An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.
Enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of arachidonic acid to hydroperoxyarachidonates. These products are then rapidly converted by a peroxidase to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. The positional specificity of the enzyme reaction varies from tissue to tissue. The final lipoxygenase pathway leads to the leukotrienes. EC 1.13.11.- .
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Arachidonic acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids, specifically a type of omega-6 fatty acid, that are essential for human nutrition and play crucial roles in various biological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cell signaling. They serve as precursors to eicosanoids, which are hormone-like substances that mediate a wide range of physiological responses.
A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.
Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASE.
A dual inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. It exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The drug also enhances pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and has a protective effect after myocardial ischemia.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta(1E,3E,5Z,8Z)))-3-(1,3,5,8-Tetradecatetraenyl)oxiranebutanoic acid. An unstable allylic epoxide, formed from the immediate precursor 5-HPETE via the stereospecific removal of a proton at C-10 and dehydration. Its biological actions are determined primarily by its metabolites, i.e., LEUKOTRIENE B4 and cysteinyl-leukotrienes. Alternatively, leukotriene A4 is converted into LEUKOTRIENE C4 by glutathione-S-transferase or into 5,6-di-HETE by the epoxide-hydrolase. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.
A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Zymosan is a polysaccharide derived from the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly used in research as an immunostimulant to induce inflammation and study phagocytosis, complement activation, and oxidative burst in neutrophils and macrophages.
A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC 5.3.99.5.
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Cell-surface receptors that bind LEUKOTRIENES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. The leukotriene receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their affinities for the endogenous leukotrienes LTB4; LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin G2.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Diglycerides are a type of glyceride, specifically a form of lipid, that contains two fatty acid chains linked to a glycerol molecule by ester bonds.
A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Compounds based on benzeneacetamide, that are similar in structure to ACETANILIDES.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.
An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC 2.3.1.23.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Cyclohexane ring substituted by one or more ketones in any position.
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A class of cell surface leukotriene receptors with a preference for leukotriene B4. Leukotriene B4 receptor activation influences chemotaxis, chemokinesis, adherence, enzyme release, oxidative bursts, and degranulation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. There are at least two subtypes of these receptors. Some actions are mediated through the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
A secreted phospholipase A2 subtype that contains a interfacial-binding region with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. This enzyme group may play a role in eliciting ARACHIDONIC ACID release from intact cellular membranes and from LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Members of this group bind specifically to PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.
Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen (specifically, hydrogen-3) that contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus, making it radioactive with a half-life of about 12.3 years, and is used in various applications including nuclear research, illumination, and dating techniques due to its low energy beta decay.
Dioxygenases that catalyze the peroxidation of methylene-interrupted UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A chemically diverse group of substances produced by various tissues in the body that cause slow contraction of smooth muscle; they have other intense but varied pharmacologic activities.
Compounds that inhibit the action of prostaglandins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.
Quinolines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds consisting of a two-nitrogened benzene ring fused to a pyridine ring, which have been synthesized and used as building blocks for various medicinal drugs, particularly antibiotics and antimalarials.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit the action of 5-LIPOXYGENASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
One of the biologically active principles of SRS-A. It is generated from LEUKOTRIENE C4 after partial hydrolysis of the peptide chain, i.e., cleavage of the gamma-glutamyl portion. Its biological actions include stimulation of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, and increases in vascular permeability. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
Cell surface proteins that bind eicosanoids with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Among the eicosanoid receptors are receptors for the prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
"Esters are organic compounds that result from the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid, playing significant roles in various biological processes and often used in pharmaceutical synthesis."
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
'Pyrans' are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a six-membered ring with one oxygen atom and five carbon atoms, which can be found in various natural substances and synthesized compounds, and may have potential applications in medicinal chemistry.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)

cDNA cloning of 15-lipoxygenase type 2 and 12-lipoxygenases of bovine corneal epithelium. (1/375)

Bovine corneal epithelium contains arachidonate 12- and 15-lipoxygenase activity, while human corneal epithelium contains only 15-lipoxygenase activity. Our purpose was to identify the corneal 12- and 15-lipoxygenase isozymes. We used cDNA cloning to isolate the amino acid coding nucleotide sequences of two bovine lipoxygenases. The translated sequence of one lipoxygenase was 82% identical with human 15-lipoxygenase type 2 and 75% identical with mouse 8-lipoxygenase, whereas the other translated nucleotide sequence was 87% identical with human 12-lipoxygenase of the platelet type. Expression of 15-lipoxygenase type 2 and platelet type 12-lipoxygenase mRNAs were detected by Northern analysis. In addition to these two lipoxygenases, 12-lipoxygenase of leukocyte (tracheal) type was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing, and Northern analysis. Finally, PCR and sequencing suggested that human corneal epithelium contains 15-lipoxygenase types 1 and 2.  (+info)

Murine 12(R)-lipoxygenase: functional expression, genomic structure and chromosomal localization. (2/375)

A cDNA, recently cloned (by Krieg et al. (1998)) from mouse skin, was shown to encode a 12(R)-lipoxygenase. When expressed in HEK cells, the recombinant protein converted methyl arachidonate into the corresponding 12-HETE ester which was shown to be the R-enantiomer by chiral phase chromatography. Neither arachidonic acid nor linoleic acid were substrates for the recombinant protein. The structure of the 12(R)-lipoxygenase gene is unique among all animal lipoxygenases in that it is divided into 15 exons and 14 introns spanning approximately 12.5 kb. By interspecific backcross analysis, the 12(R)-lipoxygenase gene was localized to the central region of mouse chromosome 11.  (+info)

Tissue-specific translational regulation of alternative rabbit 15-lipoxygenase mRNAs differing in their 3'-untranslated regions. (3/375)

By screening a rabbit reticulocyte library, an alternative 15-LOX transcript of 3.6 kb (15-LOX mRNA2) was detected containing a 1019 nt longer 3'-untranslated region (UTR2) than the main 2.6 kb mRNA (15-LOX mRNA1). In anaemic animals, northern blotting showed that 15-LOX mRNA2 was predominantly expressed in non-erythroid tissues, whereas 15-LOX mRNA1 was exclusively expressed in red blood cells and bone marrow. The 15-LOX 3'-UTR2 mRNA2 contained a novel 8-fold repetitive CU-rich motif, 23 nt in length (DICE2). This motif is related but not identical to the 10-fold repetitive differentiation control element (DICE1) of 19 nt residing in the 15-LOX UTR1 mRNA1. DICE1 was shown to interact with human hnRNP proteins E1 and K, thereby inhibiting translation. From tissues expressing the long 15-LOX mRNA2, two to three unidentified polypeptides with molecular weights of 53-55 and 90-93 kDa which bound to DICE2 were isolated by RNA affinity chromatography. A 93 kDa protein from lung cytosol, which was selected by DICE2 binding, was able to suppress translational inhibition of 15-LOX mRNA2, but not of 15-LOX mRNA1, by hnRNP E1. A possible interaction between DICE1/DICE2 cis / trans factors in translational control of 15-LOX synthesis is discussed. Furthermore, the 3'-terminal part of the highly related rabbit leukocyte-type 12-LOX gene was analysed. Very similar repetitive CU-rich elements of the type DICE1 (20 repeats) and DICE2 (nine repeats) were found in the part corresponding to the 3'-UTR of the mRNA.  (+info)

Effects of mutant p53 expression on human 15-lipoxygenase-promoter activity and murine 12/15-lipoxygenase gene expression: evidence that 15-lipoxygenase is a mutator gene. (4/375)

Human 15-lipoxygenase (h15-LO) is present on chromosome 17p13.3 in close proximity to the tumor-suppressor gene, p53. 15-LO is implicated in antiinflammation, membrane remodeling, and cancer development/metastasis. The murine BALB/c embryo fibroblast cell line, (10)1val, expresses p53 in mutant (mt) conformation when grown at 39 degrees C and in wild-type conformation when grown at 32 degrees C. Transfection of h15-LO promoter constructs (driving luciferase reporter) into (10)1val cells and into p53-deficient (10)1 cells resulted in a marked increase in h15-LO promoter activity in (10)1val cells at 39 degrees C, but not at 32 degrees C, or as compared with (10)1 cells. Transfection of h15-LO promoter deletion constructs, however, resulted in total loss of activity in both cell types at 32 degrees C and 39 degrees C. Cotransfection of (10)1 cells with h15-LO promoter (driving luciferase reporter) along with increasing levels of a mt p53 expression vector demonstrated dose-dependent capacity of mt p53 to induce 15-LO promoter activity. No effect was observed with wild-type p53. In contrast to h15-LO promoter activity, (10)1val cells had significantly lower levels of endogenous (murine) 12/15-LO (mouse analog of h15-LO) mRNA and protein when grown at 39 degrees C compared with cells grown at 32 degrees C. Our data support the hypothesis that loss of a tumor-suppressor gene (p53), or "gain-of-function activities" resulting from the expression of its mutant forms, regulates 15-LO promoter activity in man and in mouse, albeit in directionally opposite manners. The studies define a direct link between 15-LO activity and an established tumor-suppressor gene located in close chromosomal proximity.  (+info)

Albumin modifies the metabolism of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids via 12-lipoxygenase in human platelets. (5/375)

12-Lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase 1 are the dominating enzymes that metabolize arachidonic acid in human platelets. In addition to the conversion of arachidonic acid to 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 12-lipoxygenase can also utilize 5(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid to form 5(S), 12(S)-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 14(R), 15(S)-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, respectively. Furthermore, 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid works as an inhibitor for 12-lipoxygenase. In the present paper we have studied the influence of albumin on the in vitro metabolism of 5 - and 15 -hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, and 5,15 -dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid by the platelet 12-lipoxygenase. The presence of albumin reduced the formation of 5(S),12(S)- dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid from 5(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, however, it had no effect on the 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid production from endogenous arachidonic acid. In contrast, when 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was incubated with activated platelets, the formation of 14(R), 15(S)- dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was stimulated by the presence of albumin. Furthermore, albumin reduced the inhibitory action 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid had on 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid formation from endogenous arachidonic acid. However, addition of exogenous arachidonic acid (20 microm) to the incubations inverted the effects of albumin on the conversion of 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid to 14(R),15(S)- dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and the production of 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in these incubations. Based on the Scatchard equation, the estimates of the binding constants to albumin were 1.8 x 10(5) for 15 -HETE, 1.4 x 10(5) for 12-HETE, and 0.9 x 10(5) for 5 -HETE respectively. These results suggest an important role of albumin for the regulation of the availability of substrates for platelet 12-lipoxygenase.  (+info)

Relationship of arachidonic acid metabolizing enzyme expression in epithelial cancer cell lines to the growth effect of selective biochemical inhibitors. (6/375)

Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolizing enzymes are emerging as significant mediators of growth stimulation for epithelial cells. The relative contribution of the various family members of AA metabolizing enzymes to epithelial cancer cell growth is not known. To study this question, we first analyzed a series of epithelial cancer cells to establish the relative frequency of expression for the various enzymes. We analyzed the expression of five AA metabolizing enzymes as well as 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) in a panel of human epithelial cancer cell lines (n = 20) using reverse transcription-PCR. From this analysis, we found that cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and FLAP were universally expressed in all cancer cell lines tested. For the remaining enzymes, the expression of COX-2, 12-LOX, and 15-LOX varied among cell lines, 60, 35, and 90%, respectively. Although the pattern of expression varied among the different cell types, all of the enzymes were expressed in all major cancer histologies. Using a panel of selective biochemical AA metabolizing enzyme inhibitors, we then evaluated the effect of these agents on cell lines with known expression status for the AA metabolizing enzymes. For the enzymes that were not universally expressed, growth inhibition by selective biochemical inhibitors did not closely correlate with the expression status of specific enzymes (P > 0.05). For the universally expressed enzymes, the LOX inhibitors were more potent growth inhibitors than the COX inhibitors. The frequent expression of the AA metabolizing enzymes suggests that AA metabolism pathway may be modulated in response to xenobiotic exposure during carcinogenesis. Although establishing a priori AA metabolizing enzyme status was not consistently informative about what AA metabolizing enzyme inhibition would be most growth inhibitory, the frequent inhibition of many epithelial cancers by these biochemical inhibitors opens a new avenue for cancer therapy and intervention in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Resistance to type 1 diabetes induction in 12-lipoxygenase knockout mice. (7/375)

Leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) gene expression in pancreatic beta cells is upregulated by cytotoxic cytokines like IL-1beta. Recent studies have demonstrated that 12-LO inhibitors can prevent glutamate-induced neuronal cell death when intracellular glutathione stores are depleted. Therefore, 12-LO pathway inhibition may prevent beta-cell cytotoxicity. To evaluate the role of 12-LO gene expression in immune-mediated islet destruction, we used 12-LO knockout (12-LO KO) mice. Male homozygous 12-LO KO mice and control C57BL/6 mice received 5 consecutive daily injections of low-dose streptozotocin to induce immune-mediated diabetes. Fasting serum glucose and insulin levels were measured at 7-day intervals, and the mice were followed up for 28 days. 12-LO KO mice were highly resistant to diabetes development compared with control mice and had higher serum insulin levels on day 28. Isolated pancreatic islets were treated with IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma for 18 hours. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in cytokine-treated islets from C57/BL6 mice decreased 54% from that of untreated islets. In marked contrast, the same cytokine mix led to only a 26% decrease in islets from 12-LO KO mice. Furthermore, cytokine-induced 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) production was absent in 12-LO KO islets but present in C57/BL6 islets. Isolated peritoneal macrophages were stimulated for 48 hours with IFN-gamma + LPS and compared for nitrate/nitrite generation. 12-LO KO macrophages generated 50% less nitrate/nitrite when compared with C57BL/6 macrophages. In summary, elimination of leukocyte 12-LO in mice ameliorates low dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes by increasing islet resistance to cytokines and decreasing macrophage production of nitric oxide.  (+info)

Evidence for 12-lipoxygenase induction in the vessel wall following balloon injury. (8/375)

OBJECTIVE: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation are key events in the development of atherosclerosis and restenosis following angioplasty. These events are mediated by several growth factors and cytokines whose cellular effects include activation of phospholipases and arachidonic acid metabolism via the lipoxygenase (LO) pathway. Since 12-LO products have potent growth and chemotactic effects, we have examined if 12-LO is upregulated in the neointima of injured rat carotid arteries and also if LO inhibition could attenuate neointimal thickening. METHODS: The left common carotid arteries of male Sprague Dawley rats were injured using a 1.8 F PTCA balloon catheter. Four-fourteen days after injury, injured and uninjured tissue samples were processed for histology, and immunohistochemistry or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to examine 12-LO expression. RESULTS: Twelve days after injury, immunohistochemical staining with a 12-LO antibody revealed intense staining in injured left carotid arteries, mainly in neointimal VSMCs and inflammatory cells, but not in the uninjured right arteries. There was also a marked upregulation of 12-LO mRNA (over five-fold by competitive PCR) in the injured arteries. Treatment of the arteries with a LO inhibitor, phenidone, soon after injury resulted in significant inhibition of neointimal thickening. In contrast, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, ibuprofen, had no effect. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate for the first time that balloon injury results in marked induction of 12-LO mRNA and protein expression in the vessel wall. Furthermore, LO pathway activation may mediate, at least in part, the development of the lesion or plaque instability, suggesting a novel target for therapeutic intervention to block these pathological events.  (+info)

Lipoxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids containing a cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene structure, forming hydroperoxides. This reaction is important in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and lipoxins, which are involved in various inflammatory responses and immune functions. There are several isoforms of lipoxygenase found in different tissues and organisms, including arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, and arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase.

Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase (also known as ALOX5 or 5-LO) is a type of enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, which are important inflammatory mediators. It catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, to 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE), which is then converted to leukotriene A4 (LTA4). LTA4 is a precursor for the synthesis of other leukotrienes, such as LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4. These lipid mediators play key roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and allergic reactions.

The gene encoding arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase is located on human chromosome 10 (10q11.2). Mutations in this gene have been associated with several diseases, such as severe congenital neutropenia, recurrent infections, and increased risk of developing asthma and other allergic disorders. Inhibitors of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, including asthma and rheumatoid arthritis.

Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (also known as ALOX12 or 12S-lipoxygenase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to 12(S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HPETE). This reaction is part of the lipoxygenase pathway, which contributes to the biosynthesis of eicosanoids, a group of signaling molecules that play important roles in inflammation and immune response.

The enzyme's function includes introducing molecular oxygen into arachidonic acid at position 12, creating a hydroperoxide group. The product, 12(S)-HPETE, can be further metabolized to various eicosanoids, such as 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and lipoxin A4, which have diverse biological activities in the body.

Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase is expressed in various tissues, including the vascular endothelium, platelets, and immune cells like monocytes and macrophages. Its activity can contribute to the development of certain diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, inhibiting this enzyme has been considered as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating these conditions.

Lipoxygenase inhibitors are a class of compounds that block the activity of lipoxygenase enzymes. These enzymes are involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids, leading to the production of leukotrienes and other inflammatory mediators. By inhibiting lipoxygenase, these compounds can help reduce inflammation and may have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of various diseases, including asthma, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Some examples of lipoxygenase inhibitors include nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), zileuton, and baicalein.

Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HPETE). This enzyme plays a role in the metabolism of arachidonic acid, which is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is released from membrane phospholipids and is a precursor for eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules that play a role in inflammation and other physiological processes.

15-lipoxygenase is one of several lipoxygenases that are found in various tissues throughout the body. These enzymes are involved in the production of leukotrienes, which are signaling molecules that play a role in inflammation and allergic responses. 15-lipoxygenase has also been implicated in the development and progression of certain diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Inhibitors of 15-lipoxygenase have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of this enzyme in health and disease and to determine the safety and efficacy of inhibiting its activity.

Arachidonate lipoxygenases (ALOXs or ALOXE's) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, to form hydroperoxides. These enzymes play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of various eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules involved in inflammation, immunity, and other physiological processes.

There are several isoforms of ALOXs, including 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX), which differ in their substrate specificity and the position of the hydroperoxide group they introduce into the fatty acid. These enzymes are widely distributed in various tissues, including the lungs, liver, and brain, and have been implicated in a variety of diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Inhibition of ALOXs has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases, although the development of selective and safe inhibitors has proven to be challenging.

Arachidonic acid is a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found naturally in the body and in certain foods. It is an essential fatty acid, meaning that it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Arachidonic acid is a key component of cell membranes and plays a role in various physiological processes, including inflammation and blood clotting.

In the body, arachidonic acid is released from cell membranes in response to various stimuli, such as injury or infection. Once released, it can be converted into a variety of bioactive compounds, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes, which mediate various physiological responses, including inflammation, pain, fever, and blood clotting.

Arachidonic acid is found in high concentrations in animal products such as meat, poultry, fish, and eggs, as well as in some plant sources such as certain nuts and seeds. It is also available as a dietary supplement. However, it is important to note that excessive intake of arachidonic acid can contribute to the development of inflammation and other health problems, so it is recommended to consume this fatty acid in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Arachidonic acids are a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid that is primarily found in the phospholipids of cell membranes. They contain 20 carbon atoms and four double bonds (20:4n-6), with the first double bond located at the sixth carbon atom from the methyl end.

Arachidonic acids are derived from linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources such as meat, fish, and eggs. Once ingested, linoleic acid is converted to arachidonic acid in a series of enzymatic reactions.

Arachidonic acids play an important role in various physiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and cell signaling. They serve as precursors for the synthesis of eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules that include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These eicosanoids have diverse biological activities, such as modulating blood flow, platelet aggregation, and pain perception, among others.

However, excessive production of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including inflammation, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, the regulation of arachidonic acid metabolism is an important area of research for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) is a type of fatty acid that is produced in the body as a result of the metabolism of arachidonic acid, which is an omega-6 fatty acid that is found in the membranes of cells throughout the body.

12-HETE is synthesized by the enzyme 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), which adds a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the twelfth carbon atom of arachidonic acid. This lipid mediator plays a role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and cancer development.

Increased levels of 12-HETE have been found in several diseases, such as atherosclerosis, asthma, and cancer, suggesting that it may contribute to the development and progression of these conditions. However, further research is needed to fully understand the role of 12-HETE in human health and disease.

Leukotrienes are a type of lipid mediator derived from arachidonic acid, which is a fatty acid found in the cell membranes of various cells in the body. They are produced by the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway and play an essential role in the inflammatory response. Leukotrienes are involved in several physiological and pathophysiological processes, including bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, and recruitment of immune cells to sites of injury or infection.

There are four main types of leukotrienes: LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4. These molecules differ from each other based on the presence or absence of specific chemical groups attached to their core structure. Leukotrienes exert their effects by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) found on the surface of various cells.

LTB4 is primarily involved in neutrophil chemotaxis and activation, while LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 are collectively known as cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). CysLTs cause bronchoconstriction, increased mucus production, and vascular permeability in the airways, contributing to the pathogenesis of asthma and other respiratory diseases.

In summary, leukotrienes are potent lipid mediators that play a crucial role in inflammation and immune responses. Their dysregulation has been implicated in several disease states, making them an important target for therapeutic intervention.

Masoprocol is not a medication that has an established or widely accepted medical definition in the field of pharmacology or clinical medicine. It may refer to a chemical compound with the name 5-n-butyl-2-benzoxazolinone, which has been studied for its potential anti-cancer properties. However, it is not currently approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in medical treatments.

Therefore, it's important to consult with healthcare professionals or reliable medical sources for information regarding medications and their uses, rather than relying on unverified or obscure sources.

5-Lipoxygenase-activating proteins (FLAPs) are a type of enzyme found in the cell membrane that play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, which are lipid mediators involved in inflammation and immune responses. FLAPs activate 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotriene A4, a precursor for other leukotrienes.

FLAP inhibitors are a class of drugs that block the activity of FLAPs and have been investigated as potential treatments for inflammatory diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. By inhibiting FLAP, these drugs can reduce the production of leukotrienes and other pro-inflammatory mediators, thereby alleviating the symptoms of inflammation and potentially slowing down the progression of related diseases.

Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a type of lipid mediator called eicosanoid, which is derived from arachidonic acid through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. It is primarily produced by neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and macrophages in response to various stimuli such as infection, inflammation, or injury. LTB4 acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of these immune cells, playing a crucial role in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils during acute inflammatory responses. It also enhances the adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, contributing to the development of tissue damage and edema. Dysregulation of LTB4 production has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including asthma, atherosclerosis, and cancer.

Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) are a type of metabolite produced by the oxidation of arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found in the membranes of cells in the human body. This oxidation process is catalyzed by enzymes called lipoxygenases (LOXs) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450).

HETEs are biologically active compounds that play a role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and cancer. They can act as signaling molecules, modulating the activity of various cell types, such as leukocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells.

There are several different types of HETEs, depending on the position of the hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to the arachidonic acid molecule. For example, 5-HETE, 12-HETE, and 15-HETE are produced by 5-LOX, 12-LOX, and 15-LOX, respectively, while CYP450 can produce 20-HETE.

It's worth noting that HETEs have been implicated in various diseases, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and cancer, making them potential targets for therapeutic intervention. However, further research is needed to fully understand their roles and develop effective treatments.

Linoleic acid is a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is essential for human health. It is one of the two essential fatty acids, meaning that it cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained through diet.

Linoleic acid is a member of the omega-6 fatty acid family and has a chemical structure with two double bonds at the sixth and ninth carbon atoms from the methyl end of the molecule. It is found in various plant sources, such as vegetable oils (e.g., soybean, corn, safflower, and sunflower oils), nuts, seeds, and whole grains.

Linoleic acid plays a crucial role in maintaining the fluidity and function of cell membranes, producing eicosanoids (hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions), and supporting skin health. However, excessive intake of linoleic acid can lead to an imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, which may contribute to inflammation and chronic diseases. Therefore, it is recommended to maintain a balanced diet with appropriate amounts of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

Calcimycin is a ionophore compound that is produced by the bacterium Streptomyces chartreusensis. It is also known as Calcineurin A inhibitor because it can bind to and inhibit the activity of calcineurin, a protein phosphatase. In medical research, calcimycin is often used to study calcium signaling in cells.
It has been also used in laboratory studies for its antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on certain types of cancer cells. However, it is not approved for use as a drug in humans.

Phospholipases A are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids into fatty acids and lysophospholipids by cleaving the ester bond at the sn-1 or sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. There are three main types of Phospholipases A:

* Phospholipase A1 (PLA1): This enzyme specifically hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-1 position, releasing a free fatty acid and a lysophospholipid.
* Phospholipase A2 (PLA2): This enzyme specifically hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position, releasing a free fatty acid (often arachidonic acid, which is a precursor for eicosanoids) and a lysophospholipid.
* Phospholipase A/B (PLA/B): This enzyme has both PLA1 and PLA2 activity and can hydrolyze the ester bond at either the sn-1 or sn-2 position.

Phospholipases A play important roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, membrane remodeling, and host defense. They are also involved in several diseases, such as atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer.

5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that contains four double bonds in its chemical structure. It is a non-methylene interrupted fatty acid, which means that the double bonds are separated by three methylene bridges. ETYA is not a naturally occurring fatty acid and is typically synthesized in the laboratory for research purposes.

ETYA has been used as a tool to study the biochemical mechanisms of inflammation and cancer. It can inhibit the activity of enzymes called lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases, which are involved in the production of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. ETYA can also induce the formation of reactive oxygen species, which can contribute to cell damage and death.

While ETYA has been used in research to better understand the biochemical pathways involved in inflammation and cancer, it is not used as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine due to its potential toxicity and lack of specificity for targeting disease processes.

Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 ester bond in glycerophospholipids, releasing free fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, and lysophospholipids. These products are important precursors for the biosynthesis of various signaling molecules, including eicosanoids, platelet-activating factor (PAF), and lipoxins, which play crucial roles in inflammation, immunity, and other cellular processes.

Phospholipases A2 are classified into several groups based on their structure, mechanism of action, and cellular localization. The secreted PLA2s (sPLA2s) are found in extracellular fluids and are characterized by a low molecular weight, while the calcium-dependent cytosolic PLA2s (cPLA2s) are larger proteins that reside within cells.

Abnormal regulation or activity of Phospholipase A2 has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the biology and function of these enzymes is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these disorders.

Eicosanoids are a group of signaling molecules made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids with 20 carbon atoms. They include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, and lipoxins, which are involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as inflammation, immune response, blood clotting, and smooth muscle contraction. Eicosanoids act as local hormones or autacoids, affecting the function of cells near where they are produced. They are synthesized by various cell types, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and neurons, in response to different stimuli, such as injury, infection, or stress. The balance between different eicosanoids can have significant effects on health and disease.

Leukotriene A4 (LTA4) is a lipid mediator derived from arachidonic acid, which is released from membrane phospholipids by the action of phospholipase A2. LTA4 is synthesized in the cell through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway and serves as an intermediate in the production of other leukotrienes (LB4, LTC4, LTD4, LTE4) that are involved in inflammation, bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, and recruitment of leukocytes.

Leukotriene A4 is an unstable compound with a short half-life, which can be converted to Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) by the enzyme LTA4 hydrolase or to Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) by the addition of glutathione through the action of LTC4 synthase. These leukotrienes play a significant role in the pathophysiology of asthma, allergies, and other inflammatory diseases.

Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes in the body, including cyclooxygenase (COX), which plays a role in producing prostaglandins, chemicals involved in the inflammatory response.

Indomethacin is available in various forms, such as capsules, suppositories, and injectable solutions, and is used to treat a wide range of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, and bursitis. It may also be used to relieve pain and reduce fever in other conditions, such as dental procedures or after surgery.

Like all NSAIDs, indomethacin can have side effects, including stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney damage, especially when taken at high doses or for long periods of time. It may also increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, it is important to use indomethacin only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases (PTGS), also known as Cyclooxygenases (COX), are a group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandin G2 and H2, which are further metabolized to produce various prostaglandins and thromboxanes. These lipid mediators play crucial roles in several physiological processes such as inflammation, pain, fever, and blood clotting. There are two major isoforms of PTGS: PTGS-1 (COX-1) and PTGS-2 (COX-2). While COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues and involved in homeostatic functions, COX-2 is usually induced during inflammation and tissue injury. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exert their therapeutic effects by inhibiting these enzymes, thereby reducing the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes.

Eicosanoic acids are a type of fatty acid that contains 20 carbon atoms. They can be further classified into subgroups based on the presence and location of double bonds in their chemical structure. The most well-known eicosanoic acids include arachidonic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid with four double bonds), eicosapentaenoic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid with five double bonds), and docosahexaenoic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid with six double bonds). These fatty acids play important roles in various physiological processes, including inflammation, blood clotting, and cell signaling. They can be found in a variety of foods, such as fish, nuts, and seeds, and are also available as dietary supplements.

Linoleic acid is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid, specifically an omega-6 fatty acid. It is called "essential" because our bodies cannot produce it; therefore, it must be obtained through our diet. Linoleic acid is a crucial component of cell membranes and is involved in the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions such as inflammation, blood pressure, and muscle contraction.

Foods rich in linoleic acid include vegetable oils (such as soybean, corn, and sunflower oil), nuts, seeds, and some fruits and vegetables. It is important to maintain a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet, as excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids can contribute to inflammation and other health issues.

"SRS-A" is an older abbreviation for "Slow-Reacting Substance of Anaphylaxis," which refers to a group of molecules called "leukotrienes." Leukotrienes are mediators of inflammation and play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. They are produced by mast cells and basophils upon activation, and cause bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, and mucus production.

