Enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of arachidonic acid to hydroperoxyarachidonates. These products are then rapidly converted by a peroxidase to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. The positional specificity of the enzyme reaction varies from tissue to tissue. The final lipoxygenase pathway leads to the leukotrienes. EC 1.13.11.- .
Dioxygenases that catalyze the peroxidation of methylene-interrupted UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.
Arachidonic acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids, specifically a type of omega-6 fatty acid, that are essential for human nutrition and play crucial roles in various biological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cell signaling. They serve as precursors to eicosanoids, which are hormone-like substances that mediate a wide range of physiological responses.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE known for the edible nuts.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A dual inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. It exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The drug also enhances pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and has a protective effect after myocardial ischemia.
Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.

Leukotriene A synthase activity of purified mouse skin arachidonate 8-lipoxygenase expressed in Escherichia coli. (1/145)

Mouse skin 8-lipoxygenase was expressed in COS-7 cells by transient transfection of its cDNA in pEF-BOS carrying an elongation factor-1alpha promoter. When crude extract of the transfected COS-7 cells was incubated with arachidonic acid, 8-hydroxy-5,9,11, 14-eicosatetraenoic acid was produced as assessed by reverse- and straight-phase high performance liquid chromatographies. The recombinant enzyme also reacted on alpha-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids at almost the same rate as that with arachidonic acid. Eicosapentaenoic and gamma-linolenic acids were also oxygenated at 43% and 56% reaction rates of arachidonic acid, respectively. In contrast, linoleic acid was a poor substrate for this enzyme. The 8-lipoxygenase reaction with these fatty acids proceeded almost linearly for 40 min. The 8-lipoxygenase was also expressed in an Escherichia coli system using pQE-32 carrying six histidine residues at N-terminal of the enzyme. The expressed enzyme was purified over 380-fold giving a specific activity of approximately 0.2 micromol/45 min per mg protein by nickel-nitrilotriacetate affinity chromatography. The enzymatic properties of the purified 8-lipoxygenase were essentially the same as those of the enzyme expressed in COS-7 cells. When the purified 8-lipoxygenase was incubated with 5-hydroperoxy-6,8,11, 14-eicosatetraenoic acid, two epimers of 6-trans-leukotriene B4, degradation products of unstable leukotriene A4, were observed upon high performance liquid chromatography. Thus, the 8-lipoxygenase catalyzed synthesis of leukotriene A4 from 5-hydroperoxy fatty acid. Reaction rate of the leukotriene A synthase was approximately 7% of arachidonate 8-lipoxygenation. In contrast to the linear time course of 8-lipoxygenase reaction with arachidonic acid, leukotriene A synthase activity leveled off within 10 min, indicating suicide inactivation.  (+info)

Identification of amino acid determinants of the positional specificity of mouse 8S-lipoxygenase and human 15S-lipoxygenase-2. (2/145)

Phorbol ester-inducible mouse 8S-lipoxygenase (8-LOX) and its human homologue, 15S-lipoxygenase-2 (15-LOX-2), share 78% identity in amino acid sequences, yet there is no overlap in their positional specificities. In this study, we investigated the determinants of positional specificity using a random chimeragenesis approach in combination with site-directed mutagenesis. Exchange of the C-terminal one-third of the 8-LOX with the corresponding portion of 15-LOX-2 yielded a chimeric enzyme with exclusively 15S-lipoxygenase activity. The critical region was narrowed down to a cluster of five amino acids by expression of multiple cDNAs obtained by in situ chimeragenesis in Escherichia coli. Finally, a pair of amino acids, Tyr(603) and His(604), was identified as the positional determinant by site-directed mutagenesis. Mutation of both of these amino acids to the corresponding amino acids in 15-LOX-2 (Asp and Val, respectively) converted the positional specificity from 8S to 90% 15S without yielding any other by-products. Mutation of the corresponding residues in 15-LOX-2 to the 8-LOX sequence changed specificity to 50% oxygenation at C-8 for one amino acid substitution and 70% at C-8 for the double mutant. Based on the crystal structure of the reticulocyte 15-LOX, these two amino acids lie opposite the open coordination position of the catalytic iron in a likely site for substrate binding. The change from 8 to 15 specificity entails a switch in the head to tail binding of substrate. Enzymes that react with substrate "head first" (5-LOX and 8-LOX) have a bulky aromatic amino acid and a histidine in these positions, whereas lipoxygenases that accept substrates "tail first" (12-LOX and 15-LOX) have an aliphatic residue with a glutamine or aspartate. Thus, this positional determinant of the 8-LOX and 15-LOX-2 may have significance for other lipoxygenases.  (+info)

8S-lipoxygenase products activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and induce differentiation in murine keratinocytes. (3/145)

To determine the function and mechanism of action of the 8S-lipoxygenase (8-LOX) product of arachidonic acid, 8S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (8S-HETE), which is normally synthesized only after irritation of the epidermis, transgenic mice with 8-LOX targeted to keratinocytes through the use of a loricrin promoter were generated. Histological analyses showed that the skin, tongue, and stomach of transgenic mice are highly differentiated, and immunoblotting and immunohistochemistries of skin showed higher levels of keratin-1 expression compared with wild-type mice. The labeling index, however, of the transgenic epidermis was twice that of the wild-type epidermis. Furthermore, 8S-HETE treatment of wild-type primary keratinocytes induced keratin-1 expression. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) was identified as a crucial component of keratin-1 induction through transient transfection with expression vectors for PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and a dominant-negative PPAR, as well as through the use of known PPAR agonists. From these studies, it is concluded that 8S-HETE plays an important role in keratinocyte differentiation and that at least some of its effects are mediated by PPARalpha.  (+info)

A pertussis toxin-sensitive 8-lipoxygenase pathway is activated by a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in aplysia neurons. (4/145)

Acetylcholine (ACh) activates two types of chloride conductances in Aplysia neurons that can be distinguished by their kinetics and pharmacology. One is a rapidly desensitizing current that is blocked by alpha-conotoxin-ImI and the other is a sustained current that is insensitive to the toxin. These currents are differentially expressed in Aplysia neurons. We report here that neurons that respond to ACh with a sustained chloride conductance also generate 8-lipoxygenase metabolites. The sustained chloride conductance and the activation of 8-lipoxygenase have similar pharmacological profiles. Both are stimulated by suberyldicholine and nicotine, and both are inhibited by alpha-bungarotoxin. Like the sustained chloride conductance, the activation of 8-lipoxygenase is not blocked by alpha-conotoxin-ImI. In spite of the similarities between the metabolic and electrophysiological responses, the generation of 8-lipoxygenase metabolites does not appear to depend on the ion current since an influx of chloride ions is neither necessary nor sufficient for the formation of the lipid metabolites. In addition, the application of pertussis toxin blocked the ACh-activated release of arachidonic acid and the subsequent production of 8-lipoxygenase metabolites, yet the ACh-induced activation of the chloride conductance is not dependent on a G protein. Our results are consistent with the idea that the nicotinic ACh receptor that activates the sustained chloride conductance can, independent of the chloride ion influx, initiate lipid messenger synthesis.  (+info)

Elevated expression of 12/15-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 in a transgenic mouse model of prostate carcinoma. (5/145)

Changes in expression of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolizing enzymes are implicated in the development and progression of human prostate carcinoma (Pca). Transgenic mouse models of Pca that progress from high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) to invasive and metastatic carcinoma could facilitate study of the regulation and function of these genes in Pca progression. Herein we characterize the AA-metabolizing enzymes in transgenic mice established with a prostate epithelial-specific long probasin promoter and the SV40 large T antigen (LPB-Tag mice) that develop extensive HGPIN and invasive and metastatic carcinoma with neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation. Murine 8-lipoxygenase (8-LOX), homologue of the 15-LOX-2 enzyme that is expressed in benign human prostatic epithelium and reduced in Pca, was not detected in wild-type or LPB-Tag prostates as determined by enzyme assay, reverse transcription-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. The most prominent AA metabolite in mouse prostate was 12-HETE. Wild-type prostate (dorsolateral lobe) converted 1.6 +/- 0.5% [(14)C]AA to 12-HETE (n = 7), and this increased to 8.0 +/- 4.4% conversion in LPB-Tag mice with HGPIN (n = 13). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunostaining correlated the increased 12-HETE synthesis with increased neoplastic epithelial expression of 12/15-LOX, the leukocyte-type (L) of 12-LOX and the murine homologue of human 15-LOX-1. Immunostaining showed increased L12-LOX in invasive carcinoma and approximately one-half of metastatic foci. COX-2 mRNA was detectable in neoplastic prostates with HGPIN but not in wild-type prostate. By immunostaining, COX-2 was increased in the neoplastic epithelium of HGPIN but was absent in foci of invasion and metastases. We conclude that (a) AA metabolism in wild-type mouse prostate differs from humans in the basal expression of LOXs (15-LOX-2 in human, absence of its 8-LOX homologue in mouse prostate); (b) increased expression of 12/15-LOX in HGPIN and invasive carcinoma of the LPB-Tag model is similar to the increased 15-LOX-1 in high-grade human Pca; and (c) the LPB-Tag model shows increased COX-2 in HGPIN, and therefore, it may allow additional definition of the role of this enzyme in the subset of human HGPINs or other precursor lesions that are COX-2 positive, as well as investigation of its contribution to neoplastic cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis in Pca.  (+info)

