An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)
A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.
A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).
A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
Enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of arachidonic acid to hydroperoxyarachidonates. These products are then rapidly converted by a peroxidase to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. The positional specificity of the enzyme reaction varies from tissue to tissue. The final lipoxygenase pathway leads to the leukotrienes. EC 1.13.11.- .
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
A dual inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. It exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The drug also enhances pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and has a protective effect after myocardial ischemia.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS.
20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that occur in the CYTOSOL.
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.
A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin G2.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta(1E,3E,5Z,8Z)))-3-(1,3,5,8-Tetradecatetraenyl)oxiranebutanoic acid. An unstable allylic epoxide, formed from the immediate precursor 5-HPETE via the stereospecific removal of a proton at C-10 and dehydration. Its biological actions are determined primarily by its metabolites, i.e., LEUKOTRIENE B4 and cysteinyl-leukotrienes. Alternatively, leukotriene A4 is converted into LEUKOTRIENE C4 by glutathione-S-transferase or into 5,6-di-HETE by the epoxide-hydrolase. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of a PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 enzyme.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASE.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
Cyclohexane ring substituted by one or more ketones in any position.
Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the syn-dehydrogenation of linoleol-CoA gamma-linolenoyl-CoA. It was formerly characterized as EC
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
Dioxygenases that catalyze the peroxidation of methylene-interrupted UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.
An anthracene derivative that disrupts MITOCHONDRIA function and structure and is used for the treatment of DERMATOSES, especially PSORIASIS. It may cause FOLLICULITIS.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
Compounds that inhibit the action of prostaglandins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Amides composed of unsaturated aliphatic FATTY ACIDS linked with AMINES by an amide bond. They are most prominent in ASTERACEAE; PIPERACEAE; and RUTACEAE; and also found in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE; BRASSICACEAE; CONVOLVULACEAE; EUPHORBIACEAE; MENISPERMACEAE; POACEAE; and SOLANACEAE. They are recognized by their pungent taste and for causing numbing and salivation.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
cis-13-Docosenoic Acids. 22-Carbon monounsaturated, monocarboxylic acids.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mortierellaceae, order MUCORALES. Its species are abundant in soil and can cause rare infections in humans and animals. Mortierella alpinais is used for production of arachidonic acid.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that contains both a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment and interfacial-binding region specific for PHOSPHATIDYL CHOLINE-containing membranes. This enzyme group may play a role in the release of ARACHIDONIC ACID from phospholipid membranes.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).
Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
A secreted phospholipase A2 subtype that contains a interfacial-binding region with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. This enzyme group may play a role in eliciting ARACHIDONIC ACID release from intact cellular membranes and from LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Members of this group bind specifically to PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Cell surface proteins that bind eicosanoids with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Among the eicosanoid receptors are receptors for the prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that are secreted from cells. They are 14 kDa proteins containing multiple disulfide-bonds and access their substrate via an interfacial binding site that interacts with phospholipid membranes. In addition specific PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS can bind to and internalize the enzymes.
An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC
A chemically diverse group of substances produced by various tissues in the body that cause slow contraction of smooth muscle; they have other intense but varied pharmacologic activities.
An anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic of the phenylalkynoic acid series. It has been shown to reduce bone resorption in periodontal disease by inhibiting CARBONIC ANHYDRASE.
Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.

Mechanisms of prostaglandin E2 release by intact cells expressing cyclooxygenase-2: evidence for a 'two-component' model. (1/4381)

Prostaglandin (PG) release in cells expressing constitutive cyclooxygenase-1 is known to be regulated by liberation of arachidonic acid by phospholipase A2 followed by metabolism by cyclooxygenase. However, the relative contribution of phospholipase A2 to the release of PGs in cells expressing cyclooxygenase-2 is not clear. We addressed this question by using radioimmunoassay to measure PGE2 release by human cells (A549) induced to express cyclooxygenase-2 (measured by Western blot analysis) by interleukin-1beta. Cells were either unstimulated or stimulated with agents known to activate phospholipase A2 (bradykinin, Des-Arg10-kallidin, or the calcium ionophore A23187) or treated with exogenous arachidonic acid. When cells were treated to express cyclooxygenase-2, the levels of PGE2 released over 15 min were undetectable; however, in the same cells stimulated with bradykinin, A23187, or arachidonic acid, large amounts of prostanoid were produced. Using selective inhibitors/antagonists, we found that the effects of bradykinin were mediated by B2 receptor activation and that prostanoid release was due to cyclooxygenase-2, and not cyclooxygenase-1, activity. In addition, we show that the release of PGE2 stimulated by either bradykinin, A23187, or arachidonic acid was inhibited by the phospholipase A2 inhibitor arachidonate trifluoromethyl ketone. Hence, we have demonstrated that PGE2 is released by two components: induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and supply of substrate, probably via activation of phospholipase A2. This is illustrated in A549 cells by a clear synergy between the cytokine interleukin-1beta and the kinin bradykinin.  (+info)

Pharmacology of LY315920/S-5920, [[3-(aminooxoacetyl)-2-ethyl-1- (phenylmethyl)-1H-indol-4-yl]oxy] acetate, a potent and selective secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitor: A new class of anti-inflammatory drugs, SPI. (2/4381)

LY315920 is a potent, selective inhibitor of recombinant human, group IIA, nonpancreatic secretory PLA2 (sPLA2). In a chromogenic isolated enzyme assay, LY315920 inhibited sPLA2 activity with an IC50 of 9 +/- 1 nM or 7.3 x 10(-6) mole fraction, which approached the stiochiometric limit of this assay. The true potency of LY315920 was defined using a deoxycholate/phosphatidylcholine assay with a mole fraction of 1.5 x 10(-6). LY315920 was 40-fold less active against human, group IB, pancreatic sPLA2 and was inactive against cytosolic PLA2 and the constitutive and inducible forms of cyclooxygenase. Human sPLA2-induced release of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) from isolated guinea pig lung bronchoalveolar lavage cells was inhibited by LY315920 with an IC50 of 0.79 microM. The release of TXA2 from these cells by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine or arachidonic acid was not inhibited. The i.v. administration of LY315920, 5 min before harvesting the bronchoalveolar lavage cells, resulted in the inhibition of sPLA2-induced production of TXA2 with an ED50 of 16.1 mg/kg. Challenge of guinea pig lung pleural strips with sPLA2 produced contractile responses that were suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by LY315920 with an apparent KB of 83 +/- 14 nM. Contractile responses induced by arachidonic acid were not altered. Intravenous or oral administration of LY315920 to transgenic mice expressing the human sPLA2 protein inhibited serum sPLA2 activity in a dose-related manner over a 4-h time course. LY315920 is a potent and selective sPLA2 inhibitor and represents a new class of anti-inflammatory agent designated SPI. This agent is currently undergoing clinical evaluation and should help to define the role of sPLA2 in various inflammatory disease states.  (+info)

Calcium responses induced by acetylcholine in submucosal arterioles of the guinea-pig small intestine. (3/4381)

1. Calcium responses induced by brief stimulation with acetylcholine (ACh) were assessed from the fluorescence changes in fura-2 loaded submucosal arterioles of the guinea-pig small intestine. 2. Initially, 1-1.5 h after loading with fura-2 (fresh tissues), ACh increased [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner. This response diminished with time, and finally disappeared in 2-3 h (old tissues). 3. Ba2+ elevated [Ca2+]i to a similar extent in both fresh and old tissues. ACh further increased the Ba2+-elevated [Ca2+]i in fresh tissues, but reduced it in old tissues. Responses were not affected by either indomethacin or nitroarginine. 4. In fresh mesenteric arteries, mechanical removal of endothelial cells abolished the ACh-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, with no alteration of [Ca2+]i at rest and during elevation with Ba2+. 5. In the presence of indomethacin and nitroarginine, high-K+ solution elevated [Ca2+]i in both fresh and old tissues. Subsequent addition of ACh further increased [Ca2+]i in fresh tissues without changing it in old tissues. 6. Proadifen, an inhibitor of the enzyme cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase, inhibited the ACh-induced changes in [Ca2+]i in both fresh and Ba2+-stimulated old tissues. It also inhibited the ACh-induced hyperpolarization. 7. In fresh tissues, the ACh-induced Ca2+ response was not changed by apamin, charybdotoxin (CTX), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or glibenclamide. In old tissues in which [Ca2+]i had previously been elevated with Ba2+, the ACh-induced Ca2+ response was inhibited by CTX but not by apamin, 4-AP or glibenclamide. 8. It is concluded that in submucosal arterioles, ACh elevates endothelial [Ca2+]i and reduces muscular [Ca2+]i, probably through the hyperpolarization of endothelial or smooth muscle membrane by activating CTX-sensitive K+ channels.  (+info)

The cyclo-oxygenase-dependent regulation of rabbit vein contraction: evidence for a prostaglandin E2-mediated relaxation. (4/4381)

1. Arachidonic acid (0.01-1 microM) induced relaxation of precontracted rings of rabbit saphenous vein, which was counteracted by contraction at concentrations higher than 1 microM. Concentrations higher than 1 microM were required to induce dose-dependent contraction of vena cava and thoracic aorta from the same animals. 2. Pretreatment with a TP receptor antagonist (GR32191B or SQ29548, 3 microM) potentiated the relaxant effect in the saphenous vein, revealed a vasorelaxant component in the vena cava response and did not affect the response of the aorta. 3. Removal of the endothelium from the venous rings, caused a 10 fold rightward shift in the concentration-relaxation curves to arachidonic acid. Whether or not the endothelium was present, the arachidonic acid-induced relaxations were prevented by indomethacin (10 microM) pretreatment. 4. In the saphenous vein, PGE2 was respectively a 50 and 100 fold more potent relaxant prostaglandin than PGI2 and PGD2. Pretreatment with the EP4 receptor antagonist, AH23848B, shifted the concentration-relaxation curves of this tissue to arachidonic acid in a dose-dependent manner. 5. In the presence of 1 microM arachidonic acid, venous rings produced 8-10 fold more PGE2 than did aorta whereas 6keto-PGF1alpha and TXB2 productions remained comparable. 6. Intact rings of saphenous vein relaxed in response to A23187. Pretreatment with L-NAME (100 microM) or indomethacin (10 microM) reduced this response by 50% whereas concomitant pretreatment totally suppressed it. After endothelium removal, the remaining relaxing response to A23187 was prevented by indomethacin but not affected by L-NAME. 7. We conclude that stimulation of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway by arachidonic acid induced endothelium-dependent, PGE2/EP4 mediated relaxation of the rabbit saphenous vein. This process might participate in the A23187-induced relaxation of the saphenous vein and account for a relaxing component in the response of the vena cava to arachidonic acid. It was not observed in thoracic aorta because of the lack of a vasodilatory receptor and/or the poorer ability of this tissue than veins to produce PGE2.  (+info)

Plasmalogen status influences docosahexaenoic acid levels in a macrophage cell line. Insights using ether lipid-deficient variants. (5/4381)

Previously, this laboratory reported the isolation of variants, RAW. 12 and RAW.108, from the macrophage-like cell line RAW 264.7 that are defective in plasmalogen biosynthesis [Zoeller, R.A. et al. 1992. J. Biol. Chem. 267: 8299-8306]. Fatty acid analysis showed significant changes in the mutants in the ethanolamine phospholipids (PE), the only phospholipid class in which the plasmalogen species, plasmenylethanolamine, contributes significantly. Within the PE fraction, docosapentaenoic (DPA; 22:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) acids were reduced by approximately 50% in the variants while the levels of arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) remained unaffected. The decrease in DHA was accompanied by a 50% decrease in labeling PE with [3H]DHA over a 90-min period. Restoration of plasmenylethanolamine by supplementing the growth medium with sn -1-hexadecylglycerol (HG) completely reversed these changes in RAW. 108. Pre-existing pools of plasmenylethanolamine were not required for restoration of normal [3H]DHA labeling; addition of HG only during the labeling period was sufficient. Due to the loss of Delta1'-desaturase in RAW.12, HG supplementation resulted in the accumulation of plasmenylethanolamine's immediate biosynthetic precursor, plasmanylethanolamine. Even though this latter phospholipid contained only the ether functionality (lacking the vinyl ether double bond) it was sufficient to restore wild type-like fatty acid composition and DHA labeling of the ethanolamine phospholipids, identifying the ether bond as a structural determinant for this specificity. In summary, we have used these mutants to establish that the plasmalogen status of a cell can influence the levels of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids. These results support the notion that certain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as DHA, can be selectively targeted to plasmalogens and that this targeting occurs during de novo biosynthesis, or shortly thereafter, through modification of nascent plasmalogen pools.  (+info)

Arachidonic acid in platelet microparticles up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2-dependent prostaglandin formation via a protein kinase C/mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. (6/4381)

Activation of platelets results in shedding of membrane microparticles (MP) with potentially bioactive properties. Platelet MP modulate platelet, monocyte, and vascular endothelial cell function, both by direct effects of MP arachidonic acid (AA) and by its metabolism to bioactive prostanoids. We have previously reported that platelet MP induce expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and prostacyclin production in monocytes and endothelial cells. To elucidate further the molecular mechanisms that underlie MP-induced up-regulation of COX-2 expression, we investigated the response of a human monocytoid (U-937) cell line to platelet MP stimulation. In U-937 cells, MP-induced COX-2 expression and eicosanoid formation is prevented by pharmacological inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), PI 3-kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 kinase. Treatment with the PI 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 also blocked MP-induced p42/p44 MAPK, p38, and JNK1 phosphorylation. Conversely, platelet MP stimulation of U-937 cells results in direct activation of PKC, p42/p44 MAPK, p38 kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) as well as activation of the transcription factors c-Jun and Elk-1. However, MP failed to activate the cAMP response element. Activation of U-937 cells by MP induces translocation of classical (PKCbeta), novel (PKCdelta) and atypical (PKCzeta and PKClambda) isozymes of PKC from the cytosol to the membrane, with concomitant activation of downstream MAPK. While MP-induced activation of p42/p44 MAPK and p38 kinase is transient, a sustained activation of JNK1 was observed. Although PKC activation is required for MP-induced p42/p44 MAPK, activation of the stress kinases p38 and JNK1 was PKC-independent. The fatty acid fraction of the MP accounted for these effects, which were mimicked by MP AA. Rather than acting directly via nuclear receptors, MP AA activates COX-2-dependent prostaglandin production by a PKC/p42/p44 MAPK/p38 kinase-sensitive pathway in which PI 3-kinase plays a significant role. MP AA also stimulates transcriptional activation of COX-2 as well as c-Jun and Elk-1.  (+info)

