the renal cortical PG system on renin secretion. The results further indicate that stimulation of renin release by C20:4 may depend more specifically on the action of PG endoperoxides than on the primary prostaglandins.  (+info)

Cytosolic phospholipase A2 in rat decidual cells: evidence for its role in decidualization. (2/3254)

We investigated the existence and possible role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in rat decidualized uteri. PLA2 activity in the cytosol of a decidualized uterine horn, induced by intraluminal oil infusion, was significantly higher than that in contralateral intact horn. The activity was almost completely depressed by cPLA2 inhibitors including arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (ATK). The immunoreactive signals for cPLA2 were intense in decidua and glandular epithelial cells. In vivo administration of ATK (0.1-100 microg) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of decidualization. These results show the presence of cPLA2 and its probable implication in decidualization in rat uterus.  (+info)

Recent progress in the neurotoxicology of natural drugs associated with dependence or addiction, their endogenous agonists and receptors. (3/3254)

Nicotine in tobacco, tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) in marijuana and morphine in opium are well known as drugs associated with dependence or addiction. Endogenous active substances that mimic the effects of the natural drugs and their respective receptors have been found in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Such active substances and receptors include acetylcholine (ACh) and the nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) for nicotine, anandamide and CB1 for delta 9-THC, and endomorphins (1 and 2) and the mu (OP3) opioid receptor for morphine, respectively. Considerable progress has been made in studies on neurotoxicity, in terms of the habituation, dependence and withdrawal phenomena associated with these drugs and with respect to correlations with endogenous active substances and their receptors. In this article we shall review recent findings related to the neurotoxicity of tobacco, marijuana and opium, and their toxic ingredients, nicotine, delta 9-THC and morphine in relation to their respective endogenous agents and receptors in the CNS.  (+info)

Stage-specific excitation of cannabinoid receptor exhibits differential effects on mouse embryonic development. (4/3254)

Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine), an arachidonic acid derivative, is an endogenous ligand for both the brain-type (CB1-R) and spleen-type (CB2-R) cannabinoid receptors. We have previously demonstrated that preimplantation mouse embryos express mRNA for these receptors and that the periimplantation uterus contains the highest level of anandamide yet discovered in a mammalian tissue. We further demonstrated that 2-cell mouse embryos exposed to low levels of anandamide (7 nM) or other known cannabinoid agonists in culture exhibit markedly compromised embryonic development to blastocysts and that this effect is mediated by CB1-R. In contrast, the present study demonstrates that blastocysts exposed in culture to the same low levels of cannabinoid agonists exhibited accelerated trophoblast differentiation with respect to fibronectin-binding activity and trophoblast outgrowth. Again, these effects resulted from activation of embryonic CB1-R. There was a differential concentration-dependent effect of cannabinoids on the trophoblast, with an observed inhibition of differentiation at higher doses. These results provide evidence for the first time that cannabinoid effects are differentially executed depending on the embryonic stage and cannabinoid levels in the environment. Since uterine anandamide levels are lowest at the sites of implantation and highest at the interimplantation sites, the new findings imply that site-specific levels of anandamide and/or other endogenous ligands in the uterus may regulate implantation spatially by promoting trophoblast differentiation at the sites of blastocyst implantation.  (+info)

A role for N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide) as the mediator of sensory nerve-dependent Ca2+-induced relaxation. (5/3254)

We tested the hypothesis that an endogenous cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonist, such as N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide), is the transmitter that mediates perivascular sensory nerve-dependent Ca2+-induced relaxation. Rat mesenteric branch arteries were studied using wire myography; relaxation was determined after inducing contraction with norepinephrine. Cumulative addition of Ca2+ caused dose-dependent relaxation (ED50 = 2.2 +/- 0.09 mM). The relaxation was inhibited by 10 mM TEA and 100 nM iberiotoxin, a blocker of large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, but not by 5 microM glibenclamide, 1 mM 4-aminopyridine, or 30 nM apamin. Ca2+-induced relaxation was also blocked by the selective CB receptor antagonist SR141716A and was enhanced by pretreatment with 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (pefabloc; 30 microM), an inhibitor of anandamide metabolism. Anandamide also caused dose-dependent relaxation (ED50 =.72 +/- 0.3 microM). The relaxation was not inhibited by endothelial denudation, 10 microM indomethacin, or 1 microM miconazole, but was blocked by 3 microM SR141716A, 10 mM TEA, precontraction with 100 mM K+, and 100 nM iberiotoxin, and was enhanced by treatment with 30 microM pefabloc. Mesenteric branch arteries were 200-fold more sensitive to the relaxing action of anandamide than arachidonic acid (ED50 = 160 +/- 7 microM). These data show that: 1) Ca2+ and anandamide cause hyperpolarization-mediated relaxation of mesenteric branch arteries, which is dependent on an iberiotoxin-sensitive Ca2+-activated K+ channel, 2) relaxation induced by both Ca2+ and anandamide is inhibited by CB receptor blockade, and 3) relaxation induced by anandamide is not dependent on its breakdown to arachidonic acid and subsequent metabolism. These findings support the hypothesis that anandamide, or a similar cannabinoid receptor agonist, mediates nerve-dependent Ca2+-induced relaxation in the rat.  (+info)

Inhibition of the production of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor by cannabinoid receptor agonists. (6/3254)

1. The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, has been reported to induce an 'endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-like' relaxation in vitro. We therefore investigated the effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists; HU 210, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and anandamide, and a CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, SR 141716A, on nitric oxide (NO) and EDHF-mediated relaxation in precontracted rings of porcine coronary, rabbit carotid and mesenteric arteries. 2. In rings of mesenteric artery HU 210 and delta9-THC induced endothelium- and cyclo-oxygenase-independent relaxations which were sensitive to SR 141716A. Anandamide (0.03-30 microM) induced a slowly developing, endothelium-independent relaxation which was abolished by diclofenac and was therefore mediated by cyclo-oxygenase product(s). None of the CB1 agonists tested affected the tone of precontracted rings of rabbit carotid or porcine coronary artery. 3. In endothelium-intact segments, HU 210, delta9-THC and anandamide did not affect NO-mediated responses but under conditions of continuous NO synthase/cyclo-oxygenase blockade, significantly inhibited acetylcholine and bradykinin-induced relaxations which are attributed to the production of EDHF. The effects of HU 210 and delta9-THC were not observed when experiments were performed in the presence of SR 141716A suggesting the involvement of the CB1 receptor. 4. In a patch clamp bioassay of EDHF production, HU 210 decreased the EDHF-mediated hyperpolarization of detector smooth muscle cells when applied to the donor segment but was without effect on the membrane potential of detector cells. The inhibition of EDHF production was unrelated to alterations in Ca2+ -signalling or cytochrome P450 activity. 5. These results suggest that the activation of endothelial CB1 receptors appears to be negatively coupled to the production of EDHF.  (+info)

Insulin but not growth hormone stimulates protein anabolism in skin wound and muscle. (7/3254)

We have measured protein kinetics in the scalded skin and normal muscle in anesthetized rabbits. On the 7th day after ear scald, L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine was infused as a tracer, and the ear and hindlimb were used as arteriovenous units to reflect skin and muscle protein kinetics. Insulin was infused at 0.6 or 2.3-3.4 mU. kg-1. min-1 in the low-dose and high-dose insulin groups. In the growth hormone group, recombinant human growth hormone was administered at 2 mg. kg-1. day-1 after the ear was scalded. The results were compared with a control group in which the ear was scalded but otherwise was not treated. In the control group, net protein loss in the scalded skin and muscle was 23.1 +/- 21.4 and 3.9 +/- 1.5 micromol. 100 g-1. h-1, respectively. Insulin infusion at either high or low dose reduced net protein loss to near zero by inhibiting proteolysis. In contrast, growth hormone treatment had no anabolic effect on either tissue. In conclusion, insulin but not growth hormone has an anabolic effect on scalded skin and normal muscle; low-dose insulin is as effective in achieving an anabolic effect on both tissues, with less hypoglycemic response than high-dose insulin.  (+info)

Fatty-acid amide hydrolase is expressed in the mouse uterus and embryo during the periimplantation period. (8/3254)

Arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide) is an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors. We demonstrated previously that the periimplantation mouse uterus has high levels of anandamide and can synthesize and hydrolyse anandamide. In the present investigation, we examined the expression of the recently identified fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene, which is involved in hydrolyzing anandamide to arachidonic acid and ethanolamine, in the periimplantation mouse embryo and uterus. As previously reported, Northern blot hybridization detected a transcript of approximately 2.5 kilobases of FAAH mRNA in whole uterine poly(A)+ RNA samples. The levels of this mRNA were higher in the liver and brain than in the uterus. In the uterus, higher accumulation of FAAH mRNA occurred on Days 1-4 followed by declines on later days (Days 5-8) of pregnancy. In situ hybridization detected this mRNA primarily in uterine luminal and glandular epithelial cells on Days 1-4 of pregnancy. With the progression of implantation (Days 5-8), accumulation of this mRNA was retained in the luminal and glandular epithelia. In addition, implanting blastocysts showed accumulation of this mRNA. FAAH mRNA accumulation was absent or minimal in the myometrium during this period. Western blotting detected an approximately 60-kDa protein in uterine membrane preparations. In preimplantation embryos, FAAH mRNA was present in one-cell and two-cell embryos but was absent in embryos at the eight-cell/morula stage. However, this mRNA was again detected in Day 4 blastocysts. The presence of FAAH mRNA in one- and two-cell embryos reflects accumulation of maternal message, while its presence in blastocysts reflects embryonic gene activation. Collectively, our present and previous results provide evidence that FAAH is expressed in the mouse uterus and embryo during early pregnancy to modulate local levels of anandamide that could be important for embryo development and implantation.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Study on the action of PAF on IL-1 modulation in alveolar macrophages. T2 - Involvement of endogenous arachidonate metabolites and intracellular Ca++ mobilization. AU - Lee, J.. AU - Kim, W. K.. AU - Hah, J. S.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Platelet-activating factor (PAF) enhanced interleukin-1 (IL-1) activity by the interaction with a specific receptor in rat alveolar macrophages. In this study, we investigated the role of endogenous arachidonate metabolites and intracellular calcium mobilization in the PAF-induced IL-1 activity. Alveolar macrophages were preincubated with 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase inhibitors 30 min before the addition of PAF and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After 24h culture, IL-1 activity was measured in the supernate of sample using the thymocyte proliferation assay. Inhibition of 5-lipoxyenase by nordihydroguaiaretic acid and AA-861 completely blocked the PAF-induced enhancement of IL-1 activity with IC50 of 2 μM and 5 μM, respectively. In contrast, ...
Sodium arachidonate, 10(-5) g/kg per minute, was infused into the renal artery of a nonfiltering canine kidney in situ in order to determine the effects of enhanced prostaglandin synthesis on renal blood flow and its distribution in circumstances where prostaglandins produced in the medulla could not gain access to the cortex via tubular fluid. The contralateral normal kidney was also infused with sodium arachidonate and served as control. Radioactive microspheres were used to calculate the hemodynamic effects. In the nonfiltering kidney, the total renal blood flow increased after sodium arachidonate from a mean of 105 ml/min per 100 g to 146 ml/min per 100 g (P less than 0.01). This increase was completely abolished by prior treatment with indomethacin, 8 mg/kg, intravenously. The normal kidney responded qualitatively the same as the nonfiltering side. In both kidneys, blood flow increased significantly to all cortical zones except the outermost (zone 1), but the fractional distribution of ...
N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) is an endogenous signaling lipid with a wide variety of biological activity whose biosynthesis is poorly understood. Two primary biosynthetic pathways have been proposed. One suggests that NAGly is formed via an enzymatically regulated conjugation of arachidonic acid (AA) and glycine. The other suggests that NAGly is an oxidative metabolite of the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide (AEA), through an alcohol dehydrogenase. Here using both in vitro and in vivo assays measuring metabolites with LC/MS/MS we test the hypothesis that both pathways are present in mammalian cells. The metabolic products of deuterium-labeled AEA, D4AEA (deuterium on ethanolamine), indicated that NAGly is formed by the oxidation of the ethanolamine creating a D2NAGly product in both RAW 264.7 and C6 glioma cells. Significantly, D4AEA produced a D0NAGly product only in C6 glioma cells suggesting that the hydrolysis of AEA yielded AA that was used preferentially in a conjugation reaction. Addition of
Both the isolated perfused rabbit heart and kidney are capable of synthesizing prostaglandin (PG) I(2). The evidence that supports this finding includes: (a) radiochemical identification of the stable end-product of PGI(2), 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), in the venous effluent after arachidonic acid administration; (b) biological identification of the labile product in the venous effluents which causes relaxation of the bovine coronary artery assay tissue and inhibition of platelet aggregation; and (c) confirmation that arachidonic acid and its endoperoxide PGH(2), but not dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and its endoperoxide PGH(1), serve as the precursor for the coronary vasodilator and the inhibitor of platelet aggregation. The rabbit heart and kidney are both capable of converting exogenous arachidonate into PGI(2) but the normal perfused rabbit kidney apparently primarily converts endogenous arachidonate (e.g., generated by stimulation with bradykinin, angiotensin, ATP, or ischemia) into PGE(2); while the ...
I have postulated that arachidonic acid release from rat liver cells is associated with cancer chemoprevention. Since it has been reported that inhibition of proteasome activities may prevent cancer, the effects of proteasome inhibitors on arachidonic acid release from cells and on prostaglandin I2 production in rat liver cells were studied. The proteasome inhibitors, epoxomicin, lactacystin and carbobenzoxy-leucyl-leucyl-leucinal, stimulate the release of arachidonic acid from rat glial, human colon carcinoma, human breast carcinoma and the rat liver cells. They also stimulate basal and induced prostacycin production in the rat liver cells. The stimulated arachidonic acid release and basal prostaglandin I2 production in rat liver cells is inhibited by actinomycin D. Stimulation of arachidonic acid release and arachidonic acid metabolism may be associated with some of the biologic effects observed after proteasome inhibition, e.g. prevention of tumor growth, induction of apoptosis, stimulation of bone
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule (5z,8z,10e,12s,14z)-12-hydroperoxy-5,8,10,14-icosatetraenoic acid (C20H32O4) from the PQR.
Definition of Arachidonic acid cascade with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Purified human monocytes release and metabolize endogenous arachidonic acid (20:4) from phospholipid stores when challenged with particulate inflammatory stimuli or the calcium ionophore A23187. Using radiolabeled cultures, the percentage of total [3H]20:4 released was similar with each type of stimulus. However, the spectrum of 20:4 metabolites differed. With opsonized zymosan (OpZ) or Sephadex beads coated with IgG immune complexes (Ig-beads), the predominant product was thromboxane (25% of the total) together with smaller amounts of other cyclo-oxygenase products and lipoxygenase metabolites. Levels of thromboxane synthesis by monocytes were comparable to those by platelets, as measured by radioimmunoassay. In contrast, exposure to the nonspecific agent A23187 led to mainly lipoxygenase products (70% of the total). Monocytes isolated from mononuclear cell fractions of peripheral blood contain platelets specifically rosetted to their surfaces. These platelet contaminants were removed by ...