Upregulation of 8-lipoxygenase in the dermatitis of IkappaB-alpha-deficient mice. (6/145)

Neonatal mice deficient in IkappaB-alpha, an inhibitor of the ubiquitous transcription factor NF-kappaB, develop severe and widespread dermatitis shortly after birth. In humans, inflammatory skin disorders such as psoriasis are associated with accumulation in the skin of the unusual arachidonic acid metabolite 12R-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12R-HETE), a product of the enzyme 12R-lipoxygenase. To examine the etiology of the murine IkappaB-alpha-deficient skin phenotype, we investigated the expression of lipoxygenases and the metabolism of exogenous arachidonic acid in the skin. In the IkappaB-alpha-deficient animals, the major lipoxygenase metabolite was 8S-HETE, formed together with a minor amount of 12S-HETE; 12R-HETE synthesis was undetectable. Skin from the wild-type littermates formed 12S-HETE as the almost exclusive lipoxygenase metabolite. Upregulation of 8S-lipoxygenase (8-LOX) in IkappaB-alpha-deficient mice was confirmed at the transcriptional and translational level using ribonuclease protection assay and western analysis. In immunohistochemical studies, increased expression of 8-LOX was detected in the stratum granulosum of the epidermis. In the stratum granulosum, 8-LOX may be involved in the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. Although mouse 8S-lipoxygenase and human 12R-lipoxygenase are not ortholog genes, we speculate that in mouse and humans the two different enzymes may fulfill equivalent functions in the progression of inflammatory dermatoses.  (+info)

Arachidonate lipoxygenase (ALOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) polymorphisms and colon cancer risk. (7/145)

In the human colon, arachidonic acid is metabolized primarily by cyclooxygenase (COX) and arachidonate lipoxygenase (ALOX) to bioactive lipids, which are implicated in colon cancer risk. Several polymorphisms in ALOX and COX genes have been identified, including G-1752A, G-1699A and Glu254Lys in ALOX5; Gln261Arg in ALOX12; Leu237Met and Val481Ile in COX1; and C-645T and Val511Ala in COX2. Because of the significant role of arachidonic acid metabolism in colon cancer, we hypothesized that these polymorphisms could influence susceptibility to colon cancer. We addressed this hypothesis in African-Americans and Caucasians using colon cancer cases (n = 293) and hospital- (n = 229) and population-based (n = 304) control groups. Polymorphisms did not differ between the control groups (P > 0.05); thus, they are combined for all analyses presented. ALOX5 Glu254Lys and COX2 C-645T and Val511Ala allele frequencies differed between Caucasians and African-American controls (P < 0.001). The ALOX5 -1752 and -1699 polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium (P < 0.001) and associated with a decreased risk in Caucasians in ALOX5 haplotype analyses (P = 0.03). Furthermore, an inverse association was observed between A alleles at positions -1752 and -1699 of ALOX5 and colon cancer risk in Caucasians, but not in African-Americans. Caucasians with A alleles at ALOX5 -1752 had a reduced odds of colon cancer versus those with G alleles [odds ratio (OR) (GA versus GG), 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.39-1.01; OR (AA versus GG), 0.33; 95% CI, 0.07-1.65, P(trend) = 0.02]. Similar results were observed for ALOX5 G-1699A [OR (GA versus GG), 0.59, 95% CI, 0.37-0.94; OR (AA versus GG), 0.27, 95% CI, 0.06-1.32, P(trend) = 0.01]. Statistically significant associations with colon cancer were not observed for the other polymorphisms investigated. We have shown for the first time that a haplotype containing ALOX5 G-1752A and G-1699A in a negative regulatory region of the promoter may influence colon cancer risk in Caucasians.  (+info)

Insights from the X-ray crystal structure of coral 8R-lipoxygenase: calcium activation via a C2-like domain and a structural basis of product chirality. (8/145)

Lipoxygenases (LOXs) catalyze the regio- and stereospecific dioxygenation of polyunsaturated membrane-embedded fatty acids. We report here the 3.2 A resolution structure of 8R-LOX from the Caribbean sea whip coral Plexaura homomalla, a LOX isozyme with calcium dependence and the uncommon R chiral stereospecificity. Structural and spectroscopic analyses demonstrated calcium binding in a C2-like membrane-binding domain, illuminating the function of similar amino acids in calcium-activated mammalian 5-LOX, the key enzyme in the pathway to the pro-inflammatory leukotrienes. Mutation of Ca(2+)-ligating amino acids in 8R-LOX resulted not only in a diminished capacity to bind membranes, as monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, but also in an associated loss of Ca(2+)-regulated enzyme activity. Moreover, a structural basis for R chiral specificity is also revealed; creation of a small oxygen pocket next to Gly(428) (Ala in all S-LOX isozymes) promoted C-8 oxygenation with R chirality on the activated fatty acid substrate.  (+info)

Arachidonate lipoxygenases (ALOXs or ALOXE's) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, to form hydroperoxides. These enzymes play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of various eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules involved in inflammation, immunity, and other physiological processes.

There are several isoforms of ALOXs, including 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX), which differ in their substrate specificity and the position of the hydroperoxide group they introduce into the fatty acid. These enzymes are widely distributed in various tissues, including the lungs, liver, and brain, and have been implicated in a variety of diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Inhibition of ALOXs has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases, although the development of selective and safe inhibitors has proven to be challenging.

Lipoxygenases (LOX) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, forming hydroperoxides. These enzymes play a role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cancer. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found in animals, plants, and microorganisms. In humans, LOXs are involved in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and lipoxins, which are important mediators of inflammation and resolution of inflammation, respectively.

Lipoxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids containing a cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene structure, forming hydroperoxides. This reaction is important in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and lipoxins, which are involved in various inflammatory responses and immune functions. There are several isoforms of lipoxygenase found in different tissues and organisms, including arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, and arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase.

Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (also known as ALOX12 or 12S-lipoxygenase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to 12(S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HPETE). This reaction is part of the lipoxygenase pathway, which contributes to the biosynthesis of eicosanoids, a group of signaling molecules that play important roles in inflammation and immune response.

The enzyme's function includes introducing molecular oxygen into arachidonic acid at position 12, creating a hydroperoxide group. The product, 12(S)-HPETE, can be further metabolized to various eicosanoids, such as 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and lipoxin A4, which have diverse biological activities in the body.

Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase is expressed in various tissues, including the vascular endothelium, platelets, and immune cells like monocytes and macrophages. Its activity can contribute to the development of certain diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, inhibiting this enzyme has been considered as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating these conditions.

Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HPETE). This enzyme plays a role in the metabolism of arachidonic acid, which is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is released from membrane phospholipids and is a precursor for eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules that play a role in inflammation and other physiological processes.

15-lipoxygenase is one of several lipoxygenases that are found in various tissues throughout the body. These enzymes are involved in the production of leukotrienes, which are signaling molecules that play a role in inflammation and allergic responses. 15-lipoxygenase has also been implicated in the development and progression of certain diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Inhibitors of 15-lipoxygenase have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of this enzyme in health and disease and to determine the safety and efficacy of inhibiting its activity.

Arachidonic acid is a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found naturally in the body and in certain foods. It is an essential fatty acid, meaning that it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Arachidonic acid is a key component of cell membranes and plays a role in various physiological processes, including inflammation and blood clotting.

In the body, arachidonic acid is released from cell membranes in response to various stimuli, such as injury or infection. Once released, it can be converted into a variety of bioactive compounds, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes, which mediate various physiological responses, including inflammation, pain, fever, and blood clotting.

Arachidonic acid is found in high concentrations in animal products such as meat, poultry, fish, and eggs, as well as in some plant sources such as certain nuts and seeds. It is also available as a dietary supplement. However, it is important to note that excessive intake of arachidonic acid can contribute to the development of inflammation and other health problems, so it is recommended to consume this fatty acid in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase (also known as ALOX5 or 5-LO) is a type of enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, which are important inflammatory mediators. It catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, to 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE), which is then converted to leukotriene A4 (LTA4). LTA4 is a precursor for the synthesis of other leukotrienes, such as LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4. These lipid mediators play key roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and allergic reactions.

