Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.NorbornanesArachidonic AcidsMuscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids: Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Lipoxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic Acid: A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid: A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)Masoprocol: A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid: A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Lipoxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Eicosanoids: A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.Arachidonate Lipoxygenases: Enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of arachidonic acid to hydroperoxyarachidonates. These products are then rapidly converted by a peroxidase to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. The positional specificity of the enzyme reaction varies from tissue to tissue. The final lipoxygenase pathway leads to the leukotrienes. EC 1.13.11.- .Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Thromboxane B2: A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).Group IV Phospholipases A2: A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Quinacrine: An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.Endothelins: 21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.4,5-Dihydro-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-amine: A dual inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. It exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The drug also enhances pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and has a protective effect after myocardial ischemia.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Smooth Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Eicosanoic Acids: 20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cyclooxygenase 1: A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha: The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Muscle Tonus: The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Prostaglandins H: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides, Synthetic: Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.Thromboxanes: Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Receptors, Thromboxane: Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Prostaglandin H2: A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.Receptors, Endothelin: Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.Alkane 1-Monooxygenase: A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Thromboxane-A Synthase: An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC 188.8.131.52.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides: Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Prostaglandins G: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin G2.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Group VI Phospholipases A2: A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Phospholipases A2, Cytosolic: A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that occur in the CYTOSOL.Methoxamine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that causes prolonged peripheral VASOCONSTRICTION.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)GizzardPlatelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Fatty Acids, Omega-6: FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.Mice, Inbred C57BLPapillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Nitroarginine: An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Pyrones: Keto-pyrans.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 184.108.40.206), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Receptor, Endothelin B: A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.DiglyceridesMyocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.ZymosanAspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
Fatty acid metabolism
... and causes smooth muscle contraction when released by IP3), and the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), which is then ... They are enzymatically derived from arachidonic acid a 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid. Every prostaglandin therefore ... Note that during fatty synthesis the reducing agent is NADPH, whereas NAD is the oxidizing agent in beta-oxidation (the ... This cannot occur directly. To obtain cytosolic acetyl-CoA, citrate (produced by the condensation of acetyl CoA with ...
They include the following arachidonic acid-esterified agents: *Arachidonoylethanolamine, 2-Arachidonoylglycerol, 2-Arachidonyl ... vascular permeability; vascular smooth muscle contraction; allergy. antagonists of CYSLTR1 used in asthma as well as other ... Short acting vasoconstrictors - TXA2-are released quickly after the injury. The site may momentarily turn pale. Then TXA2 ... Prostanoids also activate the PPARγ members of the steroid/thyroid family of nuclear hormone receptors, and directly influence ...
Cytochrome P450 and Vascular Homeostasis | Circulation Research
Activation of K+ channel in vascular smooth muscles by cytochrome P450 metabolites of arachidonic acids. Eur J Pharmacol. 1993; ... After an increase in transmural pressure or stimulation with a vasoconstrictor agent such as endothelin-1 or angiotensin II, ... The directly opposing effects of 20-HETE and EETs on arterial tone have been convincingly demonstrated in the cerebral vascular ... 20-HETE is endogenously produced by smooth muscle cells after an increase in [Ca2+]i, and once formed, increases smooth muscle ...
Hypoxic Contraction of Isolated Rabbit Mesenteric Veins :Contribution of Endothelium and Attenuation by Volatile Anesthetics |...
Under hypoxic conditions, a specific adrenoceptor agonist acting directly on the venous smooth muscle cell receptors may evoke ... Lack of indomethacin and NDGA effects rule out a contribution of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid ... Highsmith RF, Pang DC, Rapoport RM: Endothelial cell-derived vasoconstrictors: Mechanisms of action in vascular smooth muscle J ... Phenylephrine (3 x 10 6 M), prostaglandin PGF sub 20 (5 x 106M), or KCl (60 mM) also were used as precontracting agents. ...
HAEMOSTASIS & COAGULATION by Sumayyah Mian on Prezi
PDGF from disintegrating platelets enable proliferation + ingrowth of endothelial layer (& smooth muscle cells) into thrombus ... Endothelin Endothelin Endothelin vW vW vW vW PLATELET-ECM ADHESION PhosphoLipase A2 Activation Phospholipids Arachidonic Acid ( ... Thromboxin A2) Vasoconstrictor. Platelet Aggregator PLATELET ACTIVATION TxA2 PGI2 Cyclooxygenase Hameostasis Balance Scale ... Directly inactivate factor Xa. LMWH 4x , effective at doing so than HMWH ...
flare ups in endodontics -1 etiological factors | Inflammation | Immune System
They are derived from arachidonic acid, a 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membrane. The enzyme phospholipase ... When released in tissue as a result of inflammation, 5-HT, like histamine, causes contraction of smooth muscle and increased ... Macrophage proliferation is directly proportional to the toxicity of the material they engulf (95). IgE may elicit an immediate ... Agents Actions 1981;11:30. 49. Voelkel NF, Worthen S, Reeves JT, Henson PM, Murphy RC. Nonimmunological production of ...
JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
... nitric oxide and arachidonic acid metabolites)1-3 and hyperpolarization4,5 that elicit smooth muscle cell relaxation. Thus ... And ion channels are often targeted by therapeutic agents either intentionally (e.g. calcium channel blockers used to induce ... This bypasses the need to incise the dura directly over the visualized vessels for drug delivery. This protocol will describe ... Perivascular expression and potent vasoconstrictor effect of dynorphin A in cerebral arteries. ...
Potassium Channel Function in Vascular Disease | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
... is significantly higher in smooth muscle cells from human coronary atherosclerotic plaques than in medial smooth muscle cells, ... Vasodilators that increase intracellular levels of cAMP or cyclic GMP,1 5 carbon monoxide,9 and epoxides of arachidonic acid10 ... Pharmacological agents that can induce glibenclamide-sensitive vascular relaxation by directly activating KATP channels include ... be an important buffering mechanism to counteract vessel depolarization and constriction in response to some vasoconstrictors ...
Regulation Of The Vasculature By The Endothelium - pediagenosis
This causes a hyperpolarization of the endothelial cells which is transmitted directly to the surrounding smooth muscle cells ... Hydrogen peroxide and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, which are produced from arachidonic acid by the enzyme cytochrome P450, have ... constricting factors Endothelin-1 is a 21 amino acid peptide that is released from the endothelium by many vasoconstrictors, ... Endothelin is a potent vasoconstricting agent, particularly in veins and arterioles, and stimulates two subtypes of receptor on ...
The Prostaglandins: Basic Chemistry and Action | GLOWM
... such as arachidonic acid, which is the main substrate for eicosanoid formation.6 Arachidonic acid is enzymatically synthesized ... In the oviduct, smooth-muscle PGE2 promotes relaxation, whereas PGF2α promotes contraction. In the uterus, however, both ... PGI2 has been referred to as an endogenous antithrombotic agent and is one of the very few prostaglandins that may be a ... Platelets synthesize significant amounts of TXA2, a vasoconstrictor and platelet-aggregating substance. PGI2, a vasodilator and ...
US Patent # 4,736,057. Cyclohexane derivatives - Patents.com
... alkenoic and alkanoic acid derivatives of the formula I wherein one of Ra and Rb is hydrogen, hydroxy, (1-6C)alkyl, (1-6C) ... Attorney, Agent or Firm: Cushman, Darby & Cushman Claims. What is claimed is:. 1. An acid of the formula wherein one of Ra and ... TxA.sub.2 is also a potent constrictor of bronchial and tracheal smooth muscle. TXA.sub.2 may therefore be involved in a wide ... of arachidonic acid; and (c) a bronchoconstriction test involving measuring the inhibition by a test compound of the ...
Augmented Vasoconstriction and Thromboxane Formation by 15-F2t-Isoprostane (8-Iso-Prostaglandin F2α) in Immature Pig...
... thereby liberating arachidonic acid substrate for subsequent formation of vasoconstrictor thromboxane A2. This action is ... Smooth muscle cells were recognized by their spindle-shaped appearance, positive reactivity to smooth muscle-specific actin ... 7 22 23 24 15-F2t-IsoP does not seem to bind directly with the TXA2 receptor.25 26 27 We recently reported that 15-F2t-IsoP ... Effects of agents were studied in situ on brain slices, as described in Methods. Data are mean±SEM of 4 to 5 separate ...
Tendons - time to revisit inflammation | British Journal of Sports Medicine
Most are non-selective inhibitors of COX which catalyses the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxane from arachidonic acid. ... increased smooth muscle actin expression and increased contractile activity). Thus, the more proliferative and active phenotype ... Potentially, agents that inhibit VEGF and other agents involved in neovessel formation may inhibit their formation and ... Corticosteroids are to some extent indirect vasoconstrictors, through suppression of production of the vasodilators ...
Vascular smooth muscle is primarily innervated by sympathetic fibres that maintain a baseline level of tone. ... Prostacyclin and Thromboxane A2: Arachidonic acid derivatives dependent on cyclo-oxygenase. Prostacyclin is a vasodilator that ... The most powerful agents responsible for humoral control. Adrenaline is released from the adrenal medulla, with primary effects ... Efferent - Project directly to preganglionic neurones in the intermediolateral (IML) grey columns of the spinal cord. ...
Effect of Cymbopogon citratus and Citral on Vascular Smooth Muscle of the Isolated Thoracic Rat Aorta
It could be postulated that the LE may have a vasoconstrictor as well as vasorelaxant agents as its constituents and that the ... inhibit the synthesis of various PGs including PGI2 and markedly inhibits the transient relaxation induced by arachidonic acid ... Whether citral is directly interacting with endothelial NO synthase or with other factors, which may increase the endothelial ... citratus on visceral smooth muscle , the present study was aimed at investigating their effects on vascular smooth muscle ...
Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Joey P. Granger
Methods for the Determination of Rates of Glucose and Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Isolated Working Rat Heart ... and contraction of renal arterial smooth muscle. Single smooth muscle cells were isolated from renal interlobular arteries of ... a metabolite of arachidonic acid, has natriuretic properties similar to ET-B activation. While these findings suggest a ... The exact etiology of the disorder is unclear, but placental ischemia has been shown to be a central causative agent. In ...