It is well recognized that the CYP-derived eicosanoids constitute a new member of the arachidonic acid cascade with important implications in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes. These metabolites are formed endogenously in various tissues and exert potent biological effects on cellular functions. Studies of their role in normal and diseased cells and tissues are impeded by the difficulty in selectively targeting their synthesis or their effects, because these metabolites are generated from multiple closely related proteins of the CYP superfamily. Consequently, the development of enzyme inhibitors that target specific isoforms/reactions should aid in the study of their pathophysiological roles.. We have synthesized a series of fatty acid/arachidonic acid analogs and tested their potency and selectivity in inhibiting arachidonic acid epoxidation and ω-hydroxylation reactions in rat renal microsomes. Our study confirms that the widely used, terminal acetylenic ...
The present study was designed to determine whether or not lipoxygenase-dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid are involved in the endothelium-dependent
BioAssay record AID 3623 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of [14C]arachidonic acid conversion to 5-HETE by broken cell 5-LO isolated from guinea pig PMN.
N-arachidonoyl-dopamine tunes synaptic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons by activating both cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors.: In the present study, we
The Ultimate Plateau Breaker!X-FACTOR™ is an arachidonic acid [ARASYN™] supplement for bodybuilders and athletes. An Omega-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid (ARA) supports the initiation of muscle protein synthesis following exercise. ARA is richly stored in muscle tissues, and these levels may vary. Further, they can be
just read a article about arachidonic acid,,,had sum great info on it,,,,was wondering if anyone here uses it while on / off cycle and does it really work or is
BioAssay record AID 274914 submitted by ChEMBL: Activity at COX1 assessed as inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced PGE2 production in J774 cells at 0.01 uM.
Arachidonic Acids Role in Stress and Shock April 3, 2012 Posted in General.. Comments Off on Arachidonic Acids Role in Stress and Shock ...
ethyl arachidonate 1808-26-0 NMR spectrum, ethyl arachidonate H-NMR spectral analysis, ethyl arachidonate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Scientists in Cambridge have discovered that a brain protein called syntaxin enables fatty molecules, used widely in health supplements, to work in the brain to make it function properly. Lead Scientist, Dr Bazbek Davletov and his colleague Dr Colin Rickman from the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK report their findings in the journal Chemistry and Biology.. ...
Dumex Dulac Boouc 1 information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Danone, Dumex Dulac Boouc 1 indications, usages and related health products lists
Use SelfDecode to get personalized health recommendations based on your genes. Get started today with an existing DNA file or order a SelfDecode DNA kit!
AuxInfo=1/1/N:1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22/E:(21,22)/rA:22nCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCOO/rB:s1;s2;s3;s4;s5;d6;s7;s8;d9;s10;s11;d12;s13;s14;d15;s16;s17;s18;s19;s20;d20;/rC:-7.3658,-.6188,0;-6.6513,-.2062,0;-5.9368,-.6188,0;-5.2224,-.2062,0;-4.5079,-.6188,0;-3.7934,-.2062,0;-2.9684,-.2062,0;-2.2539,-.6188,0;-1.5395,-.2062,0;-.7145,-.2062,0;0,-.6188,0;.7145,-.2062,0;1.5395,-.2062,0;2.2539,-.6188,0;2.9684,-.2062,0;3.7934,-.2062,0;4.5079,-.6188,0;5.2224,-.2062,0;5.9368,-.6188,0;6.6513,-.2062,0;7.3658,-.6188,0;6.6513,.6188,0 ...
This is a demo simulation of an experiment conducted by Schaechter JD et al. ( J Neurosci, 1993 ). This experiment looks at the activation of a subspecies of PKC by arachidonic acid in combination to Ca2+ and diacylglycerol (DAG). You can try changing the stimulus dose (between 0 to 200 uM) for the three stimuli. We will provide the stimuli in combination and compare it with experimental values from the paper. ...
N-Arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) is an endocannabinoid that acts as an agonist of the CB1 receptor and the transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) ion channel. NADA was first described as a putative endocannabinoid (agonist for the CB1 receptor) in 2000 and was subsequently identified as an endovanilloid (agonist for TRPV1) in 2002. NADA is an endogenous arachidonic acid based lipid found in the brain of rats, with especially high concentrations in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and striatum. It activates the TRPV1 channel with an EC50 of approximately of 50nM which makes it the putative endogenous TRPV1 agonist. In mice, NADA was shown to induce the tetrad of physiological paradigms associated with cannabinoids: hypothermia, hypo-locomotion, catalepsy, and analgesia. NADA has been found to play a regulatory role in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, and displays antioxidant and neuroprotectant properties. NADA has also been implicated in smooth muscle contraction and vasorelaxation in ...
Arachidonic acid supplementation in daily doses of 1,000-1,500 mg for 50 days has been well tolerated during several clinical studies, with no significant side effects reported. All common markers of health, including kidney and liver function,[35] serum lipids,[39] immunity,[40] and platelet aggregation[34] appear to be unaffected with this level and duration of use. Furthermore, higher concentrations of ARA in muscle tissue may be correlated with improved insulin sensitivity.[41] Arachidonic acid supplementation of the diets of healthy adults appears to offer no toxicity or significant safety risk. While studies looking at arachidonic acid supplementation in sedentary subjects have failed to find changes in resting inflammatory markers in doses up to 1,500 mg daily, strength-trained subjects may respond differently. One study reported a significant reduction in resting inflammation (via marker IL-6) in young men supplementing 1,000 mg/day of arachidonic acid for 50 days in combination with ...
A rat fecal peritonitis model of acute intraabdominal sepsis was investigated in order to evaluate the potential role of arachidonic acid metabolites in septic shock. Immunoreactive (i) Thromboxane (Tx) 8 2 , the stable metabolite of TXA2 and i6-keto-PGF 1a , the stable metabolite of prostacyclin, were measured by radioimmuonassay. plasma levels of iTXB2 rapidly increased from non-detectable (ND,200 pg/ml) to 1,066 -/+ 194 pg/ml (N=14) 1 hour after feces injction. iTxB2 then increased to 1,695 -/+ 218 pg/ml (N=16) at 4 hours and remained unchanged through 6 hours. Plasma i6-keto-PGF1a increased from ND to 3,777 -/+ 414 pg/ml (N=16) at 1 hour. Four hours after feces, i6-keto-PGF1a levels rose to 6,945 -/+ 732 pg/ml (N=16) then continued to rise to 9,465 -/+ 792 pg/ml (N=7) at 6 hours. Either essential fatty acid deficiency (arachidonic acid depletion) or indomethacin pretreatment (cyclooxygenase inhibition) significantly decreased (P,0.01) the elevations of plasma iTxB2 and i6-keto-PGF1a ...
A recognized feature of psoriasis and other proliferative dermatoses is accumulation in your skin from the unusual arachidonic acidity metabolite, 12hydrogen through the 10-carbon of arachidonate. included regions of epidermis in psoriasis possess PPARG improved concentrations of free of charge arachidonic acid and 12-HETE markedly. Chiral analysis from the 12-HETE in psoriasis revealed that the major enantiomer is 12390C404, encompassing the major M-PFB ions at 391 (unlabeled HETE) and 399 (d8 analogue), essentially as described previously (28). Experiments with Stereospecifically Labeled Arachidonic Acids. The specific activities of the two 10-3H-labeled arachidonic acids were approximately 10,000C20,000 disintegrations per min 3H per g. The pro-[10-3H]arachidonic acid was enriched in tritium by incubation with an 8as described in principle before (29). The stereospecifically labeled arachidonic acids were admixed with [14C]arachidonic acid, which served as an internal standard for measurement ...
In the present study, we investigated whether the protective effect of FK506 and cyclosporin A (CsA) against in vitro ischemic injury of astrocytes might be mediated through attenuation of cytosolic isoform of phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) expression and activity as well as inhibition of arachidonic acid (AA) release. On the 21st day in vitro, cultures of rat astrocytes were subjected to ischemia-simulating conditions (combined oxygen glucose deprivation) for 8 h and exposed to FK506 (10 - 1,000 nM) and CsA (0.25 - 10 microM). Obtained data suggest the cross-talk between the action of 0.25 - 10 microM CsA as well as 1 microM FK506 on calcineurin (CaN) and cPLA(2) in anti-apoptotic signal transduction pathways. Moreover, we have shown that immunosuppressants at these concentrations protected glial cells against ischemia-induced apoptosis through the increase of cell viability, mitochondrial function restoration, and attenuation of oxidative stress. Finally, in our study, low concentrations of FK506 (10
This topic has 3 study abstracts on Arachidonic Acid indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Mitochondrial Diseases, Oxidative Stress, and Alcoholic Liver Disease
The patients who have chronic pain can easily manage their pain with the help of anandamide pills. The stimulants which are present in the drugs are useful in order to easily enhance the cognition in healthy people. If you prefer to use the lower dosage of the drugs then the clinical research can be performed effectively. You can ensure to our purchase the products of your choice if you just have a look at the product catalogue.. Start using the anandamide supplements:. The customers can feel free to contact the suppliers on our website if they want to sell the highly effective products. It is possible to regulate the essential body functions as the anandamide supplements will play a key role in your body. The symptoms like vomiting and weight loss are considered as the temporary side effects of the anandamide supplements. If you want to start using the anandamide supplements then you should try to know about the side effects. You can find the benefits even with a lower dosage as the high dosage ...
BECA, T; HERNANDEZ, G y BASCONES, A. NSAIDs in the treatment of periodontal disease. Avances en Periodoncia [online]. 2007, vol.19, n.2, pp.101-113. ISSN 2340-3209.. SUMMARY A review about the application of antiinflammatories as an aid for the periodontal treatment is presented. After a brief introduction, we explain the immunological bases of periodontal inflamation and tissue destruction, focusing on arachidonic acid metabolism and the four most important inflammatory mediators now in periodontal tissue resorption: prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin F2a(PGF2a), leucotriene B4 (LTB4) and platelet activation factor (PAF), and explaining their actions and role in inflammation through matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and their relation with some other mediators in the inflammatory chain also related with tissue resorption. After, we expound some of the most used drugs for the inhibition of all of these mediators (non-steroid antiinflammatory drugs or NSAIDs, omega3 fatty acids, tetracyclines ...
Yau, T M. and Sun, G Y., The metabolism of (1-14c)arachidonic acid in the neutral glycerides and phosphoglycerides of mouse brain. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 89 ...
This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and is thought to be the predominant enzyme responsible for epoxidation of endogenous arachidonic acid in cardiac tissue. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016 ...
Mancuso, P.; Mcnish, R.W.; Peters Golden, M.; Brock, T.G., 2001: Evaluation of phagocytosis and arachidonate metabolism by alveolar macrophages and recruited neutrophils from F344xBN rats of different ages
COX-2 Drugs were recently approved by FDA, USA. After the discovery of COX-2, several new medicines were produced and unlike the earlier NSAIDs, the side effects were significantly reduced. COX-2 medicines were proved to be safer than COX-1 medicines. Even the doctors are prescribing these COX-2 medicines only because of their advantages over COX-1 medicines.. There is a clear difference in DNA and mRNA structures of these two but the end results are same. Even the structure of these two enzymes is almost 60% similar. The effects of these enzymes on arachidonic acid are almost same but their functionality is different. COX-2 is localized to nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. COX-1 is localized to later one only. For prostaglandin synthesis, these two use different versions of arachidonate.. The best thing about COX-2 is it doesn’t affect the prostaglandins that cause these GI problems in any way. It just stops the synthesis and the user won’t face any discomforts like GI ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Factors that protect HepG2 cells by anandamide-induced cell death. AU - Giuliano, Michela. AU - Calvaruso, Giuseppe. AU - Pellerito, Ornella. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. UR - M3 - Other. SP - 45. EP - 54. ER - ...
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InChI=1S/C22H36ClNO/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-22(25)24-21-20-23/h6-7,9-10,12-13,15-16H,2-5,8,11,14,17-21H2,1H3,(H,24,25)/b7-6-,10-9-,13-12-,16-15- ...
Series three - made from EPA. The number one function of series 3 prostaglandins is to save you Arachidonic Acid release from cells.. Arachidonic Acid passing thru this pathway will increase irritation and the other problems noted in Series 2. Anything we will do to decrease interest because of the AA pathway is beneficial.. Remember that Omega-threes & Omega-6s can undergo the equal pathway. The Omega-3s are transformed at a lower charge resulting in a decrease quantity. The merchandise of this pathway are then degraded by enzymes.. This machine, like many in the frame, is in constant stability. However, once in a while the manufacturing exceeds metabolism resulting in accelerated inflammation. Omega-3s are inflammatory but to a lesser quantity. Additionally, theyre produced slower ensuing in fewer numbers. This is one of the many blessings of Omega-three fatty acids.. ...
Dutch Lady Step 2 information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Dutch Lady Milk Industries, Dutch Lady Step 2 indications, usages and related health products lists
Principal Investigator:MAIZUMI Yuji, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Biological pharmacy
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A new way to enhance the effects of anandamide - a natural, marijuana-like chemical in the body has been identified by Italian researchers.
Looking for online definition of 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid in the Medical Dictionary? 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid explanation free. What is 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid? Meaning of 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid medical term. What does 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic acid mean?
1. Since ageing has been associated with a decrease in both immune responses and antioxidant defences, this study was undertaken to compare the glutathione peroxidase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy elderly and young donors. The mean value of glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly lower in the aged group (−36%) than that observed in the young control group (n = 10).. 2. This defect was accompanied by a marked increase (+106%) in the oxygenated metabolism of endogenous arachidonic acid by lipoxygenases as judged by the radiolabel associated with hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids in [3H]arachidonic acid-prelabelled peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whereas the cyclo-oxygenase activity, estimated by the radiolabel associated with thromboxane B2, was not significantly altered.. 3. Upon stimulation by the mitogenic lectin concanavalin A, the radioactivity associated with total eicosanoids (free arachidonic acid plus hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids plus thromboxane ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arachidonic acid inhibits luteinizing hormone-stimulated progesterone production in hen granulosa cells. AU - Johnson, A. L.. AU - Tilly, J. L.. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. N2 - Arachidonic acid has been proposed to function as a hormone-induced second messenger in a variety of mammalian endocrine tissues. The present studies were conducted to evaluate whether arachidonic acid, either added exogenously or released endogenously following treatment with physiologic (phospholipase A2) or pharmacologic (melittin) agents, influences basal and/or luteinizing hormone (LH)-induced cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate (cAMP) and progesterone production in granulosa cells from domestic hens. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and melittin treatments failed to alter basal concentrations of progesterone, whereas arachidonic acid had a slight stimulatory effect (only at the 50-μM dose) on progesterone levels, and no effect on cAMP. By contrast, arachidonic acid, PLA2, and melittin each inhibited ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The endocannabinoid anandamide is a precursor for the signaling lipid N-arachidonyl glycine through two distinct pathways. AU - Hu, Shu-Jung. AU - Bradshaw, Heather. AU - Rimmerman, Neta. AU - Benton, Valery M.. AU - Stuart, Jordyn M.. AU - Masuda, Kim. AU - Cravatt, Benjamin F.. AU - ODell, David K.. N1 - SCI. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. M3 - Article. JO - BMCBiochemistry. JF - BMCBiochemistry. ER - ...