The gene encoding arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase is located on human chromosome 10 (10q11.2). Mutations in this gene have been associated with several diseases, such as severe congenital neutropenia, recurrent infections, and increased risk of developing asthma and other allergic disorders. Inhibitors of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, including asthma and rheumatoid arthritis.

Arachidonic acids are a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid that is primarily found in the phospholipids of cell membranes. They contain 20 carbon atoms and four double bonds (20:4n-6), with the first double bond located at the sixth carbon atom from the methyl end.

Arachidonic acids are derived from linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources such as meat, fish, and eggs. Once ingested, linoleic acid is converted to arachidonic acid in a series of enzymatic reactions.

Arachidonic acids play an important role in various physiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and cell signaling. They serve as precursors for the synthesis of eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules that include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These eicosanoids have diverse biological activities, such as modulating blood flow, platelet aggregation, and pain perception, among others.

However, excessive production of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including inflammation, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, the regulation of arachidonic acid metabolism is an important area of research for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

Lipoxygenase inhibitors are a class of compounds that block the activity of lipoxygenase enzymes. These enzymes are involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids, leading to the production of leukotrienes and other inflammatory mediators. By inhibiting lipoxygenase, these compounds can help reduce inflammation and may have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of various diseases, including asthma, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Some examples of lipoxygenase inhibitors include nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), zileuton, and baicalein.

12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) is a type of fatty acid that is produced in the body as a result of the metabolism of arachidonic acid, which is an omega-6 fatty acid that is found in the membranes of cells throughout the body.

12-HETE is synthesized by the enzyme 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), which adds a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the twelfth carbon atom of arachidonic acid. This lipid mediator plays a role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and cancer development.

Increased levels of 12-HETE have been found in several diseases, such as atherosclerosis, asthma, and cancer, suggesting that it may contribute to the development and progression of these conditions. However, further research is needed to fully understand the role of 12-HETE in human health and disease.

Linoleic acid is a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is essential for human health. It is one of the two essential fatty acids, meaning that it cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained through diet.

Linoleic acid is a member of the omega-6 fatty acid family and has a chemical structure with two double bonds at the sixth and ninth carbon atoms from the methyl end of the molecule. It is found in various plant sources, such as vegetable oils (e.g., soybean, corn, safflower, and sunflower oils), nuts, seeds, and whole grains.

Linoleic acid plays a crucial role in maintaining the fluidity and function of cell membranes, producing eicosanoids (hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions), and supporting skin health. However, excessive intake of linoleic acid can lead to an imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, which may contribute to inflammation and chronic diseases. Therefore, it is recommended to maintain a balanced diet with appropriate amounts of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

Masoprocol is not a medication that has an established or widely accepted medical definition in the field of pharmacology or clinical medicine. It may refer to a chemical compound with the name 5-n-butyl-2-benzoxazolinone, which has been studied for its potential anti-cancer properties. However, it is not currently approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in medical treatments.

Therefore, it's important to consult with healthcare professionals or reliable medical sources for information regarding medications and their uses, rather than relying on unverified or obscure sources.

Lipid peroxides are chemical compounds that form when lipids (fats or fat-like substances) oxidize. This process, known as lipid peroxidation, involves the reaction of lipids with oxygen in a way that leads to the formation of hydroperoxides and various aldehydes, such as malondialdehyde.

Lipid peroxidation is a naturally occurring process that can also be accelerated by factors such as exposure to radiation, certain chemicals, or enzymatic reactions. It plays a role in many biological processes, including cell signaling and regulation of gene expression, but it can also contribute to the development of various diseases when it becomes excessive.

Examples of lipid peroxides include phospholipid hydroperoxides, cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides, and triglyceride hydroperoxides. These compounds are often used as markers of oxidative stress in biological systems and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and other conditions associated with oxidative damage.

Leukotrienes are a type of lipid mediator derived from arachidonic acid, which is a fatty acid found in the cell membranes of various cells in the body. They are produced by the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway and play an essential role in the inflammatory response. Leukotrienes are involved in several physiological and pathophysiological processes, including bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, and recruitment of immune cells to sites of injury or infection.

There are four main types of leukotrienes: LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4. These molecules differ from each other based on the presence or absence of specific chemical groups attached to their core structure. Leukotrienes exert their effects by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) found on the surface of various cells.

LTB4 is primarily involved in neutrophil chemotaxis and activation, while LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 are collectively known as cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). CysLTs cause bronchoconstriction, increased mucus production, and vascular permeability in the airways, contributing to the pathogenesis of asthma and other respiratory diseases.

In summary, leukotrienes are potent lipid mediators that play a crucial role in inflammation and immune responses. Their dysregulation has been implicated in several disease states, making them an important target for therapeutic intervention.

Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) are a type of metabolite produced by the oxidation of arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found in the membranes of cells in the human body. This oxidation process is catalyzed by enzymes called lipoxygenases (LOXs) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450).

HETEs are biologically active compounds that play a role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and cancer. They can act as signaling molecules, modulating the activity of various cell types, such as leukocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells.

There are several different types of HETEs, depending on the position of the hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to the arachidonic acid molecule. For example, 5-HETE, 12-HETE, and 15-HETE are produced by 5-LOX, 12-LOX, and 15-LOX, respectively, while CYP450 can produce 20-HETE.

It's worth noting that HETEs have been implicated in various diseases, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and cancer, making them potential targets for therapeutic intervention. However, further research is needed to fully understand their roles and develop effective treatments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soybeans" are not a medical term. They are a type of legume that is commonly used in agriculture and food production. The medical community might discuss soybeans in the context of nutrition or allergies, but there isn't a formal medical definition for this term.

Here's some general information: Soybeans, scientifically known as Glycine max, are native to East Asia and are now grown worldwide. They are a significant source of plant-based protein and oil. Soybeans contain various nutrients, including essential amino acids, fiber, B vitamins, and minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. They are used in various food products such as tofu, soy milk, tempeh, and miso. Additionally, soybeans are also used in the production of industrial products, including biodiesel, plastics, and inks. Some people may have allergic reactions to soybeans or soy products.

Eicosanoids are a group of signaling molecules made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids with 20 carbon atoms. They include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, and lipoxins, which are involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as inflammation, immune response, blood clotting, and smooth muscle contraction. Eicosanoids act as local hormones or autacoids, affecting the function of cells near where they are produced. They are synthesized by various cell types, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and neurons, in response to different stimuli, such as injury, infection, or stress. The balance between different eicosanoids can have significant effects on health and disease.

Linoleic acid is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid, specifically an omega-6 fatty acid. It is called "essential" because our bodies cannot produce it; therefore, it must be obtained through our diet. Linoleic acid is a crucial component of cell membranes and is involved in the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions such as inflammation, blood pressure, and muscle contraction.

Foods rich in linoleic acid include vegetable oils (such as soybean, corn, and sunflower oil), nuts, seeds, and some fruits and vegetables. It is important to maintain a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet, as excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids can contribute to inflammation and other health issues.

5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that contains four double bonds in its chemical structure. It is a non-methylene interrupted fatty acid, which means that the double bonds are separated by three methylene bridges. ETYA is not a naturally occurring fatty acid and is typically synthesized in the laboratory for research purposes.

ETYA has been used as a tool to study the biochemical mechanisms of inflammation and cancer. It can inhibit the activity of enzymes called lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases, which are involved in the production of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. ETYA can also induce the formation of reactive oxygen species, which can contribute to cell damage and death.

While ETYA has been used in research to better understand the biochemical pathways involved in inflammation and cancer, it is not used as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine due to its potential toxicity and lack of specificity for targeting disease processes.

Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases (PTGS), also known as Cyclooxygenases (COX), are a group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandin G2 and H2, which are further metabolized to produce various prostaglandins and thromboxanes. These lipid mediators play crucial roles in several physiological processes such as inflammation, pain, fever, and blood clotting. There are two major isoforms of PTGS: PTGS-1 (COX-1) and PTGS-2 (COX-2). While COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues and involved in homeostatic functions, COX-2 is usually induced during inflammation and tissue injury. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exert their therapeutic effects by inhibiting these enzymes, thereby reducing the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes.

Unsaturated fatty acids are a type of fatty acid that contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain. These double bonds can be either cis or trans configurations, although the cis configuration is more common in nature. The presence of these double bonds makes unsaturated fatty acids more liquid at room temperature and less prone to spoilage than saturated fatty acids, which do not have any double bonds.