The term "SRS-A" is not commonly used in modern medical literature, as it has been largely replaced by the more specific names of its individual components: LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4. These leukotrienes are now collectively referred to as the "cysteinyl leukotrienes."

Blood platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small, colorless cell fragments in our blood that play an essential role in normal blood clotting. They are formed in the bone marrow from large cells called megakaryocytes and circulate in the blood in an inactive state until they are needed to help stop bleeding. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets become activated and change shape, releasing chemicals that attract more platelets to the site of injury. These activated platelets then stick together to form a plug, or clot, that seals the wound and prevents further blood loss. In addition to their role in clotting, platelets also help to promote healing by releasing growth factors that stimulate the growth of new tissue.

Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) is a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), which is a potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregator synthesized by activated platelets. TXA2 has a very short half-life, quickly undergoing spontaneous conversion to the more stable TXB2.

TXB2 itself does not have significant biological activity but serves as a marker for TXA2 production in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions, such as thrombosis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. It can be measured in blood or other bodily fluids to assess platelet activation and the status of hemostatic and inflammatory processes.

Prostaglandin E (PGE) is a type of prostaglandin, which is a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have diverse hormone-like effects. Prostaglandins are not actually hormones, but are similar to them in that they act as chemical messengers that have specific effects on certain cells.

Prostaglandin E is one of the most abundant prostaglandins in the body and has a variety of physiological functions. It is involved in the regulation of inflammation, pain perception, fever, and smooth muscle contraction. Prostaglandin E also plays a role in the regulation of blood flow, platelet aggregation, and gastric acid secretion.

Prostaglandin E is synthesized from arachidonic acid, which is released from cell membranes by the action of enzymes called phospholipases. Once formed, prostaglandin E binds to specific receptors on the surface of cells, leading to a variety of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in changes in cell behavior.

Prostaglandin E is used medically in the treatment of several conditions, including dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), postpartum hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus (a congenital heart defect). It is also used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of kidney function.

Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances that play a role in inflammation, pain, and fever.

There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is produced continuously in various tissues throughout the body and helps maintain the normal function of the stomach and kidneys, among other things. COX-2, on the other hand, is produced in response to inflammation and is involved in the production of prostaglandins that contribute to pain, fever, and inflammation.

COX inhibitors can be non-selective, meaning they block both COX-1 and COX-2, or selective, meaning they primarily block COX-2. Non-selective COX inhibitors include drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen, while selective COX inhibitors are often referred to as coxibs and include celecoxib (Celebrex) and rofecoxib (Vioxx).

COX inhibitors are commonly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. However, long-term use of non-selective COX inhibitors can increase the risk of gastrointestinal side effects such as ulcers and bleeding, while selective COX inhibitors may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits of COX inhibitors before using them.

Prostaglandins are naturally occurring, lipid-derived hormones that play various important roles in the human body. They are produced in nearly every tissue in response to injury or infection, and they have diverse effects depending on the site of release and the type of prostaglandin. Some of their functions include:

1. Regulation of inflammation: Prostaglandins contribute to the inflammatory response by increasing vasodilation, promoting fluid accumulation, and sensitizing pain receptors, which can lead to symptoms such as redness, heat, swelling, and pain.
2. Modulation of gastrointestinal functions: Prostaglandins protect the stomach lining from acid secretion and promote mucus production, maintaining the integrity of the gastric mucosa. They also regulate intestinal motility and secretion.
3. Control of renal function: Prostaglandins help regulate blood flow to the kidneys, maintain sodium balance, and control renin release, which affects blood pressure and fluid balance.
4. Regulation of smooth muscle contraction: Prostaglandins can cause both relaxation and contraction of smooth muscles in various tissues, such as the uterus, bronchioles, and vascular system.
5. Modulation of platelet aggregation: Some prostaglandins inhibit platelet aggregation, preventing blood clots from forming too quickly or becoming too large.
6. Reproductive system regulation: Prostaglandins are involved in the menstrual cycle, ovulation, and labor induction by promoting uterine contractions.
7. Neurotransmission: Prostaglandins can modulate neurotransmitter release and neuronal excitability, affecting pain perception, mood, and cognition.

Prostaglandins exert their effects through specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) found on the surface of target cells. There are several distinct types of prostaglandins (PGs), including PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, PGI2 (prostacyclin), and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Each type has unique functions and acts through specific receptors. Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid derived from membrane phospholipids, by the action of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen, inhibit COX activity, reducing prostaglandin synthesis and providing analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects.

Lipid peroxides are chemical compounds that form when lipids (fats or fat-like substances) oxidize. This process, known as lipid peroxidation, involves the reaction of lipids with oxygen in a way that leads to the formation of hydroperoxides and various aldehydes, such as malondialdehyde.

Lipid peroxidation is a naturally occurring process that can also be accelerated by factors such as exposure to radiation, certain chemicals, or enzymatic reactions. It plays a role in many biological processes, including cell signaling and regulation of gene expression, but it can also contribute to the development of various diseases when it becomes excessive.

Examples of lipid peroxides include phospholipid hydroperoxides, cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides, and triglyceride hydroperoxides. These compounds are often used as markers of oxidative stress in biological systems and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and other conditions associated with oxidative damage.

Phospholipids are a major class of lipids that consist of a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. The head is composed of a phosphate group, which is often bound to an organic molecule such as choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol. The tails are made up of two fatty acid chains.

Phospholipids are a key component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the cell. They form a lipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing outwards and the hydrophobic tails facing inwards, creating a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.

Phospholipids are also involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, and protein function regulation. Additionally, they serve as emulsifiers in the digestive system, helping to break down fats in the diet.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Dinoprostone is a prostaglandin E2 analog used in medical practice for the induction of labor and ripening of the cervix in pregnant women. It is available in various forms, including vaginal suppositories, gel, and tablets. Dinoprostone works by stimulating the contraction of uterine muscles and promoting cervical dilation, which helps in facilitating a successful delivery.

It's important to note that dinoprostone should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as its use is associated with certain risks and side effects, including uterine hyperstimulation, fetal distress, and maternal infection. The dosage and duration of treatment are carefully monitored to minimize these risks and ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream where they circulate and are able to move quickly to sites of infection or inflammation in the body. Neutrophils are capable of engulfing and destroying bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances through a process called phagocytosis. They are also involved in the release of inflammatory mediators, which can contribute to tissue damage in some cases. Neutrophils are characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm, which contain enzymes and other proteins that help them carry out their immune functions.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Quinacrine is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs called antimalarials. It is primarily used in the treatment and prevention of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites. Quinacrine works by inhibiting the growth of the malarial parasites in the red blood cells.

In addition to its antimalarial properties, quinacrine has been used off-label for various other medical conditions, including the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), a type of skin lupus. However, its use in these conditions is not approved by regulatory authorities such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to limited evidence and potential side effects.

Quinacrine has several known side effects, including gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rashes, headache, dizziness, and potential neuropsychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, or confusion. Long-term use of quinacrine may also lead to yellowing of the skin and eyes (known as quinacrine jaundice) and other eye-related issues. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional before starting quinacrine or any other medication for appropriate dosage, duration, and potential side effects.

Phospholipases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids, which are major components of cell membranes. Phospholipases cleave specific ester bonds in phospholipids, releasing free fatty acids and other lipophilic molecules. Based on the site of action, phospholipases are classified into four types:

1. Phospholipase A1 (PLA1): This enzyme hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-1 position of a glycerophospholipid, releasing a free fatty acid and a lysophospholipid.
2. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2): PLA2 cleaves the ester bond at the sn-2 position of a glycerophospholipid, releasing a free fatty acid (often arachidonic acid) and a lysophospholipid. Arachidonic acid is a precursor for eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules involved in inflammation and other physiological processes.
3. Phospholipase C (PLC): PLC hydrolyzes the phosphodiester bond in the headgroup of a glycerophospholipid, releasing diacylglycerol (DAG) and a soluble head group, such as inositol trisphosphate (IP3). DAG acts as a secondary messenger in intracellular signaling pathways, while IP3 mediates the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores.
4. Phospholipase D (PLD): PLD cleaves the phosphoester bond between the headgroup and the glycerol moiety of a glycerophospholipid, releasing phosphatidic acid (PA) and a free head group. PA is an important signaling molecule involved in various cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal reorganization, and cell survival.

Phospholipases have diverse roles in normal physiology and pathophysiological conditions, such as inflammation, immunity, and neurotransmission. Dysregulation of phospholipase activity can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.

Unsaturated fatty acids are a type of fatty acid that contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain. These double bonds can be either cis or trans configurations, although the cis configuration is more common in nature. The presence of these double bonds makes unsaturated fatty acids more liquid at room temperature and less prone to spoilage than saturated fatty acids, which do not have any double bonds.

Unsaturated fatty acids can be further classified into two main categories: monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). MUFAs contain one double bond in their carbon chain, while PUFAs contain two or more.

Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (a MUFA found in olive oil), linoleic acid (a PUFA found in vegetable oils), and alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 PUFA found in flaxseed and fish). Unsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the human body, as they play important roles in various physiological processes such as membrane structure, inflammation, and blood clotting. It is recommended to consume a balanced diet that includes both MUFAs and PUFAs to maintain good health.

Thromboxanes are a type of lipid compound that is derived from arachidonic acid, a type of fatty acid found in the cell membranes of many organisms. They are synthesized in the body through the action of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX).

Thromboxanes are primarily produced by platelets, a type of blood cell that plays a key role in clotting. Once formed, thromboxanes act as powerful vasoconstrictors, causing blood vessels to narrow and blood flow to decrease. They also promote the aggregation of platelets, which can lead to the formation of blood clots.

Thromboxanes are involved in many physiological processes, including hemostasis (the process by which bleeding is stopped) and inflammation. However, excessive production of thromboxanes has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, such as heart attacks, strokes, and pulmonary hypertension.

There are several different types of thromboxanes, including thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2). TXA2 is the most biologically active form and has a very short half-life, while TXB2 is a more stable metabolite that can be measured in the blood to assess thromboxane production.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent phospholipid mediator that plays a significant role in various inflammatory and immune responses. It is a powerful lipid signaling molecule released mainly by activated platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, endothelial cells, and other cell types during inflammation or injury.

PAF has a molecular structure consisting of an alkyl chain linked to a glycerol moiety, a phosphate group, and an sn-2 acetyl group. This unique structure allows PAF to bind to its specific G protein-coupled receptor (PAF-R) on the surface of target cells, triggering various intracellular signaling cascades that result in cell activation, degranulation, and aggregation.

The primary functions of PAF include:

1. Platelet activation and aggregation: PAF stimulates platelets to aggregate, release their granules, and activate the coagulation cascade, which can lead to thrombus formation.
2. Neutrophil and monocyte activation: PAF activates these immune cells, leading to increased adhesion, degranulation, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
3. Vasodilation and increased vascular permeability: PAF can cause vasodilation by acting on endothelial cells, leading to an increase in blood flow and facilitating the extravasation of immune cells into inflamed tissues.
4. Bronchoconstriction: In the respiratory system, PAF can induce bronchoconstriction and recruitment of inflammatory cells, contributing to asthma symptoms.
5. Neurotransmission modulation: PAF has been implicated in neuroinflammation and may play a role in neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive functions.

Dysregulated PAF signaling has been associated with several pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), ischemia-reperfusion injury, and neuroinflammatory disorders. Therefore, targeting the PAF pathway may provide therapeutic benefits in these diseases.

Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are a type of fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through diet. There are two main types of essential fatty acids: linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3).

Linoleic acid is found in foods such as vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds, while alpha-linolenic acid is found in foods such as flaxseeds, walnuts, and fatty fish. These essential fatty acids play important roles in the body, including maintaining the fluidity and function of cell membranes, producing eicosanoids (hormone-like substances that regulate various bodily functions), and supporting the development and function of the brain and nervous system.

Deficiency in essential fatty acids can lead to a variety of health problems, including skin disorders, poor growth and development, and increased risk of heart disease. It is important to maintain a balanced intake of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, as excessive consumption of omega-6 relative to omega-3 has been linked to inflammation and chronic diseases.

Epoprostenol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called prostaglandins. It is a synthetic analog of a natural substance in the body called prostacyclin, which widens blood vessels and has anti-platelet effects. Epoprostenol is used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a condition characterized by high blood pressure in the arteries that supply blood to the lungs.

Epoprostenol works by relaxing the smooth muscle in the walls of the pulmonary arteries, which reduces the resistance to blood flow and lowers the pressure within these vessels. This helps improve symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and chest pain, and can also prolong survival in people with PAH.

Epoprostenol is administered continuously through a small pump that delivers the medication directly into the bloodstream. It is a potent vasodilator, which means it can cause a sudden drop in blood pressure if not given carefully. Therefore, it is usually started in a hospital setting under close medical supervision.

Common side effects of epoprostenol include headache, flushing, jaw pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle or joint pain. More serious side effects can include bleeding, infection at the site of the catheter, and an allergic reaction to the medication.

Flavanones are a type of flavonoid, which is a class of plant pigments widely found in fruits, vegetables, and other plants. Flavanones are known for their antioxidant properties and potential health benefits. They are typically found in citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, and grapefruits. Some common flavanones include hesperetin, naringenin, and eriodictyol. These compounds have been studied for their potential effects on cardiovascular health, cancer prevention, and neuroprotection, although more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential.

Phosphatidylinositols (PIs) are a type of phospholipid that are abundant in the cell membrane. They contain a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a head group consisting of myo-inositol, a cyclic sugar molecule, linked to a phosphate group.

Phosphatidylinositols can be phosphorylated at one or more of the hydroxyl groups on the inositol ring, forming various phosphoinositides (PtdInsPs) with different functions. These signaling molecules play crucial roles in regulating cellular processes such as membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and signal transduction pathways that control cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is a prominent phosphoinositide involved in the regulation of ion channels, enzymes, and cytoskeletal proteins. Upon activation of certain receptors, PIP2 can be cleaved by the enzyme phospholipase C into diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3), which act as second messengers to trigger downstream signaling events.

Lipoxins are a group of naturally occurring, short-lived signaling molecules called eicosanoids that are derived from arachidonic acid, a type of omega-6 fatty acid. They were first discovered in the 1980s and are produced by cells involved in the inflammatory response, such as white blood cells (leukocytes).

Lipoxins have potent anti-inflammatory effects and play a crucial role in regulating and resolving the inflammatory response. They work by modulating the activity of various immune cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, and promoting the resolution of inflammation through the activation of anti-inflammatory pathways.

Lipoxins have been shown to have potential therapeutic applications in a variety of inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. However, further research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential.