The subject of N-acyl amino acid conjugates has been rapidly growing in recent years, especially with regard to their analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions. The field is comprised of a large family of lipid signaling molecules whose importance is only now being fully realized. The most widely studied member is N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly), which differs structurally from the endocannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide) by a single oxygen atom and the two are metabolically related. Topics that are covered in this mini review are: biosynthetic pathways for N-acyl amino acids, receptors for N-acyl amino acids, physiological actions of N-acyl amino acids, pharmacological effects of N-acyl amino acids and molecular mechanisms believed to be responsible for their effects ...
The 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) product 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE), which is a potent chemoattractant for myeloid cells, is known to promote the survival of prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we found that PC3 prostate cancer cells and cell lines derived from breast (MCF7) and lung (A-427) cancers contain 5-hydroxyeicosanoid dehydrogenase (5-HEDH) activity and have the ability to synthesize 5-oxo-ETE from its precursor 5S-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) when added as an exogenous substrate. H2O2 strongly stimulated the synthesis of 5-oxo-ETE and induced dramatic increases in the levels of both glutathione disulfide and NADP+. The effects of H2O2 on 5-oxo-ETE and NADP+ were blocked by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), indicating that this effect was mediated by the glutathione reductase-dependent generation of NADP+, the cofactor required by 5-HEDH. 5-Oxo-ETE synthesis was also stimulated by agents that have cytotoxic effects on tumor cells, including ...
It is recommended to use the anandamide supplements if you want to boost your brain capacity. If you want to find the simplest way to increase the anandamide levels in your body then you can eat the dark chocolate. It is possible to regulate the inflammation and neuron signalling with the help of the anandamide supplement. The motivation and happiness can be removed with the help of the cannabinoid receptors in the brain cells. The breakdown of the anandamide supplements can be blocked can be stimulated with the help of the endocannabinoid receptors. The neuron signalling can be regulated in your body based on the inflammation of the anandamide. If you want to get detailed information about the anandamide supplements then you can visit our website. You can prefer to use the supplements if you are ready to make some changes in your life.. Find the right supplements:. The prolonged approach should be followed by the individuals in order to boost the anandamide in your body. The memory and ...
A complex structurally diverse series of eicosanoids arises from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The metabolic profile is further complicated by the enantioselectivity of eicosanoid formation and the variety of regioisomers that arise. In order to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in vitro or in vivo, targeted methods are advantageous in order to distinguish between the complex isomeric mixtures that can arise by different metabolic pathways. Over the last several years this targeted approach has become more popular, although there are still relatively few examples where chiral targeted approaches have been employed to directly analyze complex enantiomeric mixtures. To efficiently conduct targeted eicosanoid analyses, LC separations are coupled with collision induced dissociation (CID) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Product ion profiles are often diagnostic for particular regioisomers. The highest sensitivity that can be achieved involves the use of selected reaction monitoring
Endocannabinoid anandamide induces endothelium-dependent relaxation commonly attributed to stimulation of the G-protein coupled endothelial anandamide receptor. The study addressed the receptor-independent effect of anandamide on large conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channels expressed in endothelial cell line EA.hy926. Under resting conditions, 10µM anandamide did not significantly influence the resting membrane potential. In a Ca2+-free solution the cells were depolarized by ~10mV. Further administration of 10µM anandamide hyperpolarized the cells by ~8mV. In voltage-clamp mode, anandamide elicited the outwardly rectifying whole-cell current sensitive to paxilline but insensitive to GDPβS, a G-protein inhibitor. Administration of 70µM Mn2+, an agent used to promote integrin clustering, reversibly stimulated whole-cell current, but failed to further facilitate the anandamide-stimulated current. In an inside-out configuration, anandamide (0.1-30µM) facilitated single BKCa channel activity in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic exposure to sidestream smoke adversely alters 14C-(AA) arachidonic acid metabolism in platelets and aortas from rats. AU - Lubawy, W. C.. AU - Valentovic, M. A.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. UR - M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0021149080. VL - 43. SP - no. 2785. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 3. ER - ...
The endocannabinoid system is an important regulator of the nervous, neuroendocrine and immune systems, thus representing a novel therapeutic target for stress-related neuroinflammatory and psychiatric disorders. However, there is a paucity of data relating to the effects of endocannabinoids on neuroinflammatory mediators following an immune stress/challenge in vivo. This study investigated the effects of URB597, a selective inhibitor of fatty acid amine hydrolyase (FAAH), the enzyme that preferentially metabolises anandamide, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increases in the expression of immune mediators in the hypothalamus. Systemic administration of URB597 increased the levels of anandamide and the related N-acylethanolamines, N-palmitoyl ethanolamide and N-oleoyl ethanolamide, but not 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, in the hypothalamus and spleen. URB597 attenuated the LPS-induced increase in interleukin (IL)-1Beta expression while concurrently augmenting the LPS-induced increase in suppressor ...
Cannabidiol (CBD) binds to a G-coupled protein, TRPV-1, which influences inflammation, pain perception and body temperature. Multiple NIH studies show that CBD inhibits FAAH activity, which is responsible for the deterioration of N-arachidonoylethanolamine, commonly known as anandamide. CBD also inhibits anandamide reuptake. The scientists who discovered and isolated the neurotransmitter anandamide discovered that it contributes to elevated mood. Unfortunately, endogenous anandamide levels are very low, and the half-life is rapid. CBD plays an important role by inhibiting anandamide degradation and enhancing endogenous levels. CBG and CBC, other cannabinoids present in Harpers Gold, also increase anandamide levels.. The other cannabinoid compounds in Harpers Gold are valuable on their own, but they also help to realize CBDs anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and mood elevating potential by working synergistically, a phenomenon that scientific experts call the entourage effect.. ...
The endocannabinoid system is an important regulator of the nervous, neuroendocrine and immune systems, thus representing a novel therapeutic target for stress-related neuroinflammatory and psychiatric disorders. However, there is a paucity of data relating to the effects of endocannabinoids on neuroinflammatory mediators following an immune stress/challenge in vivo. This study investigated the effects of URB597, a selective inhibitor of fatty acid amine hydrolyase (FAAH), the enzyme that preferentially metabolises anandamide, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increases in the expression of immune mediators in the hypothalamus. Systemic administration of URB597 increased the levels of anandamide and the related N -acylethanolamines, N -palmitoyl ethanolamide and N-oleoyl ethanolamide, but not 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, in the hypothalamus and spleen. URB597 attenuated the LPS-induced increase in interleukin (IL)-1? expression while concurrently augmenting the LPS-induced increase in suppressor ...
Arachidonic acid may trigger brain inflammation. High blood levels have been associated with a greater risk of suicide and depressive episodes. On the other hand, diets high in carbohydrate and low in fat and protein (with little or no arachidonic acid) may be associated with lower levels of anxiety and depression, according to epidemiological studies.. In one study, overweight or diabetic employees who went on a whole food, plant-based diet reported increased energy, better sleep patterns and improved mental health compared to a control group given no diet restrictions. Their work productivity also showed improvement.. A similar subsequent study of employees at 10 corporate sites showed notable improvements in depression, anxiety and emotional well-being among those following a meat-free, plant-based diet.. ...
How much of 20:4 undifferentiated, eicosatetraenoic, arachidonic is present in Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, SENSITIVE (LACTOSE FREE) ready-to-feed, with ARA plus DHA (formerly ROSS) in details, quantity how high or low 20:4 undifferentiated, eicosatetraenoic, arachidonic nutrient content it has.
How much of 20:4 undifferentiated, eicosatetraenoic, arachidonic is present in Infant formula, ABBOTT NUTRITION, SIMILAC, PM 60/40, powder not reconstituted (formerly ROSS) in details, quantity how high or low 20:4 undifferentiated, eicosatetraenoic, arachidonic nutrient content it has.
Introduction:. Excessive menstrual bleeding, or menorrhagia, is a common female complaint that may be entirely prevented by a simple herbal prescription - capsules of ginger. The chief cause of functional menorrhagia (i.e., not caused by the presence of uterine fibroids or endometriosis) involves abnormalities in the biochemical processes of the endometrium (the lining of the uterus).. One abnormality commonly found is an alteration in arachidonic acid metabolism. This fatty acid is derived from meat and dairy sources and is converted to hormone-like compounds known as prostaglandins. The endometrium of women who have menorrhagia concentrates arachidonic acid to a much greater extent than normal. The increased arachidonic acid release during menstruation results in increased production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which not only leads to excessive bleeding, but also menstrual cramps.. Background Data:. Historically, the majority of complaints for which ginger (Zingiber officinale) was used ...
Genes Encoding Enzymatic Activities Implicated in the Eicosanoid Cascade of Arachidonic Acid and their Receptors are Expressed at mRNA Levels in Human Meningiomas Abstract.
Lipoxygenases (LOs) constitute a heterogeneous family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to their corresponding hydroperoxy derivatives.1,2 In mammals, LOs are categorized with respect to their positional specificity of arachidonic acid oxygenation into 5-, 8-, 12-, and 15-LOs.1-3 These enzymes induce structural and metabolic changes in cells during a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as differentiation, carcinogenesis, inflammation, and atherogenesis. Accumulating studies have suggested diverse and opposing roles for the various LO pathways in the pathogenesis of human diseases, particularly cancer and atherosclerosis.2-5 Consistent with the existence of multiple isoforms of LOs, a variety of intermediate and end products of arachidonic acids are found in various cell types, and they in turn activate diverse signaling cascades, resulting in diverse outcomes. Therefore, sophisticated understanding of the ...
In addition to conventional treatment, there are also nutritional means to deal with inflammation. In my practice, I have helped many individuals complaining of pain from various itis diseases. We address the source of the inflammation, rather than attempting to inhibit an enzyme. The real problem may be the over-abundance of Arachidonic acid that is available to enter the PGE2 inflammatory pathway. Therefore, the first step should be to reduce the dietary consumption of Arachidonic acid, which is only found in animal products. Secondly, supplementing with the omega3 fatty acids, such as DHA and EPA, commonly found in fish oil is also beneficial. One important role of omega3 fatty acids is to keep Arachidonic acids from escaping from our own cell membranes. This may account for the anti-inflammatory role that omega three fatty acids are credited with. I have even seen dramatic results when fish oil is used topically over an inflamed area. For example, many have found relief from the pain ...
AACOCF₃ - CAS 149301-79-1 - Calbiochem CAS 149301-79-1 A cell-permeable trifluoromethyl ketone analog of arachidonic acid. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
A compound of the formula ##STR1## wherein n is an integer from 2 to 4; m is an integer from 3 to 5; R is OM, OR1 or NR2 R3 where M is a pharmaceutically acceptable cation; R1, R2 and R3 are the same or different and selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1 -C12 branched, unbranched or cyclic alkyl, aryl and aralkyl; or R2 and R3 taken together form a group of the formula ##STR2## can be used as an inhibitor of the lipoxygenase pathway of the arachidonic acid cascade in animals.
GPR55, an orphan G‐protein coupled receptor, is activated by lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and the endocannabinoid anandamide, as well as by other compounds ...
(2011) Ugajin et al. American Journal of Pathology. Prostaglandin (PG) D2 and PGE2 are arachidonic acid metabolites that are generated though an isomerization reaction catalyzed by PG synthases. PGs have been implicated in immunologic reactions in addition to a wide range of physiological functio...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. anandamide ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
The essential polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA C20H32O2; 20:4, n-6), formed by the synthesis from dietary ... "Arachidonic acid". Retrieved 2022-11-24. Holmes RS, Wright MW, Laulederkind SJ, Cox LA, Hosokawa M, ... linoleic acid (LA: C18H32O2 18:2, n-6), has a role as a human carboxylesterase inhibitor. The carboxylesterase family of ...
Eicosanoids act as neuromodulators via the Arachidonic acid cascade. Orexins (-A and -B) are involved in a number of cognitive ... "Arachidonic Acid". Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress. Retrieved 2006-03-03. "Neurotrophic factors". ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007, 4 structures have been solved for this class of ... Enzymatic conversion into 5,6-dihydroxy-7,9,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid by mouse liver cytosolic epoxide hydrolase". J. Biol. ... "Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of leukotriene A4 hydrolase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (19): 6677-81. Bibcode ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. Watanabe K, Shimizu T, Iguchi S, Wakatsuka H, Hayashi M, Hayaishi O ( ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007[update], 7 structures have been solved for this class ... On the other hand, tyrosine is an ideal proton donor at higher pH because of its pKa value (10.1). The type of amino acid that ... The primary structure of prostaglandin F synthase consists of 323 amino acid residues. The secondary structure consists of 17 α ... and amino acid sequence. In addition, it is categorized as C3 (AKR1C3) because it is an isoform of 3α-hydroxysteroid ...
Regulation of arachidonic acid metabolites in macrophages. J. Exp. Med. 152:324-335. 1982 With W. A. Scott, N. A. Pawlowski, H ... Regulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by macrophage activation. J. Exp. Med. 155:1148-1160. With W. C. Van Voorhis, G. ... Bacterial lipopolysaccharides prime macrophages for enhanced release of arachidonic acid metabolites. J. Exp. Med. 164:165-179 ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. It employs one cofactor, heme. Romano MC, Eckardt RD, Bender PE, ...
Bundy GL, Nidy EG, Epps DE, Mizsak SA, Wnuk RJ (1986). "Discovery of an arachidonic acid C-8 lipoxygenase in the gorgonian ... This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for this class of ...
Arachidonic acid (AA) was identified as an ApoD ligand with a much better affinity than that of progesterone or pregnenolone. ... Morais Cabral JH, Atkins GL, Sánchez LM, López-Boado YS, López-Otin C, Sawyer L (June 1995). "Arachidonic acid binds to ... Kuehl FA, Jr; Egan, RW (28 November 1980). "Prostaglandins, arachidonic acid, and inflammation". Science. 210 (4473): 978-84. ... Other ApoD ligands include E-3-methyl-2-hexenoïc acid, a scent molecule present in body odor secretions; retinoic acid, which ...
Fish oils provide alternative fatty acids to arachidonic acid. These acids can be turned into some anti-inflammatory ... "Conversion of acetaminophen to the bioactive N-acylphenolamine AM404 via fatty acid amide hydrolase-dependent arachidonic acid ... Arachidonic acid is then metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase, resulting in the synthesis of prostaglandins ... The specific reaction catalyzed is the conversion from arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 via a short-living prostaglandin G2 ...