Unsaturated fatty acids can be further classified into two main categories: monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). MUFAs contain one double bond in their carbon chain, while PUFAs contain two or more.

Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (a MUFA found in olive oil), linoleic acid (a PUFA found in vegetable oils), and alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 PUFA found in flaxseed and fish). Unsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the human body, as they play important roles in various physiological processes such as membrane structure, inflammation, and blood clotting. It is recommended to consume a balanced diet that includes both MUFAs and PUFAs to maintain good health.

'Corylus' is the medical term for the genus of plants that includes hazelnuts and filberts. These trees and shrubs are part of the Betulaceae family, which also includes birch and alder trees. The nuts produced by Corylus species are a valuable food source for both humans and wildlife.

The most commonly cultivated species of Corylus is the European hazelnut (Corylus avellana), which is native to Europe and western Asia. This species is grown commercially in many parts of the world for its sweet, edible nuts. The North American beaked hazelnut (Corylus cornuta) and the North American round-leaf hazelnut (Corylus americana) are also cultivated to a lesser extent for their nuts.

In addition to their nutritional value, Corylus species have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. The bark, leaves, and nuts of these plants contain various compounds that have been found to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of Corylus species and their active constituents.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Lipoxins are a group of naturally occurring, short-lived signaling molecules called eicosanoids that are derived from arachidonic acid, a type of omega-6 fatty acid. They were first discovered in the 1980s and are produced by cells involved in the inflammatory response, such as white blood cells (leukocytes).

Lipoxins have potent anti-inflammatory effects and play a crucial role in regulating and resolving the inflammatory response. They work by modulating the activity of various immune cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, and promoting the resolution of inflammation through the activation of anti-inflammatory pathways.

Lipoxins have been shown to have potential therapeutic applications in a variety of inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. However, further research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential.

Phospholipases A are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids into fatty acids and lysophospholipids by cleaving the ester bond at the sn-1 or sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. There are three main types of Phospholipases A:

* Phospholipase A1 (PLA1): This enzyme specifically hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-1 position, releasing a free fatty acid and a lysophospholipid.
* Phospholipase A2 (PLA2): This enzyme specifically hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position, releasing a free fatty acid (often arachidonic acid, which is a precursor for eicosanoids) and a lysophospholipid.
* Phospholipase A/B (PLA/B): This enzyme has both PLA1 and PLA2 activity and can hydrolyze the ester bond at either the sn-1 or sn-2 position.

Phospholipases A play important roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, membrane remodeling, and host defense. They are also involved in several diseases, such as atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer.

Eicosanoic acids are a type of fatty acid that contains 20 carbon atoms. They can be further classified into subgroups based on the presence and location of double bonds in their chemical structure. The most well-known eicosanoic acids include arachidonic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid with four double bonds), eicosapentaenoic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid with five double bonds), and docosahexaenoic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid with six double bonds). These fatty acids play important roles in various physiological processes, including inflammation, blood clotting, and cell signaling. They can be found in a variety of foods, such as fish, nuts, and seeds, and are also available as dietary supplements.

Blood platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small, colorless cell fragments in our blood that play an essential role in normal blood clotting. They are formed in the bone marrow from large cells called megakaryocytes and circulate in the blood in an inactive state until they are needed to help stop bleeding. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets become activated and change shape, releasing chemicals that attract more platelets to the site of injury. These activated platelets then stick together to form a plug, or clot, that seals the wound and prevents further blood loss. In addition to their role in clotting, platelets also help to promote healing by releasing growth factors that stimulate the growth of new tissue.

Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 ester bond in glycerophospholipids, releasing free fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, and lysophospholipids. These products are important precursors for the biosynthesis of various signaling molecules, including eicosanoids, platelet-activating factor (PAF), and lipoxins, which play crucial roles in inflammation, immunity, and other cellular processes.

Phospholipases A2 are classified into several groups based on their structure, mechanism of action, and cellular localization. The secreted PLA2s (sPLA2s) are found in extracellular fluids and are characterized by a low molecular weight, while the calcium-dependent cytosolic PLA2s (cPLA2s) are larger proteins that reside within cells.

Abnormal regulation or activity of Phospholipase A2 has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the biology and function of these enzymes is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these disorders.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Calcimycin is a ionophore compound that is produced by the bacterium Streptomyces chartreusensis. It is also known as Calcineurin A inhibitor because it can bind to and inhibit the activity of calcineurin, a protein phosphatase. In medical research, calcimycin is often used to study calcium signaling in cells.
It has been also used in laboratory studies for its antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on certain types of cancer cells. However, it is not approved for use as a drug in humans.

Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances that play a role in inflammation, pain, and fever.

There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is produced continuously in various tissues throughout the body and helps maintain the normal function of the stomach and kidneys, among other things. COX-2, on the other hand, is produced in response to inflammation and is involved in the production of prostaglandins that contribute to pain, fever, and inflammation.

COX inhibitors can be non-selective, meaning they block both COX-1 and COX-2, or selective, meaning they primarily block COX-2. Non-selective COX inhibitors include drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen, while selective COX inhibitors are often referred to as coxibs and include celecoxib (Celebrex) and rofecoxib (Vioxx).

COX inhibitors are commonly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. However, long-term use of non-selective COX inhibitors can increase the risk of gastrointestinal side effects such as ulcers and bleeding, while selective COX inhibitors may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits of COX inhibitors before using them.

"Solanum tuberosum" is the scientific name for a plant species that is commonly known as the potato. According to medical and botanical definitions, Solanum tuberosum refers to the starchy, edible tubers that grow underground from this plant. Potatoes are native to the Andes region of South America and are now grown worldwide. They are an important food source for many people and are used in a variety of culinary applications.

Potatoes contain several essential nutrients, including carbohydrates, fiber, protein, vitamin C, and some B vitamins. However, they can also be high in calories, especially when prepared with added fats like butter or oil. Additionally, potatoes are often consumed in forms that are less healthy, such as French fries and potato chips, which can contribute to weight gain and other health problems if consumed excessively.

In a medical context, potatoes may also be discussed in relation to food allergies or intolerances. While uncommon, some people may have adverse reactions to potatoes, including skin rashes, digestive symptoms, or difficulty breathing. These reactions are typically caused by an immune response to proteins found in the potato plant, rather than the tubers themselves.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Linolenic acids are a type of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are essential to the human body, meaning they cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained through diet. There are two main types of linolenic acids: alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), an omega-6 fatty acid.

Alpha-linolenic acid is found in plant-based sources such as flaxseeds, chia seeds, hemp seeds, walnuts, and soybeans. It is a precursor to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two other important omega-3 fatty acids that are found in fatty fish and are associated with numerous health benefits.

Gamma-linolenic acid is found in smaller amounts in certain plant-based oils such as borage oil, black currant seed oil, and evening primrose oil. It has been studied for its potential anti-inflammatory effects and may be beneficial for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, eczema, and premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

It is important to maintain a balance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the diet, as excessive intake of omega-6 fatty acids can contribute to inflammation and chronic disease. ALA and GLA are both important components of a healthy diet and have been associated with numerous health benefits, including reduced inflammation, improved heart health, and reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and diabetes.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells that still contain remnants of organelles, such as ribosomes and mitochondria, which are typically found in developing cells. These organelles are involved in the process of protein synthesis and energy production, respectively. Reticulocytes are released from the bone marrow into the bloodstream, where they continue to mature into fully developed red blood cells called erythrocytes.

Reticulocytes can be identified under a microscope by their staining characteristics, which reveal a network of fine filaments or granules known as the reticular apparatus. This apparatus is composed of residual ribosomal RNA and other proteins that have not yet been completely eliminated during the maturation process.

The percentage of reticulocytes in the blood can be used as a measure of bone marrow function and erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production. An increased reticulocyte count may indicate an appropriate response to blood loss, hemolysis, or other conditions that cause anemia, while a decreased count may suggest impaired bone marrow function or a deficiency in erythropoietin, the hormone responsible for stimulating red blood cell production.

Prostaglandin E (PGE) is a type of prostaglandin, which is a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have diverse hormone-like effects. Prostaglandins are not actually hormones, but are similar to them in that they act as chemical messengers that have specific effects on certain cells.

Prostaglandin E is one of the most abundant prostaglandins in the body and has a variety of physiological functions. It is involved in the regulation of inflammation, pain perception, fever, and smooth muscle contraction. Prostaglandin E also plays a role in the regulation of blood flow, platelet aggregation, and gastric acid secretion.