Effect of prostanoids and their precursors on the aggregation of rainbow trout thrombocytes. (7/4381)

The role of prostanoids and their precursor fatty acids in the aggregatory response of thrombocytes (platelet equivalents of fish) from the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was studied. Aggregation of these cells was induced by the thromboxane mimetic U-46619 or arachidonic acid (AA) in the presence of human or trout fibrinogen. The production of TXB2/3 by thrombocytes in response to stimulation with AA was inhibited by aspirin, ibuprofen, and indomethacin. However, thrombocyte aggregation in response to AA stimulation was not significantly altered by these agents at the concentrations tested (10-100 microM), with the exception of indomethacin at 20 and 40 microM. Effects on cytosolic calcium concentration have been suggested as an alternative mechanism for the inhibitory action of indomethacin on human platelet aggregation. The present study, however, failed to identify this as a mechanism for the inhibition of U-46619-induced trout thrombocyte aggregation by indomethacin. The polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid both exhibited an inhibitory effect on U-46619-induced thrombocyte aggregation similar to that observed with mammalian platelets. Unlike the case in mammalian hemostasis, prostacyclin inhibited thrombocyte aggregation only at high concentrations (>5 microM). Prostaglandin E2, however, inhibited thrombocyte aggregation at much lower concentrations (>0.01 microM), suggesting that it may be the major inhibitory eicosanoid in trout.  (+info)

Endothelin-1 and CYP450 arachidonate metabolites interact to promote tissue injury in DOCA-salt hypertension. (8/4381)

Inhibition of cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzymes with cobalt chloride (CoCl2) prevented hypertension, organ hypertrophy, and renal injury induced by DOCA and salt (1% NaCl) in uninephrectomized (UNx) rats. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) rose to 193 +/- 6 mmHg by day 21 from control levels of 150 +/- 7 mmHg in response to DOCA-salt treatment, a rise that was prevented by CoCl2 (24 mg. kg-1. 24 h-1). The effects of DOCA-salt treatment, which increased protein excretion to 88.3 +/- 6.9 mg/24 h on day 21 from 9.0 +/- 1.1 mg/24 h on day 3, were prevented by CoCl2. CoCl2 also attenuated the renal and left ventricular hypertrophy and the increase in media-to-lumen ratio in hypertensive rats. DOCA-salt treatment increased excretion of endothelin (ET)-1 from 81 +/- 17 to 277 +/- 104 pg. 100 g body wt-1. 24 h-1 associated with a fourfold increase in 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) excretion from 3.0 +/- 1.1 to 12.2 +/- 1.9 ng. 100 g body wt-1. 24 h-1 (days 3 vs. 21). CoCl2 blunted these increases by 58 and 72%, respectively. In aortic rings pulsed with [3H]thymidine, ET-1 increased its incorporation. Dibromododec-11-enoic acid, an inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesis, attenuated ET-1-induced increases in [3H]thymidine incorporation. We distinguished effects of CoCl2 acting via CO generation vs. suppression of CYP450-arachidonic acid metabolism by treating UNx-salt-DOCA rats with 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), which suppresses CYP450 enzyme activity, and compared these results to those produced by CoCl2. ABT reduced hypertension, as did CoCl2. Unlike CoCl2, ABT did not prevent organ hypertrophy and proteinuria, suggesting that these effects were partially related to CO formation. Blockade of the ETA receptor with BMS-182874 reduced SBP, organ hypertrophy, and proteinuria, indicating the importance of ET-initiated abnormalities to the progression of lesions in UNx-salt-DOCA.  (+info)