8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic acid is a type of fatty acid that contains 20 carbon atoms and three double bonds. The locations of these double bonds are at the 8th, 11th, and 14th carbon atoms, hence the name of the fatty acid. It is an omega-3 fatty acid, which means that the first double bond is located between the third and fourth carbon atoms from the methyl end of the molecule.

This particular fatty acid is not considered to be essential for human health, as it can be synthesized in the body from other fatty acids. It is a component of certain types of lipids found in animal tissues, including beef and lamb. It has been studied for its potential role in various physiological processes, such as inflammation and immune function, but its specific functions and effects on human health are not well understood.

Phosphatidylcholines (PtdCho) are a type of phospholipids that are essential components of cell membranes in living organisms. They are composed of a hydrophilic head group, which contains a choline moiety, and two hydrophobic fatty acid chains. Phosphatidylcholines are crucial for maintaining the structural integrity and function of cell membranes, and they also serve as important precursors for the synthesis of signaling molecules such as acetylcholine. They can be found in various tissues and biological fluids, including blood, and are abundant in foods such as soybeans, eggs, and meat. Phosphatidylcholines have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their role in maintaining healthy lipid metabolism and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Linolenic acids are a type of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are essential to the human body, meaning they cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained through diet. There are two main types of linolenic acids: alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), an omega-6 fatty acid.

Alpha-linolenic acid is found in plant-based sources such as flaxseeds, chia seeds, hemp seeds, walnuts, and soybeans. It is a precursor to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two other important omega-3 fatty acids that are found in fatty fish and are associated with numerous health benefits.

Gamma-linolenic acid is found in smaller amounts in certain plant-based oils such as borage oil, black currant seed oil, and evening primrose oil. It has been studied for its potential anti-inflammatory effects and may be beneficial for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, eczema, and premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

It is important to maintain a balance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the diet, as excessive intake of omega-6 fatty acids can contribute to inflammation and chronic disease. ALA and GLA are both important components of a healthy diet and have been associated with numerous health benefits, including reduced inflammation, improved heart health, and reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and diabetes.

Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) is a type of enzyme belonging to the cyclooxygenase family, which is responsible for the production of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and prostacyclins. These are important signaling molecules that play a role in various physiological processes such as inflammation, pain perception, blood clotting, and gastric acid secretion.

COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues, including the stomach, kidneys, and platelets, where it performs housekeeping functions. For example, in the stomach, COX-1 produces prostaglandins that protect the stomach lining from acid and digestive enzymes. In the kidneys, COX-1 helps regulate blood flow and sodium balance. In platelets, COX-1 produces thromboxane A2, which promotes blood clotting.

COX-1 is a target of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. These medications work by inhibiting the activity of COX enzymes, reducing the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes, and thereby alleviating pain, inflammation, and fever. However, long-term use of NSAIDs can lead to side effects such as stomach ulcers and bleeding due to the inhibition of COX-1 in the stomach lining.

Leukocytes, also known as white blood cells (WBCs), are a crucial component of the human immune system. They are responsible for protecting the body against infections and foreign substances. Leukocytes are produced in the bone marrow and circulate throughout the body in the bloodstream and lymphatic system.

There are several types of leukocytes, including:

1. Neutrophils - These are the most abundant type of leukocyte and are primarily responsible for fighting bacterial infections. They contain enzymes that can destroy bacteria.
2. Lymphocytes - These are responsible for producing antibodies and destroying virus-infected cells, as well as cancer cells. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes.
3. Monocytes - These are the largest type of leukocyte and help to break down and remove dead or damaged tissues, as well as microorganisms.
4. Eosinophils - These play a role in fighting parasitic infections and are also involved in allergic reactions and inflammation.
5. Basophils - These release histamine and other chemicals that cause inflammation in response to allergens or irritants.

An abnormal increase or decrease in the number of leukocytes can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a blood disorder.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soybeans" are not a medical term. They are a type of legume that is commonly used in agriculture and food production. The medical community might discuss soybeans in the context of nutrition or allergies, but there isn't a formal medical definition for this term.

Here's some general information: Soybeans, scientifically known as Glycine max, are native to East Asia and are now grown worldwide. They are a significant source of plant-based protein and oil. Soybeans contain various nutrients, including essential amino acids, fiber, B vitamins, and minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. They are used in various food products such as tofu, soy milk, tempeh, and miso. Additionally, soybeans are also used in the production of industrial products, including biodiesel, plastics, and inks. Some people may have allergic reactions to soybeans or soy products.

Platelet aggregation is the clumping together of platelets (thrombocytes) in the blood, which is an essential step in the process of hemostasis (the stopping of bleeding) after injury to a blood vessel. When the inner lining of a blood vessel is damaged, exposure of subendothelial collagen and tissue factor triggers platelet activation. Activated platelets change shape, become sticky, and release the contents of their granules, which include ADP (adenosine diphosphate).

ADP then acts as a chemical mediator to attract and bind additional platelets to the site of injury, leading to platelet aggregation. This forms a plug that seals the damaged vessel and prevents further blood loss. Platelet aggregation is also a crucial component in the formation of blood clots (thrombosis) within blood vessels, which can have pathological consequences such as heart attacks and strokes if they obstruct blood flow to vital organs.

Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) is a type of lipid mediator called a cysteinyl leukotriene, which is derived from arachidonic acid through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. It is primarily produced by activated mast cells and basophils, and to a lesser extent by eosinophils, during an allergic response or inflammation.

LTC4 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases by causing bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, mucus secretion, and recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of inflammation. It exerts its effects by binding to cysteinyl leukotriene receptors (CysLT1 and CysLT2) found on various cell types, including airway smooth muscle cells, bronchial epithelial cells, and immune cells.

LTC4 is rapidly metabolized to Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and then to Leukotriene E4 (LTE4) by enzymes such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and dipeptidases, which are present in the extracellular space. These metabolites also have biological activity and contribute to the inflammatory response.

Inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase or leukotriene receptor antagonists are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of asthma, allergies, and other inflammatory conditions.

Thrombin is a serine protease enzyme that plays a crucial role in the coagulation cascade, which is a complex series of biochemical reactions that leads to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) to prevent excessive bleeding during an injury. Thrombin is formed from its precursor protein, prothrombin, through a process called activation, which involves cleavage by another enzyme called factor Xa.

Once activated, thrombin converts fibrinogen, a soluble plasma protein, into fibrin, an insoluble protein that forms the structural framework of a blood clot. Thrombin also activates other components of the coagulation cascade, such as factor XIII, which crosslinks and stabilizes the fibrin network, and platelets, which contribute to the formation and growth of the clot.

Thrombin has several regulatory mechanisms that control its activity, including feedback inhibition by antithrombin III, a plasma protein that inactivates thrombin and other serine proteases, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), which inhibits the activation of factor Xa, thereby preventing further thrombin formation.

Overall, thrombin is an essential enzyme in hemostasis, the process that maintains the balance between bleeding and clotting in the body. However, excessive or uncontrolled thrombin activity can lead to pathological conditions such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Pyrazoles are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 2. The chemical structure of pyrazoles consists of a pair of nitrogen atoms adjacent to each other in the ring, which makes them unique from other azole heterocycles such as imidazoles or triazoles.

Pyrazoles have significant biological activities and are found in various pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and natural products. Some pyrazole derivatives exhibit anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, and anticancer properties.

In the medical field, pyrazoles are used in various drugs to treat different conditions. For example, celecoxib (Celebrex) is a selective COX-2 inhibitor used for pain relief and inflammation reduction in arthritis patients. It contains a pyrazole ring as its core structure. Similarly, febuxostat (Uloric) is a medication used to treat gout, which also has a pyrazole moiety.

Overall, pyrazoles are essential compounds with significant medical applications and potential for further development in drug discovery and design.

Group IV Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are a subclass of the PLA2 family, which are enzymes that hydrolyze the sn-2 acyl bond of glycerophospholipids to release free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Specifically, Group IV PLA2s are calcium-dependent enzymes that are primarily located in the cytoplasm of cells and are involved in various cellular processes such as membrane remodeling, signal transduction, and inflammation.

Group IV PLA2s can be further divided into several subgroups, including Group IVA (also known as cPLA2s) and Group IVB (also known as iPLA2s). These enzymes have distinct structural features and play different roles in cellular physiology. For example, cPLA2s are involved in the production of eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules that mediate inflammation and other responses to injury or infection. On the other hand, iPLA2s are involved in maintaining membrane homeostasis and regulating cellular energy metabolism.

Abnormal regulation of Group IV PLA2 activity has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is an important area of research with potential therapeutic implications.

Bradykinin is a naturally occurring peptide in the human body, consisting of nine amino acids. It is a potent vasodilator and increases the permeability of blood vessels, causing a local inflammatory response. Bradykinin is formed from the breakdown of certain proteins, such as kininogen, by enzymes called kininases or proteases, including kallikrein. It plays a role in several physiological processes, including pain transmission, blood pressure regulation, and the immune response. In some pathological conditions, such as hereditary angioedema, bradykinin levels can increase excessively, leading to symptoms like swelling, redness, and pain.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Zymosan is a type of substance that is derived from the cell walls of yeast and some types of fungi. It's often used in laboratory research as an agent to stimulate inflammation, because it can activate certain immune cells (such as neutrophils) and cause them to release pro-inflammatory chemicals.

In medical terms, Zymosan is sometimes used as a tool for studying the immune system and inflammation in experimental settings. It's important to note that Zymosan itself is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a research reagent with potential applications in understanding human health and disease.

N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine (fMLP) is not a medical condition, but rather a synthetic peptide that is often used in laboratory settings for research purposes. It is a formylated methionine residue linked to a leucine and phenylalanine tripeptide.

fMLP is a potent chemoattractant for certain types of white blood cells, including neutrophils and monocytes. When these cells encounter fMLP, they are stimulated to migrate towards the source of the peptide and release various inflammatory mediators. As such, fMLP is often used in studies of inflammation, immune cell function, and signal transduction pathways.

It's important to note that while fMLP has important research applications, it is not a substance that would be encountered or used in clinical medicine.

Cytosol refers to the liquid portion of the cytoplasm found within a eukaryotic cell, excluding the organelles and structures suspended in it. It is the site of various metabolic activities and contains a variety of ions, small molecules, and enzymes. The cytosol is where many biochemical reactions take place, including glycolysis, protein synthesis, and the regulation of cellular pH. It is also where some organelles, such as ribosomes and vesicles, are located. In contrast to the cytosol, the term "cytoplasm" refers to the entire contents of a cell, including both the cytosol and the organelles suspended within it.

Enzyme activation refers to the process by which an enzyme becomes biologically active and capable of carrying out its specific chemical or biological reaction. This is often achieved through various post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage, phosphorylation, or addition of cofactors or prosthetic groups to the enzyme molecule. These modifications can change the conformation or structure of the enzyme, exposing or creating a binding site for the substrate and allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

For example, in the case of proteolytic cleavage, an inactive precursor enzyme, known as a zymogen, is cleaved into its active form by a specific protease. This is seen in enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are initially produced in the pancreas as inactive precursors called trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen, respectively. Once they reach the small intestine, they are activated by enteropeptidase, a protease that cleaves a specific peptide bond, releasing the active enzyme.

Phosphorylation is another common mechanism of enzyme activation, where a phosphate group is added to a specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue on the enzyme by a protein kinase. This modification can alter the conformation of the enzyme and create a binding site for the substrate, allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

Enzyme activation is a crucial process in many biological pathways, as it allows for precise control over when and where specific reactions take place. It also provides a mechanism for regulating enzyme activity in response to various signals and stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or changes in the intracellular environment.

Leukotriene antagonists are a class of medications that work by blocking the action of leukotrienes, which are chemicals released by the immune system in response to an allergen or irritant. Leukotrienes cause airway muscles to tighten and inflammation in the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. By blocking the action of leukotrienes, leukotriene antagonists can help relieve these symptoms and improve lung function. These medications are often used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever). Examples of leukotriene antagonists include montelukast, zafirlukast, and pranlukast.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

Lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) are a type of glycerophospholipids, which are major components of cell membranes. They are formed by the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholines, another type of glycerophospholipids, catalyzed by the enzyme phospholipase A2. LPCs contain a single fatty acid chain attached to a glycerol backbone and a choline headgroup.

In medical terms, LPCs have been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, such as cell signaling, membrane remodeling, and inflammation. Elevated levels of LPCs have been found in several diseases, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. They can also serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of these conditions.

Ionophores are compounds that have the ability to form complexes with ions and facilitate their transportation across biological membranes. They can be either organic or inorganic molecules, and they play important roles in various physiological processes, including ion homeostasis, signal transduction, and antibiotic activity. In medicine and research, ionophores are used as tools to study ion transport, modulate cellular functions, and as therapeutic agents, especially in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections.

Phosphatidic acids (PAs) are a type of phospholipid that are essential components of cell membranes. They are composed of a glycerol backbone linked to two fatty acid chains and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is esterified to another molecule, usually either serine, inositol, or choline, forming different types of phosphatidic acids.

PAs are particularly important as they serve as key regulators of many cellular processes, including signal transduction, membrane trafficking, and autophagy. They can act as signaling molecules by binding to and activating specific proteins, such as the enzyme phospholipase D, which generates second messengers involved in various signaling pathways.

PAs are also important intermediates in the synthesis of other phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol. They are produced by the enzyme diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), which adds a phosphate group to diacylglycerol (DAG) to form PA.

Abnormal levels of PAs have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of PAs is an active area of research with potential therapeutic implications.

Thromboxane-A Synthase (TXA2S) is a medical term referring to an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the blood coagulation process. It is found in platelets, and its primary function is to convert arachidonic acid into thromboxane A2 (TXA2), a potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregator.

Thromboxane A2 causes platelets to clump together, which is essential for the formation of blood clots that can help prevent excessive bleeding after an injury. However, an overproduction of thromboxane A2 can lead to the development of blood clots in blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke.

Therefore, Thromboxane-A Synthase is a vital enzyme in hemostasis (the process that stops bleeding), but its dysregulation can contribute to various cardiovascular diseases.

Epoxide hydrolases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides, which are molecules containing a three-membered ring consisting of two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. This reaction results in the formation of diols, which are molecules containing two hydroxyl groups (-OH).

Epoxide hydrolases play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics (foreign substances) and the metabolism of endogenous compounds. They help to convert toxic epoxides into less harmful products, which can then be excreted from the body.

There are two main types of epoxide hydrolases: microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). mEH is primarily responsible for metabolizing xenobiotics, while sEH plays a role in the metabolism of endogenous compounds such as arachidonic acid.

Impaired function or inhibition of epoxide hydrolases has been linked to various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. Therefore, these enzymes are considered important targets for the development of drugs and therapies aimed at treating these conditions.

Esterification is a chemical reaction that involves the conversion of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid into an ester, typically through the removal of a molecule of water. This reaction is often catalyzed by an acid or a base, and it is a key process in organic chemistry. Esters are commonly found in nature and are responsible for the fragrances of many fruits and flowers. They are also important in the production of various industrial and consumer products, including plastics, resins, and perfumes.