Arachidonic Acid Metabolites. The lipid mediators prostaglandins and leukotrienes are produced from arachidonic acid (AA) ... TxA2, a potent platelet-aggregating agent and vasoconstrictor is derived by the enzyme thromboxane synthase which locates in ... Histamine also causes contraction of some smooth muscles.. Serotonin is a preformed vasoactive mediator present in platelets ... Some clinicians view all data obtained directly from the patient to be subjective data, because the data are not verifiable by ...
Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
... vascular smooth muscle cells, and mast cells, some are situated at the nuclear envelope . Four of these receptor subtypes ... arachidonic acid (AA) in the n-6 series and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the n-3 series) have ... PGE2, PGF2α, TXA2, and LTs produced from AA metabolism are proinflammatory . TXA2 acts as a potent vasoconstrictor and ... LTB4 has many proinflammatory functions, acting as an important activator of neutrophils, a chemotactic agent for leukocytes, ...
prostaglandin: Smooth muscle contraction
Arachidonic acid is a key component of phospholipids, which are themselves integral components of cell membranes. In response ... These stimuli, either directly or indirectly, result in the activation of an enzyme called phospholipase A2. This enzyme ... Thromboxanes, on the other hand, are powerful vasoconstrictors that cause a decrease in blood flow and an increase in blood ... to many different stimuli, including various hormonal, chemical, or physical agents, a chain of events is set in motion that ...
ACE and Angiotensin II: The "Double Agents" that Play Multiple Roles in the Molecular Story of Life - AGINGSCIENCES™ - Anti...
Reference: 3,4-Di-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid Inhibits Angiotensin-II-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration ... AA: arachidonic acid; AC: adenylyl cyclase; Akt: protein kinase B; BH4: tetrahydrobiopterin; CaM: calmodulin; CSE: ... vasoconstrictor, pro-thrombotic agent, and cytokine. So it is perhaps not surprising that the ACE D/D genotype is associated ... 7. sACE can be directly inactivated by nitric oxide (NO) via S-nitrosylation with 4 of the cysteine residues on the "disulfide ...
Lec2-3 Acute and Chronic Inflammation Flashcards by Anna Cushing | Brainscape
4 Neutrophil chemotactic agents - bacterial products. - complement fragments [C5a]. - arachidonic acid metabolites [leukotriene ... regulates BP, smooth muscle relaxation/contraction, cell migration, inflammatory cell activation. 72 ... kill bacteria directly by releasing bactericidal permeability-increasesing-proteins, lysozyme, lactoferrin, major basic protein ... arachidonic acid metabolites. - ROS. - complement components. - coagulatin factors. - growth factors. - cytokines [IL-1 and TNF ...
Free Medical Flashcards about biochem test 2 2011
Arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid is cleaved from phospholipids by?. phospholipase A2 or C through the activity of di and mono ... proliferation of smooth muscle in tunica media, can occlude lumen. What does apoE do?. Help LDL, LRP receptors recognoze ... What effect would the use of a bile sequestering agent have on the conversion of cholesterol to cholic acid and to chenocholic ... What is saltatory conduction and what part of the schwann cell is directly involved?. AP jump from one Node of Ranvier to ...
Free Radicals and Biomarkers Related to the Diagnosis of Cardiorenal Syndrome | IntechOpen
Arachidonic acid metabolites mediate angiotensin II-induced NADH/NADPH oxidase activity and hypertrophy in vascular smooth ... 28], EMT regulates the loss of epithelial cell adhesion, the de novo α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression and ... Besides its primary vasoconstrictor effects, Ang II also presents growth factor and cytokine-like properties . The ... Excessive and inappropriate activation of the RAAS  is directly implicated in many ways in the progression of renal disease ...
Dithionite Increases Radical Formation and Decreases Vasoconstriction in the Lung | Circulation Research
13 19 which in turn inhibits potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle.30 This depolarizes the vascular smooth muscle, ... Reducing agents (and oxidants) can directly alter the function of ion channels,32 33 34 35 36 independent of effects on Po2,37 ... role of arachidonic acid enzymes. J Appl Physiol. 1988;65:1340-1350. ... The loss of vasoconstrictor responsiveness and increased lung weight after the administration of dithionite result, at least ...
Recent trends in pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Prostacyclin, the main product of arachidonic acid in the vascular endothelium causes relaxation of smooth muscle by ... Endothelin-1 is produced by vascular endothelium and it serves as a vasoconstrictor and smooth muscle mitogen. While its action ... Newer agents such as cicletanine and riociguat provide much superior effect in comparison with the available agents for PAH. ... strongly correlates with pulmonary systolic pressure and directly measured pulmonary systolic pressure correlates well with ...
Endogenous Vascular Hydrogen Peroxide Regulates Arteriolar Tension In Vivo | Circulation
15 to the generation of arachidonic acid metabolites with vasoconstrictor activity,16 and to direct Ca2+-independent tonic ... Smooth Muscle Layer Thickness. Aortic rings (1 cm long) of cat++ and catn were fixed in buffered 4% formalin and embedded ... Yang H, Shi M, VanRemmen H, Chen X, Vijg J, Richardson A, Guo Z. Reduction of pressor response to vasoconstrictor agents by ... However, this was not directly proved by histology of cross sections of vascularized tissues, and our results rather suggest a ...