Capdevila, Jorge H.; Falck, John R. (1 November 2018). "Thematic Review Series: Living History of Lipids The arachidonic acid ... Roman, RJ (January 2002). "P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid in the control of cardiovascular function". Physiological ... Capdevila, JH; Falck, JR; Harris, RC (February 2000). "Cytochrome P450 and arachidonic acid bioactivation. Molecular and ... Cytochrome P-450 controlled stereoselectivity of the hepatic arachidonic acid epoxygenase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
These enzymes epoxidize the double bonds in arachidonic acid to form four regioisomers. Arachidonic acid is also the precursor ... There are epoxides of other lipids besides arachidonic acid such as the omega three docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and ... Moghaddam M, Motoba K, Borhan B, Pinot F, Hammock BD (August 1996). "Novel metabolic pathways for linoleic and arachidonic acid ... Spector AA (April 2009). "Arachidonic acid cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway". J. Lipid Res. 50 Suppl (Suppl): S52-6. doi: ...
Arachidonic acid can then go on into the cyclooxygenase pathway (producing prostoglandins (PGE1, PGE2, PGF2), prostacyclins ( ... It has been reported that the toxin activates the arachidonic acid cascade in isolated rat aorta. The toxin-induced contraction ... Piomelli, Daniele (1993-04-01). "Arachidonic acid in cell signaling" (PDF). Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 5 (2): 274-280. ... to platelet surface receptors can trigger the activation of phospholipase C to catalyze the release of arachidonic acid from ...
PMID: 7625881 Yasuda H, Kishiro K, Izumi N, Nakanishi M (1985). Biphasic liberation of arachidonic and stearic acids during ...
Boyington JC, Gaffney BJ, Amzel LM (1993). "The three-dimensional structure of an arachidonic acid 15-lipoxygenase". Science. ... In contrast, ferroportin is post-translationally repressed by hepcidin, a 25-amino acid peptide hormone. The body regulates ... "Co-limitation of diatoms by iron and silicic acid in the equatorial Pacific". Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in ...
"Transfer of arachidonic acid between phospholipids in rat liver microsomes". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 91 (4): 1399-405. ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007, 3 structures have been solved for this class of ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. Orning L (December 1987). "Omega-oxidation of cysteine-containing ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007, 3 structures have been solved for this class of ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. Sok DE, Kang JB, Shin HD (1988). "15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid ... H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 15(S)-15-hydroxy-5,8,11-cis-13-trans- ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. In March 2012 American scientists reported a discovery that shows this ...
... see 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, by a member of the 15-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism, 15(S)-HETE (see ... 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (12-HHT) as well as by three products of the 12-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid ... Eicosanoid receptor 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid ... Cabral M, Martín-Venegas R, Moreno JJ (Aug 2013). "Role of arachidonic acid metabolites on the control of non-differentiated ...
"Lipid and fatty acid composition of the green oleaginous alga Parietochloris incisa, the richest plant source of arachidonic ... It is the richest plant source of the PUFA arachidonic acid. Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. (2007). "Species: Lobosphaera incisa ... acid" at Bashan Foundation, 25 February 2002 v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ...
Civelli M, Vigano T, Acerbi D, Caruso P, Giossi M, Bongrani S, Folco GC (July 1991). "Modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism ... the beta-morpholinoethyl ester of niflumic acid (morniflumate)". Agents and Actions. 14 (2): 247-56. doi:10.1007/BF01966649. ...
Lipocortins can inhibit the common precursor of inflammation mediators, arachidonic acid. Common medications causing a minor ... Recently, in late 2014, phase 3 clinical trials were completed to evaluate treatments using Desonide cream versus amino acid ... Clinical trial number NCT02286700 for "A clinical trial to evaluate treatments using Desonide Cream and Amino Acid Moisturizing ...
A further downstream event is activation of the arachidonic acid pathway. PGE2 release comes from the arachidonic acid pathway ... resulting in activation of the arachidonic acid pathway.[citation needed] Of these, IL-1β, TNF, and IL-6 are able to raise the ...
Leslie CC (2004). "Regulation of arachidonic acid availability for eicosanoid production". Biochem. Cell Biol. 82 (1): 1-17. ... 2006). "The LIFEdb database in 2006". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (Database issue): D415-8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkj139. PMC 1347501. PMID ...
However, it is unclear how arachidonic acid functions as an inhibitor. Two competing theories are that either arachidonic acid ... One other proposed regulatory strategy involves arachidonic acid. When arachidonic acid is added to tensed muscle tissue, the ... such as arachidonic acid and cAMP, also regulate the enzyme. Smooth muscle tissue is mostly made of actin and myosin, two ... Myosin's regulatory subunit MLC20 binds to both the hydrophobic and acid grooves of PP1 and MYPT1, the regulatory site on ...
Specialized pro-resolving mediators are cell-derived metabolites of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids viz.: arachidonic acid ... n-3 docosapentaenoic acid which is metabolized to the n-3 docosapentaenoic acid-derived resolvins and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid ... Shinohara M, Serhan CN (2016). "Novel Endogenous Proresolving Molecules:Essential Fatty Acid-Derived and Gaseous Mediators in ... which is metabolized to the lipoxins; eicosapentaenoic acid which is metabolized to the Resolvin E's; docosahexaenoic acid ...
... arachidonic acid release, nitric oxide-induced or vasopressin-induced arachidonic acid release and in leukotriene and ... Tay HK, Melendez AJ (May 2004). "Fcgamma RI-triggered generation of arachidonic acid and eicosanoids requires iPLA2 but not ... Leslie CC (February 2004). "Regulation of arachidonic acid availability for eicosanoid production". Biochemistry and Cell ... The PLA2G6 gene produces an 18.6 kDa protein composed of 166 amino acids. The resulting protein's structure has been shown to ...
When acting on GLA, arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase produces no leukotrienes and the conversion by the enzyme of arachidonic acid ... gamma-Linolenic acid or GLA (γ-linolenic acid) (INN: gamolenic acid) is a fatty acid found primarily in seed oils. ... This article is about gamma-Linolenic acid. For α-Linolenic acid, see alpha-Linolenic acid. For linoleic acid (no "n"), see ... Although GLA is an n−6 fatty acid, a type of acid that is, in general, pro-inflammatory[citation needed], it has anti- ...
ఫ్యాటి ఆసిడ్ లలో సంతృప్త కొవ్వు ఆమ్లాలు[3] (Saturated fatty acids), అసంతృప్త కొవ్వు ఆమ్లాలు[4] (unsaturated fatty acids) లని ... కొవ్వు ఆమ్లాలు, ఫ్యాటీ అసిడ్లు లేదా ఫ్యాటి ఆమ్లాలు (Fatty acids) నూనెలలో, కొవ్వు (fat) లలో వుండును. కొవ్వులు ఎక్కువగా ... "What Are Saturated Fatty Acids?". Retrieved 2015-03-31.. *↑ "Unsaturated fat". Archived from the ... "FATTY ACIDS: BRANCHED-CHAIN". Archived from the original on 2010-01-12. Retrieved 2015-03-31.. ...
Thus linoleic acid (18 carbons, Δ9,12), γ-linolenic acid (18-carbon, Δ6,9,12), and arachidonic acid (20-carbon, Δ5,8,11,14) are ... Arachidonic acid. CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)3COOHNIST. cis,cis,cis,cis-Δ5Δ8,Δ11,Δ14. 20:4. 20:4(5,8,11,14). n− ... Two essential fatty acids are linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). These fatty acids are widely distributed in ... Length of fatty acidsEdit. *Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of five or fewer carbons (e.g. ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
Eff ect of policosanol on platelet aggregation and serum levels of arachidonic acid metabolites in healthy volunteers. ... Carbajal D, Arruzazabala ML, Más R, Molina V, Valdés S. - Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1994 May;50(5):249-51. ...
HxA3, HxB3, and their non-enzymatically formed isomers are nonclassic eicosanoid derived from acid the (PUFA), arachidonic acid ... those derived from the 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and the 18-carbon fatty acid, linoleic acid ... First, molecular oxygen (O2) is added to carbon 12 of arachidonic acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid) and ... Reynaud, D; Pace-Asciak, C. R. (1997). "Docosahexaenoic acid causes accumulation of free arachidonic acid in rat pineal gland ...
... works by preventing the synthesis of another omega metabolite known as arachidonic acid.[18] Arachidonic acid is an omega 6, ... Essential fatty acids[edit]. Further information: Coat (dog). Many canine skin disorders can have a basis in poor nutrition. ... A group of dogs supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids (660 mg/kg [300 mg/lb] of body weight/d) not only improved the condition ... The supplementation of both omega fatty acids 3 and 6 have been shown to mediate the inflammatory skin response seen in chronic ...
... which are the enzymes responsible for converting arachidonic acid into prostaglandin. However, NSAIDs, including aspirin and ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
2007). "Enzymes and Receptors of Prostaglandin Pathways with Arachidonic Acid-derived Versus Eicosapentaenoic Acid-derived ... 오메가-6 지방산(영어: omega-6 fatty acid) 또는 ω−6 지방산(영어: ω−6 fatty acid) 또는 n−6 지방산(영어: n−6 fatty acid)은 공통적으로 n-6 위치에 탄소-탄소 이중 결합을 갖는 ... "Antimanic therapies target brain arachidonic acid signaling: Lessons learned about the regulation of brain fatty acid ... "Effect of feeding systems on omega-3 fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and trans fatty acids in Australian beef cuts: ...
... via the action on arachidonic acid and NMDA receptors cascade.[181] ... Salicylic acid is treated with acetic anhydride, an acid derivative, causing a chemical reaction that turns salicylic acid's ... Acetylsalicylic acid is a weak acid, and very little of it is ionized in the stomach after oral administration. Acetylsalicylic ... Reaction between acetic acid and salicylic acid can also form aspirin but this esterification reaction is reversible and the ...
... is derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid, an essential omega-6 fatty acid. It is synthesized ... Studies of piglets show that dietary levels of arachidonic acid and other essential fatty acids affect the levels of anandamide ... "Conversion of acetaminophen to the bioactive N-acylphenolamine AM404 via fatty acid amide hydrolase-dependent arachidonic acid ... Paracetamol (called acetaminophen in the US and Canada) is metabolically combined with arachidonic acid by FAAH to form AM404.[ ...
... is also a precursor to anandamide.[19]. *Some arachidonic acid is converted into hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids ... it is uncertain if humans can in fact convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid.[7] Since little or no arachidonic acid is ... Arachidonic acid is not one of the essential fatty acids. However, it does become essential if a deficiency in linoleic acid ... Health effects of arachidonic acid supplementationEdit. Arachidonic acid supplementation in daily doses of 1,000-1,500 mg for ...
Arachidonic acid can bind to E-cat and E-allo, but the affinity of AA for E-allo is 25 times that for Ecat. Palmitic acid, an ... While metabolizing arachidonic acid primarily to PGG2, COX-2 also converts this fatty acid to small amounts of a racemic ... The conversion of arachidonic acid to PGG2 can be shown as a series of radical reactions analogous to polyunsaturated fatty ... First, hydrogen is abstracted from carbon 13 of arachidonic acid, and then two molecules of oxygen are added by the PTGS2 (COX- ...
... protein phosphatase 5 dissociates from heat-shock proteins and is proteolytically activated in response to arachidonic acid and ...
STX3 has an important role in the growth of neurites and serves as a direct target for omega-6 arachidonic acid. Mutations in ... "Entrez Gene: STX3 syntaxin 3". Darios F, Davletov B (April 2006). "Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids stimulate cell membrane ...
... via conjugation of arachidonic acid with dopamine". Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 81 (4): 291-301. ... NADA is an endogenous arachidonic acid based lipid found in the brain of rats, with especially high concentrations in the ... as dopamine can induce the aminolysis of the glycerol-fatty acid bonds in phospholipid chains (arachidonoyl, palmitoyl, ... "Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel amides of polyunsaturated fatty acids with dopamine". Bioorganic & Medicinal ...
... and inverse agonist on arachidonic acid release) These include: A-304121 (No tolerance formation, silent antagonist) A-349,821 ...
... two fatty acid chains enriched with stearic acid and arachidonic acid, and an inositol ring whose phosphate groups regulation ... 4-bisphosphate and phosphatidic acid is masked by an intramolecular interaction". EMBO Journal. 21 (19): 5057-5068. doi:10.1093 ...
PGE2 and PGE1 are 20 carbon metabolites of arachidonic acid and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, respectively, with a double bond ... In cells, COX-1 and COX-2 metabolize arachidonic acid to PGH2 which is then converted to PGE2 by any one of three isozymes, ... These conversions are as follows: PGD2 is a 20 carbon arachidonic acid metabolite with double bonds between carbons 5,6 and 13, ... By blocking the production of 14,15-ETE and at least theoretically of other vasodilating ETEs, Epoxydocosapentaenoic acids, and ...
... incisa and genetic complementation of a mutant strain deficient in arachidonic acid biosynthesis". PLOS ONE. 9 (8): e105223. ... polyunsaturated fatty acids. One of the results of these researches is the development of a genetic engineering system for ...
But when taken up, it is converted into 13,13-d2-arachidonic acid, a heavy isotope version of arachidonic acid, that gets ... Di-deuterated linoleic acid is recognized by cells as identical to the natural linoleic acid. ... "9-cis, 12-cis-11,11-D2-Linoleic acid ethyl ester". PubChem. Hill S, Lamberson CR, Xu L, To R, Tsui HS, Shmanai VV, et al. ( ... Di-deuterated ethyl linoleate (also known as RT001, di-deuterated linoleic acid ethyl ester, 11,11-d2-ethyl linoleate, or ethyl ...
MS can thus be considered a dual inhibitor of 5-LOX and COX pathways of arachidonic acid cascade. Further investigation with ... 5-LOX, whose crystal structure was recently identified (118), is a key enzyme in metabolizing arachidonic acid to leukotrienes ... Heinze VM, Actis AB (February 2012). "Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in mammary and prostate ... Zoledronic acid (a bisphosphonate) and denosumab (a RANK-ligand-inhibitor) appear to be effective agents, but are associated ...
Iizuka, H.; Ohtomo, T.; Yoshida, K. (1979). "Production of arachidonic acid by a hydrocarbon-utilizing strain of Penicillium ... Penicillium cyaneum produces fatty acid, Brefeldin A and the antibiotic Cyanein List of Penicillium species Koman, V.; Betina, ... MycoBank Straininfo of Penicillium cyaneum UniProt Koman, V.; Betina, V.; Baráth, Z. (1969). "Fatty acid, lipid and cyanein ... V.; BaráTh, Z. (1969). "Fatty acid, lipid and cyanein production by Penicillium cyaneum". Archiv für Mikrobiologie. 65 (2): 172 ...
... finding that PUFA like arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid all occurred at significantly lower ... De Vriese, S. R.; Christophe, A. B.; Maes, M. (2004). "In humans, the seasonal variation in poly-unsaturated fatty acids is ... Another study focused on the association between depression, suicide, and the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). ... They state that "depression is accompanied by a depletion of n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids". Their methodology involved ...