I have postulated that arachidonic acid release from rat liver cells is associated with cancer chemoprevention. Since it has been reported that inhibition of proteasome activities may prevent cancer, the effects of proteasome inhibitors on arachidonic acid release from cells and on prostaglandin I2 production in rat liver cells were studied. The proteasome inhibitors, epoxomicin, lactacystin and carbobenzoxy-leucyl-leucyl-leucinal, stimulate the release of arachidonic acid from rat glial, human colon carcinoma, human breast carcinoma and the rat liver cells. They also stimulate basal and induced prostacycin production in the rat liver cells. The stimulated arachidonic acid release and basal prostaglandin I2 production in rat liver cells is inhibited by actinomycin D. Stimulation of arachidonic acid release and arachidonic acid metabolism may be associated with some of the biologic effects observed after proteasome inhibition, e.g. prevention of tumor growth, induction of apoptosis, stimulation of bone
It is well recognized that the CYP-derived eicosanoids constitute a new member of the arachidonic acid cascade with important implications in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes. These metabolites are formed endogenously in various tissues and exert potent biological effects on cellular functions. Studies of their role in normal and diseased cells and tissues are impeded by the difficulty in selectively targeting their synthesis or their effects, because these metabolites are generated from multiple closely related proteins of the CYP superfamily. Consequently, the development of enzyme inhibitors that target specific isoforms/reactions should aid in the study of their pathophysiological roles.. We have synthesized a series of fatty acid/arachidonic acid analogs and tested their potency and selectivity in inhibiting arachidonic acid epoxidation and ω-hydroxylation reactions in rat renal microsomes. Our study confirms that the widely used, terminal acetylenic ...
Although lithium has been used therapeutically to treat patients with bipolar disorder for over 50 years, its mechanism of action, as well as that of other drugs used to treat bipolar disorder, is not agreed upon. In the present paper, I review studies in unanaesthetized rats using a neuropharmacological approach, combined with kinetic, biochemical and molecular biology techniques, demonstrating that chronic administration of three commonly used mood stabilizers (lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine), at therapeutically relevant doses, selectively target the brain arachidonic acid cascade. Upon chronic administration, lithium and carbamazepine decrease the binding activity of activator protein-2 and, in turn, the transcription, translation and activity of its arachidonic acid-selective calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 gene product, whereas chronic valproic acid non-competitively inhibits long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. The net overlapping effects of the three mood stabilizers are decreased ...
Dietary fatty acid supply can affect stress response in fish during early development. Although knowledge on the mechanisms involved in fatty acid regulation of stress tolerance is scarce, it has often been hypothesised that eicosanoid profiles can influence cortisol production. Genomic cortisol actions are mediated by cytosolic receptors which may respond to cellular fatty acid signalling. An experiment was designed to test the effects of feeding gilthead sea-bream larvae with four microdiets, containing graded arachidonic acid (ARA) levels (0·4, 0·8, 1·5 and 3·0 %), on the expression of genes involved in stress response (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, glucocorticoid receptor and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), lipid and, particularly, eicosanoid metabolism (hormone-sensitive lipase, PPARα, phospholipase A2, cyclo-oxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase), as determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Fish fatty acid phenotypes reflected dietary fatty acid profiles. Growth performance, ...
Definition of Arachidonic acid cascade with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
PubMed journal article: Both Orai1 and Orai3 are essential components of the arachidonate-regulated Ca2+-selective (ARC) channels. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Arachidonic acid supplementation in daily doses of 1,000-1,500 mg for 50 days has been well tolerated during several clinical studies, with no significant side effects reported. All common markers of health, including kidney and liver function,[35] serum lipids,[39] immunity,[40] and platelet aggregation[34] appear to be unaffected with this level and duration of use. Furthermore, higher concentrations of ARA in muscle tissue may be correlated with improved insulin sensitivity.[41] Arachidonic acid supplementation of the diets of healthy adults appears to offer no toxicity or significant safety risk. While studies looking at arachidonic acid supplementation in sedentary subjects have failed to find changes in resting inflammatory markers in doses up to 1,500 mg daily, strength-trained subjects may respond differently. One study reported a significant reduction in resting inflammation (via marker IL-6) in young men supplementing 1,000 mg/day of arachidonic acid for 50 days in combination with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism of thrombin-induced arachidonic acid release in osteoblast-like cells. AU - Suzuki, A.. AU - Kozawa, O.. AU - Shinoda, J.. AU - Watanabe-Tomita, Y.. AU - Saito, H.. AU - Oiso, Y.. PY - 1997/6. Y1 - 1997/6. N2 - In a previous study, we have reported that thrombin stimulates phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by phospholipase (PL) D, but has little effect on phosphoinositide hydrolysis by PLC in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of the thrombin-induced arachidonic acid (AA) release in MC3T3-E1 cells. Thrombin stimulated AA release dose dependently in the range between 0.1 and 1 U/ml. Quinacrine, a PLA2 inhibitor, suppressed the thrombin-induced AA release. In addition, quinacrine also suppressed the thrombin-induced prostaglandin E2 synthesis in these cells. On the other hand, propranolol, which is known to inhibit phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase, did not affect the thrombin-induced AA release. ...
The present study was designed to determine whether or not lipoxygenase-dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid are involved in the endothelium-dependent
Purified human monocytes release and metabolize endogenous arachidonic acid (20:4) from phospholipid stores when challenged with particulate inflammatory stimuli or the calcium ionophore A23187. Using radiolabeled cultures, the percentage of total [3H]20:4 released was similar with each type of stimulus. However, the spectrum of 20:4 metabolites differed. With opsonized zymosan (OpZ) or Sephadex beads coated with IgG immune complexes (Ig-beads), the predominant product was thromboxane (25% of the total) together with smaller amounts of other cyclo-oxygenase products and lipoxygenase metabolites. Levels of thromboxane synthesis by monocytes were comparable to those by platelets, as measured by radioimmunoassay. In contrast, exposure to the nonspecific agent A23187 led to mainly lipoxygenase products (70% of the total). Monocytes isolated from mononuclear cell fractions of peripheral blood contain platelets specifically rosetted to their surfaces. These platelet contaminants were removed by ...
Arachidonic acid may trigger brain inflammation. High blood levels have been associated with a greater risk of suicide and depressive episodes. On the other hand, diets high in carbohydrate and low in fat and protein (with little or no arachidonic acid) may be associated with lower levels of anxiety and depression, according to epidemiological studies.. In one study, overweight or diabetic employees who went on a whole food, plant-based diet reported increased energy, better sleep patterns and improved mental health compared to a control group given no diet restrictions. Their work productivity also showed improvement.. A similar subsequent study of employees at 10 corporate sites showed notable improvements in depression, anxiety and emotional well-being among those following a meat-free, plant-based diet.. ...
Fas-mediated apoptosis of human leukemic U937 cells was accompanied by increased arachidonic acid (AA) and oleic acid release from membrane glycerophospholipids, indicating phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activation. During apoptosis, type IV cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), a PLA2 isozyme with an apparent molecular mass of 110 kDa critical for stimulus-coupled AA release, was converted to a 78-kDa fragment with concomitant loss of catalytic activity. Cleavage of cPLA2 correlated with increased caspase-3-like protease activity in apoptotic cells and was abrogated by a caspase-3 inhibitor. A mutant cPLA2 protein in which Asp522 was replaced by Asn, which aligns with the consensus sequence of the caspase-3 cleavage site (DXXD downward arrowX), was resistant to apo-ptosis-associated proteolysis. Moreover, a COOH-terminal deletion mutant of cPLA2 truncated at Asp522 comigrated with the 78-kDa fragment and exhibited no enzymatic activity. Thus, caspase-3-mediated cPLA2 cleavage eventually leads to destruction of a catalytic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclooxygenase-2-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid to 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid by rat intestinal epithelial cells. AU - Seon, Hwa Lee. AU - Rangiah, Kannan. AU - Williams, Michelle V.. AU - Wehr, Angela Y.. AU - DuBois, Raymond N.. AU - Blair, Ian A.. PY - 2007/11. Y1 - 2007/11. N2 - Rat intestinal epithelial cells mat permanently express the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene (RIES cells) were used to investigate COX-2-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. A targeted chiral lipidomics approach was employed to quantify AA metabolites that were secreted by the cells into the culture media. When intact RIES cells were treated with calcium ionophore A-23187 (1 μM) for 1 h, 11-(R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) was the most abundant metabolite, followed by prostaglandin (PG) E2, 15-(S)-HETE, 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (ETE), and 15-(R)-HETE. Incubation for a further 23 h after the calcium ionophore was removed resulted in a substantial increase in PGE2 ...
A complex structurally diverse series of eicosanoids arises from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The metabolic profile is further complicated by the enantioselectivity of eicosanoid formation and the variety of regioisomers that arise. In order to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in vitro or in vivo, targeted methods are advantageous in order to distinguish between the complex isomeric mixtures that can arise by different metabolic pathways. Over the last several years this targeted approach has become more popular, although there are still relatively few examples where chiral targeted approaches have been employed to directly analyze complex enantiomeric mixtures. To efficiently conduct targeted eicosanoid analyses, LC separations are coupled with collision induced dissociation (CID) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Product ion profiles are often diagnostic for particular regioisomers. The highest sensitivity that can be achieved involves the use of selected reaction monitoring
Title: Role of Cytochrome P450 Metabolites of Arachidonic Acid in Hypertension. VOLUME: 5 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):A. Sarkis and R. J. Roman. Affiliation:Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA.. Keywords:cytochrome p450, eicosanoids, hypertension, 20-hete, eets. Abstract: Considerable evidence has accumulated over the last decade implicating a role of cytochrome P450 (CYP)- dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Indeed, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is produced by vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells and is a potent vasoconstrictor that depolarizes VSM by blocking large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels. In contrast, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are synthesized by the vascular endothelium and have opposite effects on VSM (hyperpolarization and vasodilatation). Inhibition of the synthesis of 20-HETE attenuates myogenic tone and autoregulation of blood flow and ...
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds called eicosanoids[1] having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue in humans and other animals. They are derived enzymatically from the fatty acid arachidonic acid.[2] Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring. They are a subclass of eicosanoids and of the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives. The structural differences between prostaglandins account for their different biological activities. A given prostaglandin may have different and even opposite effects in different tissues in some cases. The ability of the same prostaglandin to stimulate a reaction in one tissue and inhibit the same reaction in another tissue is determined by the type of receptor to which the prostaglandin binds. They act as autocrine or paracrine factors with their target cells present in the immediate vicinity of the site of their secretion. ...
Fat is back. Not that it ever really went away. Even when very low-fat diets were all the rage, experts recognized that certain fats were more harmful than others and some were even beneficial.. A common misperception is that omega-6 polyunsaturated fats, which are found in abundant amounts in most oils, including soybean oil, are pro-inflammatory. Meanwhile, it is thought that omega-3 polyunsaturated fats protect against inflammation. Chronic inflammation is believed to be a key process underlying many chronic diseases.. Back in the late 1970s, researchers suggested that the low incidence of heart disease among the Inuit of Canada and Alaska was related to their fat intake.1 Specifically, this population eats a diet high in the omega-3 fatty acid eicosanoic acid from fish and low in the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid which is found in other types of meat.. The findings put omega-3 fats in the spotlight, giving rise to the popularity of fish oil supplements. But evidence in support of the ...
BioAssay record AID 3623 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of [14C]arachidonic acid conversion to 5-HETE by broken cell 5-LO isolated from guinea pig PMN.
The Ultimate Plateau Breaker!X-FACTOR™ is an arachidonic acid [ARASYN™] supplement for bodybuilders and athletes. An Omega-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid (ARA) supports the initiation of muscle protein synthesis following exercise. ARA is richly stored in muscle tissues, and these levels may vary. Further, they can be
In the present study, we investigated whether the protective effect of FK506 and cyclosporin A (CsA) against in vitro ischemic injury of astrocytes might be mediated through attenuation of cytosolic isoform of phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) expression and activity as well as inhibition of arachidonic acid (AA) release. On the 21st day in vitro, cultures of rat astrocytes were subjected to ischemia-simulating conditions (combined oxygen glucose deprivation) for 8 h and exposed to FK506 (10 - 1,000 nM) and CsA (0.25 - 10 microM). Obtained data suggest the cross-talk between the action of 0.25 - 10 microM CsA as well as 1 microM FK506 on calcineurin (CaN) and cPLA(2) in anti-apoptotic signal transduction pathways. Moreover, we have shown that immunosuppressants at these concentrations protected glial cells against ischemia-induced apoptosis through the increase of cell viability, mitochondrial function restoration, and attenuation of oxidative stress. Finally, in our study, low concentrations of FK506 (10
Boglino, A , A Wishkerman, Maria Darias, P de la Iglesia, A Estévez, K B Andree, et E Gisbert. 2014. « The Effects Of Dietary Arachidonic Acid On Senegalese Sole Morphogenesis: A Synthesis Of Recent Findings ». Aquaculture 432: 443 - 452. doi: ...
Topical corticosteroids and topical nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the two main options at surgeons disposal for controlling postoperative ocular inflammation. While both drug classes decrease inflammation, they have different properties and different mechanisms of action.Steroids block the inflammatory cascade at an early stage: the arachidonic acid pathway activated by tissue damage. But to be effective, steroids need to pass through cell membranes and enter the nucleus, which is limited because of their lipophobic nature. In addition, steroid side effects include intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation, delayed wound healing, and increased susceptibility to infection.NSAIDs block cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2), enzymes that convert arachidonic acid into the prostaglandins that directly mediate inflammation. NSAIDs enter cells readily and effectively shut down prostaglandin formation; within its class, the brominated NSAID bromfenac penetrates cells particularly well. ...
Prostaglandins act as short-lived localized hormones that can be released by any cell of the body during tissue, chemical, or traumatic injury, and can induce fever, inflammation, and pain, once they are present in the intercellular space. Thromboxanes, which are also hormone activators, can regulate blood vessel tone, platelet aggregation, and clot formation to increase the inflammatory response.[92,82] The inflammatory pathway is a complex biochemical pathway which, once stimulated by injury, leads to the production of these and other inflammatory mediators whose initial effect is pain and tissue destruction, followed by healing and recovery.[34,51] A major component of the inflammatory pathway is called the arachidonic acid pathway because arachidonic acid is immediately released from traumatized cellular membranes. Membrane-based arachidonic acid is transformed into prostaglandins and thromboxanes partly through the enzymatic action of cyclooxygenase (COX)[34,57]. There are two types of COX ...