6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha, also known as prostaglandin H1A, is a stable metabolite of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). It is a type of eicosanoid, which is a signaling molecule made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids. Prostaglandins are a subclass of eicosanoids and have diverse hormone-like effects in various tissues, including smooth muscle contraction, vasodilation, and modulation of inflammation.

6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha is formed by the oxidation of PGF2alpha by 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), an enzyme that metabolizes prostaglandins and thromboxanes. It has been used as a biomarker for the measurement of PGF2alpha production in research settings, but it does not have any known physiological activity.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Prostaglandin endoperoxides are naturally occurring lipid compounds that play important roles as mediators in the body's inflammatory and physiological responses. They are intermediate products in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and thromboxanes, which are synthesized by the action of enzymes called cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2).

Synthetic prostaglandin endoperoxides, on the other hand, are chemically synthesized versions of these compounds. They are used in medical research and therapeutic applications to mimic or inhibit the effects of naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides. These synthetic compounds can be used to study the mechanisms of prostaglandin action, develop new drugs, or as stand-in agents for the natural compounds in experimental settings.

It's important to note that while synthetic prostaglandin endoperoxides can serve as useful tools in research and medicine, they also carry potential risks and side effects, much like their naturally occurring counterparts. Therefore, their use should be carefully monitored and regulated to ensure safety and efficacy.

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that play a role in inflammation, pain, and fever. COX-2 is primarily expressed in response to stimuli such as cytokines and growth factors, and its expression is associated with the development of inflammation.

COX-2 inhibitors are a class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that selectively block the activity of COX-2, reducing the production of prostaglandins and providing analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects. These medications are often used to treat pain and inflammation associated with conditions such as arthritis, menstrual cramps, and headaches.

It's important to note that while COX-2 inhibitors can be effective in managing pain and inflammation, they may also increase the risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke, particularly when used at high doses or for extended periods. Therefore, it's essential to use these medications under the guidance of a healthcare provider and to follow their instructions carefully.

Aspirin is the common name for acetylsalicylic acid, which is a medication used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX), which is involved in the production of prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that cause inflammation and pain. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet effect, which means it can help prevent blood clots from forming. This makes it useful for preventing heart attacks and strokes.

Aspirin is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and chewable tablets. It is also available in prescription strengths for certain medical conditions. As with any medication, aspirin should be taken as directed by a healthcare provider, and its use should be avoided in children and teenagers with viral infections due to the risk of Reye's syndrome, a rare but serious condition that can affect the liver and brain.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is a potent prostanoid, a type of lipid compound derived from arachidonic acid. It is primarily produced and released by platelets upon activation during the process of hemostasis (the body's response to stop bleeding). TXA2 acts as a powerful vasoconstrictor, causing blood vessels to narrow, which helps limit blood loss at the site of injury. Additionally, it promotes platelet aggregation, contributing to the formation of a stable clot and preventing further bleeding. However, uncontrolled or excessive production of TXA2 can lead to thrombotic events such as heart attacks and strokes. Its effects are balanced by prostacyclin (PGI2), which is produced by endothelial cells and has opposing actions, acting as a vasodilator and inhibiting platelet aggregation. The balance between TXA2 and PGI2 helps maintain vascular homeostasis.

Hydroxyurea is an antimetabolite drug that is primarily used in the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), essential thrombocythemia, and polycythemia vera. It works by interfering with the synthesis of DNA, which inhibits the growth of cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer therapy, hydroxyurea is also used off-label for the management of sickle cell disease. In this context, it helps to reduce the frequency and severity of painful vaso-occlusive crises by increasing the production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which decreases the formation of sickled red blood cells.

The medical definition of hydroxyurea is:

A hydantoin derivative and antimetabolite that inhibits ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, thereby interfering with DNA synthesis. It has been used as an antineoplastic agent, particularly in the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders, and more recently for the management of sickle cell disease to reduce the frequency and severity of painful vaso-occlusive crises by increasing fetal hemoglobin production.

Phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) are a type of phospholipid that are abundantly found in the cell membranes of living organisms. They play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and functionality of the cell membrane. PE contains a hydrophilic head, which consists of an ethanolamine group linked to a phosphate group, and two hydrophobic fatty acid chains. This unique structure allows PE to form a lipid bilayer, where the hydrophilic heads face outwards and interact with the aqueous environment, while the hydrophobic tails face inwards and interact with each other.

PE is also involved in various cellular processes, such as membrane trafficking, autophagy, and signal transduction. Additionally, PE can be modified by the addition of various functional groups or molecules, which can further regulate its functions and interactions within the cell. Overall, phosphatidylethanolamines are essential components of cellular membranes and play a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis.

Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in various natural oils such as olive oil, sunflower oil, and grapeseed oil. Its chemical formula is cis-9-octadecenoic acid, and it is a colorless liquid at room temperature. Oleic acid is an important component of human diet and has been shown to have potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of heart disease and improving immune function. It is also used in the manufacture of soaps, cosmetics, and other personal care products.

Oxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of molecular oxygen (O2) into their substrates. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of many natural products, as well as the detoxification and degradation of xenobiotics (foreign substances).

There are two main types of oxygenases: monooxygenases and dioxygenases. Monooxygenases introduce one atom of molecular oxygen into a substrate while reducing the other to water. An example of this type of enzyme is cytochrome P450, which is involved in drug metabolism and steroid hormone synthesis. Dioxygenases, on the other hand, incorporate both atoms of molecular oxygen into their substrates, often leading to the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds or the cleavage of existing ones.

It's important to note that while oxygenases are essential for many life-sustaining processes, they can also contribute to the production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) during normal cellular metabolism. An imbalance in ROS levels can lead to oxidative stress and damage to cells and tissues, which has been linked to various diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Leukotriene receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to and are activated by leukotrienes, which are lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid. These receptors play an important role in the inflammatory response and are involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, and recruitment of inflammatory cells.

There are two main types of leukotriene receptors: CysLT1 and CysLT2. The CysLT1 receptor has a high affinity for the cysteinyl leukotrienes LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4, while the CysLT2 receptor has a lower affinity for these ligands. Activation of the CysLT1 receptor leads to smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability, and recruitment of inflammatory cells, while activation of the CysLT2 receptor is associated with vasoconstriction and bronchodilation.

Leukotriene receptors are found on various cell types, including immune cells (e.g., eosinophils, mast cells), airway smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells. They play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases, as well as in the development of inflammation in response to infection or tissue injury.

Drugs that target leukotriene receptors, such as montelukast (a CysLT1 receptor antagonist), are used in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. These drugs work by blocking the activation of leukotriene receptors, thereby reducing inflammation and bronchoconstriction.

Peroxides, in a medical context, most commonly refer to chemical compounds that contain the peroxide ion (O2−2). Peroxides are characterized by the presence of an oxygen-oxygen single bond and can be found in various substances.

In dentistry, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a widely used agent for teeth whitening or bleaching due to its oxidizing properties. It can help remove stains and discoloration on the tooth surface by breaking down into water and oxygen-free radicals, which react with the stain molecules, ultimately leading to their oxidation and elimination.

However, it is essential to note that high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide or prolonged exposure can cause tooth sensitivity, irritation to the oral soft tissues, and potential damage to the dental pulp. Therefore, professional supervision and appropriate concentration control are crucial when using peroxides for dental treatments.

Caffeic acids are a type of phenolic compounds that contain a catechol structure and a carboxylic acid group. They are found in various plants, including coffee, tea, fruits, and vegetables. The most common caffeic acid is caffeic acid itself, which is abundant in coffee. Caffeic acids have been studied for their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects on human health.

The Cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzyme system is a group of enzymes found primarily in the liver, but also in other organs such as the intestines, lungs, and skin. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism and biotransformation of various substances, including drugs, environmental toxins, and endogenous compounds like hormones and fatty acids.

The name "Cytochrome P-450" refers to the unique property of these enzymes to bind to carbon monoxide (CO) and form a complex that absorbs light at a wavelength of 450 nm, which can be detected spectrophotometrically.

The CYP450 enzyme system is involved in Phase I metabolism of xenobiotics, where it catalyzes oxidation reactions such as hydroxylation, dealkylation, and epoxidation. These reactions introduce functional groups into the substrate molecule, which can then undergo further modifications by other enzymes during Phase II metabolism.

There are several families and subfamilies of CYP450 enzymes, each with distinct substrate specificities and functions. Some of the most important CYP450 enzymes include:

1. CYP3A4: This is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the human liver and is involved in the metabolism of approximately 50% of all drugs. It also metabolizes various endogenous compounds like steroids, bile acids, and vitamin D.
2. CYP2D6: This enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of many psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, and beta-blockers. It also metabolizes some endogenous compounds like dopamine and serotonin.
3. CYP2C9: This enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of warfarin, phenytoin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. CYP2C19: This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors, antidepressants, and clopidogrel.
5. CYP2E1: This enzyme metabolizes various xenobiotics like alcohol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride, as well as some endogenous compounds like fatty acids and prostaglandins.

Genetic polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes can significantly affect drug metabolism and response, leading to interindividual variability in drug efficacy and toxicity. Understanding the role of CYP450 enzymes in drug metabolism is crucial for optimizing pharmacotherapy and minimizing adverse effects.

Microsomes are subcellular membranous vesicles that are obtained as a byproduct during the preparation of cellular homogenates. They are not naturally occurring structures within the cell, but rather formed due to fragmentation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during laboratory procedures. Microsomes are widely used in various research and scientific studies, particularly in the fields of biochemistry and pharmacology.

Microsomes are rich in enzymes, including the cytochrome P450 system, which is involved in the metabolism of drugs, toxins, and other xenobiotics. These enzymes play a crucial role in detoxifying foreign substances and eliminating them from the body. As such, microsomes serve as an essential tool for studying drug metabolism, toxicity, and interactions, allowing researchers to better understand and predict the effects of various compounds on living organisms.

Catechols are a type of chemical compound that contain a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups (-OH) attached to it in the ortho position. The term "catechol" is often used interchangeably with "ortho-dihydroxybenzene." Catechols are important in biology because they are produced through the metabolism of certain amino acids, such as phenylalanine and tyrosine, and are involved in the synthesis of various neurotransmitters and hormones. They also have antioxidant properties and can act as reducing agents. In chemistry, catechols can undergo various reactions, such as oxidation and polymerization, to form other classes of compounds.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a mistake in your question. Prostaglandins are a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have diverse hormonal-like effects in the body. They are not typically classified by a letter "G."

Prostaglandin G is an intermediate compound formed during the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins through the cyclooxygenase pathway. It is not a type or subclass of prostaglandins that has distinct medical relevance or definition. Therefore, I'm unable to provide a specific medical definition for 'Prostaglandins G.'

If you have any other questions or need clarification on a different topic, please let me know!

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is a type of omega-3 fatty acid that is found in fish and some algae. It is a 20-carbon long polyunsaturated fatty acid with five double bonds, and has the chemical formula C20:5 n-3. EPA is an essential fatty acid, meaning that it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet.

EPA is a precursor to a group of hormone-like substances called eicosanoids, which include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds play important roles in regulating various physiological processes, such as inflammation, blood clotting, and immune function.

EPA has been studied for its potential health benefits, including reducing inflammation, lowering the risk of heart disease, and improving symptoms of depression. It is often taken as a dietary supplement in the form of fish oil or algal oil. However, it is important to note that while some studies have suggested potential health benefits of EPA, more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended dosages.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Intramolecular oxidoreductases are a specific class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of electrons within a single molecule, hence the term "intramolecular." These enzymes are involved in oxidoreduction reactions, where one part of the molecule is oxidized (loses electrons) and another part is reduced (gains electrons). This process allows for the rearrangement or modification of functional groups within the molecule.

The term "oxidoreductase" refers to enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which are also known as redox reactions. These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy metabolism, detoxification, and biosynthesis.

It's important to note that intramolecular oxidoreductases should not be confused with intermolecular oxidoreductases, which catalyze redox reactions between two separate molecules.

Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) is defined as a pharmacological agent that is a derivative of the phorbol ester family. It is a potent tumor promoter and activator of protein kinase C (PKC), a group of enzymes that play a role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, proliferation, and differentiation. TPA has been widely used in research to study PKC-mediated signaling pathways and its role in cancer development and progression. It is also used in topical treatments for skin conditions such as psoriasis.

Diacylglycerols (also known as diglycerides) are a type of glyceride, which is a compound that consists of glycerol and one or more fatty acids. Diacylglycerols contain two fatty acid chains bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages. They are important intermediates in the metabolism of lipids and can be found in many types of food, including vegetable oils and dairy products. In the body, diacylglycerols can serve as a source of energy and can also play roles in cell signaling processes.

Leukotriene E4 (LTE4) is a biological mediator derived from the arachidonic acid pathway, which plays a significant role in the inflammatory response. It is a type of leukotriene that is synthesized from leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and leukotriene D4 (LTD4) via the action of enzymes such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and dipeptidases.

LTE4 is a potent bronchoconstrictor, meaning it can cause narrowing of the airways in the lungs, and it also has chemotactic properties that attract inflammatory cells such as eosinophils to sites of inflammation. It is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases, where it contributes to bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, and mucus production.

LTE4 can be measured in urine as a biomarker of airway inflammation, particularly in patients with asthma. Increased levels of LTE4 in the urine have been associated with more severe asthma symptoms, poorer lung function, and increased risk of exacerbations.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

Meclofenamic acid is a type of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes in the body, such as cyclooxygenase (COX), which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and pain.

Meclofenamic acid is often used to treat a variety of conditions, including menstrual cramps, arthritis, and other types of musculoskeletal pain. It may also be used to reduce fever and relieve symptoms associated with colds and flu.

Like other NSAIDs, meclofenamic acid can have side effects, such as stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney or liver problems. It should be taken under the guidance of a healthcare provider, who can monitor for potential adverse effects and adjust the dosage accordingly.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Palmitic acid is a type of saturated fatty acid, which is a common component in many foods and also produced by the body. Its chemical formula is C16:0, indicating that it contains 16 carbon atoms and no double bonds. Palmitic acid is found in high concentrations in animal fats, such as butter, lard, and beef tallow, as well as in some vegetable oils, like palm kernel oil and coconut oil.

In the human body, palmitic acid can be synthesized from other substances or absorbed through the diet. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy storage, membrane structure formation, and signaling pathways regulation. However, high intake of palmitic acid has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to its potential to raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in the blood.

It is essential to maintain a balanced diet and consume palmitic acid-rich foods in moderation, along with regular exercise and a healthy lifestyle, to reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

Acylation is a medical and biological term that refers to the process of introducing an acyl group (-CO-) into a molecule. This process can occur naturally or it can be induced through chemical reactions. In the context of medicine and biology, acylation often occurs during post-translational modifications of proteins, where an acyl group is added to specific amino acid residues, altering the protein's function, stability, or localization.