Fatty acid metabolism - Wikipedia
... and causes smooth muscle contraction when released by IP3), and the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), which is then ... They are enzymatically derived from arachidonic acid a 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid. Every prostaglandin therefore ... Note that during fatty synthesis the reducing agent is NADPH, whereas NAD is the oxidizing agent in beta-oxidation (the ... This cannot occur directly. To obtain cytosolic acetyl-CoA, citrate (produced by the condensation of acetyl CoA with ...
Compositions and methods for amelioration of human female sexual dysfunction - NexMed (Holdings) , Inc.
... relaxation and contraction of respiratory smooth muscle, hypotensive activity, inhibition of fatty acid lipolysis, inhibition ... the essential fatty acid linoleic acid is converted into the 20-carbon arachidonic acid, which is then acted upon by ... when acids or bases are added thereto. Solute agent or agents which are thus responsible for a resistance to change in pH from ... acts directly on local tissues to produce increases in vaginal secretion, increases in vaginal engorgement, and acts indirectly ...
Frontiers | Mast Cells as Cellular Sensors in Inflammation and Immunity | Immunology
These mediators can directly initiate tissue responses on resident cells, but they have also been shown to regulate other ... These mediators can directly initiate tissue responses on resident cells, but they have also been shown to regulate other ... demonstrated their role as effector cells in the maintenance of tissue integrity following injury produced by infectious agents ... demonstrated their role as effector cells in the maintenance of tissue integrity following injury produced by infectious agents ...
Corticosteroids may also act directly on both vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells (table 2⇓), thereby increasing ... the epidermal growth factor-stimulated phospholipase A2 activity and arachidonic acid release in A549 human adenocarcinoma cell ... In vascular smooth muscle cells, corticosteroids enhance responses to endogenous vasoconstrictors through multiple mechanisms. ... In addition to inflammatory exudative agents, vasodilation and microvascular congestion have been shown to increase ...
Surgery 2.2a-.csv - Name - Question - Answer.csv Flashcards by Frankie Aguinot | Brainscape
A potent constrictor of smooth muscles, it is produced locally at the site of injury via the release of arachidonic acid from ... or directly to Factor X and then Xa] and then Factor Va, Ca2+, Phospholipid Prothrombin (factor II) and Thrombin (factor ... How are hemostatic agents classified, and what do they do? Classified based on their mechanism of action, and many act at ...
Local Venous Responses to Endotoxin in Humans | Circulation
Endotoxin enhances arachidonic acid metabolism by cultured rabbit microvascular endothelial cells. Am J Physiol. 1992;263:H1213 ... 30 The diameter of a vessel under constant distension pressure is determined by the state of contraction of the smooth muscle ( ... This suggestion is directly supported by the observation that the venoconstriction produced by activation of the nervous system ... It is unlikely in the present study that insufficient doses of the blocking agents were used, because we have demonstrated ...
Metabolism of arachidonic acidMetabolites of arachidonic acidPotentRelease of arachidonic acidConversion of arachidonic acidEicosapentaenoic acidVasodilatorEicosanoidsReceptorAmino acidProstaglandinExpressed in vascular muscleIntracellularProstaglandinsRenalThromboxaneFree fattyMetaboliteAngiotensinPrecursorLong chainBlood vesselsEssential fattyInflammationInhibitionMitochondriaEndotheliumEnzymeSubstratesAortaReactivitySystemicOxidationLipaseTissuesDerivativesPathwaysRecurrentYieldPredominantlySynthesisLiberationArteriolar smoothTissueSkeletal muscleCardiovascularContractionHypoxiaGlycerolVasodilatorsLipidMediatorsPUFA
Metabolism of arachidonic acid3
- The first reports on the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) by cytochrome P450 (CYP) mono-oxygenases appeared in 1981. (bmj.com)
- The liberation and metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) from the cell membrane results in the generation of pro-inflammatory metabolites by several different pathways. (allindianpatents.com)
- Cyclooxygenase (COX), the enzyme responsible for the initial rate-limiting metabolism of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2 and subsequently to prostaglandin H2, was first purified in ram seminal vesicles and was cloned in 1988 by DeWitt and Smith ( 1 ). (asnjournals.org)
Metabolites of arachidonic acid2
- This review summarizes the vascular effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, both of which are CYP-derived metabolites of arachidonic acid, endogenously generated within endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
- 3 Although such observations suggest that CYP-derived metabolites from a spectrum of unsaturated fatty acids may be potential modulators of vascular function, this review concentrates on the physiological/pathophysiological significance of the CYP-dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid. (ahajournals.org)
- Omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (e.g., arachidonic acid (AA)) and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are precursors to potent lipid mediator signalling molecules, termed "eicosanoids," which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation. (hindawi.com)
- 19 published his findings on cortisone causing dramatic improvements in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, corticosteroids have become established as the most potent anti-inflammatory agents in the pharmacotherapy of various chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma 20 . (ersjournals.com)
- Endothelin-1 (ET), a 21-amino-acid peptide, is a potent vasoconstrictor expressed in endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, and vascular smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