Prostaglandins act as short-lived localized hormones that can be released by any cell of the body during tissue, chemical, or traumatic injury, and can induce fever, inflammation, and pain, once they are present in the intercellular space. Thromboxanes, which are also hormone activators, can regulate blood vessel tone, platelet aggregation, and clot formation to increase the inflammatory response.[92,82] The inflammatory pathway is a complex biochemical pathway which, once stimulated by injury, leads to the production of these and other inflammatory mediators whose initial effect is pain and tissue destruction, followed by healing and recovery.[34,51] A major component of the inflammatory pathway is called the arachidonic acid pathway because arachidonic acid is immediately released from traumatized cellular membranes. Membrane-based arachidonic acid is transformed into prostaglandins and thromboxanes partly through the enzymatic action of cyclooxygenase (COX)[34,57]. There are two types of COX ...
The primary American source of dietary arachidonic acid is eating meat. Meat is not bad per se. Meat becomes bad when the animal is fed junk food that makes it fat and sick. Economically, our food animals are fed the food that is most fattening. Thats because they are sold by the pound. Fatter animals are worth more in the marketplace. Our food animals are proven to become really fat on a diet of corn and/or soybeans.. Of course, fattening animal feed is a poor economic choice unless it is also cheap feed. In todays political environment, the cheapest feed is the food that is subsidized by the taxpayers; and it makes so much sense: lobbying our politicians to use taxpayer dollars to grow corn and soybeans creates a win-win situation for all, cheap meat (this is sarcasm, as noted below).. Meat, a source of complete proteins, historically was an expensive and therefore rare commodity (at least since the Agricultural Revolution, beginning about 10,000 years ago). Animals become big and fat on a ...
BioAssay record AID 274914 submitted by ChEMBL: Activity at COX1 assessed as inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced PGE2 production in J774 cells at 0.01 uM.
The functional activity of cPLA2 is regulated by a variety of stimuli including hormones, neurotransmitters, antigens, and mitogens (10). cPLA2 is functionally linked to COX-2 within the perinuclear membrane and is the primary source of arachidonic acid production for COX-2 (19, 20). Despite its critical role in the generation of PGs, deletion of cPLA2 protected against intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin and ApcΔ716 mice (23, 24). On the contrary, the absence of cPLA2 increased tumor multiplicity and size within the small intestine of Apc mutant mice. However, an opposite effect was observed in the colon, whereby the absence of cPLA2 resulted in a modest increase in the number or size of colon tumors (24, 25). These disparate observations from the Apc heterozygous intestinal tumor models raise the possibility that the cPLA2 effect is tissue specific.. Previously, the levels of cPLA2 were examined in human colon tumors, with somewhat ambiguous results. Using reverse transcription-PCR, Dimberg et ...
just read a article about arachidonic acid,,,had sum great info on it,,,,was wondering if anyone here uses it while on / off cycle and does it really work or is
cPLA2 Antibody is a Rabbit Polyclonal antibody against cPLA2. This gene encodes a member of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 group IV family. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to release arachidonic acid which is subsequently met
COX-2 Drugs were recently approved by FDA, USA. After the discovery of COX-2, several new medicines were produced and unlike the earlier NSAIDs, the side effects were significantly reduced. COX-2 medicines were proved to be safer than COX-1 medicines. Even the doctors are prescribing these COX-2 medicines only because of their advantages over COX-1 medicines.. There is a clear difference in DNA and mRNA structures of these two but the end results are same. Even the structure of these two enzymes is almost 60% similar. The effects of these enzymes on arachidonic acid are almost same but their functionality is different. COX-2 is localized to nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. COX-1 is localized to later one only. For prostaglandin synthesis, these two use different versions of arachidonate.. The best thing about COX-2 is it doesn’t affect the prostaglandins that cause these GI problems in any way. It just stops the synthesis and the user won’t face any discomforts like GI ...
In addition to conventional treatment, there are also nutritional means to deal with inflammation. In my practice, I have helped many individuals complaining of pain from various itis diseases. We address the source of the inflammation, rather than attempting to inhibit an enzyme. The real problem may be the over-abundance of Arachidonic acid that is available to enter the PGE2 inflammatory pathway. Therefore, the first step should be to reduce the dietary consumption of Arachidonic acid, which is only found in animal products. Secondly, supplementing with the omega3 fatty acids, such as DHA and EPA, commonly found in fish oil is also beneficial. One important role of omega3 fatty acids is to keep Arachidonic acids from escaping from our own cell membranes. This may account for the anti-inflammatory role that omega three fatty acids are credited with. I have even seen dramatic results when fish oil is used topically over an inflamed area. For example, many have found relief from the pain ...
This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and is thought to be the predominant enzyme responsible for epoxidation of endogenous arachidonic acid in cardiac tissue. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016 ...
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 ...
Fingerprint Explore the research topics touched on by this project. These labels are generated based on the underlying awards/grants. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Arachidonic Acids Role in Stress and Shock April 3, 2012 Posted in General.. Comments Off on Arachidonic Acids Role in Stress and Shock ...
Series three - made from EPA. The number one function of series 3 prostaglandins is to save you Arachidonic Acid release from cells.. Arachidonic Acid passing thru this pathway will increase irritation and the other problems noted in Series 2. Anything we will do to decrease interest because of the AA pathway is beneficial.. Remember that Omega-threes & Omega-6s can undergo the equal pathway. The Omega-3s are transformed at a lower charge resulting in a decrease quantity. The merchandise of this pathway are then degraded by enzymes.. This machine, like many in the frame, is in constant stability. However, once in a while the manufacturing exceeds metabolism resulting in accelerated inflammation. Omega-3s are inflammatory but to a lesser quantity. Additionally, theyre produced slower ensuing in fewer numbers. This is one of the many blessings of Omega-three fatty acids.. ...
A compound of the formula ##STR1## wherein n is an integer from 2 to 4; m is an integer from 3 to 5; R is OM, OR1 or NR2 R3 where M is a pharmaceutically acceptable cation; R1, R2 and R3 are the same or different and selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1 -C12 branched, unbranched or cyclic alkyl, aryl and aralkyl; or R2 and R3 taken together form a group of the formula ##STR2## can be used as an inhibitor of the lipoxygenase pathway of the arachidonic acid cascade in animals.
Androsurge works as a muscle builder by promoting muscle fullness during your training and reduce muscle catabolism. Optimize your natural potential for maximum muscle building & fat loss. If for any reason at all you arent completely satisfied with your results from this estrogen blocker supplement, simply reach out to us and we will work to resolve your concern. Elite estrogen blocker for men. Satisfaction guaranteed. Be confident that each bottle of Androsurge is free from impurities and safe ...
Principal Investigator:MAIZUMI Yuji, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Biological pharmacy
Scientists in Cambridge have discovered that a brain protein called syntaxin enables fatty molecules, used widely in health supplements, to work in the brain to make it function properly. Lead Scientist, Dr Bazbek Davletov and his colleague Dr Colin Rickman from the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK report their findings in the journal Chemistry and Biology.. ...
Dumex Dulac Boouc 1 information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Danone, Dumex Dulac Boouc 1 indications, usages and related health products lists
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AuxInfo=1/1/N:1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22/E:(21,22)/rA:22nCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCOO/rB:s1;s2;s3;s4;s5;d6;s7;s8;d9;s10;s11;d12;s13;s14;d15;s16;s17;s18;s19;s20;d20;/rC:-7.3658,-.6188,0;-6.6513,-.2062,0;-5.9368,-.6188,0;-5.2224,-.2062,0;-4.5079,-.6188,0;-3.7934,-.2062,0;-2.9684,-.2062,0;-2.2539,-.6188,0;-1.5395,-.2062,0;-.7145,-.2062,0;0,-.6188,0;.7145,-.2062,0;1.5395,-.2062,0;2.2539,-.6188,0;2.9684,-.2062,0;3.7934,-.2062,0;4.5079,-.6188,0;5.2224,-.2062,0;5.9368,-.6188,0;6.6513,-.2062,0;7.3658,-.6188,0;6.6513,.6188,0 ...
EaseFlex PLUS Chews with Green Lipped Mussel supplementation is for the ageing dog or active youngster that has loss of mobility through reduced joint function with Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) which structurally mimic Arachidonic Acid metabolites.
Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is an arachidonic acid metabolite that is released during tissue trauma and elicits platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle contraction. Previous research has shown that TXA2 stimulates pulmonary ...
(2011) Ugajin et al. American Journal of Pathology. Prostaglandin (PG) D2 and PGE2 are arachidonic acid metabolites that are generated though an isomerization reaction catalyzed by PG synthases. PGs have been implicated in immunologic reactions in addition to a wide range of physiological functio...
CYCLOOXYGENASE-2: Cyclooxygenase (COX), first purified in 1976 and cloned in 1988, is the key enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) from arachidonic acid. In 1991, several laboratories identified a product from a second gene with COX activity and called it COX-2. However, COX-2 was inducible, and the inducing stimuli included pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, implying a role for COX-2 in both inflammation and control of cell growth. The two isoforms of COX are almost identical in structure but have important differences in substrate and inhibitor selectivity and in their intracellular locations. Protective PGs, which preserve the integrity of the stomach lining and maintain normal renal function in a compromised kidney, are synthesized by COX-1. In addition to the induction of COX-2 in inflammatory lesions, it is present constitutively in the brain and spinal cord, where it may be involved in nerve transmission, particularly that for pain and fever. PGs made by COX-2 are ...
Find used cars at Ds Car Sales in Bristol - 0117 368 2682. Ask them about the free AA breakdown cover all the cars on AA Cars come with.
This is a demo simulation of an experiment conducted by Schaechter JD et al. ( J Neurosci, 1993 ). This experiment looks at the activation of a subspecies of PKC by arachidonic acid in combination to Ca2+ and diacylglycerol (DAG). You can try changing the stimulus dose (between 0 to 200 uM) for the three stimuli. We will provide the stimuli in combination and compare it with experimental values from the paper. ...
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Arachidonic acid[edit]. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-6 fatty acid, Arachidonic acid (AA, i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,15Z-eicosatrienoic acid ... Eicosapentaenoic acid[edit]. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-3 fatty acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, i.e. 4Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z- ... Mead acid[edit]. Mead acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid) is identical to AA except that has a single rather than double ... Docosahexaenoic acid[edit]. ALOX5 acts in series with ALOX15 to metabolize the omega 3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, i ...
Eicosanoids act as neuromodulators via the Arachidonic acid cascade. Orexins (-A and -B) are involved in a number of cognitive ... "Arachidonic Acid". Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress. Retrieved 2006-03-03. "Neurotrophic factors". ...
General: Arachidonic acid. *DAG (PKC, TRPC). *IP3 (IP3R, RyR) ... Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid ... Since diacylglycerol is synthesized via phosphatidic acid, it will usually contain a saturated fatty acid at the C-1 position ... or free fatty acids.(See Dietary sources of fatty acids, their digestion, absorption, transport in the blood and storage for ... to form lysophosphatidic acid, which is then acylated with another molecule of acyl-CoA to yield phosphatidic acid. ...
General: Arachidonic acid. *DAG (PKC, TRPC). *IP3 (IP3R, RyR) ... Mineralocorticoids (MR); Others: Bile acids (FXR). *Calcitriol ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 17 (13): 5385-6. doi:10.1093/nar/17.13.5385. PMC 318125. PMID 2762133.. ...
... -A synthase, an enzyme found in platelets, converts the arachidonic acid derivative prostaglandin H2 to thromboxane ... Omega-3 fatty acids are metabolized to produce higher levels of TxA,3 which is relatively less potent than TxA2 and PGI3; ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
These convert arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), the immediate precursor of prostacyclin. Since thromboxane (an ... PGI2 is derived from the ω-6 arachidonic acid. PGI3 is derived from the ω-3 EPA. ... Z)-5-[(4R,5R)-5-Hydroxy-4-((S,E)-3-hydroxyoct-1-enyl)hexahydro-2H-cyclopenta[b]furan-2-ylidene]pentanoic acid ... Fischer S, Weber PC (1985). "Thromboxane (TX)A3 and prostaglandin (PG)I3 are formed in man after dietary eicosapentaenoic acid ...
Arachidonic acid (AA) was identified as an ApoD ligand with a much better affinity than that of progesterone or pregnenolone. ... Morais Cabral JH, Atkins GL, Sánchez LM, López-Boado YS, López-Otin C, Sawyer L (June 1995). "Arachidonic acid binds to ... Kuehl FA, Jr; Egan, RW (28 November 1980). "Prostaglandins, arachidonic acid, and inflammation". Science. 210 (4473): 978-84. ... Other ApoD ligands include E-3-methyl-2-hexenoïc acid, a molecule present in axillary secretions; retinoic acid which is ...
Capric acid,[1] n-Capric acid, n-Decanoic acid, Decylic acid, n-Decylic acid, C10:0 (Lipid numbers) ... Decanoic acid (capric acid, C10:0) is a saturated fatty acid. Its formula is CH3(CH2)8COOH. Salts and esters of decanoic acid ... Two other acids are named after goats: caproic (a C6:0 fatty acid) and caprylic (a C8:0 fatty acid). Along with decanoic acid, ... Nonanoic acid, a medium-chain fatty acid, also with antiseizure activity. References[edit]. *^ a b c d n-Decanoic acid in ...
... is the first fatty acid produced during fatty acid synthesis and is the precursor to longer fatty acids. As a ... Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and ... Palmitic acid strongly boosts metastasis in mouse models of human oral cancer cells. Among all fatty acids, it has the ... Aluminium salts of palmitic acid and naphthenic acid were combined during World War II to produce napalm. The word "napalm" is ...
First, Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) facilitates the conversion of phospholipids to Arachidonic Acid, the framework from which all ... The Arachidonic Acid then reacts with two Cyclooxygenase (COX) receptors, COX-1 and COX-2 to form Prostaglandin H2, an ... Z)-7-[(1R,2R,3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxy-2-[(E,3S)- 3-hydroxyoct-1-enyl]cyclopentyl]hept-5-enoic acid ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... Tafluprost acid is inactivated by beta oxidation to 1,2-dinortafluprost acid, 1,2,3,4-tetranortafluprost acid, and its lactone ... Tafluprost, as a lipophilic ester, easily penetrates the cornea and is then activated to the carboxylic acid, tafluprost acid. ... From left to right: tafluprost, tafluprost acid (the active metabolite), 1,2-dinortafluprost acid, 1,2,3,4-tetranortafluprost ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... Prostaglandin E1 is biosynthesized on an as-needed basis from dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) in healthy humans ... 7-[(1R,3R)-3-hydroxy-2-[(1E,3S)-3-hydroxyoct-1-en-1-yl]-5-oxocyclopentyl]heptanoic acid ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
These enzymes epoxidize the double bonds in arachidonic acid to form four regioisomers. Arachidonic acid is also the precursor ... There are epoxides of other lipids besides arachidonic acid such as the omega three docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and ... Moghaddam M, Motoba K, Borhan B, Pinot F, Hammock BD (August 1996). "Novel metabolic pathways for linoleic and arachidonic acid ... Spector AA (April 2009). "Arachidonic acid cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway". J. Lipid Res. 50 Suppl (Suppl): S52-6. doi: ...
Arachidonic acid can then go on into the cyclooxygenase pathway (producing prostoglandins (PGE1, PGE2, PGF2), prostacyclins ( ... It has been reported that the toxin activates the arachidonic acid cascade in isolated rat aorta. The toxin-induced contraction ... Piomelli, Daniele (1993-04-01). "Arachidonic acid in cell signaling" (PDF). Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 5 (2): 274-280. ... to platelet surface receptors can trigger the activation of phospholipase C to catalyze the release of arachidonic acid from ...
Increased arachidonic acid turnover[23]. *Increased cytokine synthesis[26]. Imaging studies have shown that the left amygdala ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007, 4 structures have been solved for this class of ... Enzymatic conversion into 5,6-dihydroxy-7,9,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid by mouse liver cytosolic epoxide hydrolase". J. Biol. ... "Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of leukotriene A4 hydrolase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (19): 6677-81. Bibcode ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007, 3 structures have been solved for this class of ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. Watanabe K, Shimizu T, Iguchi S, Wakatsuka H, Hayashi M, Hayaishi O ( ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. Orning L (December 1987). "Omega-oxidation of cysteine-containing ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007, 3 structures have been solved for this class of ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007[update], 7 structures have been solved for this class ... On the other hand, tyrosine is an ideal proton donor at higher pH because of its pKa value (10.1). The type of amino acid that ... The primary structure of prostaglandin F synthase consists of 323 amino acid residues. The secondary structure consists of 17 α ... and amino acid sequence. In addition, it is categorized as C3 (AKR1C3) because it is an isoform of 3α-hydroxysteroid ...