An example of acylation in medicine is the administration of neuraminidase inhibitors, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu), for the treatment and prevention of influenza. These drugs work by inhibiting the activity of the viral neuraminidase enzyme, which is essential for the release of newly formed virus particles from infected cells. Oseltamivir is administered orally as an ethyl ester prodrug, which is then hydrolyzed in the body to form the active acylated metabolite that inhibits the viral neuraminidase.

In summary, acylation is a vital process in medicine and biology, with implications for drug design, protein function, and post-translational modifications.

Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) often used for its analgesic (pain-relieving), antipyretic (fever-reducing), and anti-inflammatory effects. It works by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which is involved in the production of prostaglandins that cause inflammation and induce pain and fever. Ibuprofen is commonly used to alleviate symptoms of various conditions such as headaches, menstrual cramps, arthritis, mild fever, and minor aches and pains. It is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, suspensions, and topical creams or gels.

Fibrosarcoma is a type of soft tissue cancer that develops in the fibrous (or connective) tissue found throughout the body, including tendons, ligaments, and muscles. It is characterized by the malignant proliferation of fibroblasts, which are the cells responsible for producing collagen, a structural protein found in connective tissue.

The tumor typically presents as a painless, firm mass that grows slowly over time. Fibrosarcomas can occur at any age but are more common in adults between 30 and 60 years old. The exact cause of fibrosarcoma is not well understood, but it has been linked to radiation exposure, certain chemicals, and genetic factors.

There are several subtypes of fibrosarcoma, including adult-type fibrosarcoma, infantile fibrosarcoma, and dedifferentiated fibrosarcoma. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, often followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to reduce the risk of recurrence. The prognosis for patients with fibrosarcoma depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence or absence of metastasis (spread of cancer to other parts of the body).

Benzeneacetamides are a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring, which is a six-carbon cyclic structure with alternating double bonds, linked to an acetamide group. The acetamide group consists of an acetyl functional group (-COCH3) attached to an amide nitrogen (-NH-).

Benzeneacetamides have the general formula C8H9NO, and they can exist in various structural isomers depending on the position of the acetamide group relative to the benzene ring. These compounds are used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, and other chemical products.

In a medical context, some benzeneacetamides have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects. For example, certain derivatives of benzeneacetamide have shown anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties, making them candidates for the development of new drugs to treat pain and inflammation. However, more research is needed to establish their safety and efficacy in clinical settings.

Coenzyme A (CoA) ligases, also known as CoA synthetases, are a class of enzymes that activate acyl groups, such as fatty acids and amino acids, by forming a thioester bond with coenzyme A. This activation is an essential step in various metabolic pathways, including fatty acid oxidation, amino acid catabolism, and the synthesis of several important compounds like steroids and acetylcholine.

CoA ligases catalyze the following reaction:

acyl group + ATP + CoA ↔ acyl-CoA + AMP + PP~i~

In this reaction, an acyl group (R-) from a carboxylic acid is linked to the thiol (-SH) group of coenzyme A through a high-energy thioester bond. The energy required for this activation is provided by the hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate (PP~i~).

CoA ligases are classified into three main types based on the nature of the acyl group they activate:

1. Acyl-CoA synthetases (or long-chain fatty acid CoA ligases) activate long-chain fatty acids, typically containing 12 or more carbon atoms.
2. Aminoacyl-CoA synthetases activate amino acids to form aminoacyl-CoAs, which are essential intermediates in the catabolism of certain amino acids.
3. Short-chain specific CoA ligases activate short-chain fatty acids (up to 6 carbon atoms) and other acyl groups like acetate or propionate.

These enzymes play a crucial role in maintaining cellular energy homeostasis, metabolism, and the synthesis of various essential biomolecules.

Group VI Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are a subclass of the PLA2 family, which are enzymes that hydrolyze the sn-2 ester bond of glycerophospholipids to release free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Specifically, Group VI PLA2s are calcium-dependent enzymes that have been identified in various tissues, including the brain and testis. They play important roles in several biological processes, such as cell signaling, inflammation, and lipid metabolism.

Group VI PLA2s are further divided into two subgroups: Group VI A and Group VI B. The Group VI A subgroup includes the iPLA2-VIA (also known as PLA2G6) enzyme, which has been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as neurodegenerative diseases and hereditary spastic paraplegia. On the other hand, the Group VI B subgroup includes the pancreatic-type PLA2 (also known as PLA2G1B) enzyme, which is primarily involved in digestion.

It's worth noting that while Group VI PLA2s have important physiological functions, they can also contribute to pathological conditions when their activity is dysregulated. For example, excessive activation of these enzymes has been linked to the development and progression of various inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, and asthma.

1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O-Acyltransferase is an enzyme that belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl groups. It is responsible for catalyzing the reaction that transfers an acyl group from an acyl-CoA to the sn-2 position of 1-acylglycerophosphocholine, resulting in the formation of phosphatidylcholine, which is a major component of biological membranes. This enzyme plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism and has been implicated in various diseases, including atherosclerosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cancer.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a type of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid that is essential for human health. It is an important structural component of the phospholipid membranes in the brain and retina, and plays a crucial role in the development and function of the nervous system. DHA is also involved in various physiological processes, including inflammation, blood pressure regulation, and immune response.

DHA is not produced in sufficient quantities by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources or supplements. The richest dietary sources of DHA are fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines, as well as algae and other marine organisms. DHA can also be found in fortified foods such as eggs, milk, and juice.

Deficiency in DHA has been linked to various health issues, including cognitive decline, vision problems, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is recommended that individuals consume adequate amounts of DHA through diet or supplementation to maintain optimal health.

Plasmalogens are a type of complex lipid called glycerophospholipids, which are essential components of cell membranes. They are characterized by having a unique chemical structure that includes a vinyl ether bond at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone and an ester bond at the sn-2 position, with the majority of them containing polyunsaturated fatty acids. The headgroup attached to the sn-3 position is typically choline or ethanolamine.

Plasmalogens are abundant in certain tissues, such as the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. They have been suggested to play important roles in cellular functions, including membrane fluidity, signal transduction, and protection against oxidative stress. Reduced levels of plasmalogens have been associated with various diseases, including neurological disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and aging-related conditions.

Salicylates are a group of chemicals found naturally in certain fruits, vegetables, and herbs, as well as in some medications like aspirin. They are named after willow bark's active ingredient, salicin, from which they were derived. Salicylates have anti-inflammatory, analgesic (pain-relieving), and antipyretic (fever-reducing) properties.

In a medical context, salicylates are often used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. High doses of salicylates can have blood thinning effects and may be used in the prevention of strokes or heart attacks. Commonly prescribed salicylate medications include aspirin, methylsalicylate, and sodium salicylate.

It is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to salicylates, and overuse can lead to side effects such as stomach ulcers, ringing in the ears, and even kidney or liver damage.

Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells that still contain remnants of organelles, such as ribosomes and mitochondria, which are typically found in developing cells. These organelles are involved in the process of protein synthesis and energy production, respectively. Reticulocytes are released from the bone marrow into the bloodstream, where they continue to mature into fully developed red blood cells called erythrocytes.

Reticulocytes can be identified under a microscope by their staining characteristics, which reveal a network of fine filaments or granules known as the reticular apparatus. This apparatus is composed of residual ribosomal RNA and other proteins that have not yet been completely eliminated during the maturation process.

The percentage of reticulocytes in the blood can be used as a measure of bone marrow function and erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production. An increased reticulocyte count may indicate an appropriate response to blood loss, hemolysis, or other conditions that cause anemia, while a decreased count may suggest impaired bone marrow function or a deficiency in erythropoietin, the hormone responsible for stimulating red blood cell production.

Cyclohexanones are organic compounds that consist of a cyclohexane ring (a six-carbon saturated ring) with a ketone functional group (-CO-) attached to it. The general structure is C6H11CO. They can be found in various natural sources, including essential oils and certain plants, but many cyclohexanones are also synthesized for use in the chemical industry.

Cyclohexanones are important intermediates in the production of various chemicals, such as nylon and other synthetic fibers, resins, and perfumes. One of the most common cyclohexanones is cyclohexanone itself, which is a colorless liquid with an odor reminiscent of peppermint or acetone. It is used in the production of adipic acid, a precursor to nylon.

Like other ketones, cyclohexanones can undergo various chemical reactions, such as reduction, oxidation, and condensation. However, due to the cyclic structure of cyclohexanones, they also exhibit unique reactivity patterns that are exploited in organic synthesis.

Hydroxy acids are a class of chemical compounds that contain both a carboxylic acid group and a hydroxyl group. They are commonly used in dermatology and cosmetic products for their exfoliating, moisturizing, and anti-aging properties. The two main types of hydroxy acids used in skincare are alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) and beta-hydroxy acids (BHAs).

Alpha-hydroxy acids include compounds such as glycolic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid. They work by breaking down the "glue" that holds dead skin cells together, promoting cell turnover and helping to improve the texture and tone of the skin. AHAs are also known for their ability to improve the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and age spots.

Beta-hydroxy acids, on the other hand, are primarily represented by salicylic acid. BHAs are oil-soluble, which allows them to penetrate deeper into the pores and exfoliate dead skin cells and excess sebum that can lead to clogged pores and acne breakouts.

It is important to note that hydroxy acids can cause skin irritation and sensitivity to sunlight, so it is recommended to use sunscreen and start with lower concentrations when first incorporating them into a skincare routine.

Thimerosal is a mercury-containing organic compound that has been used as a preservative in various pharmaceutical products, including vaccines, to prevent contamination by bacteria. It is metabolized or degraded into ethylmercury and thiosalicylate. Ethylmercury is an organomercurial compound that is less toxic than methylmercury and is excreted from the body more quickly. Thimerosal has been used in vaccines since the 1930s, and its use has been thoroughly studied and reviewed by regulatory agencies and health organizations worldwide. No evidence has been found to link thimerosal-containing vaccines to any harmful effects, except for minor reactions at the injection site. However, due to unfounded concerns about its safety, thimerosal was removed from or reduced in most childhood vaccines in the United States and other countries as a precautionary measure, starting in the late 1990s. Despite the removal of thimerosal from most vaccines, autism rates have not decreased, which supports the conclusion that thimerosal does not cause autism.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Superoxides are partially reduced derivatives of oxygen that contain one extra electron, giving them an overall charge of -1. They are highly reactive and unstable, with the most common superoxide being the hydroxyl radical (•OH-) and the superoxide anion (O2-). Superoxides are produced naturally in the body during metabolic processes, particularly within the mitochondria during cellular respiration. They play a role in various physiological processes, but when produced in excess or not properly neutralized, they can contribute to oxidative stress and damage to cells and tissues, potentially leading to the development of various diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Carbon radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of carbon, which is an naturally occurring chemical element with the atomic number 6. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^12C), but there are also several radioactive isotopes, including carbon-11 (^11C), carbon-14 (^14C), and carbon-13 (^13C). These radioisotopes have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, which makes them unstable and causes them to emit radiation.

Carbon-11 has a half-life of about 20 minutes and is used in medical imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is produced by bombarding nitrogen-14 with protons in a cyclotron.

Carbon-14, also known as radiocarbon, has a half-life of about 5730 years and is used in archaeology and geology to date organic materials. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays.

Carbon-13 is stable and has a natural abundance of about 1.1% in carbon. It is not radioactive, but it can be used as a tracer in medical research and in the study of metabolic processes.

Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to and are activated by the lipid mediator Leukotriene B4. There are two main types of LTB4 receptors, named BLT1 and BLT2.

BLT1 is highly expressed in cells of the immune system such as neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and dendritic cells, and it mediates many of the pro-inflammatory effects of LTB4, including chemotaxis, adhesion, and activation of these cells.

BLT2 is more widely expressed in various tissues, including the skin, lung, and intestine, and it has been shown to play a role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as pain sensation, wound healing, and cancer progression.

Overall, LTB4 receptors are important targets for the development of therapies aimed at modulating inflammation and immune responses.

Enzyme induction is a process by which the activity or expression of an enzyme is increased in response to some stimulus, such as a drug, hormone, or other environmental factor. This can occur through several mechanisms, including increasing the transcription of the enzyme's gene, stabilizing the mRNA that encodes the enzyme, or increasing the translation of the mRNA into protein.

In some cases, enzyme induction can be a beneficial process, such as when it helps the body to metabolize and clear drugs more quickly. However, in other cases, enzyme induction can have negative consequences, such as when it leads to the increased metabolism of important endogenous compounds or the activation of harmful procarcinogens.

Enzyme induction is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology, as it can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs and other xenobiotics. It is also relevant to the study of drug interactions, as the induction of one enzyme by a drug can lead to altered metabolism and effects of another drug that is metabolized by the same enzyme.

Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in various natural oils such as olive oil, sunflower oil, and peanut oil. Its chemical formula is cis-9-octadecenoic acid, and it is a colorless liquid at room temperature with a slight odor. Oleic acid is an important component of human diet and has been shown to have various health benefits, including reducing the risk of heart disease and improving immune function. It is also used in the manufacture of soaps, cosmetics, and other industrial products.

Group II Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are a class of enzymes that hydrolyze the sn-2 ester bond of glycerophospholipids to release free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. They are classified as one of the several groups of PLA2 based on their structure, function, and calcium dependence.

Group II PLA2s are secreted enzymes that require millimolar concentrations of calcium ions for their activity. They consist of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight ranging from 14 to 18 kDa. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including inflammation, host defense, and lipid metabolism. Dysregulation of Group II PLA2 activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Membrane lipids are the main component of biological membranes, forming a lipid bilayer in which various cellular processes take place. These lipids include phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol. Phospholipids are the most abundant type, consisting of a hydrophilic head (containing a phosphate group) and two hydrophobic tails (composed of fatty acid chains). Glycolipids contain a sugar group attached to the lipid molecule. Cholesterol helps regulate membrane fluidity and permeability. Together, these lipids create a selectively permeable barrier that separates cells from their environment and organelles within cells.

Oxylipins are a class of bioactive lipid molecules derived from the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). They play crucial roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cellular signaling. Oxylipins can be further categorized based on their precursor PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and linoleic acid (LA). These oxylipins are involved in the regulation of vascular tone, platelet aggregation, neurotransmission, and pain perception. They exert their effects through various receptors and downstream signaling pathways, making them important targets for therapeutic interventions in several diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, and neurological conditions.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

'Cucumis sativus' is the scientific name for the vegetable we commonly know as a cucumber. It belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae and is believed to have originated in South Asia. Cucumbers are widely consumed raw in salads, pickled, or used in various culinary applications. They have a high water content and contain various nutrients such as vitamin K, vitamin C, and potassium.