- 20-HETE(20-hydroxy Arachidonic Acid) is a potent vasoconstrictor produced in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. (medchemexpress.com)
- It is proposed that the potent vasoconstrictor action of TxA 2 is beneficial in the female in the normal state by acting as a local counterregulatory mechanism to increase vascular tone and BP and defend against hypotension that could result from the multiple estrogen-sensitive local vasodilator mechanisms present in the female vascular wall. (physiology.org)
- Thromboxane A2 is a potent vasoconstrictor that facilitates secondary platelet aggregation and release reactions. (nysora.com)
Release of arachidonic acid4
- Release of arachidonic acid is facilitated by the hydrolytic action of phospholipases. (glowm.com)
- This enzyme catalyzes the release of arachidonic acid from phospholipid molecules. (britannica.com)
- Release of arachidonic acid by phospholipase-A2 can be inhibited by the action of corticosteroid drugs. (itmonline.org)
- They inhibit inflammation by blocking the release of arachidonic acid from the plasma membrane, thus inhibiting the synthesis of all eicosanoids. (rrnursingschool.biz)
Conversion of arachidonic acid3
- One enzyme, lipoxygenase, catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to one of several possible leukotrienes, which are important mediators of the inflammatory process. (britannica.com)
- Another enzyme, cyclooxygenase, catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to one of several possible endoperoxides. (britannica.com)
- Together, PGs comprise a diverse family of biologically active lipids derived from the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid by COX to PGG 2 /H 2 followed by the generation of five primary bioactive prostanoids PGE 2 , PGI 2 , PGD 2 , PGF 2α and thromboxane A 2 [ 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
- For example, the epoxygenase CYP 2J2 can generate epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) from arachidonic acid and epoxyeicosaquatraenoic acids from eicosapentaenoic acid, and both metabolites dilate microvessels with comparable potencies and efficacies. (ahajournals.org)
- Thus, prostaglandins of the 1 series have one double bond and are derived from dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, those of the 2 series have two double bonds and are derived from arachidonic acid, and those of the 3 series have three double bonds and are derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (Fig. 2). (glowm.com)
- In addition, lipid mediators generated from long-chain (LC-) PUFA (arachidonic acid (AA) in the n-6 series and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the n-3 series) have important roles in immune regulation and inflammation [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- For each subfamily, there is the potential to have at least 4 separate series of metabolites, two series derived from ω-6 PUFAs (arachidonic and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acids), one series derived from the ω-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic acid), and one series derived from the ω-9 PUFA (mead acid). (wikipedia.org)
- Likewise, phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein in skeletal muscle, left ventricular myocardium, and lung was identical in cat ++ and cat n . (ahajournals.org)
- contrast, the vast majority of studies investigated the vasomotor effects of exogenous hydrogen peroxide at much larger concentrations (up to 10 mmol/L), and both vasodilator and vasoconstrictor effects were reported. (ahajournals.org)
- 14 15 It is converted by COX to a vasoconstrictor prostaglandin H 2 (PGH 2 ) analogue (20-OH PGH 2 ) that undergoes additional transformation by isomerases to vasodilator/diuretic metabolites (20-OH PGE 2 , 20-OH PGI 2 ) and vasoconstrictor/antidiuretic metabolites (20-OH TXA 2 , 20-OH PGF 2α ). (bmj.com)
- The underlying mechanisms that are involved in HRS are incompletely understood but may include both increased vasoconstrictor and decreased vasodilator factors acting on the renal circulation. (asnjournals.org)
- exchange muscle: The vasodilator of the failure's time to prevent out unique Monocytes safe as cyclosporin, prognosis, charge, significance, and treatment. (sonicboomsound.com)
- Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes are enzymatically derived from essential fatty acids and constitute a unique class of polyunsaturated, hydroxylated, 20-carbon fatty acids categorized as eicosanoids. (glowm.com)
- Eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are, similar to arachidonic acid, 20 carbon units in length. (wikipedia.org)
- Eicosanoids are a sub-category of oxylipins , i.e. oxidized fatty acids of diverse carbon units in length, and are distinguished from other oxylipins by their overwhelming importance as cell signaling molecules. (wikipedia.org)
- In performing these roles, eicosanoids most often act as autocrine signaling agents to impact their cells of origin or as paracrine signaling agents to impact cells in the proximity of their cells of origin. (wikipedia.org)
- Eicosanoids may also act as endocrine agents to control the function of distant cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Eicosanoids are produced primarily from arachidonic acid that has been released from cell membrane phospholipids by the action of the enzyme phospholipase-A2. (itmonline.org)
- Most drug treatments for diseases that involve painful inflammation block the production of eicosanoids after arachidonic acid has already formed ( see Figure 4 for site of action diagram). (itmonline.org)
- 7 18 21 22 23 24 Although the vasomotor effects of 15-F 2t -IsoP are largely inhibited by TXA 2 receptor blockers, 7 22 23 24 15-F 2t -IsoP does not seem to bind directly with the TXA 2 receptor. (ahajournals.org)
- 6. A pro-thrombotic agent - ANG stimulates thrombosis via inducing expression of the thrombin receptor, release of PAF (platelet activating factor), or by stimulating platelet aggregation and adhesion. (anti-agingfirewalls.com)