Regulation of arachidonic acid metabolites in macrophages. J. Exp. Med. 152:324-335. 1982 With W. A. Scott, N. A. Pawlowski, H ... Regulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by macrophage activation. J. Exp. Med. 155:1148-1160. With W. C. Van Voorhis, G. ... Bacterial lipopolysaccharides prime macrophages for enhanced release of arachidonic acid metabolites. J. Exp. Med. 164:165-179 ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. It employs one cofactor, heme. Romano MC, Eckardt RD, Bender PE, ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. Sok DE, Kang JB, Shin HD (1988). "15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid ... H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 15(S)-15-hydroxy-5,8,11-cis-13-trans- ...
Bundy GL, Nidy EG, Epps DE, Mizsak SA, Wnuk RJ (1986). "Discovery of an arachidonic acid C-8 lipoxygenase in the gorgonian ... This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for this class of ...
This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid metabolism. In March 2012 American scientists reported a discovery that shows this ...
... see 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, by a member of the 15-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism, 15(S)-HETE (see ... 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (12-HHT) as well as by three products of the 12-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid ... Eicosanoid receptor 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid ... Cabral M, Martín-Venegas R, Moreno JJ (Aug 2013). "Role of arachidonic acid metabolites on the control of non-differentiated ...
A further downstream event is activation of the arachidonic acid pathway. PGE2 release comes from the arachidonic acid pathway ... resulting in activation of the arachidonic acid pathway.[citation needed] Of these, IL-1β, TNF, and IL-6 are able to raise the ...
Leslie CC (2004). "Regulation of arachidonic acid availability for eicosanoid production". Biochem. Cell Biol. 82 (1): 1-17. ... 2006). "The LIFEdb database in 2006". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (Database issue): D415-8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkj139. PMC 1347501. PMID ...
However, it is unclear how arachidonic acid functions as an inhibitor. Two competing theories are that either arachidonic acid ... One other proposed regulatory strategy involves arachidonic acid. When arachidonic acid is added to tensed muscle tissue, the ... such as arachidonic acid and cAMP, also regulate the enzyme. Smooth muscle tissue is mostly made of actin and myosin, two ... Myosin's regulatory subunit MLC20 binds to both the hydrophobic and acid grooves of PP1 and MYPT1, the regulatory site on ...
... which catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotriene B4 (LTB4).[45] LTB4 promotes skin inflammation by acting on ... Salicylic acid[edit]. Salicylic acid is a topically applied beta-hydroxy acid that stops bacteria from reproducing and has ... "Topical azelaic acid, salicylic acid, nicotinamide, sulphur, zinc and fruit acid (alpha-hydroxy acid) for acne". Cochrane ... lactic acid, salicylic acid, Jessner's solution, or a lower concentration (20%) of trichloroacetic acid. These peels only ...
"MYRISTIC ACID". AroKor Holdings Inc. ശേഖരിച്ചത്: 17 June 2014.. *↑ Playfair, Lyon (2009). "XX. On a new fat ... 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Tetradecanoic acid in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference ... വിക്കിമീഡിയ കോമൺസിലെ Myristic acid എന്ന വർഗ്ഗത്തിൽ ഇതുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട കൂടുതൽ പ്രമാണങ്ങൾ ലഭ്യമാണ്. ... acid in the butter of nutmegs". Philosophical Magazine. Series 3. 18 (115): 102-113. doi:10.1080/14786444108650255. ISSN 1941- ...
Agonists: Arachidonic acid metabolites (e.g., lipoxin A4, prostaglandin G2). *Dietary carotenoids ... which is a eucaryotic receptor for bacterial surface structures such as lipoteichoic acid. ...
In some cases, members of a class of arachidonic acid derivatives, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), have been found to ... These compounds are formed by epoxidation of any one of four double bonds of the arachidonic acid carbon backbone by cytochrome ... "Arachidonic acid metabolites, hydrogen peroxide, and EDHF in cerebral arteries". Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 289 (3): ...
... is inactivated by glucuronidation in the liver.[72] Lamotrigine is metabolized predominantly by glucuronic acid ... At high concentrations, it had no effect on spontaneous or potassium evoked amino acid release.[45] ... Early studies of lamotrigine's mechanism of action examined its effects on the release of endogenous amino acids from rat ... γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor-mediated neurotransmission in rat amygdala, suggest that a GABAergic mechanism may also ...
... (TTA) is a synthetic fatty acid used as a nutritional supplement. ... 2002). "Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance". Journal of Lipid Research. ... One Phase I study showed no significant changes in the blood lipids or free fatty acids[4] and another showed that TTA ... 2009). "Tetradecylthioacetic acid attenuates dyslipidaemia in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, possibly by dual ...
Tolfenamic acid. K2Ps. Blockers. *12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. *Arachidonic acid. *Fluoxetine ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... the free carboxylic acid), are agonists of the prostacyclin receptor, which leads to vasodilation in the pulmonary circulation. ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... The risk of bleeding increases with the concurrent medications clopidogrel, cefoperazone, valproic acid, cefotetan, ... Chemically ketorolac functions as a carboxylic acid derivative serving non-selectively to block the prostaglandin synthesis by ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... Carboxyalkanoyl and mercaptoalkanoyl amino acids". Biochemistry. 16 (25): 5484-91. doi:10.1021/bi00644a014. PMID 200262.. ... "Synthesis of captopril starting from an optically active .BETA.-hydroxy acid". Chem. Pharm. Bull. 30 (9): 3139-3146. doi ... 2S)-1-[(2S)-2-methyl-3-sulfanylpropanoyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid ...
MS can thus be considered a dual inhibitor of 5-LOX and COX pathways of arachidonic acid cascade. Further investigation with ... 5-LOX, whose crystal structure was recently identified (118), is a key enzyme in metabolizing arachidonic acid to leukotrienes ... Heinze VM, Actis AB (February 2012). "Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in mammary and prostate ... Qin X, Cui Y, Shen L, Sun N, Zhang Y, Li J, Xu X, Wang B, Xu X, Huo Y, Wang X (Jan 22, 2013). "Folic acid supplementation and ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... Mesalazine, also known as mesalamine or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a medication used to treat inflammatory bowel disease ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
... and arachidonic acid,20:4n-6 (ARA) from the mother to the fetus.[7] ... "Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. Retrieved 19 July 2016.. *^ "Editorial Team". Nutrients. Retrieved 5 ... Duttaroy, Asim K.; Spener, Friedrich (October 2017). Cellular Proteins and Their Fatty Acids in Health and Disease. Wiley-VCH, ... Duttaroy, A (2009). "Transport of fatty acids across the human placenta: A review". Progress in Lipid Research. 48 (1): 52-61. ...
... arachidonic acid,[17] and nitric oxide. Nitric oxide has received a great deal of attention in the past, but has recently been ...
Arachidonic acid 15-hydroperoxide. Eoxins. *A4. *C4. *D4. *E4 ...
Arachidonic acidEdit. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-6 fatty acid, Arachidonic acid (AA, i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,15Z-eicosatrienoic acid), ... Eicosapentaenoic acidEdit. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-3 fatty acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, i.e. 4Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z- ... Mead acidEdit. Mead acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid) is identical to AA except that has a single rather than double ... Docosahexaenoic acidEdit. ALOX5 acts in series with ALOX15 to metabolize the omega 3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, i.e ...
The release of membrane phospholipids leads to increased production of arachidonic acid which in turn results in elevated ... "azelaic acid - Compound Summary". PubChem. Fitton, Andrew; Goa, Karen L (1991). "Azelaic acid: A review of its pharmacological ... Azerizin is claimed to be a proprietary blend of the natural ingredients nicotinamide, azelaic acid, quercetin and curcumin ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... including mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, flufenamic acid, and meclofenamic acid. These drugs are commonly referred to as " ... "anthranilic acid derivatives" or "fenamates" because fenamic acid is a derivative of anthranilic acid.[2]:235[3]:17[2] ... Fenamic acid is an organic compound, which, especially in its ester form, is called fenamate.[1]:458 serves as a parent ...
Omega-3 Fatty Acids *Studies have shown that adequate consumption of omega-3 fatty acids counteracts the effects of arachidonic ... Simopoulos, Artemis (2002). "Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases". Journal of the American College of ... This may be due to the fact that an imbalance in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which have opposing effects, is instrumental ... acids, which contribute to symptoms of autoimmune diseases. Human and animal trials suggest that omega-3 is an effective ...
3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Tridecanoic acid in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference ... 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Sigma-Aldrich Co., Tridecanoic acid. Retrieved on 2014-06-17. ... "MSDS of n-Tridecanoic acid". Fisher Scientific. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2014-06-17.. External link in ,website=. ( ... "On the crystal structures and melting point alternation of the n-alkyl carboxylic acids" (PDF). Royal ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... Simila S, Keinanen S, Kouvalainen K.Oral antipyretic therapy: evaluation of benorylate, an ester of acetylsalicylic acid and ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
... profile of common foods; Esterified fatty acids as percentage of total fat[10] Food. Lauric acid. Myristic acid. ... polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol". European Food Safety Authority. ... Some researchers have indicated that serum myristic acid[68][69] and palmitic acid[69] and dietary myristic[70] and palmitic[70 ... Butyric acid with 4 carbon atoms (contained in butter). *Lauric acid with 12 carbon atoms (contained in coconut oil, palm ...
This edema is explained by the action of lipoxygenase on arachidonic acid to form leukotrienes and the normal functioning of ... These five are alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and serine. There are six conditionally essential amino acids ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids, Institute of ... When amino acids are in excess of needs, the liver takes up the amino acids and deaminates them, a process converting the ...
n-Dodecanoic acid, Dodecylic acid, Dodecoic acid, Laurostearic acid, Vulvic acid, 1-Undecanecarboxylic acid, Duodecylic acid, ... 6.0 6.1 6.2 Dodecanoic acid in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database ... 2005). Fatty Acids and Atherosclerotic Risk. In Arnold von Eckardstein (Ed.) Atherosclerosis: Diet and Drugs. Springer. pp. 171 ... Vand, V.; Morley, W. M.; Lomer, T. R. (1951). "The crystal structure of lauric acid". Acta Crystallographica. 4 (4): 324-329. ...
1-monoacylglycerols where the fatty acid is attached to a primary alcohol, or a 2-monoacylglycerols where the fatty acid is ... Dietary sources of fatty acids, their digestion, absorption, transport in the blood and storage ... are a class of glycerides which are composed of a molecule of glycerol linked to a fatty acid via an ester bond.[1] As glycerol ... Omega-6 fatty acid. *Omega-9 fatty acid. Eicosanoids. *Arachidonic acid. *Prostaglandins ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... negative regulation of gastric acid secretion. • phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • ... "Functional interaction of the carboxylic acid group of agonists and the arginine residue of the seventh transmembrane domain ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
Eff ect of policosanol on platelet aggregation and serum levels of arachidonic acid metabolites in healthy volunteers. ... Carbajal D, Arruzazabala ML, Más R, Molina V, Valdés S. - Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1994 May;50(5):249-51. ...
γ-Linolenic acid (gamolenic acid). *Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. *Diacylglycerol. *Arachidonic acid ... Corey speculated that the cardiotoxicity may be associated with an organic acid anhydride formed when rofecoxib is exposed to ... Tiaprofenic acid (tiaprofenate). *Vedaprofen; Anthranilic acids (fenamic acids): Etofenamic acid (etofenamate). *Floctafenic ...
... via the action on arachidonic acid and NMDA receptors cascade.[101] ... 2-acetoxybenzoic acid. acetylsalicylate. acetylsalicylic acid. O-acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin (BAN UK), Aspirin (USAN US). ... Salicylic acid is treated with acetic anhydride, an acid derivative, causing a chemical reaction that turns salicylic acid's ... Acetylsalicylic acid is a weak acid, and very little of it is ionized in the stomach after oral administration. Acetylsalicylic ...
Capric acid[1]. n-Capric acid. n-Decanoic acid. Decylic acid. n-Decylic acid. C10:0 (Lipid numbers) ... కాప్రిక్ ఆమ్లం (Decanoic acid, or capric acid) ఒక సంతృప్త కొవ్వు ఆమ్లం. దీని రసాయన ఫార్ములా : CH3 (CH2) 8COOH. ఈ ఆమ్లపు లవణాలు ...
Health effects of arachidonic acid supplementation[edit]. Arachidonic acid supplementation in daily doses of 1,000-1,500 mg for ... Arachidonic acid is not one of the essential fatty acids. However, it does become essential if a deficiency in linoleic acid ... Arachidonic acid is also used in the biosynthesis of anandamide.[17]. *Some arachidonic acid is converted into ... Dietary arachidonic acid and inflammation[edit]. Increased consumption of arachidonic acid will not cause inflammation during ...
... releases arachidonic acid. ANSWER QUESTION: What enyzme acts on arachidonic acid and begins the process through which ... Derivatives of an n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid. An important family of regulatory molecules is derived from arachidonic acid ... QUESTION: What molecule is the source of arachidonic acid and where is it found? ANSWER QUESTION: Name the enzyme that, when ... Derivatives of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. The above introduces regulatory molecules derived from arachidonic acid. These ...
Arachidonic acid 5-hydroperoxide (5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 5-HPETE) is an intermediate in the metabolism of ... 5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid; or c) the specialized pro-resolving mediators of inflammation, ... arachidonic acid by the ALOX5 enzyme in humans or Alox5 enzyme in other mammals. The intermediate is then further metabolized ...
... polyunsaturated fatty acid or n-6 PUFA. It is made in the body from shorter omega-6 fatty acids found in vegetable oils, or ... Arachidonic acid, AA and sometimes ARA, is a 20 carbon long, omega-6, ... Arachidonic acid, AA and sometimes ARA, is a 20 carbon long, omega-6, polyunsaturated fatty acid or n-6 PUFA. It is made in the ... The Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition: Effects Of Arachidonic Acid Supplementation On Training ...
Arachidonic acid is oxygenated and further transformed into a variety of products which mediate or modulate inflammatory ... Oxygenation of arachidonic acid at C-12 and C-15 generates products (5S, 12S-DHETE and 14,15-DHETE) which can modulate various ... Arachidonic acid metabolism: role in inflammation Z Rheumatol. 1991;50 Suppl 1:3-6. ... Arachidonic acid is oxygenated and further transformed into a variety of products which mediate or modulate inflammatory ...
Arachidonic acid incubated with human platelets was converted into three compounds, 12L-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid ... The formation of the two latter compounds from arachidonic acid proceeded by pathways involving the enzyme, fatty acid cyclo- ... The observed transformations of arachidonic acid in platelets also explain the aggregating effect of this acid. ... Novel Transformations of Arachidonic Acid in Human Platelets. Mats Hamberg and Bengt Samuelsson. *. 1Department of Chemistry, ...
These are saturated fats, trans fats and (AA) arachidonic acid. I consider these to be really bad fats. Arachidonic acids are ... arachidonic acid into the same rabbits they are dead within three minutes. The human body needs some arachidonic acid, but ... Understanding (AA) Arachidonic Acid - (Omega 6 - Pro Inflammatory Fat). Dr. Barry Sears. Zone Living. There are two ... is stimulated to make increased levels of arachidonic acid. (AA) is a long-chain omega-6 fatty acid. Enchaned production of ...
Arachidonic Acid Signals Spreading and Migration Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science ...
Arachidonic Acid Signals Spreading and Migration Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science ... R. A. Stockton, B. S. Jacobson, Modulation of cell-substrate adhesion by arachidonic acid: Lipoxygenase regulates cell ... produced from metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA). Stockton and Jacobson studied signals produced from AA during cell spreading ...
... acid, were also indetectable in these lipids. On the basis of these results, it appears that the arachidonic acid cascade is ... Evidence that arachidonic acid is deficient in phosphatidylinositol of Drosophila heads.. Yoshioka T, Inoue H, Kasama T, Seyama ... Since arachidonic acid is considered to be a key molecule in phosphatidylinositol turnover in the brain, it is of interest that ... We have found that arachidonic (20 : 4) acid is indetectable in phosphatidylinositol and diacyglycerol extracted from ...