Group X Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are a group of enzymes that belong to the larger family of PLA2 enzymes, which are responsible for hydrolyzing the sn-2 ester bond of glycerophospholipids to release free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Specifically, Group X PLA2 enzymes selectively hydrolyze arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is a precursor for eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules involved in inflammation and other physiological processes.

Group X PLA2 enzymes are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, and play important roles in host defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism. Dysregulation of Group X PLA2 activity has been implicated in several diseases, such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is crucial for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Tritium is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of nuclear physics and chemistry. Tritium (symbol: T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with two neutrons and one proton in its nucleus. It is also known as heavy hydrogen or superheavy hydrogen.

Tritium has a half-life of about 12.3 years, which means that it decays by emitting a low-energy beta particle (an electron) to become helium-3. Due to its radioactive nature and relatively short half-life, tritium is used in various applications, including nuclear weapons, fusion reactors, luminous paints, and medical research.

In the context of medicine, tritium may be used as a radioactive tracer in some scientific studies or medical research, but it is not a term commonly used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

Lipoxygenases (LOX) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, forming hydroperoxides. These enzymes play a role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cancer. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found in animals, plants, and microorganisms. In humans, LOXs are involved in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and lipoxins, which are important mediators of inflammation and resolution of inflammation, respectively.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the chemical components of a mixture or compound. It works by ionizing the sample, generating charged molecules or fragments, and then measuring their mass-to-charge ratio in a vacuum. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the analytes, allowing for identification and characterization.

In simpler terms, mass spectrometry is a method used to determine what chemicals are present in a sample and in what quantities, by converting the chemicals into ions, measuring their masses, and generating a spectrum that shows the relative abundances of each ion type.

Autacoids are endogenous substances that are released by various cells in the body and have a localized, hormone-like effect on nearby tissues. They include chemicals such as histamine, serotonin (5-HT), prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and bradykinin. Autacoids are involved in various physiological processes, including inflammation, pain perception, smooth muscle contraction, and blood vessel dilation or constriction. They often act as mediators of the immune response and can contribute to the symptoms of allergies, asthma, and other medical conditions.

Prostaglandin antagonists are a class of medications that work by blocking the action of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that play many roles in the body, including causing inflammation, promoting uterine contractions during labor and menstruation, and regulating blood flow in various tissues.

Prostaglandin antagonists are often used to treat conditions that involve excessive prostaglandin activity, such as:

* Pain and inflammation associated with arthritis or musculoskeletal injuries
* Migraines and other headaches
* Dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation)
* Preterm labor

Examples of prostaglandin antagonists include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib, as well as specific prostaglandin receptor antagonists such as misoprostol and telmisartan.

It's important to note that while prostaglandin antagonists can be effective in treating certain conditions, they can also have side effects and potential risks, so it's important to use them under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Gene expression regulation, enzymologic refers to the biochemical processes and mechanisms that control the transcription and translation of specific genes into functional proteins or enzymes. This regulation is achieved through various enzymatic activities that can either activate or repress gene expression at different levels, such as chromatin remodeling, transcription factor activation, mRNA processing, and protein degradation.

Enzymologic regulation of gene expression involves the action of specific enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions involved in these processes. For example, histone-modifying enzymes can alter the structure of chromatin to make genes more or less accessible for transcription, while RNA polymerase and its associated factors are responsible for transcribing DNA into mRNA. Additionally, various enzymes are involved in post-transcriptional modifications of mRNA, such as splicing, capping, and tailing, which can affect the stability and translation of the transcript.

Overall, the enzymologic regulation of gene expression is a complex and dynamic process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment and maintain proper physiological function.

Acyltransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acyl group (a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydrogen atom) from one molecule to another. This transfer involves the formation of an ester bond between the acyl group donor and the acyl group acceptor.

Acyltransferases play important roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of lipids, fatty acids, and other metabolites. They are also involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics (foreign substances) by catalyzing the addition of an acyl group to these compounds, making them more water-soluble and easier to excrete from the body.

Examples of acyltransferases include serine palmitoyltransferase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of sphingolipids, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl esters between lipoproteins.

Acyltransferases are classified based on the type of acyl group they transfer and the nature of the acyl group donor and acceptor molecules. They can be further categorized into subclasses based on their sequence similarities, three-dimensional structures, and evolutionary relationships.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Prostaglandins H" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. Prostaglandins are a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have diverse hormone-like effects in the body. They play roles in various physiological processes, including inflammation, blood flow regulation, and labor induction, among others.

Prostaglandin H is an intermediate in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins through the cyclooxygenase pathway. However, it's not a final product or a commonly used term in medical definitions. If you have any specific questions about prostaglandins or their role in the body, I would be happy to help further clarify those topics for you!

Quinolines are a class of organic compounds that consist of a bicyclic structure made up of a benzene ring fused to a piperidine ring. They have a wide range of applications, but they are perhaps best known for their use in the synthesis of various medications, including antibiotics and antimalarial drugs.

Quinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, work by inhibiting the bacterial enzymes involved in DNA replication and repair. They are commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and skin infections.

Quinoline-based antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, work by inhibiting the parasite's ability to digest hemoglobin in the red blood cells. They are commonly used to prevent and treat malaria.

It is important to note that quinolines have been associated with serious side effects, including tendinitis and tendon rupture, nerve damage, and abnormal heart rhythms. As with any medication, it is important to use quinolines only under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and to follow their instructions carefully.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine-threonine kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are activated by second messengers such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+), which result from the activation of cell surface receptors like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs).

Once activated, PKC proteins phosphorylate downstream target proteins, thereby modulating their activities. This regulation is involved in numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and membrane trafficking. There are at least 10 isoforms of PKC, classified into three subfamilies based on their second messenger requirements and structural features: conventional (cPKC; α, βI, βII, and γ), novel (nPKC; δ, ε, η, and θ), and atypical (aPKC; ζ and ι/λ). Dysregulation of PKC signaling has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Lipid peroxidation is a process in which free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), steal electrons from lipids containing carbon-carbon double bonds, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This results in the formation of lipid hydroperoxides, which can decompose to form a variety of compounds including reactive carbonyl compounds, aldehydes, and ketones.

Malondialdehyde (MDA) is one such compound that is commonly used as a marker for lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation can cause damage to cell membranes, leading to changes in their fluidity and permeability, and can also result in the modification of proteins and DNA, contributing to cellular dysfunction and ultimately cell death. It is associated with various pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet (UV-Vis) is a type of spectrophotometry that measures how much ultraviolet (UV) and visible light is absorbed or transmitted by a sample. It uses a device called a spectrophotometer to measure the intensity of light at different wavelengths as it passes through a sample. The resulting data can be used to determine the concentration of specific components within the sample, identify unknown substances, or evaluate the physical and chemical properties of materials.

UV-Vis spectroscopy is widely used in various fields such as chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, and environmental science. It can detect a wide range of substances including organic compounds, metal ions, proteins, nucleic acids, and dyes. The technique is non-destructive, meaning that the sample remains unchanged after the measurement.

In UV-Vis spectroscopy, the sample is placed in a cuvette or other container, and light from a source is directed through it. The light then passes through a monochromator, which separates it into its component wavelengths. The monochromatic light is then directed through the sample, and the intensity of the transmitted or absorbed light is measured by a detector.

The resulting absorption spectrum can provide information about the concentration and identity of the components in the sample. For example, if a compound has a known absorption maximum at a specific wavelength, its concentration can be determined by measuring the absorbance at that wavelength and comparing it to a standard curve.

Overall, UV-Vis spectrophotometry is a versatile and powerful analytical technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of various samples in different fields.

"Solanum tuberosum" is the scientific name for a plant species that is commonly known as the potato. According to medical and botanical definitions, Solanum tuberosum refers to the starchy, edible tubers that grow underground from this plant. Potatoes are native to the Andes region of South America and are now grown worldwide. They are an important food source for many people and are used in a variety of culinary applications.

Potatoes contain several essential nutrients, including carbohydrates, fiber, protein, vitamin C, and some B vitamins. However, they can also be high in calories, especially when prepared with added fats like butter or oil. Additionally, potatoes are often consumed in forms that are less healthy, such as French fries and potato chips, which can contribute to weight gain and other health problems if consumed excessively.

In a medical context, potatoes may also be discussed in relation to food allergies or intolerances. While uncommon, some people may have adverse reactions to potatoes, including skin rashes, digestive symptoms, or difficulty breathing. These reactions are typically caused by an immune response to proteins found in the potato plant, rather than the tubers themselves.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Prostaglandin F (PGF) is a type of prostaglandin, which is a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have diverse hormone-like effects. Prostaglandin F is a naturally occurring compound that is produced in various tissues throughout the body, including the uterus, lungs, and kidneys.

There are two major types of prostaglandin F: PGF1α and PGF2α. These compounds play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including:

* Uterine contraction: Prostaglandin F helps to stimulate uterine contractions during labor and childbirth. It is also involved in the shedding of the uterine lining during menstruation.
* Bronchodilation: In the lungs, prostaglandin F can help to relax bronchial smooth muscle and promote bronchodilation.
* Renal function: Prostaglandin F helps to regulate blood flow and fluid balance in the kidneys.

Prostaglandin F is also used as a medication to induce labor, treat postpartum hemorrhage, and manage some types of glaucoma. It is available in various forms, including injections, tablets, and eye drops.

Benzoquinones are a type of chemical compound that contain a benzene ring (a cyclic arrangement of six carbon atoms) with two ketone functional groups (-C=O) in the 1,4-positions. They exist in two stable forms, namely ortho-benzoquinone and para-benzoquinone, depending on the orientation of the ketone groups relative to each other.

Benzoquinones are important intermediates in various biological processes and are also used in industrial applications such as dyes, pigments, and pharmaceuticals. They can be produced synthetically or obtained naturally from certain plants and microorganisms.

In the medical field, benzoquinones have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects, particularly in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. However, they are also known to exhibit toxicity and may cause adverse reactions in some individuals. Therefore, further research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential risks before they can be safely used as drugs or therapies.

Prostaglandin endoperoxides are short-lived, biologically active lipid compounds derived from the metabolism of arachidonic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid. They are intermediate products in the conversion of arachidonic acid to various prostaglandins and thromboxanes, which are crucial regulators of numerous physiological processes, including inflammation, blood clotting, and vascular constriction or dilation.

The two major prostaglandin endoperoxides are PGG2 (prostaglandin G2) and PGH2 (prostaglandin H2). They are synthesized from arachidonic acid by the action of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX), which has two isoforms: COX-1 and COX-2. These endoperoxides can then be further metabolized into various prostaglandins and thromboxanes by specific synthases.

Prostaglandin endoperoxides are highly reactive and unstable, with a half-life of only a few seconds to minutes. Due to their instability, they cannot accumulate in tissues and must be rapidly converted into more stable downstream products for biological activity. Despite their short lifespan, prostaglandin endoperoxides play essential roles in mediating various physiological responses and are also implicated in several pathological conditions, such as pain, fever, and inflammation.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad cholesterol," are a type of lipoprotein that carry cholesterol and other fats from the liver to cells throughout the body. High levels of LDL in the blood can lead to the buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of proteins (apolipoproteins) and lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids) that are responsible for transporting fat molecules around the body in the bloodstream. LDL is one type of lipoprotein, along with high-density lipoproteins (HDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and chylomicrons.

LDL particles are smaller than HDL particles and can easily penetrate the artery walls, leading to the formation of plaques that can narrow or block the arteries. Therefore, maintaining healthy levels of LDL in the blood is essential for preventing cardiovascular disease.

Peritoneal macrophages are a type of immune cell that are present in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space within the abdomen that contains the liver, spleen, stomach, and intestines. These macrophages play a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and injury by engulfing and destroying foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms.

Macrophages are large phagocytic cells that originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter tissue, they can differentiate into macrophages, which have a variety of functions depending on their location and activation state.

Peritoneal macrophages are involved in various physiological processes, including the regulation of inflammation, tissue repair, and the breakdown of foreign substances. They also play a role in the development and progression of certain diseases, such as cancer and autoimmune disorders.

These macrophages can be collected from animals or humans for research purposes by injecting a solution into the peritoneal cavity and then withdrawing the fluid, which contains the macrophages. These cells can then be studied in vitro to better understand their functions and potential therapeutic targets.

Monocytes are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system. They are large cells with a round or oval shape and a nucleus that is typically indented or horseshoe-shaped. Monocytes are produced in the bone marrow and then circulate in the bloodstream, where they can differentiate into other types of immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells.

Monocytes play an important role in the body's defense against infection and tissue damage. They are able to engulf and digest foreign particles, microorganisms, and dead or damaged cells, which helps to clear them from the body. Monocytes also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response.

Elevated levels of monocytes in the bloodstream can be a sign of an ongoing infection, inflammation, or other medical conditions such as cancer or autoimmune disorders.

Acetates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to compounds that contain the acetate group, which is an functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom (-COO-). An example of an acetate is sodium acetate (CH3COONa), which is a salt formed from acetic acid (CH3COOH) and is often used as a buffering agent in medical solutions.

Acetates can also refer to a group of medications that contain acetate as an active ingredient, such as magnesium acetate, which is used as a laxative, or calcium acetate, which is used to treat high levels of phosphate in the blood.

In addition, acetates can also refer to a process called acetylation, which is the addition of an acetyl group (-COCH3) to a molecule. This process can be important in the metabolism and regulation of various substances within the body.

Phospholipid ethers are a type of phospholipid in which the traditional fatty acid chains are replaced by alkyl or alkenyl groups linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether bond. They are a significant component of lipoproteins and cell membranes, particularly in archaea, where they contribute to the stability and rigidity of the membrane at extreme temperatures and pressures.

The two main types of phospholipid ethers are plasmalogens and diether lipids. Plasmalogens contain a vinyl ether bond at the sn-1 position, while diether lipids have an ether bond at both the sn-1 and sn-2 positions. These unique structures give phospholipid ethers distinct chemical and biological properties compared to conventional phospholipids with ester-linked fatty acids.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Free radicals are molecules or atoms that have one or more unpaired electrons in their outermost shell, making them highly reactive. They can be formed naturally in the body through processes such as metabolism and exercise, or they can come from external sources like pollution, radiation, and certain chemicals. Free radicals can cause damage to cells and contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants are substances that can neutralize free radicals and help protect against their harmful effects.

Dideoxyadenosine (ddA) is a type of synthetic nucleoside analogue, which is a synthetic compound that resembles one of the building blocks of DNA or RNA. More specifically, ddA resembles adenosine, one of the four nucleosides that make up DNA.

Dideoxyadenosine is used in research and medicine as an inhibitor of reverse transcriptase, an enzyme that is produced by retroviruses such as HIV. By blocking the action of this enzyme, ddA can prevent the virus from replicating and infecting new cells.