- Ang II, produced from angiotensin I (Ang I) by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), is responsible for the complications mediated by Ang II receptor in the end organs such as vasoconstriction, hypertrophy and growth in vascular smooth muscles in the cardiovascular diseases. (omicsonline.org)
- Numerous antihypertensive drugs are used to control hypertension including beta-blocking agents, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin II receptor antagonists, diuretics, calcium antagonist and alpha-receptor blocking agents. (rroij.com)
- Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Modulators As Potential Chemoprevetive Agents, Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, (2002), vol. 1, pp. 357-363. (patentgenius.com)
- 2. The method of claim 1 wherein the new therapeutic agent is recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis has been shown to counteract many of the physiological effects of the Angiotensin II (Ang II) Type 1 Receptor (AT1R), including vasoconstrictor and proliferative actions. (ufl.edu)
- NO is synthesized from the amino acid L -arginine and O 2 by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). (pediagenosis.com)
- L-5-Hydroxytryptophan (L-5-HTP), a naturally occurring amino acid and a dietary supplement for use as an antidepressant, appetite suppressant, and sleep aid, is the immediate precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin and a reserpine antagonist. (medchemexpress.com)
- L-carnitine - Neither an amino acid nor a vitamin, L-carnitine is a derivative of hydroxybutyric acid. (drsquat.com)
- An immunocytokine of the human monoclonal antibody fragment F16 (scFv) against the extra-domain A1 of tenascin-C fused, via a short 5-amino acid linker, to a recombinant form of the human cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. (cancer.gov)
- An amino acid analog radiolabeled with fluorine F 18, a positron emitting isotope, used as a tracer in positron emission tomography (PET). (cancer.gov)
- Reflecting the increased amino acid transport capacity of tumor cells, F-18 fluroethyltyrosine (F-18 FET) is actively taken up in tumor cells via amino acid transport system L, but is neither incorporated into proteins nor readily degraded, resulting in high intracellular concentrations of this imaging agent. (cancer.gov)
- Radiolableled amino acid-based agents are useful in PET brain tumor imaging because F-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG), commonly used in PET tumor imaging, is relatively insensitive for detecting tumors in the brain due the high levels of glycolytic metabolism in the normal cortex and to a lesser extent in white matter. (cancer.gov)
- However, in patients with severe abnormalities of the control system of breathing and of gas exchange (e.g. severe airway obstruction), hypercapnia may result from relatively small increases in metabolic rate, such as in fever, sepsis, agitation, excessive weight, hyperthyroidism, increased work of breathing, and carbohydrate excess or increased amino acid content due to total parenteral nutrition. (alpfmedical.info)
- Shortly after the Needleman hypothesis was formulated, Xie and co-workers ( 8 ) detected the presence of a second avian COX mRNA species, and Kujubu and co-workers ( 9 ) identified a phorbol ester-activated immediate early murine gene (TIS10) that possesses similar COX activity but shares only approximately 66% homology in amino acid sequence. (asnjournals.org)
- plasma essential amino acid concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. (preprints.org)
- Plasma post-prandial essential amino acid (EAA) concentrations were higher with the ingestion of FR compared to CB (P=0.02). (preprints.org)
- The major endothelial vasoconstrictors are endothelin-1, thromboxane A 2 (TXA 2 ) and prostaglandin H 2 . (pediagenosis.com)
- Currently, three classes of prostaglandins are recognized, and these are categorized on the basis of the number of double bonds present within the prostaglandin molecule and on the fatty acid from which they are derived. (glowm.com)
- A series of prostaglandin F 2 -like compounds produced nonenzymatically by free radical-induced peroxidation of arachidonic acid independent of cyclooxygenase have been shown to be produced in vivo and their formation to increase markedly during oxidant injury. (ahajournals.org)
- In response to many different stimuli, including various hormonal, chemical, or physical agents, a chain of events is set in motion that results in prostaglandin formation and release. (britannica.com)
- Prostaglandin E2 is a hormone-like substance that participate in a wide range of body functions such as the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, the dilation and constriction of blood vessels, control of blood pressure, and modulation of inflammation. (medchemexpress.com)
- Historically, the vasodilatory prostanoids, especially prostacyclin and prostaglandin E 2 , are believed to contribute significantly to the regulation of normal vascular tone and blood pressure (BP), primarily by counteracting the prevailing effects of the systemic vasoconstrictor systems, including angiotensin II, the catecholamines, and vasopressin. (physiology.org)
- Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) signaling pathways involved in endothelium-dependent responses of vascular smooth muscle cells in mammals. (physiology.org)
Expressed in vascular muscle1
- While molecular biological studies are revealing a large diversity in the subtypes of K + channels that are normally expressed in vascular muscle, 7 it is noteworthy that there is still very little information available at the molecular level regarding regulation of K + channel expression and function in vascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
- The prostaglandins are made up of unsaturated fatty acids that contain a cyclopentane (5-carbon) ring and are derived from the 20-carbon, straight-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid precursor arachidonic acid . (britannica.com)
- Plants synthesize molecules similar in structure to prostaglandins, including jasmonic acid (jasmonate), which regulates processes such as plant reproduction, fruit ripening, and flowering. (britannica.com)