Prostaglandin E is synthesized from arachidonic acid, which is released from cell membranes by the action of enzymes called phospholipases. Once formed, prostaglandin E binds to specific receptors on the surface of cells, leading to a variety of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in changes in cell behavior.

Prostaglandin E is used medically in the treatment of several conditions, including dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), postpartum hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus (a congenital heart defect). It is also used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of kidney function.

Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) is a type of enzyme belonging to the cyclooxygenase family, which is responsible for the production of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and prostacyclins. These are important signaling molecules that play a role in various physiological processes such as inflammation, pain perception, blood clotting, and gastric acid secretion.

COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues, including the stomach, kidneys, and platelets, where it performs housekeeping functions. For example, in the stomach, COX-1 produces prostaglandins that protect the stomach lining from acid and digestive enzymes. In the kidneys, COX-1 helps regulate blood flow and sodium balance. In platelets, COX-1 produces thromboxane A2, which promotes blood clotting.

COX-1 is a target of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. These medications work by inhibiting the activity of COX enzymes, reducing the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes, and thereby alleviating pain, inflammation, and fever. However, long-term use of NSAIDs can lead to side effects such as stomach ulcers and bleeding due to the inhibition of COX-1 in the stomach lining.

Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) is a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), which is a potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregator synthesized by activated platelets. TXA2 has a very short half-life, quickly undergoing spontaneous conversion to the more stable TXB2.

TXB2 itself does not have significant biological activity but serves as a marker for TXA2 production in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions, such as thrombosis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. It can be measured in blood or other bodily fluids to assess platelet activation and the status of hemostatic and inflammatory processes.

Phospholipids are a major class of lipids that consist of a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. The head is composed of a phosphate group, which is often bound to an organic molecule such as choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol. The tails are made up of two fatty acid chains.

Phospholipids are a key component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the cell. They form a lipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing outwards and the hydrophobic tails facing inwards, creating a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.

Phospholipids are also involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, and protein function regulation. Additionally, they serve as emulsifiers in the digestive system, helping to break down fats in the diet.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes in the body, including cyclooxygenase (COX), which plays a role in producing prostaglandins, chemicals involved in the inflammatory response.

Indomethacin is available in various forms, such as capsules, suppositories, and injectable solutions, and is used to treat a wide range of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, and bursitis. It may also be used to relieve pain and reduce fever in other conditions, such as dental procedures or after surgery.

Like all NSAIDs, indomethacin can have side effects, including stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney damage, especially when taken at high doses or for long periods of time. It may also increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, it is important to use indomethacin only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Prostaglandins are naturally occurring, lipid-derived hormones that play various important roles in the human body. They are produced in nearly every tissue in response to injury or infection, and they have diverse effects depending on the site of release and the type of prostaglandin. Some of their functions include:

1. Regulation of inflammation: Prostaglandins contribute to the inflammatory response by increasing vasodilation, promoting fluid accumulation, and sensitizing pain receptors, which can lead to symptoms such as redness, heat, swelling, and pain.
2. Modulation of gastrointestinal functions: Prostaglandins protect the stomach lining from acid secretion and promote mucus production, maintaining the integrity of the gastric mucosa. They also regulate intestinal motility and secretion.
3. Control of renal function: Prostaglandins help regulate blood flow to the kidneys, maintain sodium balance, and control renin release, which affects blood pressure and fluid balance.
4. Regulation of smooth muscle contraction: Prostaglandins can cause both relaxation and contraction of smooth muscles in various tissues, such as the uterus, bronchioles, and vascular system.
5. Modulation of platelet aggregation: Some prostaglandins inhibit platelet aggregation, preventing blood clots from forming too quickly or becoming too large.
6. Reproductive system regulation: Prostaglandins are involved in the menstrual cycle, ovulation, and labor induction by promoting uterine contractions.
7. Neurotransmission: Prostaglandins can modulate neurotransmitter release and neuronal excitability, affecting pain perception, mood, and cognition.

Prostaglandins exert their effects through specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) found on the surface of target cells. There are several distinct types of prostaglandins (PGs), including PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, PGI2 (prostacyclin), and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Each type has unique functions and acts through specific receptors. Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid derived from membrane phospholipids, by the action of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen, inhibit COX activity, reducing prostaglandin synthesis and providing analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a type of lipid mediator called eicosanoid, which is derived from arachidonic acid through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. It is primarily produced by neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and macrophages in response to various stimuli such as infection, inflammation, or injury. LTB4 acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of these immune cells, playing a crucial role in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils during acute inflammatory responses. It also enhances the adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, contributing to the development of tissue damage and edema. Dysregulation of LTB4 production has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including asthma, atherosclerosis, and cancer.

Oxylipins are a class of bioactive lipid molecules derived from the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). They play crucial roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cellular signaling. Oxylipins can be further categorized based on their precursor PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and linoleic acid (LA). These oxylipins are involved in the regulation of vascular tone, platelet aggregation, neurotransmission, and pain perception. They exert their effects through various receptors and downstream signaling pathways, making them important targets for therapeutic interventions in several diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, and neurological conditions.

Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are a type of fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through diet. There are two main types of essential fatty acids: linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3).

Linoleic acid is found in foods such as vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds, while alpha-linolenic acid is found in foods such as flaxseeds, walnuts, and fatty fish. These essential fatty acids play important roles in the body, including maintaining the fluidity and function of cell membranes, producing eicosanoids (hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions), and supporting the development and function of the brain and nervous system.

Deficiency in essential fatty acids can lead to a variety of health problems, including skin disorders, poor growth and development, and increased risk of heart disease. It is important to maintain a balanced intake of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, as excessive consumption of omega-6 relative to omega-3 has been linked to inflammation and chronic diseases.

Phospholipases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids, which are major components of cell membranes. Phospholipases cleave specific ester bonds in phospholipids, releasing free fatty acids and other lipophilic molecules. Based on the site of action, phospholipases are classified into four types:

1. Phospholipase A1 (PLA1): This enzyme hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-1 position of a glycerophospholipid, releasing a free fatty acid and a lysophospholipid.
2. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2): PLA2 cleaves the ester bond at the sn-2 position of a glycerophospholipid, releasing a free fatty acid (often arachidonic acid) and a lysophospholipid. Arachidonic acid is a precursor for eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules involved in inflammation and other physiological processes.
3. Phospholipase C (PLC): PLC hydrolyzes the phosphodiester bond in the headgroup of a glycerophospholipid, releasing diacylglycerol (DAG) and a soluble head group, such as inositol trisphosphate (IP3). DAG acts as a secondary messenger in intracellular signaling pathways, while IP3 mediates the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores.
4. Phospholipase D (PLD): PLD cleaves the phosphoester bond between the headgroup and the glycerol moiety of a glycerophospholipid, releasing phosphatidic acid (PA) and a free head group. PA is an important signaling molecule involved in various cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal reorganization, and cell survival.

Phospholipases have diverse roles in normal physiology and pathophysiological conditions, such as inflammation, immunity, and neurotransmission. Dysregulation of phospholipase activity can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.