When physiological levels of arachidonic acid are low, other unsaturated fatty acids including mead and linoleic acid are ... Two fatty acids, linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, are considered essential fatty acids (EFAs) in humans and other ... Mead acid, also referred to as eicosatrienoic acid, is chemically a carboxylic acid with a 20-carbon chain and three methylene- ... Both are 18 carbon fatty acids unlike mead acid, which has 20 carbons. Linoleic is an ω-6 fatty acid whereas linolenic is ω-3 ...
It is a prominent product in thromboxane A2 synthesis wherein cyclooxygenase 1 or cycloxygenase 2 metabolizes arachidonic acid ... Malondialdehyde and other thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) condense with two equivalents of thiobarbituric acid to ... This product is further metabolized by thromboxane synthase to thromboxane A2, 12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid, and ... see 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid). The degree of lipid peroxidation can be estimated by the amount of malondialdehyde in ...
... production of arachidonic acid metabolites, dendritic cell maturation, and phagocytosis of the ligand. CLEC7A has been shown to ...
... and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and ... 5S-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid>5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid; the 5-oxo-eicosatrienoic and 5-oxo-octadecadienoic acid ... 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (S isomer)= 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (S isomer)>15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (S ... metabolize arachidonic acid to an eicosanoid which then binds cognate receptors on either its parent cell (acting as an ...
They metabolize the omega-6 fatty acids arachidonic acid, which possess four double bonds, to 8 different epoxide isomers which ... see 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid), i.e. 19-hydroxyhydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and/or 20-hydroxyeicosatetranoic acid, take ... These tissues are known to metabolize arachidonic acid to EETs; it has been shown or is presumed that they also metabolize EPA ... 13-epoxides isomers termed coronaric acids or isoleukotoxins. They metabolize the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid, ...
Arachidonic acid is also a precursor to anandamide. Some arachidonic acid is converted into hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids ( ... it is uncertain if humans can in fact convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid. Since little or no arachidonic acid is found ... β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB), and phosphatidic acids. Arachidonic acid is one of the most abundant fatty acids in the ... but peanut oil does not contain any arachidonic acid. In chemical structure, arachidonic acid is a carboxylic acid with a 20- ...
Arachidonic acid is also a precursor to anandamide.[19]. *Some arachidonic acid is converted into hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids ... it is uncertain if humans can in fact convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid.[7] Since little or no arachidonic acid is ... Arachidonic acid is not one of the essential fatty acids. However, it does become essential if a deficiency in linoleic acid ... Health effects of arachidonic acid supplementationEdit. Arachidonic acid supplementation in daily doses of 1,000-1,500 mg for ...
Arachidonic acid metabolism - Reference pathway [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Image file , Help ] ...
Arachidonic Acid*Colostrum Bovine*Curcuminoid*Docosahexaenoic Acid*Lysine Hydrochloride*Vitamin A*Vitamin B1*Vitamin B12* ... Drops; Oral; Arachidonic Acid 20 mg; Colostrum Bovine 50 mg; Curcuminoid 1 mg; Docosahexaenoic Acid 10 mg; Lysine Hydrochloride ...
Arachidonic acid (AA), after it is released from cell membrane phospholipids, may be metabolized by the cyclo-oxygenase (CO) ...
Plasma free fatty acids, Fasting, Dietary fatty acids, Desaturase, Cholesterol, Chylomicron remnant, Chylomicron, Arachidonic ... Plasma free fatty acids; Fasting; Dietary fatty acids; Desaturase; Cholesterol; Chylomicron remnant; Chylomicron; Arachidonic ... Sources of Arachidonic Acid in Platelets, Bone, Marrow and Gastrointestinal Tract. *Mark ... CMs and CMRs are not an arachidonic acid (AA) source for platelets. The binding of prothrombin and protein S to postprandial TG ...
Prostaglandin E2 and [14C]arachidonic acid release by carbachol in the isolated canine parietal cell.. N A Payne and J G Gerber ... Prostaglandin E2 and [14C]arachidonic acid release by carbachol in the isolated canine parietal cell.. N A Payne and J G Gerber ... Prostaglandin E2 and [14C]arachidonic acid release by carbachol in the isolated canine parietal cell.. N A Payne and J G Gerber ... Prostaglandin E2 and [14C]arachidonic acid release by carbachol in the isolated canine parietal cell. ...
... contact Rishon Biochem Co Ltd to Buy Arachidonic Acid Tg-Ee and find useful product information on Toboc. ... Looking to Buy Arachidonic Acid Tg-Ee products or trade leads, ... Arachidonic Acid TG-EE "Arachidonic Acid TG-EE" is listed under ... ARACHIDONIC ACID Oil (from Mortierella alpina) Appearance and properties:Pale yellow oil-like liquid(25degree),no precipitation ...
Hyp, hypertension; AA, arachidonic acid; ALA, α-linolenic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; BMI, ... Tsukamoto I and Tsukamoto I: Low levels of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid and high levels of arachidonic acid in plasma ... Tsukamoto, I., Sugawara, S.Low levels of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid and high levels of arachidonic acid in plasma ... Tsukamoto, I., Sugawara, S.Low levels of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid and high levels of arachidonic acid in plasma ...
The influence of these spice components on arachidonic acid metabolism and secretion of lysosomal enzymes by macrophages was ... but did not affect the release of arachidonic acid from macrophages stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate. However, the ... peritoneal macrophages preincubated with 10 μM curcumin or capsaicin for 1 h inhibited the incorporation of arachidonic acid ... Effect of curcumin and capsaicin on arachidonic acid metabolism and lysosomal enzyme secretion by rat peritoneal macrophages. @ ...
Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits arachidonic acid acylation of phospholipids and triacylglycerols in guinea pig cerebral ... Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits arachidonic acid acylation of phospholipids and triacylglycerols in guinea pig cerebral ... Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits arachidonic acid acylation of phospholipids and triacylglycerols in guinea pig cerebral ... Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits arachidonic acid acylation of phospholipids and triacylglycerols in guinea pig cerebral ...
Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 2J2-Mediated Metabolism of Rivaroxaban and Arachidonic Acid by Ibrutinib and Osimertinib. Ziteng ... By using rivaroxaban and arachidonic acid (AA) as substrates, we characterized the typical and atypical inhibition kinetics of ... Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 2J2-Mediated Metabolism of Rivaroxaban and Arachidonic Acid by Ibrutinib and Osimertinib ... namely rivaroxaban and arachidonic acid (AA), respectively, where kinetic parameters were estimated via one-site and multisite ...
... lipid uptake-transportation-metabolism pathway and arachidonic acid (AA)-mediated inflammation pathway in rats with CHD. 80 ... Expressions of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and fatty acid binding protein (FABP) in the ... From: Effect of DanQi Pill on PPARα, lipid disorders and arachidonic acid pathway in rat model of coronary heart disease ...
The present study suggests that the EFA growth-promoting activity of arachidonic acid provides strong support for the ... Effects of purified diets containing different combinations of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid on survival, growth and ... growth-promoting activities of pure arachidonic (AA, 20:4n−6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6n−3) acids and various ... Effects of purified diets containing different combinations of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid on survival, growth and ...
Protein kinase C: cellular target of the second messenger arachidonic acid? * Reactive oxygen species mediate arachidonic acid- ... Arachidonic acid and free fatty acids as second messengers and the role of protein kinase C. ... 8(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is the lipoxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid that regulates epithelial cell migration ... Effects of 9, 12, 15-octadecatrien-6-ynoic acid on the metabolism of arachidonic acid in platelets and on platelet aggregation. ...
Angiotensin II activates cPLA2? and releases arachidonic acid from tissue phospholipids. immune Uncategorized Bay 65-1942 HCl, ... Angiotensin II activates cPLA2? and releases arachidonic acid from tissue phospholipids which mediate or modulate one or more ... activation most likely through the release of arachidonic acid and generation of eicosanoids with predominant pro-hypertensive ...
Caruso, D, Maderna, P, Colli, S, Chi, H, Galli, G & Tremoli, E 1988, Transcellular metabolism of endogenous arachidonic acid ... Transcellular metabolism of endogenous arachidonic acid during platelet-neutrophil interactions. D. Caruso, P. Maderna, S. ... Transcellular metabolism of endogenous arachidonic acid during platelet-neutrophil interactions. / Caruso, D.; Maderna, P.; ... Transcellular metabolism of endogenous arachidonic acid during platelet-neutrophil interactions. In: Pharmacological Research ...
Arachidonic Acid (AA) activates NF-κB and disrupts intracellular calcium homeostasis in cultured spinal cord neurons. In: FASEB ... Arachidonic Acid (AA) activates NF-κB and disrupts intracellular calcium homeostasis in cultured spinal cord neurons. / Malecki ... title = "Arachidonic Acid (AA) activates NF-κB and disrupts intracellular calcium homeostasis in cultured spinal cord neurons", ... Arachidonic Acid (AA) activates NF-κB and disrupts intracellular calcium homeostasis in cultured spinal cord neurons. ...
E J Neufeld, P W Majerus, C M Krueger, J E Saffitz; Uptake and subcellular distribution of [3H]arachidonic acid in murine ... Uptake and subcellular distribution of [3H]arachidonic acid in murine fibrosarcoma cells measured by electron microscope ...
We used the patch-clamp technique to study the effect of arachidonic acid (AA) on epithelial Na channels (ENaC) in the rat ... b. Transfection of an active cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenase indicates that 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid ... b. Transfection of an active cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenase indicates that 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid ... epoxygenase-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites such as 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) (Makita et al., 1994). ...
What is arachidonic acid?. Arachidonic acid (AA) is a polyunsaturated omega 6 fatty acid. It is found in the phospholipids ... How does arachidonic acid work in the body?. In general, arachidonic acid is a donor to produce compounds over long and ... MeanMuscles Recommendation: Enhanced Athlete Arachidonic Acid. Enhanced Athlete Arachidonic Acid. Muscle and Strength Booster ... Which sports and health supplements can we meet and what are commonly contained with arachidonic acid supplements?. Arachidonic ...
Metabolism of arachidonic acid in sheep uterus: in vitro studies.. Authors: Padma, A Sai. Agarwal, S. Reddy, D Bharat. Prasad, ... Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in the non-pregnant sheep uterus was studied in vitro using conventional chromatographic and ... Padma AS, Agarwal S, Reddy DB, Prasad TS, Reddanna P. Metabolism of arachidonic acid in sheep uterus: in vitro studies. Indian ... On incubation of uterine enymes with AA, the LOX products formed were identified as 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE ...
Current recommendations for arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids in infant formulae are based on milk of Western ... T1 - High contents of both docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids in milk of women consuming fish from lake Kitangiri (Tanzania) ... 2005). High contents of both docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids in milk of women consuming fish from lake Kitangiri ( ... High contents of both docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids in milk of women consuming fish from lake Kitangiri (Tanzania): ...
Once patients know their score they are self-motivated to implement lifestyle changes and recheck their progress to assess their progress.. ...
A low ratio of serum eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (EPA/AA) is... ... The eicosapentaenoic acid:arachidonic acid ratio and its clinical utility in cardiovascular disease. J. Nelson, S. Raskin. ... A low ratio of serum eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (EPA/AA) is also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease events ... Fujihara M, Fukata M, Odashiro K, Maruyama T, Akashi K, Yokoi Y. Reduced plasma eicosapentaenoic acid-arachidonic acid ratio in ...
Jasuja, Rahul R., "Effect of lipoteichoic acids on arachidonic acid metabolism in macrophages" (1992). Graduate Student Theses ...
Stimulation of arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin synthesis by bryostatin 1. In: Carcinogenesis. 1988 ; Vol. 9, No. 8. ... TPA stimulates both arachidonic acid release and de novo synthesis of prostaglandin H synthase. Activation of protein kinase C ... TPA stimulates both arachidonic acid release and de novo synthesis of prostaglandin H synthase. Activation of protein kinase C ... TPA stimulates both arachidonic acid release and de novo synthesis of prostaglandin H synthase. Activation of protein kinase C ...
Should fatty acids be used to speed up wound healing? ... Eicosadienoic acid. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. Arachidonic acid. ... Palmitoleic acid. 27.1. 39.8. 39.8. n-9 Oleic acid. Eicosenoic acid. 5,8,11-Eicosatrienoic acid. Erucic acid. Nervonic acid. ... Linolenic acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid. Docosapentaenoic acid. Docosahexaenoic acid. 312.0. 173.1. 82.2. n-6 Linoleic acid. γ- ... The n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid, for instance, produces eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid within the body and is a key ...
Arachidonic acid with the InChIKey YZXBAPSDXZZRGB-DOFZRALJSA-N. ... CH$NAME: Arachidonic acid. CH$NAME: 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-Eicosatetraenoic acid. CH$COMPOUND_CLASS: N/A. CH$FORMULA: C20H32O2. CH$EXACT ... RECORD_TITLE: Arachidonic acid; LC-APCI-QTOF; MS; POSITIVE. DATE: 2016.01.19 (Created 2012.10.26). AUTHORS: Cuthbertson DJ, ... AC$CHROMATOGRAPHY: SOLVENT A water with 0.2% acetic acid. AC$CHROMATOGRAPHY: SOLVENT B methanol with 0.2% acetic acid. PK$ ...
Arachidonic acid metabolites. Augment vascular permeability. Adhesion molecules. Enhance neutrophil-endothelial cell ...
  • Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6), or 20:4(5,8,11,14). (
  • Arachidonic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in the phospholipids (especially phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositides) of membranes of the body's cells, and is abundant in the brain, muscles, and liver. (
  • Skeletal muscle is an especially active site of arachidonic acid retention, accounting for roughly 10-20% of the phospholipid fatty acid content typically. (
  • see essential fatty acid interactions and the enzyme and metabolite linkages given in the previous paragraph for more details. (
  • Our animal model can be used to study the rates of fatty acid desaturation and acylation in relation to enzyme activities and substrate availability in vivo. (
  • Animal studies have demonstrated that diets high in saturated fatty acid (SFA) increase BP ( 2 , 3 ), whereas diets enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) protect against BP elevation ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • Hypertensive men had lower C22:6/C20:5 [n-3 δ-6 desaturase (D6D) index], PUFA and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratios in their serum free FA composition ( 24 ). (
  • The objective of this study was to determine the relative essential fatty acid (EFA) growth-promoting activities of pure arachidonic (AA, 20:4n−6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6n−3) acids and various concentrations of these two acids in the diet of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). (
  • In this trial, feeding the diet containing 20:4n−6 as the only highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) resulted in higher growth and survival than any of the mixtures of the two fatty acids or 22:6n−3 alone. (
  • A major fatty acid released during trauma is AA. (
  • Arachidonic acid (AA) is a polyunsaturated omega 6 fatty acid. (
  • Human milk fatty acid relationships from our historical worldwide database and the literature revealed that disparities between the Doromoni diet and the presumed ancient diet (i.e. higher carbohydrate and linoleic acid intakes) are unlikely to affect milk AA and DHA contents. (
  • Four-week-old male Wistar rats were subjected to full-thickness skin wounds and assigned to 3 experimental diet groups (an n-3 fatty acid-fortified diet, a diet with a 1:3 ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids, and an n-6 fatty acid-fortified diet). (
  • The number of days to wound healing in the n-3/n-6 fatty acid group (18.4 ± 1.8 days) was significantly shorter than in the n-3 fatty acid-fortified diet (21.6 ± 1.6 days) and n-6 fatty acid-fortified diet groups (21.9 ± 1.8 days). (
  • The n-3 fatty acid-fortified diet was found to have potent immunopotentiating and anti-inflammatory effects in the group receiving this diet, as evidenced by total blood lymphocyte count and plasma levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and sialic acid on day 1 after wounding. (
  • The plasma hydroxyproline concentrations noted in the groups with a diet containing n-3 fatty acids indicate that this fatty acid type stimulates wound healing. (
  • The n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid, for instance, produces eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid within the body and is a key contributor to the initiation of the inflammatory response among other functions associated with the body's defenses. (
  • Fatty acid fractions before wounding. (
  • Fatty acids are stored in membrane phospholipids and the formation of eicosanoids begins with liberation of the relevant fatty acid from the membrane by the action of a phospholipase enzymes. (
  • The liberated fatty acid then serves as a substrate for a number of cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase enzymes. (
  • The fatty acid profiles in the membranes of cells and the type of cell are the primary determinant of which eicosanoids will be produced. (
  • Another way that fatty acids can decrease tissue inflammation is by formation of the series 1 prostanoids (prostaglandins and thromboxanes) which are formed from the n-6 fatty acid DGLA. (
  • New research has provided fatty acid (FA) reference ranges for the first and third trimester of pregnancy in an aim to aid the more accurate assessment of FA adequacy in pregnancy. (
  • Tumour cells poison themselves when consuming an Omega-3 fatty acid due to an inability to store it correctly, a study claims, which proposes this mechanism to explain the fatty acid's cancer-fighting abilities. (
  • Lus Health Ingredients has revealed a new portfolio of plant-based fat powders designed to give vegan functional food and drink a fatty acid boost. (
  • The omega-3 fatty acid DHA and its metabolites, known as docosanoids, could help to pre-condition vision cells to survive when injured, suggest researchers who liken the effect to a form of vaccine or immunity. (
  • Increased intakes of omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid may double the risk of ulcerative colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease, says a Pan-European study. (
  • Supplements of the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) boosted the AA content in the breast milk of lactating mothers, according to a new study from the Netherlands. (
  • A new placebo-controlled trial has reported that daily supplements of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids could slow mental decline in elderly people, adding to a growing body of evidence linking the fatty acid to better cognitive function. (
  • Additionally, seaweeds are a source of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (an omega 6 fatty acid that is essential for cats) and α-linolenic acid (an omega 3 fatty acid required by dogs). (
  • Arachidonic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found almost entirely esterified to phospholipids at secondary alcohol of glycerol. (
  • It is an essential fatty acid that is not synthesized within cells but must be incorporated through diet or by chain elongation and desaturation of linoleic acid, another essential fatty acid. (
  • Anandamide, an endocannabinoid, is degraded by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase which can be inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). (
  • A liquid unsaturated fatty acid that is found in liver, brain, glands, and fat of animals and humans. (
  • Arachidonic acid (20:4, ω-6) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is consumed in low amounts in the diet and is relatively abundant in membrane phospholipids. (
  • Consequently, a high dietary intake of ω-6 fatty acids increases the endogenous ω-6 fatty acid content of membrane phospholipids, while active individuals present a lower ω-6-to-ω-3 ratio compared to their sedentary counterparts, respectively. (
  • Adding the omega-6 fatty acid called arachidonic acid to infant formula, along with an omega-3 fatty acid called docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), doesn't seem to improve brain development, vision, or growth in infants. (
  • There isn't enough reliable information to know if omega-6 fatty acid supplements are safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. (
  • Do not use omega-6 fatty acid supplements if you have COPD. (
  • Arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid involved in the inflammatory response. (
  • This essential fatty acid is found in animal fat, another reason that your cat needs animal sources for much of her diet. (
  • PMID: 21413848 Abstract Title: Insulin induces fatty acid desaturase expression in human monocytes. (
  • Abstract: Increasing evidence suggests that fatty acid desaturases, rate-limiting enzymes in unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, are important factors in the pathogenesis of lipid-induced insulin resistance. (
  • The conversion of dihomogamma linolenic acid (DGLA) into arachidonic acid (AA) in human plasma phospholipids has been shown to be regulated by insulin, suggesting a role for insulin in fatty acid desaturase 1 regulation. (
  • We therefore investigated if insulin is able to induce expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD,Δ9 desaturase), fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1, Δ5 desaturase), and fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2, Δ6 desaturase), as well as the sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1-c (SREBP-1c) in monocytes. (
  • Breast milk fat concentration and fatty acid pattern during the first six months in exclusively breastfeeding Greek women. (
  • Fatty acid profile of human milk of portuguese lactating women: Prospective study from the 1st to the 16th week of lactation. (
  • Breastfeeding and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in the first 4 post-natal months and infant cognitive development: An observational study. (
  • Stadtlander T, Becker K. Proximate composition, amino and fatty acid profiles and element compositions of four different Moringa species. (
  • Linoleic acid (LA), an omega-6 fatty acid , and α-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, are considered essential fatty acids because they cannot be synthesized by humans. (
  • Genetic polymorphisms in fatty acid synthesizing enzymes can have a significant impact on fatty acid concentrations in the body. (
  • In all omega-6 (ω6 or n-6) fatty acids, the first double bond is located between the sixth and seventh carbon atom from the methyl end of the fatty acid. (
  • Likewise, all omega-3 fatty acids (ω3 or n-3) have at least one double bond between the third and fourth carbon atom counting from the methyl end of the fatty acid. (
  • The first part (18:3) tells the reader that ALA is an 18-carbon fatty acid with three double bonds, while the second part (n-3) tells the reader that the first double bond is in the n-3 position, which defines this fatty acid as an omega-3 ( Figures 1a & b ). (
  • Double bonds introduce kinks in the hydrocarbon chain that influence the structure and physical properties of the fatty acid molecule ( Figure 1c ). (
  • Although humans and other mammals can synthesize saturated fatty acids and some monounsaturated fatty acids from carbon groups in carbohydrates and proteins , they lack the delta (Δ) 12 and Δ15 desaturase enzymes necessary to insert a cis double bond at the n-6 or the n-3 position of a fatty acid (1) . (
  • 18:2n-6), and the parent fatty acid of the omega-3 series is ALA ( Figure 2 and Table 1 ). (
  • The analysis also demonstrated that the findings were not significantly affected by taking into account potential confounding factors, such as age, BMI, sex, race, aspirin use, omega-3 PUFA levels, or variants in the fatty-acid desaturase ( FADS ) gene, which is strongly associated with omega-6 PUFA levels. (
  • Figure 2) While metabolizing arachidonic acid primarily to PGG2, COX-2 also converts this fatty acid to small amounts of a racemic mixture of 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acids (i.e., 15-HETEs) composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE stereoisomers as well as a small amount of 11(R)-HETE. (
  • The conversion of arachidonic acid to PGG2 can be shown as a series of radical reactions analogous to polyunsaturated fatty acid autoxidation. (
  • In chemistry , particularly in biochemistry , a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with an aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated . (
  • An important saturated fatty acid is stearic acid (n = 16), which when neutralized with lye is the most common form of soap . (
  • Arachidic acid, a saturated fatty acid. (
  • The rigidity of the double bond freezes its conformation and, in the case of the cis isomer, causes the chain to bend and restricts the conformational freedom of the fatty acid. (
  • Endocannabinoids are accompanied in tissues by several metabolically related bioactive fatty acid amides and esters, which act at non-cannabinoid receptors. (
  • In a sixth treatment, live prey was enriched with Algamac 2000 (26% DHA, 0% ARA), a commercial fatty acid booster. (
  • On d24ph, larval fatty acid profiles reflected dietary levels. (
  • Linoleic acid is the most common polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. (
  • The reasoning behind this speculation is that in the human body, linoleic acid is converted into arachidonic acid (also an omega-6 fatty acid) which, in turn, is converted into various inflammation-promoting compounds. (
  • Ongoing at the University of Eastern Finland, the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, KIHD, determined the blood fatty acid levels of 2,480 men between 42 and 60 years of age at the onset of the study, in 1984-1989. (
  • Excess consumption of linoleate (omega-6 fatty acid) from vegetable oil will interfere with the production of DHA , while an excess of EPA from fish oil will interfere with the production and utilization of AA. (
  • What causes cellular inflammation is an increase in the omega-6 fatty acid known as arachidonic acid (AA). (
  • From this fatty acid comes a wide range of inflammatory hormones known as eicosanoids that are the usual suspects when it comes to inflammation. (
  • This is the primary anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acid for the brain. (
  • SNS X-Gels contain Arachidonic Acid, a key anabolic Omega-6 essential fatty acid that amplifies the body's response to resistance training. (
  • Arachidonic Acid is an essential fatty acid. (
  • fatty acid levels (2). (
  • 05) with SAT leptin mRNA and free fatty acid during hyperinsulinaemic clamp, and negatively with SAT LPL activity and plasma HDL-cholesterol, which were all specifically altered in OBT2D subjects. (
  • I won't cover every single saturated fatty acid in existence. (
  • A fatty acid molecule is typically an arrangement of carbon and hyrdrogen atoms. (
  • Caproic acid, caprylic acid, and capric acid are all medium-chain triglycerides , which means the fatty acid molecule has a tail length of 6-12 carbon atoms. (
  • Another medium-chain triglyceride, lauric acid is the primary fatty acid in coconut fat (40-50% lauric acid) and palm kernel fat. (
  • We measured unesterified fatty acid (UFA) and esterified fatty acids (EFAs) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (
  • Unesterified fatty acid levels were significantly higher in CM plasma but not in CSF. (
  • Thus, measurement of saturated fatty acid (SAFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), or polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) when unesterified fatty acid (UFA) or as esterified fatty acid (EFA) presents an opportunity to understand CM pathophysiology better. (
  • Not identical with EC long-chain-fatty-acid---CoA ligase. (
  • The fatty acid found in fish oil, DHA, is critical for brain and eye development. (
  • Martek makes a product, docosahexaenoic acid ( DHA ), which is a long chain omega-3 fatty acid that supports brain, eye and cardiovascular health throughout life. (
  • Martek also developed a patented process for developing arachidonic acid, ARA , another fatty acid important to infant health. (
  • There one capsule contained 1bn CFU of BB-12 and 250mg of the omega-3 fatty acid. (
  • was used to measure total fatty acid concentrations in plasma. (
  • PFB-fatty acid derivatives were injected onto a capillary gas chromatographic column to resolve individual cis -fatty acids of interest from other matrix constituents. (
  • for each fatty acid, recovery was estimated and results were adjusted using the most appropriate isotopically-labeled internal standard. (
  • Fragmentation of PFB-fatty acid esters using negative chemical ionization (NCI) resulted in a reproducible loss of the PFB moiety giving a stable carboxylate anion (mass minus 1 amu). (
  • However, it does become essential if a deficiency in linoleic acid exists or if an inability to convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid occurs. (
  • Some mammals lack the ability or have a very limited capacity to convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, making it an essential part of their diets. (
  • Since linoleic acid consumption does not seem to affect levels of arachidonic acid in plasma/serum or erythrocytes, it is uncertain if humans can in fact convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid. (
  • The plasma level of linoleic acid (LA) in the subjects with hypertension (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg) was identified to be significantly higher than that in the healthy controls. (
  • A summary of the International Study of Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) reported that total PUFA, linoleic acid (LA), total n-3 FA, and α-linolenic acid (ALA), were inversely associated with BP ( 10 ). (
  • Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the omega 3 and 6 family respectively, and are both essential to health. (
  • In humans, ALA and LA are converted to dihomo-γ-linoleic acid (DGLA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (AA), which are the final precursors to the formation of eicosanoids. (
  • Evening primrose and starflower oil provide sources of the DGLA precursor γ-linoleic acid (GLA). (
  • This entry was posted in Alpha Linolenic Acid , Arachidonic Acid , Dihomo Gamma Linolenic Acid , Docosahexaenoic Acid , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Essential Fatty Acids , Gamma Linolenic Acid , Linoleic Acid . (
  • Many animals can convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid via the liver enzyme delta-6-desaturase, but cats lack this enzyme, so they need a dietary source. (
  • The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on arachidonic acid metabolism and eicosanoid production in human saphenous vein endothelial cells. (
  • The effects of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) mixture of single isomers (50:50, w/w, cis9,trans11:trans10,cis12) and the individual isomers on (a) the production of resting and calcium ionophore stimulated 14C-eicosanoids and (b) the incorporation of 14C-arachidonic acid (AA) into membrane phospholipids of human saphenous vein endothelial cells were investigated. (
  • Docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and linoleic acid did not alter the overall degree of incorporation of 14C-AA. (
  • Dietary interventions to increase the dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid to arachidonic acid ratio may not necessarily decrease PGE2 synthesis in tissues where COX-1 enzymes predominate over COX-2. (
  • Insulin induces the expression of delta-5 desaturase (FADS1) in a dose-dependent manner which may explain insulin's regulation of dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid to inflammatory arachidonic acid. (
  • Pooling data on levels of linoleic acid and its metabolite arachidonic acid in almost 40,000 individuals from 10 countries, they found that those with the highest linoleic acid levels had a 35% reduction in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with those with the lowest levels. (
  • Current US guidelines recommend that between 5% and 10% of energy consumption come from linoleic acid. (
  • 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002087 ), the team conducted a search of the MEDLINE database and relevant reference lists for studies published on the impact of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid levels on the risk of incident type 2 diabetes. (