- Prostanoic acid is the basic prostanoid molecule, and the ring structure (top) varies to yield the different groups of prostaglandins and thromboxanes (bottom). (itmonline.org)
- Since the initial reports that renal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes can metabolize arachidonic acid to substances which affect arterial tone, it has become increasingly clear that CYP enzymes expressed within the cardiovascular system play a crucial role in the modulation of vascular homeostasis. (ahajournals.org)
- Local release of NO by nNOS in the macula densa is important in regulating renal blood flow, and recent findings indicate that continual NO production by nNOS in arteries and/or skeletal muscle probably acts as a tonic vasodilating influence on arteries and arterioles throughout the body. (pediagenosis.com)
- 4 Two principal CYP products-20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) generated by ω/ω-1 hydroxylases and 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12-EET) generated by epoxygenases-had been identified in a study of renal zonal CYP derived AA metabolites (fig 1 ). (bmj.com)
- A number of vasoconstrictors have been implicated in the reduction in renal blood flow in ARF. (rrnursingschool.biz)
- The importance of individual vasoconstrictor hormones in ARF probably varies to some extent with the cause of the renal injury. (rrnursingschool.biz)
- Together, these results suggest a therapeutic potential for agents like 4-PBA in combating renal injury in SLE. (portlandpress.com)
- Once freed from glycerol, the free fatty acids enter the blood, which transports them, attached to plasma albumin, throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
- Long chain free fatty acids enter the metabolizing cells (i.e. most living cells in the body except red blood cells and neurons in the central nervous system) through specific transport proteins, such as the SLC27 family fatty acid transport protein. (wikipedia.org)
- The PLA 2 metabolite lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) also activated the hBNP promoter, but arachidonic acid itself did not. (ahajournals.org)
- Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A that plays important roles in cell growth, differentiation, and organogenesis. (medchemexpress.com)
- At higher doses, aspirin also reduces synthesis of prostacyclin, another arachidonic acid metabolite. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
- Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) (precursor to the n-6 series of fatty acids) and α -linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3) (precursor to the n-3 series of fatty acids) are the simplest members of each family of PUFA and are termed essential fatty acids as the body cannot synthesise these. (hindawi.com)
- The cysteine residue of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) is a precursor for glutathione (GSH) synthesis, and the thiol group is able to scavenge ROS directly. (intechopen.com)
- the tissues of the central nervous system cannot use fatty acids, despite containing mitochondria, because long chain fatty acids (as opposed to medium chain fatty acids) cannot cross the blood brain barrier into the interstitial fluids that bathe these cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Its physiological role is to transport long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for energy production. (drsquat.com)
- Furthermore, studies involving vasodilatation or specifically vascular smooth muscles are often performed using isolated blood vessels. (hindawi.com)
- Vasodilation occurs when the muscles in the walls of blood vessels relax so that the vessels dilate. (britannica.com)
- In contrast, the primary vasoconstrictor prostanoid TxA 2 is produced in far smaller quantities, primarily by the platelets, and to a lesser extent by some systemic blood vessels ( 54 , 71 ). (physiology.org)
- Inducible NOS (iNOS, also NOS-2) is expressed in macrophages, lymphocytes, vascular smooth muscle and other types of cells during inflammation. (pediagenosis.com)
- In some people, this barrier can break down allowing the acid to damage the stomach, causing inflammation, ulcers and other conditions. (termsreign.ga)
- In this review, we discuss the role of airway smooth muscle cells in the regulation and perpetuation of airway inflammation that contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. (biomedcentral.com)
- The pain from arthritis is due to inflammation that occurs around the joint, damage to the joint from disease, daily wear and tear of joint, muscle strains caused by forceful movements against stiff painful joints and fatigue. (calgarycmmc.com)
- Schematic illustration of the key events involved in the vascular smooth muscle response to K + channel activation (left) or inhibition (right). (ahajournals.org)
- Right: In the reverse case, inhibition of a vascular muscle K + channel decreases K + efflux and hence, increases E m (depolarization). (ahajournals.org)
- However, some CYPs are predominantly detected in the heart, vasculature, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and lung, 4-6 and recent data have suggested that specific CYPs localized in the vascular smooth muscle and endothelium contribute to the regulation of vascular tone and homeostasis. (ahajournals.org)
- Once released from the endothelium, NO diffuses through the vascular wall and into the smooth muscle cells, where it activates the cytosolic enzyme guanylyl cyclase . (pediagenosis.com)
- [3-Cellular elements that could contribute to the cerebral vascular response to CO 2 include vascular cells (endothelium and smooth muscle) and extravascular cells (perivascular nerves, parenchymal neurons, and glia). (asahq.org)
- Instead, the endothelium is an important organ possessing at least five different adrenoceptor subtypes (␣2A/D, ␣2C, ␤1, ␤2, and ␤3), which either directly or through the release of nitric oxide actively participate in the regulation of the vascular tone. (spotidoc.com)
- These stimuli, either directly or indirectly, result in the activation of an enzyme called phospholipase A 2 . (britannica.com)