... (EC 1.13.11.40) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arachidonate + O2 ⇌ {\ ... Other names in common use include 8-lipoxygenase, and 8(R)-lipoxygenase. This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid ... Bundy GL, Nidy EG, Epps DE, Mizsak SA, Wnuk RJ (1986). "Discovery of an arachidonic acid C-8 lipoxygenase in the gorgonian ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is arachidonate:oxygen 8-oxidoreductase. ...
... s are compounds that slow or stop the action of the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5- ... 1. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase ...Specific function: Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a ... Antileukotriene agents Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase ALOX5-inhibiting drugs David L. Nelson, Michael M. Cox. Lehninger's ... Lipoxygenase+inhibitors at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MeSH list of agents 82016859 ...
... , also known as ALOX5, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, or 5-LO, is a non-heme iron-containing enzyme (EC 1.13 ... Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase is a member of the lipoxygenase family of enzymes. It transforms essential fatty acids (EFA) ... "Alox5 - arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase". WikiGenes. Fahel JS, de Souza MB, Gomes MT, Corsetti PP, Carvalho NB, Marinho FA, de ... Arachidonate+5-Lipoxygenase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ALOX5 genome ...
In humans, Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO, 12-LOX, ALO12, or platelet type 12-lipoxygenase) is encoded by the ALOX12 gene ... 12-lipoxygenase gene, see lipoxygenase#Mouse lipoxygenases) are resistant to a) streptozotocin-induced, b) high fat diet- ... Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type, also termed 12RLOX and encoded by the ALOX12B gene, is expressed primarily in skin and ... express platelet type 12-lipoxygenase but also a leukocyte type 12-lipoxygenase (also termed 12/15-lipoxygenase, 12/15-LOX or ...
... also known as arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12-lipoxygenase, 12S-Lipoxygenase, 12-LOX, and 12S-LOX is a lipoxygenase-type ... "Entrez Gene: ALOX12 arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase". Yamamoto S, Suzuki H, Ueda N (March 1997). "Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenases". ... arachidonate:oxygen 12-oxidoreductase, Delta12-lipoxygenase, 12Delta-lipoxygenase, and C-12 lipoxygenase. ALOX12, often termed ... Nugteren DH (February 1975). "Arachidonate lipoxygenase in blood platelets". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Lipids and ...
Kuhn, Hartmut; Walther, Matthias; Kuban, Ralf Jürgen (2002). "Mammalian arachidonate 15-lipoxygenases". Prostaglandins & Other ... 5-lipoxygenase, 12-lipoxygenase, and 15-lipoxygenase-2, and selected metabolites of the latter lipoxygenases show no such ... "Characterization and separation of the arachidonic acid 5-lipoxygenase and linoleic acid omega-6 lipoxygenase (arachidonic acid ... 15-lipoxygenase type 2 (ALOX15B) strongly prefers arachidonic acid over linoleic acid and in consequence is relatively poor in ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase "Flavocoxid". livertox.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-07-20. This article incorporates text from this ...
Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type II (ALOX15B), also termed 15-lipoxygenase-2, 15-LOX-2, and 15-LOX-2. It metabolizes ... soybean lipoxygenase L1 and L3, coral 8-lipoxygenase, human 5-lipoxygenase, rabbit 15-lipoxygenase and porcine leukocyte 12- ... erythrocyte type 15-lipoxygenase (or 15-lipoxygenase, erythrocyte type), reticulocyte type 15-lipoxygenase (or 15-lipoxygenase ... "ALOX5 arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". Haeggström, J. Z.; Funk, C. D. (2011). "Lipoxygenase ...
"Entrez Gene: ALOXE3 arachidonate lipoxygenase 3". Schneider C, Brash AR (August 2002). "Lipoxygenase-catalyzed formation of R- ... Epidermis-type lipoxygenase 3 (ALOXE3 or eLOX3) is a member of the lipoxygenase family of enzymes; in humans, it is encoded by ... The epidermis-type lipoxygenases are now regarded as a distinct subclass within the multigene family of mammalian lipoxygenases ... "Lipoxygenase-3 (ALOXE3) and 12(R)-lipoxygenase (ALOX12B) are mutated in non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE ...
Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type, also known as ALOX12B, 12R-LOX, and arachidonate lipoxygenase 3, is a lipoxygenase-type ... "Entrez Gene: ALOX12B arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type". Boeglin WE, Kim RB, Brash AR (June 1998). "A 12R-lipoxygenase in ... Among the human lipoxygenases, ALOX12B is most closely (54% identity) related in amino acid sequence to ALOXE3 ALOX12B ... The gene is located on chromosome 17 at position 13.1 where it forms a cluster with two other lipoxygenases, ALOXE3 and ALOX15B ...
ALOX12B (i.e. arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type) forms R chirality products, i.e. 12R-HpETE and 12R-HETE. Similarly, ... The 15-lipoxygenases (particularly ALOX15) may also act in series with 5-lipoxygenase, 12-lipoxygenase, or aspirin-treated COX2 ... The enzymes 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1 or ALOX15) and 15-lipoxygenase-2 (15-LO-2, ALOX15B) metabolize arachidonic acid to the S ... Other reactions of lipoxygenases generate cellular damage; murine models implicate 15-lipoxygenase in the pathogenesis of ...
... s are synthesized in the cell from arachidonic acid by arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase. The catalytic mechanism involves ... and donated by the 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) to 5-lipoxygenase.[citation needed] 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) uses FLAP ... by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase. Leukotrienes use lipid signaling to convey information to either the cell producing ... Recent research points to a role of 5-lipoxygenase in cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric illnesses. Leukotrienes are very ...
Antileukotriene Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor Antihistamines Hooper, Nigel M. (2013). Membrane dipeptidase. Handbook of ... Leukotrienes are produced from arachidonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase (which is made from phospholipids in the cell membrane) and ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein also known as 5-lipoxygenase activating protein, or FLAP, is a protein that in ... Zintzaras E, Rodopoulou P, Sakellaridis N (March 2009). "Variants of the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein ( ... "Associations of genetic polymorphisms of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein with risk of coronary artery disease in ... "Cytogenetic and radiation hybrid mapping of human arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP) to chromosome 13q12 ...
Ghosh J, Myers CE (1998). "Inhibition of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase triggers massive apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells ... mediates the survival-promoting effects of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase in prostate cancer cells". Cancer Lett. 336 (1): 185-95 ... Hussey HJ, Tisdale MJ (1996). "Inhibition of tumour growth by lipoxygenase inhibitors". Br. J. Cancer. 74 (5): 683-687. doi: ... Wijkander J, O'Flaherty JT, Nixon AB, Wykle RL (1995). "5-Lipoxygenase products modulate the activity of the 85-kDa ...
"Evidence that arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase 2 is a negative cell cycle regulator in normal prostate epithelial cells". Journal ... 15-Lipoxygenase-2: Cells also used 15-lipoxygenase 2 (i.e. 15-LOX-2 or ALOX15B) to make 15(S)-HpETE and 15(S)-HETE. However ... 15-Lipoxygenase-1: Cells metabolize arachidonic acid with 15-lipoxygenase-1 (i.e., 15-LO-1, ALOX15) to form 15(S)-HpETE as a ... an arachidonate lipoxygenase product". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research. 1136 (3): 247-252. doi: ...
Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type II is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALOX15B gene. ALOX15B, also known as 15- ... "Entrez Gene: ALOX15B arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, type B". Human ALOX15B genome location and ALOX15B gene details page in the ... Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase 15-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid ALOX15 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000179593 - Ensembl, May ... "Evidence that arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase 2 is a negative cell cycle regulator in normal prostate epithelial cells". The ...
If arachidonate is acted upon by a lipoxygenase instead of cyclooxygenase, Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and leukotrienes are ... The prostaglandins are synthesized in the cell membrane by the cleavage of arachidonate from the phospholipids that make up the ... The arachidonate is then acted upon by the cyclooxygenase component of prostaglandin synthase. This forms a cyclopentane ring ...
... cyclooxygenase and arachidonate-5-lipoxygenase and ion channels. Holger Stark is a member of various pharmaceutical and ...
When acting on GLA, arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase produces no leukotrienes and the conversion by the enzyme of arachidonic acid ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase Leukotriene 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid Greene ER, Huang S, Serhan ... The primary product of the lipoxygenase, 15-HPETE is believed to react with the enzyme further to produce the 14,15-epoxide, ... Claesson HE (September 2009). "On the biosynthesis and biological role of eoxins and 15-lipoxygenase-1 in airway inflammation ... Forsell PK, Brunnström A, Johannesson M, Claesson HE (2012). "Metabolism of anandamide into eoxamides by 15-lipoxygenase-1 and ...
"Depletion of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase up-regulates arachidonate metabolism by 12S-lipoxygenase and ... "Glutathione peroxidase 4 senses and translates oxidative stress into 12/15-lipoxygenase dependent- and AIF-mediated cell death ... untranslated region of human glutathione peroxidase 4 influences lipoxygenase metabolism". Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 29 (2): 174-8 ...
First, human eosinophils use Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase-1 (or possibly Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase-2 to metabolize 5-oxo-ETE ... oxygenation of this arachidonic acid by activated arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) to form 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z- ... Second, human platelets use 12-lipoxygenase to metabolize 5-oxo-ETE to 5-oxo-12(S)-hydroperxy-eicosatetraenoat which is rapidly ... This transcellular production typically involves the limited variety of cell types that express active 5-lipoxygenase, lack ...
... arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase 2, 15-lipoxygenase-2, 15-LOX-2, 15-LO-2, arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type II, arachidonate 15- ... 15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-LOX-1, 15-LO-1, human 12/15-lipoxygenase, leukocyte-type arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, or arachidonate ... ALOX15 (also termed arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, 15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-LO-1, 15-LOX-1) is, like other lipoxygenases, a seminal ... Sigal E, Grunberger D, Craik CS, Caughey GH, Nadel JA (April 1988). "Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (omega-6 lipoxygenase) from ...
... arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.450.025.025 - arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.450. ... lipoxygenase MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.450.025 - arachidonate lipoxygenases MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.450.025.020 - ... arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.687 - retinal dehydrogenase MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.925 - tyrosine 3- ...
Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase (processes essential fatty acids to leukotrienes, which are important agents in the inflammatory ...
... is an enzyme that metabolizes an eicosanoid product of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5(S)-hydroxy-6S,8Z,11Z,14Z- ...
... by the arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase-1-based or arachidonate 15-lipoxygenased-2-based metabolism of 5-oxo-ETE; and f) conversion ... also termed arachidonate-5-lipoxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LO, and 5-LOX). ALOX5 metabolizes arachidonic acid to its ... 12-Lipoxygenase (i.e. ALOX12) to metabolize 5(S)-HETE to 5(S),12(S)-diHETE. The activity of this product has not yet been fully ...
... arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.444.050.060 - arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.444. ... lipoxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.444.050 - arachidonate lipoxygenases MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.444.050.055 - ... 050.065 - arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.444.525 - protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690. ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, B-cell linker, BCAR1, BCR gene, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor, C-Met, CBLB, CD117, CD22, CD28, CDKN1B ... Lepley RA, Fitzpatrick FA (September 1994). "5-Lipoxygenase contains a functional Src homology 3-binding motif that interacts ... "Competitive binding assay of src homology domain 3 interactions between 5-lipoxygenase and growth factor receptor binding ...
Arachidonate 8-lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.11.40) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction arachidonate + O2 ⇌ {\ ... Other names in common use include 8-lipoxygenase, and 8(R)-lipoxygenase. This enzyme participates in arachidonic acid ... Bundy GL, Nidy EG, Epps DE, Mizsak SA, Wnuk RJ (1986). "Discovery of an arachidonic acid C-8 lipoxygenase in the gorgonian ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is arachidonate:oxygen 8-oxidoreductase. ...
"Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase" by people in this website by year, and whether "Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase" was a major or ... "Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase". ...
Mouse ALOX5(Arachidonate-5-Lipoxygenase) ELISA Kit. Mouse ALOX5(Arachidonate-5-Lipoxygenase) ELISA Kit ... Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse Arachidonate 15 lipoxygenase B(ALOX15B) in samples from ... Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse Arachidonate 15 lipoxygenase B(ALOX15B) in samples from ... Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse Arachidonate 15 lipoxygenase B(ALOX15B) in samples from ...
8(R)-lipoxygenase, 8-lipoxygenase, 8-LOX, 8R-lipoxygenase, 8R-LOX, 8S-lipoxygenase, 8S-LOX, allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase ... arachidonate 8-lipoxygenase. This is an abbreviated version!. For detailed information about arachidonate 8-lipoxygenase, go to ... arachidonate. + O2. = (5Z,9E,11Z,14Z)-(8R)-8-hydroperoxyicosa-5,9,11,14-tetraenoate. ... protein, arachidonic acid C-8 lipoxygenase, eicosapentaenoic 8R-lipoxygenase, LOX-1, More ...
Human ALOX15(Arachidonate-15-Lipoxygenase) ELISA Kit. Contact us: [email protected]. Pig Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase (ALOX15) ... Human ALOX15B(Arachidonate-15-Lipoxygenase, Type B) ELISA Kit. *Human ALPPL2(Alkaline Phosphatase, Placental Like Protein 2) ... Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Arachidonate 15 lipoxygenase B(ALOX15B) in samples from ... Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Arachidonate 15 lipoxygenase B(ALOX15B) in samples from ...
Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase) ELISA Kit. Catalog #: ABCE-EL-R1001. Full Name: Rat 15-LO (Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase) ELISA ... Home / ELISA Kits / Rat / Rat 15-LO (Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase) ELISA Kit. Search for:. Search. ...
You are here: Home1 / ELISA Kits2 / Mouse Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase B (ALOX15B) ELISA Kit ... 24Mouse Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase B (ALOX15B) ELISA Kit. ... Mouse Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase B (ALOX15B) ELISA Kit. ...
This enzyme is part of a family of enzymes called arachidonate lipoxygenases. Most enzymes in this family help add an oxygen ... Lipoxygenase-3 (ALOXE3) and 12(R)-lipoxygenase (ALOX12B) are mutated in non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE ... Unlike other lipoxygenases, the eLOX3 enzyme does not act directly on fatty acids. Instead, it is involved in the step ... Krieg P, Furstenberger G. The role of lipoxygenases in epidermis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Mar;1841(3):390-400. doi: 10.1016/ ...
Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase. MGLYRIRVSTGASLYAGSNNQVQLWLVGQHGEAALGKRLWPARGKETELK.... unknown. inhibitor. Quinone oxidoreductase ...
Mouse 5-LO (Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase) CLIA Kit , G-EC-01703 Mouse 5-LO (Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase) CLIA Kit , G-EC-01703 ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) is also associated with the risk of stroke in the Icelandic population ... Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase promoter genotype, dietary arachidonic acid, and atherosclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jan 1. 350(1): ... Genetic variants of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein, and risk of incident myocardial infarction and ischemic ... The enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) participates in the synthesis of leukotrienes and is expressed in vascular tissue. Certain ...
Name: arachidonate lipoxygenase, epidermal. Synonyms: 8-LOX, e-LOX1, Alox12-ps1, Aloxe, Alox12-ps2 ...
arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase. ISO. CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism. CTD. PMID:30818366. NCBI chr 4:149,531,329... ...
It acts by targeting arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase. It was also under development for the treatment Alzheimers disease and ...
Brash, A. R., & Ingram, C. D. (1986). Lipoxygenase metabolism of endogenous arachidonate in leukocytes: GC-MS analyses of ... 2010). Effect of ω-3 and ω-9 fatty acid rich oils on lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases enzymes and on the growth of a mammary ... Hwang, D. H. (1982). Characteristics of the formation of the platelet lipoxygenase product from endogenous arachidonic acid. ... Smith, W. L., & Murphy, R. C. (2002). The eicosanoids: cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and epoxygenase pathways. In D. E. Vance ...
Furthermore, di-GA inhibited the generation of lymphendothelial gaps by cancer cell spheroid-secreted lipoxygenase metabolites ... Nie D, Tang K, Diglio C, Honn KV (2000) Eicosanoid regulation of angiogenesis: role of endothelial arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase ... Increased metastatic potential in human prostate carcinoma cells by overexpression of arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase. Clin Exp ... Ha TJ, Nihei K, Kubo I (2004) Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of octyl gallate. J Agric Food Chem 52 (10): 3177-3181 ...
Numerous pro-inflammatory enzymes, e.g., cyclooxygenase-2, arachidonate 5-lipoksygenase and 12-lipoxygenase, are activated ...
... arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase and its activating protein), both genes involved in leukotriene synthesis were similarly ... The role of 5-lipoxygenase in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and its therapeutic implications. Inflamm Res. 2021 Aug;70(8):877 ... The role of 5-lipoxygenase has been investigated in prior studies, which describe a crucial pathophysiological link between ...
Cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase arachidonate metabolites synthesized by mouse peritoneal macrophages: in vitro effect of N- ...
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes induce arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase expression and enhance the polarization and function of M1 ... Multi-walled carbon nanotubes induce arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase expression and enhance the polarization and function of M1 ... with a focus on the induction of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (Alox5), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of LMs. Treatment of ...
By screening the ALOX arachidonate lipoxygenase family to identify potential contributors to p53-mediated ferroptosis and tumor ...
Hinokitiol, a selective inhibitor of the platelet-type isozyme of arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase: H. Suzuki, et al.; Biochem. ...
But the supplement also inhibits the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase that turns the fatty acid arachidonate into pro-inflammatory ... Boswellic acid, the active compound in Boswellia, is also a lipoxygenase inhibitor and, as such, impedes the conversion of ...
Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase (MeSH) * Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase (MeSH) * Arachidonic Acid (MeSH) * Aspirin (MeSH) ...
However, rare variants in ALOX15B (arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, type B) and the common variant rs12529 in AKR1C3 ( ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor. PMIDs: 10694244 10322101 11529688 11561080 10377029 11752352 8826571 8058773 17394438 ... Guidot et al., 1994, Intrinsic 5-lipoxygenase activity is required for neutrophil responsivity., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... Qian et al., 2001, Anti-inflammatory activities of LDP-392, a dual PAF receptor antagonist and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor., ... Wenzel et al., Zileuton: the first 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor for the treatment of asthma., Ann Pharmacother ...
Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase ELISA KIT; 12/15-lipoxygenase ELISA KIT; Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, leukocyte-type (EC:1.13. ... 11.31) ELISA KIT; 12-LOX ELISA KIT; Arachidonate omega-6 lipoxygenaseALOX15 ELISA KIT; LOG15 ELISA KIT; 15-LOX ELISA KIT; 15- ...