Naturally occurring, weight training can reduce levels creating a need for supplemental Arachidonic Acid. ... Arachidonic Acid is an Omega-6 fatty acid essential for muscle hypotrophy. ... Arachidonic Acid Chemical Composition. (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-icosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoic acid. Formula: C20 H32 O2 ... Arachidonic acid (AA) is a naturally occurring omega-6 essential fatty acid. Its the principle building block for the synthesis ...
Arachidonic Acid in Cell Signaling has 2 available editions to buy at Alibris ... Arachidonic Acid in Cell Signaling by Daniele Piomelli starting at $61.69. ... Arachidonic acid may serve as an intracellular second messenger in many cell types, as well as precursor for biologically ... Arachidonic acid may serve as an intracellular second messenger in many cell types, as well as precursor for biologically ...
Crystall Swarbrick, Noelia Roman and Jade K. Forwood (December 16th 2011). Role of ACOT7 in Arachidonic Acid Production and ... Crystall Swarbrick, Noelia Roman and Jade K. Forwood (December 16th 2011). Role of ACOT7 in Arachidonic Acid Production and ... Role of ACOT7 in Arachidonic Acid Production and Inflammation. By Crystall Swarbrick, Noelia Roman and Jade K. Forwood ... ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in arachidonic acid epoxygenase activity pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... Antibodies for proteins involved in arachidonic acid epoxygenase activity pathways; according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ...
arachidonic acid; fatty acid desaturases; indel (insertion-deletion); long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; population ... Basal plasma phospholipid arachidonic acid (ARA) status was 8% greater in I/I compared with D/D individuals. The biochemical ... Selection on a Regulatory Insertion-Deletion Polymorphism in FADS2 Influences Apparent Endogenous Synthesis of Arachidonic Acid ... Selection on a Regulatory Insertion-Deletion Polymorphism in FADS2 Influences Apparent Endogenous Synthesis of Arachidonic Acid ...
What Is Arachidonic Acid? Arachidonic acid is a major essential (must have/cant make) omega-6 fatty acid. Structurally, ... Essential Fatty Acids (65) *Omega-3 Fatty Acids (45) *Alpha Linolenic Acid (1) ... arachidonic acid is a key component of nerve membranes, together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a major opposing omega-3 ...
Arachidonic Acid Irritable Bowel Syndrome Terminal Ileum Longitudinal Muscle Krebs Solution These keywords were added by ... Bennet A., Hensby C.N., Sanger G.J., Stamford I.F. (1981) Identification and Distribution of Arachidonic Acid Metabolites in ... Identification and Distribution of Arachidonic Acid Metabolites in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract, and the Ways in Which Some ... A novel prostaglandin derivative formed from arachidonic acid by rat stomach homogenates. Biochemistry, N.Y., 10: 3657-3664 ( ...
In order to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in vitro or in vivo, targeted methods are advantageous in order to ... This review article provides an overview of arachidonic acid metabolism and targeted chiral methods that have been utilized for ... A complex structurally diverse series of eicosanoids arises from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The metabolic profile is ... 2. Analysis of Arachidonic Acid-Derived Eicosanoids by Targeted LC-MS.. The profile of arachidonic acid metabolites is ...
Arachidonic Acid*Calcium*Choline*Copper*Cytidine 5-Monophosphate*Docosahexaenoic Acid*Fish Oil*Folic Acid* ... Arachidonic Acid; Calcium; Choline; Copper; Cytidine 5-Monophosphate; Docosahexaenoic Acid; Fish Oil; Folic Acid; ... Omega-9 Fatty Acids*Potassium*Sodium*Taurine*Tryptophan*Uridine 5-Monophosphate Disodium*Vitamin A*Vitamin B1*Vitamin B12* ... V06DE - Amino acids, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, combinations. Pharmaceutical companies: manufacturers, researchers, ...
Africa Arachidonic Acid Market - By Product Type, Application and Geography - Market Shares, Forecasts and Trends 2017 - 2022 * ... South America Arachidonic Acid Market - Growth, Trends, and Forecast (2018-2023). * ID: 4544632 ... North America Arachidonic Acid Market - Growth, Trends, and Forecast (2018 - 2023) * Report ... Asia-Pacific Arachidonic Acid Market - Growth, Trends, and Forecast (2018 - 2023) * Report ...
On the role of arachidonic acid in M-current modulation by muscarine in bullfrog sympathetic neurons. A Villarroel ... The observed relation between extent and rate of overrecovery, and the action of arachidonic acid metabolism inhibitors can be ... Several observations suggest that arachidonic acid (AA) may be involved in overrecovery: (1) AA enhanced IM in a dose- ... On the role of arachidonic acid in M-current modulation by muscarine in bullfrog sympathetic neurons ...
Docosahexaenoic Acid*Ferrous Sulfate*Folic Acid*High Oleic Acid*Inositol*L-Carnitine*L-Cysteine*L-Cystine*L-Tryptophan*L- ... Arachidonic Acid*Calcium Citrate*Calcium Hydroxide*Calcium Phosphate*Choline Chloride*Chromium Chloride*Coconut Oil*Copper ... Docosahexaenoic Acid; Ferrous Sulfate; Folic Acid; High Oleic Acid; Inositol; L-Carnitine; L-Cysteine; L-Cystine; L-Tryptophan ... Powder for Solution; Oral; Arachidonic Acid; Calcium Citrate; Calcium Hydroxide; Calcium Phosphate; Choline Chloride; Chromium ...
... and damage of C6 glioma cells and of primary cultured astrocytes were analyzed in vitro during incubation with arachidonic acid ... 0/Fatty Acids; 0/Lactates; 0/Steroids; 50-21-5/Lactic Acid; 506-32-1/Arachidonic Acid; 7440-23-5/Sodium ... Arachidonic Acid / pharmacokinetics, pharmacology*. Astrocytes. Cell Survival. Fatty Acids / pharmacology. Hydrogen-Ion ... Whereas stearic acid (0.1 mM) failed to induce a swelling response, linoleic acid (0.1 mM) was found to be effective. The ...
The effects of several inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on gastric necrosis, hypotension, haemoconcentration, ... Effects of inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on Paf-induced gastric mucosal necrosis and haemoconcentration Br J ... These studies indicate that cyclo-oxygenase products of arachidonic acid are unlikely to contribute significantly to the ... The effects of several inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on gastric necrosis, hypotension, haemoconcentration, ...
The present invention relates to a process for producing arachidonic acid. In one embodiment, Mortierella sect. schmuckeri ... total fatty acids as arachidonic acid, and even more preferably at least about 48% total fatty acids as arachidonic acid. The ... Therefore, arachidonic acid is referred to as an omega-6 fatty acid. Arachidonic acid is one of the most abundant C.sub.20 ... Approximately 40.3% of the total fatty acids was comprised of arachidonic acid. The arachidonic acid content of the biomass ...
1] 1 What Is Arachidonic Acid?: #What_Is_Arachidonic_Acid. [2] 2 What Is Arachidonic Acid Deficiency In Celiac Disease and/or ... 1 What Is Arachidonic Acid? [1]. *2 What Is Arachidonic Acid Deficiency In Celiac Disease and/or Gluten Sensitivity? [2]*2.1 ... What Is Arachidonic Acid?. Arachidonic acid is a major essential (must have/cant make) omega-6 fatty acid. ... Arachidonic Acid,Essential Fatty Acids,Malabsorption Disorders,NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES,Omega-6 Fatty Acids,Symptoms, Classic , No ...
Arachidonic acid (AA or ARA) is an extremely important fatty acid involved in cell regulation. It is a polyunsaturated fatty ... Review: Artemisia plants, arachidonic and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. July 10, 2020 - 14:37 -- MalariaWorld Journal. ... Following irritation or injury, arachidonic acid is released and oxygenated by enzyme systems leading to the formation of an ... This paper describes the positive health effects of arachidonic acid on malaria and other tropical diseases. ...
Arachidonic Acid (ARA) Part III: Effects On Muscle Growth, Strength & Performance. Home Arachidonic Acid (ARA) Part III: ... 2. Rodemann, H.P. and A.L. Goldberg, Arachidonic acid, prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha influence rates of protein turnover in ... Roberts, M.D., et al., Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation on training adaptations in resistance-trained males. J Int ... Scott, W.A., et al., Regulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by macrophage activation. J Exp Med, 1982. 155(4): p. 1148-60.. ...
Effect on platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid(AA) in washed rabbit platelet. ...
  • Since linoleic acid consumption doesn't seem to affect levels of arachidonic acid in plasma/serum or erythrocytes, it is uncertain if humans can in fact convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid. (
  • Ironically, the higher your insulin levels, the more your body is stimulated to make increased levels of arachidonic acid. (
  • Increasing levels of arachidonic acid may enhance muscle growth if taken in combination with exercise, since stress on the muscle cell is required to induce the chemical changes. (
  • Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B challenge of monkeys: correlation of plasma levels of arachidonic acid cascade products with occurrence of illness. (
  • However, no systematic review of human trials regarding linoleic acid consumption and subsequent changes in tissue levels of arachidonic acid has been undertaken. (
  • Our results do not support the concept that modifying current intakes of dietary linoleic acid has an effect on changing levels of arachidonic acid in plasma/serum or erythrocytes in adults consuming Western-type diets. (
  • Most studies to date have concerned PGE and PGF α compounds, but we have now extended this to include other metabolites of arachidonic acid. (
  • Considerable evidence has accumulated over the last decade implicating a role of cytochrome P450 (CYP)- dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) in the pathogenesis of hypertension. (
  • A. Sarkis and R. J. Roman, " Role of Cytochrome P450 Metabolites of Arachidonic Acid in Hypertension", Current Drug Metabolism (2004) 5: 245. (
  • Therefore, we investigated the effect of isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy on the expression of several P450 genes and their associated P450-derived metabolites of arachidonic acid. (
  • Arachidonic acid acts as a precursor to several biologically active compounds, including prostaglandins , and plays an important role in membrane production and fat metabolism. (
  • Arachidonic acid is also a precursor to anandamide. (
  • Arachidonic acid may serve as an intracellular second messenger in many cell types, as well as precursor for biologically active molecules such as the eicosanoids (a family of oxygenated metabolites that may act as second messengers or as local mediators), and anandamide (an endogenous cannabinoid substance). (
  • Arachidonic acid, the precursor for both pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoid, induced an increase in the β2 integrin activity (both affinity and avidity), but had no effect on the signal transduction. (
  • Several reports have indicated the presence of specific fatty acid (FA) alterations in CF patients, most notably decreased levels of plasmatic and tissue docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the precursor of Specialized Pro-resolving Mediators (SPMs). (
  • Using this linoleic acid as a precursor, the body synthesizes about 30 milligrams of arachidonic acid, another omega-6 fatty acid daily. (
  • Arachidonic acid is the precursor of all kinds of inflammatory factors, such as PGFs and PGEs. (
  • The arachidonic acid is a precursor in the synthesis of eicosanoids: through the action of cyclooxygenase and peroxidase, it gives rise to prostaglandins then is converted into differ-ent substances involved in inflammation and in many physiological reactions as protectors of gastric mucosa. (
  • D6D is a key enzyme in synthesizing HUFA from the precursor dietary essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA, 18:2ω6) or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3ω3). (
  • In vitro data suggest that in the CNS, glia and cerebral endothelial cells, but not neurons, synthesize DHA from 18:3n-3 and other precursor n-3 fatty acids [ 17 ]. (
  • Arachidonic acid is the precursor for biosynthesis of eicosanoids, potent mediators of inflammation that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse disease processes. (
  • The concern with dietary linoleic acid, being the metabolic precursor of arachidonic acid, is its consumption may enrich tissues with arachidonic acid and contribute to chronic and overproduction of bioactive eicosanoids. (
  • Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6) is the major dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the Western diet and is a metabolic precursor to AA, linked biochemically via two desaturases and an elongase. (
  • Arachidonic acid (AA) is the biochemical precursor of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes (LTs). (
  • It is involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, an important precursor of prostacyclin, which is expressed in inflammation. (
  • The enzyme 5-lipoxygenase catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE), which in turn converts to various leukotrienes (i.e., leukotriene B4, leukotriene C4, leukotriene D4, and leukotriene E4 as well as to 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) which may then be further metabolized to 5-HETE's more potent 5-keto analog, 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) (also see 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. (
  • The enzyme 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12) catalyzes oxidation of arachidonic acid to 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE), which may then be metabolized to 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and to hepoxilins. (
  • The second possibility is for lipoxygenase (LOX) to act on the arachidonic acid. (
  • The cDNAs for human 5-lipoxygenase and LTA4-hydrolase have recently been cloned and the amino acid sequences for the enzymes have been deduced. (
  • The first mentioned compound was formed from 12L-hydroperoxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, which in turn was formed from arachidonic acid by the action of a novel lipoxygenase. (
  • Aspirin and indomethacin inhibited the fatty acid cyclo-oxygenase but not the lipoxygenase, whereas 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid inhibited both enzymes. (
  • R. A. Stockton, B. S. Jacobson, Modulation of cell-substrate adhesion by arachidonic acid: Lipoxygenase regulates cell spreading and ERK1/2-inducible cyclooxygenase regulates cell migration in NIH-3T3 cells. (
  • Treatment with the lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid completely blocked but the cytochrome P450 inhibitor metyrapone had no effect on arachidonic acid-induced relaxation. (
  • 3) Phospholipase A2 inhibitors (quinacrine and bromophenacyl bromide) and a lipoxygenase inhibitor (nordihydroguaiaretic acid) prevented overrecovery, without affecting the rate or extent of IM inhibition significantly. (
  • The ability of corticosteroids and BW755C to reduce the gastric damage, haemoconcentration and plasma exudation suggests that lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid may contribute to these actions of Paf. (
  • Inhibition of lipoxygenase (LO) enzymes significantly reduced both Ang II- and AA-stimulated I K , and the 12-LO metabolite of AA 12 S -hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12 S -HETE) stimulated I K . These data indicate the involvement of a PLA 2 , AA, and LO metabolite intracellular pathway in the AT 2 receptor-mediated stimulation of neuronal I K by Ang II. (
  • W. Pignat, R. Kienzle and I. Bottcher, How specific is the arachidonic acid induced mouse ear oedema for lipoxygenase (LO) and cyclooxygenase (CO) inhibitors? . (
  • However, when free AA was additionally provided, a strong activation of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway was demasked, with the appearance of excessive quantities of leukotriene (LT)B4, LTA4, and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. (
  • The effects of arachidonic acid are probably direct, since pharmacologic inhibitors of the lipoxygenase (nordihydroguaiaretic acid) and cyclooxygenase (indomethacin) pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism failed to alter the suppression of LH-stimulated progesterone production. (
  • Five Lipoxygenase 123714-50-1 manufacture Activating Proteins (FLAP), which really is a 18 kDa membrane-bound proteins, has an important function in mediating the arachidonic catalytic activity of 5-LOX [5,6]. (
  • Arachidonic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in the phospholipids (especially phosphatidylethanolamine , phosphatidylcholine , and phosphatidylinositides ) of membranes of the body's cells , and is abundant in the brain , muscles , and liver . (
  • The release of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids , particularly diacylglycerol, is triggered by certain hormones. (
  • Alternatively, arachidonic acid may be cleaved from phospholipids after phospholipase C (PLC) cleaves off the inositol trisphosphate group, yielding diacylglycerol (DAG), which subsequently is cleaved by DAG lipase to yield arachidonic acid. (
  • Enzymes that can mediate AA release are the PLA 2 enzymes that hydrolyze fatty acids from the sn-2 position in membrane phospholipids. (
  • It is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (20:4n6) covalently bound in esterified form in membrane phospholipids of most body cells. (
  • Incorporation, distribution, and turnover of arachidonic acid within membrane phospholipids of B220+ T cells from autoimmune-prone MRL-lpr/lpr mice. (
  • Hepatic phospholipids were significantly higher in the α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid groups as compared to the linoleic acid group. (
  • The results demonstrate that dietary arachidonic acid enriches the arachidonic acid content in tissue phospholipids more effectively than linoleic acid, whereas the effect on the production of TXA 2 and PGI 2 was comparable under these experimental conditions. (
  • Arachidonic acid is stored in cell membranes throughout the body and is especially abundant in the brain and muscles as a component of phospholipids, which are used for intracellular signaling purposes. (
  • In this study, we reviewed the human literature that reported changes in dietary linoleic acid and its subsequent impact on changing tissue arachidonic acid in erythrocytes and plasma/serum phospholipids. (
  • However, there was a positive relationship between dietary gamma-linolenic acid and dietary arachidonic acid on changes in arachidonic levels in plasma/serum phospholipids. (