  • For example, oleic acid , with one double bond, has a "kink" in it, whereas linoleic acid , with two double bonds, has a more pronounced bend. (
  • We discovered that the higher the blood linoleic acid level, the smaller the risk of premature death," says Adjunct Professor Jyrki Virtanen from the University of Eastern Finland, reporting the findings in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition . (
  • When the researchers divided the study participants into five different groups based on their blood linoleic acid level, they discovered that the risk of premature death was 43% lower in the group with the highest level, when compared to the group with the lowest level. (
  • The study backs up findings from earlier population-based studies which have linked a higher dietary intake of linoleic acid and a higher blood linoleic acid level to a smaller risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, without increasing the risk of cancer, for example. (
  • The blood linoleic acid level is determined by a person's diet, and the main sources of linoleic acid are vegetable oils, plant-based spreads, nuts and seeds. (
  • Today's nutrition textbooks refer to omega-6 (linoleic) acid and omega-3 (alpha-linolenic) acid as essential components of the human diet, and cite the requirement as something between one and four percent of total caloric intake. (
  • Chris Masterjohn, a PhD candidate in Nutritional Science at the University of Connecticut, has just published a paper which directly challenges the belief that omega-6 linoleic acid and omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid are essential. (
  • PUFA linoleic acid plus EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from marine sources. (
  • Dihomo-linoleic acid, that has been found in evening primrose oil. (
  • Linoleic acid supplementation results in increased arachidonic acid and eicosanoid production in CF airway cells and in cftr -/- transgenic mice. (
  • The notion that the inhibitory effect of AA is mediated by CYP-epoxygenase-dependent metabolites is also supported by the observation that application of 200 nM 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) inhibited ENaC in the CCD. (
  • Resolvins, metabolites of n-3 fatty acids, have recently been shown to stimulate the resolution of inflammation as anti-inflammatory mediators. (
  • Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites through the three pathways, cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and epoxygenase, are involved in endothelial dysfunction of portal hypertension. (
  • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, metabolites of the cytochrome P-450-mediated epoxygenase reaction, were detected in human urine by gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic techniques after conversion to their hydrogenated and non-hydrogenated methyl and pentafluorobenzyl esters. (
  • Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation of arachidonic acid metabolites derivatized with aminobenzenesulphonic acid. (
  • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if whole brain makes epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid and, if so, whether they are vasoactive on the cerebral microcirculation. (
  • Blood‐free mouse brain slices were incubated with exogenous radiolabeled arachidonic acid, and the extracted metabolites were resolved by HPLC. (
  • Based upon in vivo and in vitro preclinical metabolism studies, loteprednol etabonate undergoes extensive metabolism to inactive carboxylic acid metabolites. (
  • Arachidonic acid (AA) oxidation metabolism has been an important research topic for decades, and numerous oxidation products as well as enzymes involved in AA metabolism together with their downstream metabolites have been identified, although unknown pathways still remain to be characterized. (
  • Liu, Xiaojing, "Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry for the Study of Arachidonic Acid Metabolites" (2012). (
  • Alternatively, arachidonic acid may be cleaved from phospholipids after phospholipase C (PLC) cleaves off the inositol trisphosphate group, yielding diacylglycerol (DAG), which subsequently is cleaved by DAG lipase to yield arachidonic acid. (
  • Arachidonic acid (AA), after it is released from cell membrane phospholipids, may be metabolized by the cyclo-oxygenase (CO) enzyme leading to formation of the prostaglandins (PG's) and thromboxanes (TX's) or by the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) leading to formation of the leukotrienes (LT's). (
  • Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits arachidonic acid acylation of phospholipids and triacylglycerols in guinea pig cerebral cortex slices. (
  • and releases arachidonic acid from tissue phospholipids which mediate or modulate one or more cardiovascular effects of angiotensin Bay 65-1942 HCl II and has been implicated in hypertension. (
  • Phospholipids containing arachidonic acid are present in all mammalian membranes. (
  • Oxidized phospholipids regulate amino acid metabolism through MTHFD2 to facilitate nucleotide release in endothelial cells. (
  • Esterified fatty acids were hydrolyzed from lipids such as triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesteryl esters using sequential treatment with acid then base. (
  • A low ratio of serum eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (EPA/AA) is also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease events. (
  • Incremental effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on cardiovascular events in statin-treated patients with coronary artery disease. (
  • Fujihara M, Fukata M, Odashiro K, Maruyama T, Akashi K, Yokoi Y. Reduced plasma eicosapentaenoic acid-arachidonic acid ratio in peripheral artery disease. (
  • Okada K, Kotani K, Yagyu H, Ishibashi S. Eicosapentaenoic acid/arachidonic acid ratio and smoking status in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), can be synthesized from ALA, but due to low conversion efficiency, it is recommended to consume foods rich in EPA and DHA. (
  • Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women. (
  • The other is called eicosapentaenoic acid or EPA. (
  • Cyp4a12a and Cyp4a12b also efficiently converted EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) into 19/20-OH- and 17,18-epoxy-EPA. (
  • The most prominent in this group are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) . (
  • The lipids are triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), arachidonic acid (AA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). (
  • In July, EFSA concluded that it was not necessary to add arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, probiotics or synbiotics to infant and follow-on formulae. (
  • Blood and lymph spread it to other tissues like other essential substances - amino acids, salts, glucose. (
  • One thing is certain though-you will make your best progress only when your muscles have an ample and constant supply of all the necessary amino acids . (
  • See Amino Acids. (
  • Alternatives: synthetics, plant amino acids, pollen collected from plants. (
  • Plasma Amino Acid Abnormalities in Chronic Heart Failure. (
  • While most amino acids can be produced by animals from basic nutrients, there are "essential amino acids" that an animal must get from food. (
  • They cannot produce adequate amounts of these two amino acids on their own and cannot obtain them from a vegetarian/vegan diet. (
  • Arginine is important in the production of ornithine, an amino acid that is important in the detoxification of ammonia, which is a waste product of protein digestion. (
  • Many animals can convert extra tryptophan (an amino acid) to niacin, but cats have large amounts of the enzyme picolinic acid carboxylase that interferes with the conversion. (
  • The ratio of the 11,12-EET to 14,15-EET was 1.5 with P450 2CAA, a P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenase (P450 2CAA) that had an amino-terminal sequence identical to that of P450 2C2 [J. Biol. (
  • Amino acids and mineral composition analysis of Moringa peregrina forssk (fiori) in Jordan. (
  • Amino acid sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis for the 15 known members of the human K 2P family were generated as described in the legend for Fig. 1 of "LIII. (
  • ATTEND is a powerful, all-natural treatment intervention that is Clinically Tested (with computerized testing, not merely parent reports), formulated with specific Amino Acid combinations, Essential Fatty Acids, Phospholipid complexes, and Homeopathic Medicines. (
  • the membrane-binding domain consists of a series of amphipathic α helices with several hydrophobic amino acids exposed to a membrane monolayer. (
  • C1 domains are compact alpha/beta structural units of about 50 amino acids which tightly bind two zinc ions. (
  • Protein is essential for growth and muscle care because it is full of amino acids, which all living things need. (
  • Mammalian cytochrome P450 oxidases have about 500 amino acids and a heme (h�m) group at the active site. (
  • Notably, taurine , an amino-acid critically important for cat's eye-sight and cardiovascular function, is produced in the lab and added to both diets. (
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism provides a pathway for generation of diverse, fast-acting, short-lived signaling molecules. (
  • Prometastatic metabolite of arachidonic acid via the 12-lipoxygenase pathway that is expressed in many tumor cell lines. (
  • Sex differences in the role of phospholipase A2-dependent arachidonic acid pathway in the perivascular adipose tissue function in pigs Journal of Physiology: J Physiol. (
  • To determine the pathogenetic mechanism of a hereditary primary platelet release disorder, arachidonic acid metabolism via the cyclooxygenase pathway was investigated. (
  • Leukotrienes (LTs) are a class of potent biological inflammatory mediators derived from arachidonic acid through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. (
  • In the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, 5-LOX plays a critical role, and it is perceived that drugs that inhibit 5-LOX will inhibit the generation of inflammatory mediators from the arachidonic acid pathway. (
  • activation most likely through the release of arachidonic acid and generation of eicosanoids with predominant pro-hypertensive effects and activation of one or more signaling molecules including ERK1/2 and cSrc. (
  • Calcium regulates cPLA2 by binding to an N-terminal C2 domain, which promotes translocation of cPLA2 from the cytosol to membrane for release of arachidonic acid. (
  • Results from a bioavailability study in normal volunteers established that plasma levels of loteprednol etabonate and Δ 1 cortienic acid etabonate (PJ 91), its primary, inactive metabolite, were below the limit of quantitation (1 ng/mL) at all sampling times. (
  • The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide increases human airway epithelial cell permeability through an arachidonic acid metabolite Pharmacological Research. (
  • 20-Carboxyeicosatetraenoic acid occurred as a secondary metabolite. (
  • In the present a study a new AA metabolite, 11-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (ETE), generated from a major product of cyclooxygenase (COX-2), 11(R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), through 15-hydroxyprostaglandine dehydrogenase (15-PGDH)-mediated oxidation. (
  • Arachidonic acid is a precursor to a wide range of eicosanoids: The enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (i.e. prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 and 2 {PTGS1 and PTGS2}) convert arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2 and prostaglandin H2, which in turn may be converted to various prostaglandins, to prostacyclin, to thromboxanes, and to the 17-carbon product of thromboxane metabolism of prostaglandin G2/H2, 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (12-HHT). (
  • In general, arachidonic acid is a donor to produce compounds over long and complexly regulated chain reactions with several major variations in the production of eicosanoids. (
  • One of the most important functions of the essential fatty acids is the production of eicosanoids via a series of enzymatic reactions. (
  • The formation of eicosanoids from the essential fatty acids is shown in figure 1. (
  • Arachidonic acid is the major PUFA in cell membranes and so the majority of eicosanoids produced will be series 2 prostaglandins and thromboxanes and series 4 leukotrienes, which generally have a pro-inflammatory disease promoting effects. (
  • The metabolism of the essential fatty acids to form eicosanoids. (
  • Lastly, n-3 fatty acids increase the catabolism of eicosanoids through the action of peroxisomal enzymes. (
  • fatty acids in the formation of a class of hormone-like substances collectively referred to as eicosanoids. (
  • Cytosolic phospholipase A 2 releases arachidonic acid from the phospholipid pool in cellular membranes. (
  • Our research focuses on studying cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA2), which releases arachidonic acid for production of lipid mediators of inflammation. (
  • Arachidonic acid is freed from phospholipid by hydrolysis, catalyzed by the phospholipase A2 (PLA2). (
  • Arachidonic acid for signaling purposes appears to be derived by the action of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2, 85 kDa), whereas inflammatory arachidonic acid is generated by the action of a low-molecular-weight secretory PLA2 (sPLA2, 14-18 kDa). (
  • Arachidonic acid is freed from phospholipid by hydrolysis, catalyzed by the phospholipase A2 (PLA 2 ). (
  • Arachidonic acid for signaling purposes appears to be derived by the action of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA 2 , 85 kDa), whereas inflammatory arachidonic acid is generated by the action of a low-molecular-weight secretory PLA 2 (sPLA 2 , 14-18 kDa). (
  • It is well recognized that phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by phospholipase D generates phosphatidic acid, which can be further degraded by phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase to diacylglycerol. (
  • In the present study, we investigated the role of phospholipase D activation in ET-1-induced arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) synthesis in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. (
  • These results strongly suggest that phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by phospholipase D is involved in the arachidonic acid release induced by ET-1 in osteoblast-like cells. (
  • After 4 days of culture in differentiating medium, these cells ceased to proliferate, displayed downregulated ryanodine receptor expression, and responded to specific stimuli with enhanced NADPH-oxidase-derived superoxide formation or cytosolic phospholipase A 2 -dependent arachidonic acid release. (
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that THC mobilizes AA by inhibiting acylation of certain lipids with AA, particularly phosphatidylinositol and triacylglycerol, rather than by liberating fatty acids by lipolysis. (
  • After 11 weeks, the 20:4n−6 and 22:6n−3 levels in whole-body total lipids were strongly influenced by the content of these fatty acids in the diets. (
  • The relative effect of dietary levels of these two fatty acids on their content in fish lipids varied considerably among the various organs and tissues of the fish that were analyzed. (
  • The enzyme 5-lipoxygenase catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE), which in turn converts to various leukotrienes (i.e., leukotriene B4, leukotriene C4, leukotriene D4, and leukotriene E4 as well as to 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) which may then be further metabolized to 5-HETE's more potent 5-keto analog, 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) (also see 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. (
  • The enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid, which in turn reacts with eicosapentanoic acid, resulting in the formation of leukotrienes, the chemical mediators of inflammation [ 3 ]. (
  • Some arachidonic acid is converted into hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by epoxygenase. (
  • The dysregulation of CYP2J2-mediated metabolism of AA to cardioprotective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids by ibrutinib and osimertinib serves as a novel mechanism for TKI-induced cardiac arrhythmia. (
  • Increased thromboxane-A2 production by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) via increased COX-1 activity/expression, increased leukotriens, increased epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) (dilators of the peripheral arterial circulation, but vasoconstrictors of the portal-sinusoidal circulation), represent a major component in the increased portal resistance, in the decreased portal response to vasodilators and in the hyper-response to vasoconstrictors. (
  • Microsomes prepared from COS-1 cells transiently expressing rabbit cytochromes P450 2C1 and 2C2 catalyzed the metabolism of arachidonic acid to predominantly 11,12- and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) when microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity was inhibited by 0.2 mM 1,2-epoxy- 3,3,3-trichloropropane. (
  • Next, we tested the effect of topical application of brain‐synthesized 5,6‐epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and synthetic epoxyeicosatrienoic acids on in vivo rabbit cerebral arteriolar diameter using the cranial window technique and in vivo microscopy. (
  • Brain‐synthesized 5,6‐epoxyeicosatrienoic acid caused a transient 28% arteriolar dilation, similar to that produced by 5 μg/ml of synthetic 5,6‐epoxyeicosatrienoic acid. (
  • These studies suggest that brain‐synthesized 5,6‐epoxyeicosatrienoic acid may play a role in the normal or pathophysiological regulation of the cerebral microcirculation. (
  • Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids , 72 (4), 279-288. (
  • Arachidonic acid is the essential building obstruct for the combination of dienolic prostaglandins, which incorporates both PGE2 and PGF2. (
  • As you work out, your Arachidonic acid dimensions normally decline as does the creation of anabolic prostaglandins. (
  • researchers believe that the eccentric component is the most important stimulus to the muscles, as the stretch appears to free arachidonic acid from muscle cells for synthesis of prostaglandins. (
  • In addition to prostaglandins, leukotriene B 4 , and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, mouse brain metabolized arachidonic acid into several other compounds. (
  • The PTGS (COX) enzymes catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins in two steps. (
  • It is postulated that these proteins control the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes by inhibiting the release of their common precursor arachidonic acid. (
  • This reduces the generation of prostaglandins (PGs) from arachidonic acid. (
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and hypertension in Japanese men. (
  • The effect of this is that, in restricted environments, such as when fatty acids are part of a phospholipid in a lipid bilayer or triglycerides in lipid droplets, cis bonds limit the ability of fatty acids to be closely packed, and therefore can affect the melting temperature of the membrane or of the fat. (