arachidonate lipoxygenase 3. Image. No pdb structure. No pdb structure. GO Annotations. ...
Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase. 170. 1. 0.00. -1.00. 0.01. 0.59. Xanthine Oxidase. 8,860. Target. Target. CD95 4,266. 1. 0.00. - ...
arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase. 10q11.2. CV:PGCnp. DMG:Jaffe_2016. 80114. BICC1. BICC , CYSRD. BicC family RNA binding protein 1. ...
  • Description: Quantitative sandwich ELISA for measuring Mouse Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) in samples from cell culture supernatants, serum, whole blood, plasma and other biological fluids. (glideruniversity.org)
  • Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Rat Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (Alox5) in samples from serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, tissue homogenates. (glideruniversity.org)
  • Description: The ALOX5 gene encodes a member of the lipoxygenase gene family and plays a dual role in the synthesis of leukotrienes from arachidonic acid. (glideruniversity.org)
  • Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Human Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5/LOG5) in samples from serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, tissue homogenates. (glideruniversity.org)
  • Here we examined the molecular mechanism by which multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) induce M1 polarization in vitro, with a focus on the induction of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (Alox5), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of LMs. (cdc.gov)
  • ALOX5 arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase: macrophages infected with Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus or Aspergillus fumigatus or treated with Curdlan, a selective agonist of pattern recognition receptor for fungi Dectin-1, displays increased expression of ALOX5, ALOX15 and PTGS2 Karnam et al, 2015 . (polygenicpathways.co.uk)
  • Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Arachidonate 15 lipoxygenase (ALOX15/LOG15) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (myelisakit.com)
  • ALOX15 arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase : see Karnam et al, 2015 . (polygenicpathways.co.uk)
  • Effect of 15-HETE on the 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway in Neutrophils: Genuine Inhibitor or Alternative Substrate? (edu.au)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is arachidonate:oxygen 8-oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme is part of a family of enzymes called arachidonate lipoxygenases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Unlike other lipoxygenases, the eLOX3 enzyme does not act directly on fatty acids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this work, the metabolomic characterization of the ethanolic extracts of these species and the determination of the antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition and anti-inflammatory potential of selected compounds on the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme by molecular docking and cytoprotective activity in the SH-SY5Y cell line were carried out. (edu.pe)
  • Molecular docking evidenced significant binding affinities of some compounds for the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme, together with outstanding pharmacokinetic properties. (edu.pe)
  • Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES. (bvsalud.org)
  • Part II: Metabolic Regulation of Lipoxygenases: Lipoxygenase Inhibitors. (edu.au)
  • Multi-walled carbon nanotube s induce arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase expression and enhance the polarization and function of M1 macrophages (dataset). (cdc.gov)
  • Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli promotes transepithelial migration of neutrophils through a conserved 12-lipoxygenase pathway. (umassmed.edu)
  • Collectively, these landmark discoveries provided initial insight into the COX pathway of arachidonate metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • Both genes encode enzymes, phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP), which suggest novel treatment strategies for stroke prevention. (rais.is)
  • Furthermore, di-GA inhibited the generation of lymphendothelial gaps by cancer cell spheroid-secreted lipoxygenase metabolites. (nature.com)
  • Structure and regulation of arachidonate 11R-lipoxygenase = Arahhidoon. (digar.ee)
  • Part I: Enzymology, Molecular Biology, and Biological Functions of Mammalian Lipoxygenases. (edu.au)
  • Systemic disease during Streptococcus pneumoniae acute lung infection requires 12-lipoxygenase-dependent inflammation. (umassmed.edu)
  • Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • Changes in dietary fatty acids, specifically the polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 and ω-6 families and some derived eicosanoids from lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and cytochrome P-450, seem to control the activity of transcription factor families involved in cancer cell proliferation or cell death. (springer.com)
  • Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. (bvsalud.org)
  • 12-Lipoxygenase plays a key role in cell death caused by glutathione depletion and arachidonic acid in rat oligodendrocytes. (umassmed.edu)
  • Krieg P, Furstenberger G. The role of lipoxygenases in epidermis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Overexpression of 5-lipoxygenase in colon polyps and cancer and the effect of 5-LOX inhibitors in vitro and in a murine model. (uchicago.edu)
  • Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES . (bvsalud.org)
  • This text also reviews the literature where specific receptor antagonists (as opposed to enzymatic inhibitors) have been used to characterize the pharmacologic action and the pathophysiologic roles of some of lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism. (elsevier.com)
  • This study aims to isolate major compounds found in Blechnum orientale act as 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) inhibitors. (ui.ac.id)
  • Both isoquercitrin and trifolin act as competitive inhibitors against lipoxygenase enzymes. (ui.ac.id)
  • Part II: Metabolic Regulation of Lipoxygenases: Lipoxygenase Inhibitors. (edu.au)
  • Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP) plays a role in the 5-lipoxygenase (LO) pathway, which includes the LTC(4), LTD(4), LTE(4) and LTB(4). (nih.gov)
  • The protein also acts on C-12 of arachidonate as well as on linoleic acid. (thermofisher.com)
  • Red-kerneled rice proanthocyanidin inhibits arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase and decreases psoriasis-like skin inflammation. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The present study indicates that indomethacin inhibits arachidonate metabolism via cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase in hamster isolated lungs. (nih.gov)
  • This was associated with increased expression of arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX-12) and generation of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE). (jci.org)
  • evaluation of organic baobab oil on arachidonate lipoxygenase 5 expression, inflammatory mediators releaser. (oncdermology.es)
  • Inhibition of lipoxygenase decrease the production of leukotriene that induces bronchoconstriction in asthma. (ui.ac.id)
  • Red-kerneled rice proanthocyanidin exhibited potent mixed noncompetitive inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase, with an IC of 7.0 μM. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Epithelium-dependent modulation of responsiveness of airways from caveolin-1 knockout mice is mediated through cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase. (uchicago.edu)
  • Polymorphisms in Cyclooxygenase, Lipoxygenase and TP53 genes predict colorectal polyp risk reduction by aspirin in the seAFOod polyp prevention trial. (cdc.gov)
  • 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) belongs to a lipoxygenase family of enzymes that catalyze the stereospecific addition of molecular oxygen across double bonds in polyunsaturated fatty acids to form a series of biologically active lipid mediators. (nature.com)
  • Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is a member of the lipoxygenase family of enzymes that plays a key role in arachidonic acid metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • 1999 . The arachidonate 12/15 lipoxygenases. (nih.gov)
  • Indomethacin inhibits arachidonic acid metabolism via lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase in hamster isolated lungs. (nih.gov)
  • The contraction in denuded trachea, and trachea in the presence of indomethacin, may be mediated by lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism, i.e. peptidoleukotrienes. (cdc.gov)
  • This book is organized into 11 chapters and begins with an overview of the biochemical, pharmacological, and pathophysiological aspects of 5-lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism in the respiratory, cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. (elsevier.com)
  • Part I: Enzymology, Molecular Biology, and Biological Functions of Mammalian Lipoxygenases. (edu.au)
  • A suitable 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor might be useful for preventing and improving the symptoms of leukotriene-related inflammatory diseases. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Red-kerneled rice proanthocyanidin inhibits 5-lipoxygenase, resulting in a decrease in leukotriene B production and psoriasis-like mouse skin inflammation. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • 8. Structure and chromosomal localization of human arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase gene. (nih.gov)
  • Prostacyclin synthase and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase polymorphisms and risk of colorectal polyps. (cdc.gov)
  • 5-Lipoxygenase, a marker for early pancreatic intraepithelial neoplastic lesions. (uchicago.edu)
  • 16. Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid contribute to stromal aging-induced progression of pancreatic cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Matsumoto T, Funk CD, Radmark O, Hoog JO, Jornvall H, Samuelsson B: Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of human 5-lipoxygenase. (t3db.ca)
  • In the presence of indomethacin (1 microM), arachidonate caused contraction in intact and denuded trachea. (cdc.gov)
  • In the presence of both indomethacin and NDGA, responses to arachidonate were abolished. (cdc.gov)
  • In intact tissues this lipoxygenase inhibitor converted the arachidonate-induced relaxation to a concentration-dependent contraction. (cdc.gov)
  • Part III: Products of the Lipoxygenase Pathways and their Receptors. (edu.au)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase" by people in this website by year, and whether "Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uchicago.edu)
  • 2011 . 5-oxo-ETE is a major oxidative stress-induced arachidonate metabolite in B lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • 3 Arachidonate also produced concentration-dependent effects, the qualitative nature of which varied with the presence or absence of the epithelium. (cdc.gov)