  • Abstract Recent evidence has suggested that arachidonic acid (AA) may be an important signaling molecule in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. (
  • abstract = "Arachidonic acid has been proposed to function as a hormone-induced second messenger in a variety of mammalian endocrine tissues. (
  • It is a prominent phospholipid component of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL), and we have earlier shown that secretory phospholipase A 2 - (sPLA 2 -) modified LDL [ 2 ] and lysoPC alone [ 3 ] can induce proinflammatory activation of human-derived monocytes by increased release of arachidonic acid (AA). (
  • More specifically, the effect of these substances on the β2 integrins were studied in regard to: i) the activity (i.e. affinity and avidity) of β2 integrins, ii) the signalling capacity of β2 integrins (i.e. detected as release of arachidonic acid, and the production of reactive oxygen species, and iii) the signal transduction mediated by the β2 integrins (i.e. phosphorylation of Pyk2). (
  • 5. Furthermore, the concanavalin A-induced release of arachidonic acid from the phosphoinositide pool was also decreased in the elderly group as compared with the control group. (
  • Remember, long chain omega-6 fatty acids (found in high concentrations in vegetable oils) are the building blocks used to manufacture 'bad' eicosanoids. (
  • As cells interact with substrates and engage their integrins, several signaling cascades are initiated, including one involving eicosanoids [leukotrienes (LTs) and prostaglandins (PGs)] produced from metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA). (
  • A complex structurally diverse series of eicosanoids arises from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. (
  • This review article provides an overview of arachidonic acid metabolism and targeted chiral methods that have been utilized for the analysis of the structurally diverse eicosanoids that arise. (
  • Arachidonic acid [6] is an important building substance for the eicosanoids. (
  • What function do the eicosanoids have that are derived from arachidonic acid [6] ? (
  • Eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid [6] are pro-inflammatory, pro-blood clotting, and constrict blood vessels in opposition to those derived from the omega-3 fatty acids which do the opposite in order to keep a balance in the body. (
  • 3. Upon stimulation by the mitogenic lectin concanavalin A, the radioactivity associated with total eicosanoids (free arachidonic acid plus hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids plus thromboxane B 2 ) was significantly increased over basal levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of both the elderly and the control groups. (
  • Once freed, ArA can be metabolised into a category of compounds named eicosanoids, which are end-metabolic products of many fatty acids. (
  • Cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases: the main element metabolic enzymes for arachidonic acidity and linoleic acidity Cyclooxygenases Cyclooxygenase (COX) which includes two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2 may be the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting part of prostaglandin synthesis, changing arachidonic acidity into prostaglandin H2, which is normally then additional metabolized to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), PGF2, PGD2 and various other eicosanoids [5,6]. (
  • Some arachidonic acid is converted into hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by epoxygenase. (
  • Incubation of rabbit aorta with [14C]arachidonic acid resulted in the synthesis of major radioactive metabolites that comigrated with the prostaglandins and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. (
  • Indomethacin selectively inhibited prostaglandin formation, nordihydroguaiaretic acid attenuated both prostaglandins and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, and metyrapone blocked the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. (
  • Our data show that non-differentiated Caco-2 cells cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) synthesize appreciable amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 5-, 12 and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) but not LTD4, 20-HETE and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. (
  • On incubation of uterine enymes with AA, the LOX products formed were identified as 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE), 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (12- and 15-HETEs), based on their separation on TLC and HPLC. (
  • Indeed, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is produced by vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells and is a potent vasoconstrictor that depolarizes VSM by blocking large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels. (
  • As compared to COPD patients, CF subjects showed increased concentrations of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), while the concentrations of DHA metabolites were not different in the two groups. (
  • Schwartzman ML, Falck JR, Yadagiri P, Escalante B. Metabolism of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid by cyclooxygenase. (
  • 2. This defect was accompanied by a marked increase (+106%) in the oxygenated metabolism of endogenous arachidonic acid by lipoxygenases as judged by the radiolabel associated with hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids in [ 3 H]arachidonic acid-prelabelled peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whereas the cyclo-oxygenase activity, estimated by the radiolabel associated with thromboxane B 2 , was not significantly altered. (
  • Upon concanavalin A stimulation, the radioactivity of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids was increased by only 96% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the elderly group compared with 350% in control cells. (
  • 4. Reverse phase h.p.l.c. of the hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids showed that, in unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the 12-hydroxyeicosatetra-enoic acid level tended to be higher in the elderly group than in the control group, which might be indicative of an hyperactivity of the contaminating platelets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elderly subjects. (
  • Human family 1 cytochromes P450 had unique regional specificities for arachidonate oxidation: the major metabolites of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 were 75% terminal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic fatty acids (HETEs), 52% epoxyeicosatrienoic fatty acids (EETs), and 54% mid-chain HETEs, respectively. (
  • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) are oxidative products of arachidonic acid, some of which participate in the regulation of vascular tone. (
  • The plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) did not vary significantly throughout the 8-h experiment for saline-treated controls, nor did they differ from the concentrations found in the plasma of monkeys just before administration of SEB. (
  • In the presence of NADPH and oxygen, P450 metabolizes AA to epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) metabolites. (
  • Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis identified acids with the highest sensitivity and specificity: 5oxo-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic, 16-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic, 9-hydroxyoctadecadieneoic and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic. (
  • The activity of these enzymes results in the formation of different hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, but their functions in vivo have not been clearly established in normal or pathological states. (
  • ALOX5 products, particularly 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid , promote the proliferation of these ALOX5 aberrantly expressing tumor cell lines suggesting that ALOX5 acts as a pro-malignancy factor for them and by extension their parent tumors. (
  • Arachidonic acid 5-hydroperoxide (5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 5-HPETE) is an intermediate in the metabolism of arachidonic acid by the ALOX5 enzyme in humans or Alox5 enzyme in other mammals. (
  • In order to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in vitro or in vivo , targeted methods are advantageous in order to distinguish between the complex isomeric mixtures that can arise by different metabolic pathways. (
  • The metabolites were chromatographically separated by reversed-phase HPLC and identified by negative ESI tandem mass spectrometry and this method was used to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid with an endothelial cell line. (
  • P450 enzymes are considered one of the major metabolic pathways for the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) in addition to cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. (
  • The enzyme possesses two catalytic activities as illustrated by its metabolism of arachidonic acid . (
  • Arachidonic acid ( AA , sometimes ARA ) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6) [ citation needed ] , or 20:4(5,8,11,14). (
  • Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6), or 20:4(5,8,11,14). (
  • AA) is a long-chain omega-6 fatty acid. (
  • Arachidonic acid is a major essential (must have/can't make) omega-6 fatty acid. (
  • It's an omega-6 fatty acid that the body makes by converting other omega-6 fatty acids. (
  • Arachidonic acid (ARA), an omega-6 fatty acid, is a potent schistosomicide that displayed significant and safe therapeutic effects in Schistosoma mansoni -infected schoolchildren in S. mansoni low-prevalence regions. (
  • Every day the average Westerner consumes about 15 grams of the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid. (
  • It's a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid and it's pro-inflammatory, which can cause muscle and joint pain. (
  • A common unsaturated fat, linoleic acid is a significantly more abundant omega-6 fatty acid that is found in many plant oils. (
  • Arachidonic acid is polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid, which is an essential fatty acid for human body. (
  • The present study investigated the role of arachidonic acid and acetylcholine in mediating endothelium-dependent relaxations of rabbit aorta. (
  • Role of arachidonic acid metabolites on the control of non-differentiated intestinal epithelial cell growth. (
  • There are lots of contradictions in the literature with regard to the cytoprotective role of arachidonic acid. (
  • Several observations suggest that arachidonic acid (AA) may be involved in overrecovery: (1) AA enhanced IM in a dose- dependent and reversible manner, with an IC50 of 2.8 microM. (
  • Our findings suggest that arachidonic acid supplementation can positively augment strength-training induced adaptations in resistance-trained males", the researchers concluded. (
  • These studies suggest that arachidonic acid cascade metabolites were a consequence of SEB intoxication and may provide a logical site for metabolic interference in SEB-induced toxicity. (
  • Direct supplementation with arachidonic acid can side step this process and increase stores within the body. (
  • This suggests that supplementation with arachidonic acid is an excellent way to increase the amount of arachidonic acid in the muscles. (
  • Supplementation with arachidonic acid did not lead to statistically significant changes in body composition - but well, the duration of the study was too short for that. (
  • Supplementation with arachidonic acid increased the production of MyoG and MyoD1 in the muscle cells. (
  • Arachidonic acid in the human body usually comes from dietary animal sources (meat, eggs) or is synthesized from linoleic acid. (
  • Those who maintain sedentary (inactive) lifestyles should not supplement with Arachidonic acid unless a dietary need has been medically identified, as deficiency in this group is uncommon. (
  • However this process has a limiting step, meaning a greater amount of arachidonic acid in the body cannot be reached through supplementation with/higher levels of dietary linoleic acid, since it won't be converted. (
  • Therefore, short term increases in dietary arachidonic acid intake at least up to 1.5 g/day do not influence local inflammation in healthy young men participating in regular resistance exercise training. (
  • Dietary arachidonic acid, but not α-linolenic acid, resulted in a marked reduction of linoleic acid and increased arachidonic and n -6 docosapenta-enoic acids in heart cardiolipin. (
  • There is a dose-dependant relationship between dietary arachidonic and linoleic acid consumption, and plasma ArA levels. (
  • Arachidonic acid is metabolized in the body through dietary intake, especially through a fatty acid-rich food, however, this ability is not developed in newborn babies. (
  • We quantitatively mapped fatty acids in 26 regions of the four-week-old breastfed baboon CNS, and studied the influence of dietary DHA and ARA supplementation and prematurity on CNS DHA and ARA concentrations. (
  • Mammals obtain DHA nutritionally in two forms, either as preformed DHA, found primarily in marine foods, or via the dietary essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), from which DHA is synthesized in various tissues. (
  • We examined the effect of dietary supplementation of linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to rats fed a diet low in linoleic acid on in vitro and in vivo production of prostacyclin. (
  • We identified, reviewed, and evaluated all peer-reviewed published literature presenting data outlining changes in dietary linoleic acid in adult human clinical trials that reported changes in phospholipid fatty acid composition (specifically arachidonic acid) in plasma/serum and erythrocytes within the parameters of our inclusion/exclusion criteria. (
  • Decreasing dietary linoleic acid by up to 90% was not significantly correlated with changes in arachidonic acid levels in the phospholipid pool of plasma/serum ( p = 0.39 ). (
  • Similarly, when dietary linoleic acid levels were increased up to six fold, no significant correlations with arachidonic acid levels were observed ( p = 0.72) . (
  • To compound the complexity of this relationship, the family of n-6 PUFA are, in general, synonymously identified to dietary LA, while seemingly ignoring other members who can contribute to tissue AA, i.e., dietary gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3 n-6) and AA. (
  • In contrast, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are synthesized by the vascular endothelium and have opposite effects on VSM (hyperpolarization and vasodilatation). (
  • Arachidonic acid is known to be important in skeletal muscle processes such as protein synthesis. (
  • E. E. Opas, R. J. Bonney and J. L. Humes, Prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis in mouse ears inflammed by arachidonic acid . (
  • In the muscles of the animals that had been given arachidonic acid the researchers not only observed increased synthesis of muscle protein, but also greater amounts of activated Akt. (
  • In addition, arachidonic acid boosted the synthesis of the anabolic molecules myoD and myogenin. (
  • The absence of endoperoxide-containing products derived from 10,10-difluoroarachidonic acid has been thought to indicate the importance of a C-10 carbocation in PGG2 synthesis. (
  • The observed relation between extent and rate of overrecovery, and the action of arachidonic acid metabolism inhibitors can be accounted for by a model proposing that the agonist alters the equilibrium between three pools of M-channels. (
  • The effects of several inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on gastric necrosis, hypotension, haemoconcentration, leukopenia and plasma exudation induced by platelet-activating factor (Paf) were studied in the rat. (
  • The enzymes cyclooxygenase -1 and -2 (i.e. prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 and 2 { PTGS1 and PTGS2 }) metabolize arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2 and prostaglandin H2 , which in turn may be converted to various prostaglandins , to prostacyclin , to thromboxanes , and to the 17-carbon product of thromboxane metabolism of prostaglandin G2/H2, 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (12-HHT). (
  • Arachidonic acid elicited a concentration-related relaxation that was potentiated by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. (
  • Following irritation or injury, arachidonic acid is released and oxygenated by enzyme systems leading to the formation of an important group of inflammatory mediators, to the prostaglandins (PGE₂) by the cyclooxygenase enzyme. (
  • Cyclooxygenase (COX) catalyzes the conversion of ara-chidonic acid into prostaglandins (PGs), which play a sig-nificant role in health and disease in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and in the renal, skeletal, and ocular systems. (
  • These are prescribed to selectively counter inflammation without stimulating the secretion of stomach acid. (
  • A substance related to NSAIDs, acetaminophen , has been a puzzle because, while it supresses pain and fever, it has relatively little effect on inflammation and the secretion of stomach acid. (
  • In the treatment of pain, inflammation and fever, non-steroid anti-rheumatic drugs (NSAR) such as acetylsalicylic acid - more commonly known as Aspirin - or Ibuprofen have always been popular choices. (
  • Role of ACOT7 in Arachidonic Acid Production and Inflammation, Inflammatory Diseases Amit Nagal, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/26475. (
  • We hypothesized that an imbalance between arachidonic acid (AA)- and DHA-derived products could contribute to the chronic pulmonary inflammation observed in CF subjects. (
  • Increasing arachidonic acid consumption by 1.5 g/day arachidonic acid for 4-weeks in healthy young men participating in resistance exercise training promotes greater changes in plasma and muscle lipid arachidonic acid abundance compared to placebo, but this is not associated with any evidence of a heightened systemic or intramuscular basal inflammation", Markworth wrote. (
  • For example, inflammation caused by exercise triggers the release of phospholipase subtype 2a, which then increases plasma arachidonic levels. (
  • In addition to being involved in cellular signaling as a lipid second messenger involved in the regulation of signaling enzymes, such as PLC -γ, PLC-δ, and PKC -α, -β, and -γ isoforms, arachidonic acid is a key inflammatory intermediate and can also act as a vasodilator . (
  • Arachidonic acid generated for signaling purposes appears to be derived by the action of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA 2 , 85 kDa), whereas inflammatory arachidonic acid is generated by the action of a low-molecular-weight secretory PLA 2 (sPLA 2 , 14-18 kDa). (