  • Diets high in saturated fats and Examination Surveys (NHANES) and essential fatty acids from the diet, dietary cholesterol tend to raise blood provide information on the health and and aid in the absorption and transport cholesterol levels and increase a nutritional status of the civilian, of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids. (
  • Today, I'm diving into the nuances of saturated fatty acids - a guide to all the individual fatty acids that make up the saturated fats we eat, store, and burn. (
  • Short-chain fatty acids have fewer than 6 carbon atoms, and long-chain saturated fats have more than 12. (
  • Protein and fat choices rich in monounsaturated fats and low in saturated fats and arachidonic acid are considered Best . (
  • Findings suggest that n-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory and immunopotentiating effects, and are beneficial in the wound healing process, particularly during early inflammation. (
  • Foods such as red meat, dairy products and eggs provide the body with AA which is incorporated into membranes and increases tissue inflammation, particularly in an absence of adequate EPA or other n-3 fatty acids. (
  • It is involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, an important precursor of prostacyclin, which is expressed in inflammation. (
  • Although omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known for their beneficial effect on blood cholesterol levels, it has been speculated that they may increase the risk of several chronic diseases by promoting low-grade inflammation, among other things. (
  • According to the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, a compound called arachidonic acid contributes to this inflammation. (
  • Whereas vitamins bind and neutralize free radicals, omega-3 fatty acids prevent the formation of inflammation mediators. (
  • These food groups contain many calories and also inflammation-promoting arachidonic acid. (
  • These fish are rich in omega-3 fatty acids that inhibit inflammation. (
  • Arachidonic acid, found only in animal products, is a precursor to inflammation. (
  • By eating chicken, eggs, and other animal products high in arachidonic acid, a series of chemical reactions is triggered in your body that results in inflammation. (
  • Inflammation is caused by a cascade of events, one of which is the metabolism of arachidonic acid, that begins with oxidation by the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase. (
  • Casein-based, semi-purified diets containing 15% fish oil or 14% hydrogenated coconut oil/oleic acid (1:1) supplemented with 1% 20:4n−6, 1% 22:6n−3 or 1% of various combinations of these two acids were fed to duplicate groups of 26 juvenile turbot for 11 weeks. (
  • Comparison of the trans isomer Elaidic acid (top) and the cis isomer oleic acid (bottom). (
  • Oleic Acid (e.g. (
  • In one study, people who had lauric acid shot directly into their guts ate less food than the people who had oleic acid shot in. (
  • On incubation of uterine enymes with AA, the LOX products formed were identified as 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE), 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (12- and 15-HETEs), based on their separation on TLC and HPLC. (
  • Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) play a central role in the development and function of the brain, eyes and immune system during infancy. (
  • Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. (
  • Basil may be a useful antiinflammatory agent which block both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. (
  • Prostanoids (PG) are products of arachidonic acid catabolism by cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes COX-1 and COX-2. (
  • Overproduction of mediators of the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade, particularly those of the cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways, causes major inflammatory diseases in humans [ 2 ]. (
  • Arachidonic acid in the human body usually comes from dietary animal sources (meat, eggs). (
  • These studies indicated that dietary cod-liver oil (rich in n-3 fatty acids), and spice principles curcumin and capsaicin can lower the secretory functions of macrophages in a beneficial manner. (
  • Role of capsaicin, curcumin and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lowering the generation of reactive oxygen species in rat peritoneal macrophages. (
  • The greatest impact of dietary 22:6n−3 level on content of that acid in organ lipid was seen in gill and kidney. (
  • There were also significant effects of dietary HUFA content on organ lipid levels of saturated, mono-unsaturated fatty acids and other members of the n−3 and n−6 PUFA, and HUFA series. (
  • The present study suggests that the EFA growth-promoting activity of arachidonic acid provides strong support for the contention that dietary 20:4n−6 is essential for juvenile turbot. (
  • Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms. (
  • This report presents dietary intake estimates for fats and fatty acids from the and cholesterol intakes in order to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2000, for the U.S. reduce one's risk of cardiovascular population. (
  • Dietary fat is often classified based encouraged to limit the amount of in 1999, the NHANES became a on the predominant types of fatty acids saturated fat and cholesterol in their continuous survey. (
  • Both dietary intake and endogenous metabolism influence whole body status of essential fatty acids. (
  • In any of these forms, fatty acids are both important dietary sources of fuel for animals and important structural components for cells . (
  • However, omega-6 fatty acids also increase the production of anti-inflammatory compounds, and this is why it is challenging to determine the associations of dietary factors with the risk of developing disease merely by focusing on their effects on disease risk factors. (
  • The AA/EPA ratio is primarily controlled by your dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids. (
  • Bryostatin 1 induced arachidonic acid release and caused some prostaglandin production but only marginally induced synthesis of prostaglandin H synthase. (
  • Propranolol, an inhibitor of phospatidic acid phosphohydrolase, significantly inhibited the ET-1-induced arachidonic acid release in a dose-dependent manner as well as the ET-1-induced diacylglycerol formation, 1,6-bis- (cyclohexyloxyminocarbonylamino)-hexane (RHC-80267), an inhibitor of diacylglycerol lipase, significantly suppressed the ET-1-induced arachidonic acid release. (
  • Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are important structural components of cell membranes , serve as precursors to bioactive lipid mediators, and provide a source of energy. (
  • Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid and produced on demand to restore homeostasis. (
  • Arachidonic acid fulfills an important function in our body, but in excess it promotes the formation of mediators and precipitators of the inflammatory process, especially the "free radicals. (
  • Stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, n-9 eicosatrienoic acid, and dihomogammalinoleic acid in serum cholesterol esters ( 21 ), or total fatty acids, SFA, and LA in plasma PL were indicated to be associated with BP ( 22 ). (
  • The main saturate found in beef in particular is stearic acid-the consumption of which has been shown to decrease plasma and liver cholesterol by reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption. (
  • On top of that, stearic acid may protect against type 2 diabetes , and it helps to prevent arterial clotting and the formation of fatty deposits within the arteries to fight off heart disease. (
  • C 16 H 32 O 2 (palmitic acid), C 18 H 36 O 2 (stearic acid). (
  • Arachidonic acid is also a precursor to anandamide. (
  • To overcome the kinetic preference of COX-1 for AA, CP-24879, a mixed Delta(5)/Delta(6) desaturase inhibitor, was used to enhance preferential accumulation of DGLA over AA in cells cultured in the presence of precursor gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 n-6). (
  • The research sample was 64 breastfeeding mothers given Moringa leaves powder (MLP), Moringa leaves extract (MLE), or iron-folic acid (IFA). (
  • In contrast, vegetables don't contain arachidonic acid. (
  • Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) converts arachidonic acid to 12(S)-(HETE). (
  • PTGS2 (COX-2), converts arachidonic acid (AA) to prostaglandin endoperoxide H2. (
  • Leslie, C. C. Regulation of arachidonic acid availability for eicosanoid production. (
  • Following adjustment for age, body mass index, physical activity, smoking status, alcohol consumption, salt intake, and serum levels of glucose and hemoglobin A1c, higher plasma levels of LA and α-linolenic acid (ALA), and lower levels of arachidonic acid (AA) were significantly associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension. (
  • Omega-6 fatty acids, such as gamma linolenic acid, are a family of fats found in some plant oils and seeds. (
  • There are different types of omega-6 fatty acids, such as gamma linolenic acid (GLA). (
  • PMID: 11939906 Abstract Title: Differential metabolism of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid by cyclo-oxygenase-1 and cyclo-oxygenase-2: implications for cellular synthesis of prostaglandin E1 and prostaglandin E2. (
  • For example, the scientific abbreviation for α-linolenic acid (ALA) is 18:3n-3. (
  • α-Linolenic acid , with three double bonds, favors a hooked shape. (
  • Safflower oil) and Linolenic Acid (e.g. (
  • For alpha-linolenic acid, total intakes of 1.5 to 3 g/day seem to be beneficial. (
  • Among these we have the ones from vegetable origin, such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) which is derived from seed oils or vegetable with dark green leaves, such as linseed oil or purslane, respectively. (
  • In this group the most important element is gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). (
  • Arachidonic acid is not one of the essential fatty acids. (
  • the cat is a common example of having the inability to desaturate essential fatty acids. (
  • Eicosanoid regulation is one of the most complex biochemical mechanisms of equilibrium in the human body and depends largely on the balance of omega 3 and omega 6 essential fatty acids in our food. (
  • Make no mistake- essential fatty acids can be powerful modulators of the human physique. (
  • Consequently, omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are essential nutrients. (
  • Significant advances have been made in controlled breeding and knowledge of environmental requirements for culture of larval black sea bass (Centropristis striata), but there still is relatively little published data on the nutritional requirements of the larval stages, including optimal methods for live prey enrichment with essential fatty acids. (
  • They are synthesized in the cell from the essential fatty acids [3] (EFAs). (
  • Most health-conscious folks have heard of essential fatty acids (EFAs) by now. (
  • But are "essential fatty acids" truly essential? (
  • His review of the scientific research suggests that omega-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and the omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the only fatty acids that are truly essential - and thus necessary in the diet - for humans. (
  • So, by consuming an abundance of the oils which are today heavily promoted as "essential" - vegetable oil and fish oil - we are actually reducing the amount of the fatty acids that are truly essential - DHA & AA. (
  • What are the essential fatty acids? (
  • What happens if you do not get enough essential fatty acids? (
  • No doubt, essential fatty acids are of extreme importance. (
  • We see the importance of essential fatty acids. (
  • There is not an established RDA for essential fatty acids. (
  • As you begin to look at essential fatty acids supplements, oils, or foods you will notice that just about all of them have more LNA than LA. You remember that you should be getting a ratio of LA to LNA of 3-4:1, but do not be alarmed. (
  • The important thing is that you get those essential fatty acids and live a healthy life. (
  • Essential fatty acids (EFA) refer to a group of fatty acids that the body can not produce and which must be ingested through food or supplements. (
  • The enzyme 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12) catalyzes oxidation of arachidonic acid to 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE), which may then be metabolized to 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and to hepoxilins. (
  • Understanding the mechanism of the hydrogen abstraction from arachidonic acid catalyzed by the human enzyme 15-lipoxygenase-2. (
  • The influence of these spice components on arachidonic acid metabolism and secretion of lysosomal enzymes by macrophages was investigated. (
  • The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, zileuton, suppresses prostaglandin biosynthesis by inhibition of arachidonic acid release in macrophages. (
  • KEY RESULTS Zileuton suppressed PG biosynthesis by interference with arachidonic acid (AA) release in macrophages. (
  • Some chemistry sources define 'arachidonic acid' to designate any of the eicosatetraenoic acids. (
  • 20-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid ( 20 HETE ), which in turn. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Metabolism of arachidonic acid in sheep uterus: in vitro studies. (
  • Padma AS, Agarwal S, Reddy DB, Prasad TS, Reddanna P. Metabolism of arachidonic acid in sheep uterus: in vitro studies. (
  • Reduced levels of LA and P/S ratio, and elevated levels of palmitic acid and arachidonic acids (AA) in plasma cholesterol esters were associated with a higher risk of hypertension ( 23 ). (
  • Low-fat products are preferable, both to restrict the amount of arachidonic acid consumed and to provide available calcium content. (
  • The Cochrane reviews of the group of Simmer ( Reference Simmer, Patole and Rao 1 , Reference Simmer, Schulzke and Patole 2 ) indicated that supplementation of formula with LCPUFA, in particular DHA (22 : 6 n -3) and arachidonic acid (20 : 4 n -6), in general does not affect motor, visual and cognitive outcome. (
  • Saini RK, Shetty NP, Giridhar P. GC-FID/MS analysis of fatty acids in Indian cultivars of Moringa oleifera: Potential sources of PUFA. (
  • Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), meaning they contain more than one cis double bond (1) . (
  • Activation of protein kinase C by TPA appears to be part of the mechanism to cause archidonic acid release. (
  • We found that the 4-day differentiation process is also associated with downregulated SVCT2 mRNA expression, in the absence of apparent changes in SVCT2 protein expression and transport rate of ascorbic acid (AA). (
  • Meat and meat products, eaten as sources of protein, can be easily replaced with legumes (chickpeas, linseed, peas) and soy products such as tofu-foods that are rich in protein and free of arachidonic acid. (
  • True carnivores, like cats , have a higher nutritional requirement for taurine, arachidonic acid and certain vitamins, which are available in animal fat and protein sources. (
  • Acid/base status, osmolality, lipid status and plasma protein pattern are well known to exert a major influence. (
  • In vitro reversible and time-dependent CYP2J2 inhibition experiments were conducted with exogenous and endogenous substrates, namely rivaroxaban and arachidonic acid (AA), respectively, where kinetic parameters were estimated via one-site and multisite kinetic modeling. (
  • Eating a diet rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are found in soybean and sunflower oils, as well as in nuts, may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes, say an international team of researchers. (
  • Also, n-3 fatty acids have a higher affinity for the elongase and desaturase enzymes than the n-6 fatty acids and so intakes of ALA reduce the conversion of LA to AA thus decreasing membrane concentrations of AA. (
  • Increased intakes of the omega-3 DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) are associated with a reduced risk of anxiety, a study from Australia has reported for the first time. (
  • The Food and Nutrition Board of the US Institute of Medicine (now the National Academy of Medicine) established adequate intakes ( AI ) for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. (
  • Research shows that high intakes of arachidonic acid promote changes in the brain that can disturb mood. (
  • Large-scale epidemiological studies suggest that individuals at risk for coronary heart disease benefit from the consumption of plant- and marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids, although the ideal intakes presently are unclear. (
  • Intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and blood pressure change over time: Possible interaction with genes involved in 20-HETE and EETs metabolism. (
  • A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. (
  • An additional important observation was that the activity of both the plasma membrane and mitochondrial SVCT2 is susceptible to inhibition by low micromolar levels of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) [ 7 , 8 ], the oxidized form of vitamin C. DHA levels in biological fluids are generally very low, as a consequence of its poor stability and, most importantly, because of its rapid uptake mediated by facilitative hexose transporters [ 9 ]. (
  • Cis unsaturated fatty acids, however, increase cellular membrane fluidity, whereas trans unsaturated fatty acids do not. (
  • Cytochrome P450 4A2 (CYP 4A2) converts the arachidonic acid to. (
  • [ 4 ] In contrast, the n-3 fatty acids competitively inhibit the conversion of arachidonic acid into bioactive substances, thereby suppressing inflammatory cytokine production. (
  • Furthermore, we found that bryostatin 1 could inhibit the effect of TPA both in stimulation of arachidonic acid release and in the induction of prostaglandin H synthase. (
  • Capric acid has been used to inhibit seizures in people with epilepsy, 1 and if you combine it with caprylic acid, the anti-seizure effect seems to increase. (
  • and Artemia were enriched with emulsions containing 10% docosahexaenoic acid, DHA (22:6n-3) and five different levels of ARA (0, 6, 8, 10 and 12% total fatty acids, TFA). (
  • Following base hydrolysis, the samples were re-acidified and total fatty acids were hexane-extracted from the matrix along with internal standards. (
  • Four newly synthesized 7,13-bridged arachidonic acid analogs which have been shown to exert 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity were studied in isolated perfused cat coronary arteries. (
  • 5-Lipoxygenase, Human, Recombinant, S. frugiperda E.C, catalyzes the formation of 5(S)-HpETE from arachidonic acid and its subsequent conversion to leukotriene A4. (
  • Prostaglandin E2 and [14C]arachidonic acid release by carbachol in the isolated canine parietal cell. (
  • Although CM, CMR and Intralipid affect agonist-induced platelet aggregation in vitro, CMs and CMRs are not an arachidonic acid (AA) source for platelets. (
  • Inhibitory effect of curcumin, a food spice from turmeric, on platelet-activating factor- and arachidonic acid-mediated platelet aggregation through inhibition of thromboxane formation and Ca2+ signaling. (