- Beta oxidation, in the mitochondrial matrix, then cuts the long carbon chains of the fatty acids (in the form of acyl-CoA molecules) into a series of two-carbon (acetate) units, which, combined with co-enzyme A, form molecules of acetyl CoA, which condense with oxaloacetate to form citrate at the "beginning" of the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- The prototype of antiplatelet drugs is aspirin, which inhibits cyclooxygenase, an enzyme involved in arachidonic acid metabolism. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
- Recent studies in mouse and rat mesenteric arteries and mouse aorta showed vasoconstrictor effects at up to 10 μmol/L of hydrogen peroxide, whereas higher concentrations induced sustained and almost irreversible vasodilation. (ahajournals.org)
- Thoracic aorta and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from rats were incubated with vehicle or with PugNAc, which increases O-GlcNAcylation. (bvsalud.org)
- When compared to other macronutrient classes (carbohydrates and protein), fatty acids yield the most ATP on an energy per gram basis, when they are completely oxidized to CO2 and water by beta oxidation and the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Because of the susceptibility of unsaturated fatty acids to diverse oxidation and radical addition reactions, the formation of electrophilic byproducts is extensive during both basal metabolism and inflammatory responses and is the focus of this article. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The PTM of proteins by electrophilic fatty acid oxidation and nitration products predominantly occurs by S-alkylation of protein thiols, with other nucleophilic amino acids serving as less favorable targets. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Depending on the type of stimulus and the enzymes present, arachidonic acid may diverge down one of several possible pathways. (britannica.com)
- Although the mechanism of action has not been elucidated, following subcutaneous administration, CD44 targeted agent SPL-108 binds to CD44 and prevents the activation of various CD44-mediated signal transduction pathways, which may lead to reduced proliferation of CD44-expressing tumor stem cells. (cancer.gov)
- Recurrent laryngeal nerve: All muscles except the cricothyroid muscle which is innervated by the external brand of the superior laryngeal nerve. (wordpress.com)
- Researchers were able to identify risk groups, severe and atypical forms of the infection, cases of vertical transmission, chronic disease causing recurrent pain over three years, and directly- or indirectly-related deaths from the virus. (bvsalud.org)
- Activated MASTL acids ARPP19 and ENSA on groups human and active, therefore, splitting them to yield to and be the structure library of PP2A was with the immune eye PPP2R2D( B55-delta). (evakoch.com)
- The short signal peptide is cleaved to yield proET‐1 which, in turn, is cleaved by furin or PC7 convertases at dibasic amino acids to yield Big ET‐1. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
- Fatty acids are released, between meals, from the fat depots in adipose tissue, where they are stored as triglycerides, as follows: Lipolysis, the removal of the fatty acid chains from the glycerol to which they are bound in their storage form as triglycerides (or fats), is carried out by lipases. (wikipedia.org)
- Intense research on these cells over the years has demonstrated their role as effector cells in the maintenance of tissue integrity following injury produced by infectious agents, toxins, metabolic states, etc. (frontiersin.org)
- These mediators can directly initiate tissue responses on resident cells, but they have also been shown to regulate other infiltrating immune cell functions. (frontiersin.org)
- PTGES3( tissue) interactions to HSP90 matrix directly having it in the structure with a due c examining acetylation. (evakoch.com)
- Neuronal NOS (nNOS, also NOS-1) is expressed by multiple types of cells, including autonomic and sensory nerves, vascular smooth muscle and skeletal muscle fibres. (pediagenosis.com)
- The metabolic cooperation between contracting skeletal muscle and the liver to support active muscle work is called the Cori cycle. (drsquat.com)
- Taken together, these results suggest that LLE may be a candidate preventive and therapeutic agent in cardiovascular diseases associated with platelet hyperactivity. (bvsalud.org)
- INTRODUCCIÓN: el endotelio vascular posee un papel esencial en los procesos asociados a la enfermedad cardiovascular. (bvsalud.org)
- Lever - A rigid object (bone), hinged at one point (joint) to which forces (via muscle contraction or resistance) are applied at two other points. (drsquat.com)
- The hemodynamic alterations associated with ARF include afferent arterio-lar constriction and mesangial contraction, both of which directly reduce GFR. (rrnursingschool.biz)
- Release of mediators from infiltrating inflammatory cells in the airway mucosa has been proposed to contribute directly or indirectly to changes in airway structure and function. (biomedcentral.com)
- The airway smooth muscle, which has been regarded as a contractile component of the airways responding to various mediators and neurotransmitters, has recently been recognised as a rich source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. (biomedcentral.com)
- Therapy in asthma can be aimed at blocking airway reflexes, relaxing smooth muscle, inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators, and increasing beta adrenoceptor tone.An increasing appreciation of the role of the inflammatory component led to a change of emphasis in drug therapy for long term treatment (Barnes 1989, Guidelines for the Management ofAsthma in Adults 1990, Guidelines for the Management ofAsthma 1997). (rrnursingschool.biz)
- When two or more double bonds are present, unsaturated fatty acids are referred to as PUFA [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Today, industrialised societies are characterised by an increase in saturated fat, omega 6 PUFA, and trans fatty acid intake, as well as an overall decrease in omega-3 PUFA intake [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)