  • Arachidonic acid for signaling purposes appears to be derived by the action of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2, 85 kDa), whereas inflammatory arachidonic acid is generated by the action of a low-molecular-weight secretory PLA2 (sPLA2, 14-18 kDa). (
  • Arachidonic acid is oxygenated and further transformed into a variety of products which mediate or modulate inflammatory reactions. (
  • As a result of inflammatory stimulation, arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism produces proliferation mediators through complex and dynamic interactions of the products of the LOX/COX enzymes. (
  • Arachidonic Acid (AA) metabolism is intimately involved in the inflammatory response. (
  • A. Crummey G. P. Harper, E. A. Boyle and F. R. Mangan, Inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced ear oedema as a model for topical anti-inflammatory compounds . (
  • The resulting arachidonic acid then becomes the raw material for making inflammatory factors - and these play a role in muscle growth. (
  • Arachidonic acid compounds are inflammatory in nature, contrasting with the metabolites of omega-3 fatty acids, such as EPA and DHA, which are anti-inflammatory. (
  • The goal of this work was to produce new compounds (1-9) obtained by adding a series of amines to the arachi-donic acid molecule and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory activity, preliminarily on NO production by LPS-induce macrophages. (
  • Since distinct lipid mediators can be synthesized from omega-6 (ω-6) and omega-3(ω-3), pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators respectively, the scientific community focused on the possible efficacy of the polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 (ω-6) and (ω-3) in the modulation of inflammatory processes. (
  • Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol increases arachidonic acid levels in guinea pig cerebral cortex slices. (
  • [6] [7] A commercial source of arachidonic acid has been derived, however, from the fungus Mortierella alpina . (
  • These studies indicate that cyclo-oxygenase products of arachidonic acid are unlikely to contribute significantly to the gastric damage or the prolonged hypotension induced by Paf. (
  • Carroll MA, McGiff JC, Ferreri NR. Products of arachidonic acid metabolism. (
  • On the basis of these results, it appears that the arachidonic acid cascade is essentially absent in Drosophila head, including the brain and compound eyes. (
  • This book is about the arachidonic acid cascade, its biochemistry, its pharmacology, and its roles in signal transduction. (
  • Increasingly evidence indicates that enzymes, receptors and metabolites of the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade play a role in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and colorectal tumorigenesis. (
  • It has been shown that the arachidonic acid cascade plays an important role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity. (
  • Hopefully this review can disclose potential antifungal targets based on the arachidonic acid cascade and provide a prevailing strategy to alleviate Candida albicans biofilm formation. (
  • The arachidonic acid (AA) cascade is essential for mediating human biological activity and plays an important role in fungal morphogenesis and growth. (
  • Arachidonic acid cascade products have been shown to be increased in vitro in Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB)-treated epithelial cell cultures in our laboratory. (
  • Skeletal muscle is an especially active site of arachidonic acid retention, accounting for roughly 10-20% of the phospholipid fatty acid content typically. (
  • Arachidonic acid is freed from a phospholipid molecule by the enzyme phospholipase A2 (PLA 2 ), which cleaves off the fatty acid , but can also be generated from DAG by diacylglycerol lipase . (
  • Arachidonic acid is freed from phospholipid by hydrolysis, catalyzed by the phospholipase A2 (PLA2). (
  • In this case, the phospholipase A2 acts on a membrane phospholipid that contains arachidonic acid, which, as described earlier, is a polyunsaturated fatty acid. (
  • The arachidonic acid released from the phospholipid is now the substrate for one of two enzymes. (
  • In the phospholipid fraction from the ethanol group there was a uniform decrease in arachidonic acid (AA) and an increase in oleic acid in liver, serum, and muscle. (
  • The concentration of serum triglyceride, phospholipid and liver triglyceride were significantly lower in the α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid groups than in the linoleic acid group. (
  • Supplementation with LA had minimal effect on fatty acid composition of plasma or aorta and caused no change in prostacyclin production with either method. (
  • A statistical analysis to evaluate the potential association between fatty acid composition and risk of injuries. (
  • It can be synthesized from linoleic acid . (
  • The bulk of the arachidonic acid in the human body - of which a surprisingly high percentage can be found in muscle tissue - is not synthesized from linoleic acid, but comes directly from the diet. (
  • Employing a monoclonal antibody directed against human PR3 and ANCA-positive serum from WG patients with specificity for PR3, we now investigated the role of free arachidonic acid (AA) in autoantibody-related human neutrophil activation. (
  • Yui K, Koshiba M, Nakamura S, Kobayashim Y, Ohnishi M (2011) Efficacy of Adding Large Doses of Arachidonic Acid to Docosahexaenoic Acid against Restricted Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Placebo-Controlled Trial. (
  • The inhibitory effects of arachidonic acid on the progesterone response were determined to occur both prior and subsequent to cAMP formation since cAMP levels in arachidonic acid-treated cells were attenuated after treatment with 10 ng LH or 100 μM forskolin (at 10- to 100-μM doses of arachidonic acid), and progesterone production was decreased in the presence of 1 mM 8-bromo-cAMP (with 50 and 100 μM arachidonic acid). (
  • This paper describes the positive health effects of arachidonic acid on malaria and other tropical diseases. (
  • The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of arachidonic acid (ARA) supplementation on functional performance and body composition in trained males. (
  • According to a small human study that sports scientist James Markworth, from the University of Auckland in New Zealand, published in Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids, there is no cause for concern. (
  • Also the leukotrienes comprise a family of products of the 5-lipoxigenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. (
  • It transforms essential fatty acids ( EFA ) substrates into leukotrienes as well as a wide range of other biologically active products. (
  • Not strictly an essential fatty acid, since it can be formed from linoleic acid , but three times more potent than linoleic acid in curing the signs of essential fatty acid deficiency. (
  • see essential fatty acid interactions and the enzyme and metabolite linkages given in the previous paragraph for more details. (
  • Arachidonic acid (AA) is a naturally occurring omega-6 essential fatty acid. (
  • The effect of ethanol feeding on the essential fatty acid content of tissues has been contradictory. (
  • Arachidonic acid is not an essential fatty acid, meaning it is not necessary to have it in the diet, since it can be synthesised within the body from linoleic acid . (
  • it's introduced trough the diet or it may arise from linoleic acid (essential fatty acid). (
  • Understanding how HUFA maintain tissue homeostasis will help in the development of treatments for diseases that result from an altered essential fatty acid metabolism. (
  • However, it does become essential if a deficiency in linoleic acid exists or if there is an inability to convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid occurs. (
  • 2 What Is Arachidonic Acid Deficiency In Celiac Disease and/or Gluten Sensitivity? (
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the arachidonic acid/eicopsapentaenoic acid ratio (AA/EPA) or the deficiency of ω-3 index is related to an increased risk of overload injury ('overuse', bone microfracture, muscle or tendon rupture) in this population of athletes. (
  • A large number of biologically active eicosanoid metabolites are produced from arachidonic acid via pathways including epoxidation, allylic oxidation, and ω-hydroxylation, by a number of enzymes, including cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and lipoxygenases ( Capdevila and Falck, 2001 ). (
  • In conclusion, isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy alters arachidonic acid metabolism and its associated P450 enzymes, suggesting their role in the development and/or progression of cardiac hypertrophy. (
  • The PTGS (COX) enzymes catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins in two steps. (
  • arachidonic acid A long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (20 : 4 ω6). (
  • The text mainly focuses on the production of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, Arachidonic acid , and Docosahexaenoinc acid. (
  • His company Molecular Nutrition produces the supplement X-Factor, which contains arachidonic acid. (
  • The formation of the two latter compounds from arachidonic acid proceeded by pathways involving the enzyme, fatty acid cyclo-oxygenase, in the initial step and with the prostaglandin endoperoxide, PGG 2 , as an intermediate. (
  • Since several arachidonic acid metabolites clearly play an important role in allergic response, a substantial effort has been directed to understanding the cellular and molecular aspects of these pathways and their pharmacological modulation. (
  • Efficient coproduction of gluconic acid and xylonic acid from lignocellulosic hydrolysate by Zn(II)-selective inhibition on whole-cell catalysis by Gluconobacter oxydans. (
  • Omata K, Abraham NG, Schwartzman ML. Renal cytochrome P-450-arachidonic acid metabolism: localization and hormonal regulation in SHR. (
  • Carroll M.A., Ferreri N.R., Escalante B.A., Oyekan A.O., McGiff J.C. (2003) Cytochrome P450 Arachidonic Acid Metabolites Modulate Renal Tubular Function. (
  • Expression of cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenase 2J2 in human tumor tissues and cell lines. (
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenase 2J2 (CYP2J2) is a new metabolic pathway of arachidonic acid. (
  • arachidonic acid A polyunsaturated fatty acid, CH 3 (CH 2 ) 3 (CH 2 CH:CH) 4 (CH 2 ) 3 COOH, that is essential for growth in mammals (see eicosanoid ). (
  • Effect of arachidonic acid on proliferation, cytokines production and pleiotropic genes expression in Jurkat cells-A comparison with oleic acid. (
  • Knowledge of the types of compounds formed from the C20-unsaturated fatty acids eicosatrienoic, eicosatetraenoic (arachidonic) and eicosapentaenoic acids, and their actions on the human gut, is therefore important. (
  • The Africa Arachidonic market was valued 12.11 million in 2016 and is expected to register a CAGR of 4.21%, during the forecasted period 2018-2023. (
  • Diet plays an important role in the prevention and development of obesity and metabolic diseases and published data have shown that a ratio higher than 20:1 of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a risk factor for these diseases. (
  • Dynamic Simulations on the Arachidonic Acid Metabolic Network. (
  • The ability of COXs to convert arachidonic acid to prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxane A 2 was recognized over 50 years ago [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (
  • Platelet thromboxane (TX) A 2 production tended to be lower in the α-linolenic acid group as compared to the linoleic acid and arachidonic acid groups. (
  • NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine and nitro-L-arginine, compounds that inhibit the nitric oxide-like endothelium-derived relaxing factor, had little or no effect on arachidonic acid-induced relaxations. (
  • We exploited transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants (designated EP) producing eicosadienoic, eicosatrienoic, and arachidonic acid (AA), aimed at mimicking pathogen release of these compounds. (
  • The compounds investigated were lipid (arachidonate) and retinoids (retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid). (
  • All prostaglandins are synthesized from fatty acids, however the particular compounds of note here are prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGF2 alpha), [6] both of which are elevated by ArA supplementation. (
  • Two new studies by a University of Pittsburgh research team suggest that omega-3 fatty acids - substances that are found in high concentrations in fish oils and certain seeds and nuts - significantly inhibit the growth of liver cancer cells. (
  • The improvement was not significantly correlated with changes in either EPA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) but was highly significantly positively correlated with rises in red cell membrane AA. (
  • These ratios decreased significantly in both groups after treatment with 1.5 g/day of omega-3 fatty acids: 9.0 +/- 4.2 in healthy subjects and 10.3 +/- 8.8 in patients with CAD. (
  • Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids did not significantly affect hs-CRP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or blood glucose levels. (
  • Triglyceride levels were not reduced in patients with CAD but were significantly decreased in healthy subjects (by 20% decrease with omega-3 fatty acids 1.5 g/day and by 32% decrease with 3 g/day). (
  • Treatment with omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduced AA:EPA ratios in both healthy subjects and in patients with stable CAD. (
  • Acute pretreatment with dexamethasone (2 mg kg-1 i.v.) 15 min before Paf, or with indomethacin (5 mg kg-1 s.c.), acetylsalicylic acid (10 mg kg-1 i.v.) or 1-benzylimidazole (50 mg kg-1 s.c.) did not significantly affect the gastric damage induced by Paf. (
  • After DHA supplementation, not only DHA/AA ratio and highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) index were significantly increased (p (
  • in contrast, they were significantly higher in the arachidonic acid group. (
  • The ratios of TXA 2 and PGI 2 in the linoleic acid and arachidonic acid groups were comparable, whereas they were significantly higher than that in the α-linolenic acid group. (
  • Mutagenesis which removed 149 amino acids in C-terminal domain of Kv4.3a significantly slowed its rate of recovery from inactivation as measured in heterologous expression in HEK293 cells. (
  • Linoleic acid (50 and 100 μM) significantly reduced MPP + -induced cell death back to ~85-90% of the control value. (
  • Some chemistry sources define 'arachidonic acid' to designate any of the eicosatetraenoic acids . (
  • HO 2 ) residue to arachidonic acid (i.e. 5 Z ,8 Z ,11 Z ,14 Z -eicosatetraenoic acid) at carbon 5 of its 1,4 diene group (i.e. its 5 Z ,8 Z double bonds) to form 5 (S) -hydroperoxy-6 E ,8 Z ,11 Z ,14 Z -eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 5 S -HpETE). (
  • In the standard western diet, linoleic acid consumption is great enough to limit the amount of plasma ArA in the body, but supplementation with arachidonic allows one to exceed this limit, which can directly increase plasma levels. (
  • Since arachidonic acid is considered to be a key molecule in phosphatidylinositol turnover in the brain, it is of interest that Drosophila brain and eyes do not require arachidonic acid for their functions. (
  • Exogenous application of various fatty acids to wild-type and JA-deficient mutants confirmed AA as the signaling molecule. (
  • Recent studies in cardiac muscle cells have suggested that arachidonic acid (AA) may be an important signaling molecule in the modulation of cardiac contractile function via alterations in Ca 2+ cycling. (
  • It reacts with the molecule Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and forms a nutritious compound which is responsible for cognitive and behavioral functions in the humans. (
  • Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 n-6) is a potent bioactive molecule. (
  • After careful examinations of the lipid extraction processes and fatty acid detection system (gas-liquid chromatography), we excluded the possibility of the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids or of having overlooked a trace amount of the fatty acid. (
  • Possible explanations for this general reduction in tissue AA with ethanol feeding include decreased activities of delta 6 and delta 5 desaturases, and a displacement of AA from lipid fractions by other fatty acids. (
  • Further, glial swelling from AA or linoleic acid was completely inhibited by the aminosteroid U-74389F, an antagonist of lipid peroxidation. (
  • schmuckeri microorganisms or lipid isolated from such microorganisms to enhance the arachidonic acid content of the food product. (
  • Fatty acid structure affects cellular activities through changes in membrane lipid composition and the generation of a diversity of bioactive derivatives. (
  • Fatty acid levels, oxygen consumption plus lipid hydroperoxide and malondialdehyde production were measured from the same incubations, at the same time during maximal elicitable peroxidation. (
  • The anandamide, or arachidonoiletanolammide (AEA), is part of a new class of lipid mediators, acting predomi-nantly olocrina and paracrine, collectively known as en-docannabinoids. (
  • Three new distinct splice variants of Kv4.3 (Kv4.3d, e and f), which consist of 601, 635, and 628 amino acids, respectively, and have divergent C-terminal cytoplasmic domains, were isolated from rat brain by RT-PCR. (
  • The ALOX5 gene, which occupies 71.9 kilo base pairs (kb) on chromosome 10 (all other human lipoxygenases are clustered together on chromosome 17), is composed of 14 exons divided by 13 introns encoding the mature 78 kilodalton (kD) ALOX5 protein consisting of 673 amino acids. (
  • Human ALOX5 is a soluble, monomeric protein consisting of 673 amino acids with a molecular weight of ~78 kDa . (
  • the membrane-binding domain consists of a series of amphipathic α helices with several hydrophobic amino acids exposed to a membrane monolayer. (
  • Swelling, acidosis, and irreversible damage of glial cells from exposure to arachidonic acid in vitro. (
  • Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in the non-pregnant sheep uterus was studied in vitro using conventional chromatographic and HPLC techniques. (
  • To date, there is no direct evidence that shows the protective role of omega-6 fatty acids in in vitro Parkinson's model. (