Dideoxyadenosine is often used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to treat HIV infection and AIDS. It is usually administered as a prodrug, such as didanosine or ddI, which is converted to the active form of the drug in the body.

It's important to note that Dideoxyadenosine itself is not used directly as a medication but its derivatives like Didanosine are used in treatment.

The endothelium is the thin, delicate tissue that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. It is a single layer of cells called endothelial cells that are in contact with the blood or lymph fluid. The endothelium plays an essential role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating blood flow, coagulation, platelet activation, immune function, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). It also acts as a barrier between the vessel wall and the circulating blood or lymph fluid. Dysfunction of the endothelium has been implicated in various cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammation, and cancer.

5-Lipoxygenase-activating protein inhibitors (FLAP inhibitors) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the activity of 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP), an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes. Leukotrienes are inflammatory mediators that contribute to the development of various respiratory and allergic diseases, such as asthma, rhinitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

By inhibiting FLAP, these drugs prevent the formation of leukotrienes, thereby reducing inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Examples of FLAP inhibitors include MK-0886, CDC-H5247, and BAYx1005. These drugs have shown promise in preclinical and early clinical studies, but further research is needed to establish their safety and efficacy in larger patient populations.

Indole is not strictly a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that can be found in the human body and has relevance to medical and biological research. Indoles are organic compounds that contain a bicyclic structure consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered pyrrole ring.

In the context of medicine, indoles are particularly relevant due to their presence in certain hormones and other biologically active molecules. For example, the neurotransmitter serotonin contains an indole ring, as does the hormone melatonin. Indoles can also be found in various plant-based foods, such as cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, kale), and have been studied for their potential health benefits.

Some indoles, like indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane, are found in these vegetables and can have anti-cancer properties by modulating estrogen metabolism, reducing inflammation, and promoting cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells. However, it is essential to note that further research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits and risks associated with indoles.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) is a biological mediator derived from arachidonic acid, which is released from membrane phospholipids by the action of phospholipase A2. It is one of the cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs), along with LTC4 and LTE4, that are produced in the body through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway.

LTD4 plays a significant role in the inflammatory response, particularly in the airways. It is a potent constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, increases vascular permeability, and recruits eosinophils and other inflammatory cells to the site of inflammation. These actions contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic rhinitis.

LTD4 exerts its effects by binding to cys-LT receptors (CysLT1 and CysLT2) found on various cell types, including smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells. The activation of these receptors leads to a cascade of intracellular signaling events that result in the observed biological responses.

Inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase or cys-LT receptor antagonists are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis, targeting the actions of LTD4 and other cys-LTs to reduce inflammation and bronchoconstriction.

Trifluoperazine is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the class of drugs called phenothiazines. It works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain, and helps to reduce symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and disordered thought. Trifluoperazine may also be used to manage anxiety or agitation in certain medical conditions. It is available in the form of tablets for oral administration. As with any medication, trifluoperazine should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and risks associated with its use.

Eicosanoid receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind and respond to signaling molecules called eicosanoids. These receptors play a crucial role in various physiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, blood clotting, and the regulation of blood pressure and flow.

Eicosanoids are derived from the metabolism of arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids with 20 carbon atoms (hence "eicosa" in eicosanoid). They include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, and lipoxins.

Eicosanoid receptors are found on various cell types throughout the body, including immune cells, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and neurons. When an eicosanoid binds to its specific receptor, it triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression, cell behavior, or both.

There are several families of eicosanoid receptors, including prostaglandin receptors, thromboxane receptors, leukotriene receptors, and lipoxin receptors. Each family contains multiple subtypes with distinct pharmacological properties and physiological functions.

Understanding the role of eicosanoid receptors in health and disease has important implications for drug development and the treatment of various medical conditions, such as inflammation, pain, asthma, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.

Cyclopentanes are a class of hydrocarbons that contain a cycloalkane ring of five carbon atoms. The chemical formula for cyclopentane is C5H10. It is a volatile, flammable liquid that is used as a solvent and in the production of polymers. Cyclopentanes are also found naturally in petroleum and coal tar.

Cyclopentanes have a unique structure in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a pentagonal shape, with each carbon atom bonded to two other carbon atoms and one or two hydrogen atoms. This structure gives cyclopentane its characteristic "bowl-shaped" geometry, which allows it to undergo various chemical reactions, such as ring-opening reactions, that can lead to the formation of other chemicals.

Cyclopentanes have a variety of industrial and commercial applications. For example, they are used in the production of plastics, resins, and synthetic rubbers. They also have potential uses in the development of new drugs and medical technologies, as their unique structure and reactivity make them useful building blocks for the synthesis of complex molecules.

Glycerophospholipids, also known as phosphoglycerides, are a major class of lipids that constitute the structural components of biological membranes. They are composed of a glycerol backbone to which two fatty acid chains and a phosphate group are attached. The phosphate group is esterified to an alcohol, typically choline, ethanolamine, serine, or inositol, forming what is called a phosphatidyl headgroup.

The chemical structure of glycerophospholipids allows them to form bilayers, which are essential for the formation of cell membranes and organelles within cells. The fatty acid chains, which can be saturated or unsaturated, contribute to the fluidity and permeability of the membrane. Glycerophospholipids also play important roles in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, cell recognition, and metabolism.

Esters are organic compounds that are formed by the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. They are widely found in nature and are used in various industries, including the production of perfumes, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. In the context of medical definitions, esters may be mentioned in relation to their use as excipients in medications or in discussions of organic chemistry and biochemistry. Esters can also be found in various natural substances such as fats and oils, which are triesters of glycerol and fatty acids.

NADPH oxidase is an enzyme complex that plays a crucial role in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various cell types. The primary function of NADPH oxidase is to catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADPH to molecular oxygen, resulting in the formation of superoxide radicals. This enzyme complex consists of several subunits, including two membrane-bound components (gp91phox and p22phox) and several cytosolic components (p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and rac1 or rac2). Upon activation, these subunits assemble to form a functional enzyme complex that generates ROS, which serve as important signaling molecules in various cellular processes. However, excessive or uncontrolled production of ROS by NADPH oxidase has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer.

Non-heme iron proteins are a type of iron-containing protein that do not contain heme as their prosthetic group. Heme is a complex molecule consisting of an iron atom contained in the center of a porphyrin ring, which is a large organic molecule made up of four pyrrole rings joined together. In contrast, non-heme iron proteins contain iron that is bound to the protein in other ways, such as through coordination with amino acid side chains or through association with an iron-sulfur cluster.

Examples of non-heme iron proteins include ferritin and transferrin, which are involved in the storage and transport of iron in the body, respectively. Ferritin is a protein that stores iron in a form that is safe and bioavailable for use by the body. Transferrin, on the other hand, binds to iron in the intestines and transports it to cells throughout the body.

Non-heme iron proteins are important for many biological processes, including oxygen transport, electron transfer, and enzyme catalysis. They play a crucial role in energy metabolism, DNA synthesis, and other essential functions.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

"Pyrans" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of heterocyclic compounds containing a six-membered ring with one oxygen atom and five carbon atoms. The name "pyran" comes from the fact that it contains a pyroline unit (two double-bonded carbons) and a ketone group (a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen).

While pyrans are not directly related to medical definitions, some of their derivatives have been studied for potential medicinal applications. For example, certain pyran derivatives have shown anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer activities in laboratory experiments. However, more research is needed before these compounds can be considered as potential therapeutic agents.

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a colorless, odorless, clear liquid with a slightly sweet taste, although drinking it is harmful and can cause poisoning. It is a weak oxidizing agent and is used as an antiseptic and a bleaching agent. In diluted form, it is used to disinfect wounds and kill bacteria and viruses on the skin; in higher concentrations, it can be used to bleach hair or remove stains from clothing. It is also used as a propellant in rocketry and in certain industrial processes. Chemically, hydrogen peroxide is composed of two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms, and it is structurally similar to water (H2O), with an extra oxygen atom. This gives it its oxidizing properties, as the additional oxygen can be released and used to react with other substances.

The peritoneal cavity is the potential space within the abdominal and pelvic regions, bounded by the parietal peritoneum lining the inner aspect of the abdominal and pelvic walls, and the visceral peritoneum covering the abdominal and pelvic organs. It contains a small amount of serous fluid that allows for the gliding of organs against each other during normal physiological activities such as digestion and movement. This cavity can become pathologically involved in various conditions, including inflammation, infection, hemorrhage, or neoplasia, leading to symptoms like abdominal pain, distention, or tenderness.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Glycerides are esters formed from glycerol and one, two, or three fatty acids. They include monoglycerides (one fatty acid), diglycerides (two fatty acids), and triglycerides (three fatty acids). Triglycerides are the main constituents of natural fats and oils, and they are a major form of energy storage in animals and plants. High levels of triglycerides in the blood, also known as hypertriglyceridemia, can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Phosphatidylserines are a type of phospholipids that are essential components of the cell membrane, particularly in the brain. They play a crucial role in maintaining the fluidity and permeability of the cell membrane, and are involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, protein anchorage, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Phosphatidylserines contain a polar head group made up of serine amino acids and two non-polar fatty acid tails. They are abundant in the inner layer of the cell membrane but can be externalized to the outer layer during apoptosis, where they serve as signals for recognition and removal of dying cells by the immune system. Phosphatidylserines have been studied for their potential benefits in various medical conditions, including cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease, and depression.

Umbelliferone is not a medical term, but a chemical compound that belongs to the class of coumarins. It can be found in various plants, including those from the family Apiaceae (also known as Umbelliferae), hence its name. Coumarins like umbelliferone have been studied for their potential pharmacological properties, such as anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. However, they are not typically considered as a medical treatment on their own.

Cholesteryl esters are formed when cholesterol, a type of lipid (fat) that is important for the normal functioning of the body, becomes combined with fatty acids through a process called esterification. This results in a compound that is more hydrophobic (water-repelling) than cholesterol itself, which allows it to be stored more efficiently in the body.

Cholesteryl esters are found naturally in foods such as animal fats and oils, and they are also produced by the liver and other cells in the body. They play an important role in the structure and function of cell membranes, and they are also precursors to the synthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D.

However, high levels of cholesteryl esters in the blood can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Cholesteryl esters are typically measured as part of a lipid profile, along with other markers such as total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Palmitic acid is a type of saturated fatty acid, which is a common component in many foods and also produced naturally by the human body. Its chemical formula is C16H32O2. It's named after palm trees because it was first isolated from palm oil, although it can also be found in other vegetable oils, animal fats, and dairy products.

In the human body, palmitic acid plays a role in energy production and storage. However, consuming large amounts of this fatty acid has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease due to its association with elevated levels of bad cholesterol (LDL). The World Health Organization recommends limiting the consumption of saturated fats, including palmitic acid, to less than 10% of total energy intake.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Mast cells are a type of white blood cell that are found in connective tissues throughout the body, including the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. They play an important role in the immune system and help to defend the body against pathogens by releasing chemicals such as histamine, heparin, and leukotrienes, which help to attract other immune cells to the site of infection or injury. Mast cells also play a role in allergic reactions, as they release histamine and other chemicals in response to exposure to an allergen, leading to symptoms such as itching, swelling, and redness. They are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and mature in the tissues where they reside.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Hydrolysis is a chemical process, not a medical one. However, it is relevant to medicine and biology.

Hydrolysis is the breakdown of a chemical compound due to its reaction with water, often resulting in the formation of two or more simpler compounds. In the context of physiology and medicine, hydrolysis is a crucial process in various biological reactions, such as the digestion of food molecules like proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Enzymes called hydrolases catalyze these hydrolysis reactions to speed up the breakdown process in the body.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Subcellular fractions refer to the separation and collection of specific parts or components of a cell, including organelles, membranes, and other structures, through various laboratory techniques such as centrifugation and ultracentrifugation. These fractions can be used in further biochemical and molecular analyses to study the structure, function, and interactions of individual cellular components. Examples of subcellular fractions include nuclear extracts, mitochondrial fractions, microsomal fractions (membrane vesicles), and cytosolic fractions (cytoplasmic extracts).

Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a naturally occurring organic compound that is formed as a byproduct of lipid peroxidation, a process in which free radicals or reactive oxygen species react with polyunsaturated fatty acids. MDA is a highly reactive aldehyde that can modify proteins, DNA, and other biomolecules, leading to cellular damage and dysfunction. It is often used as a marker of oxidative stress in biological systems and has been implicated in the development of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Type C phospholipases, also known as group CIA phospholipases or patatin-like phospholipase domain containing proteins (PNPLAs), are a subclass of phospholipases that specifically hydrolyze the sn-2 ester bond of glycerophospholipids. They belong to the PNPLA family, which includes nine members (PNPLA1-9) with diverse functions in lipid metabolism and cell signaling.

Type C phospholipases contain a patatin domain, which is a conserved region of approximately 240 amino acids that exhibits lipase and acyltransferase activities. These enzymes are primarily involved in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, membrane remodeling, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA1 (adiponutrin) is mainly expressed in the liver and adipose tissue, where it plays a role in lipid droplet homeostasis and triglyceride hydrolysis. PNPLA2 (ATGL or desnutrin) is a key regulator of triglyceride metabolism, responsible for the initial step of triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue and other tissues.

PNPLA3 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 epsilon or iPLA2ε) is involved in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways. Mutations in PNPLA3 have been associated with an increased risk of developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic liver disease, and hepatic steatosis.

PNPLA4 (lipase maturation factor 1 or LMF1) is involved in the intracellular processing and trafficking of lipases, such as pancreatic lipase and hepatic lipase. PNPLA5 ( Mozart1 or GSPML) has been implicated in membrane trafficking and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA6 (neuropathy target esterase or NTE) is primarily expressed in the brain, where it plays a role in maintaining neuronal integrity by regulating lipid metabolism. Mutations in PNPLA6 have been associated with neuropathy and cognitive impairment.

PNPLA7 (adiponutrin or ADPN) has been implicated in lipid droplet formation, triacylglycerol hydrolysis, and cell signaling pathways. Mutations in PNPLA7 have been associated with an increased risk of developing NAFLD and hepatic steatosis.

PNPLA8 (diglyceride lipase or DGLα) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA9 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 gamma or iPLA2γ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA10 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 delta or iPLA2δ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA11 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 epsilon or iPLA2ε) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA12 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 zeta or iPLA2ζ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA13 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 eta or iPLA2η) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA14 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 theta or iPLA2θ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA15 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 iota or iPLA2ι) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA16 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 kappa or iPLA2κ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA17 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 lambda or iPLA2λ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA18 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 mu or iPLA2μ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA19 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 nu or iPLA2ν) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA20 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 xi or iPLA2ξ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA21 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 omicron or iPLA2ο) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA22 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 pi or iPLA2π) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA23 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 rho or iPLA2ρ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA24 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 sigma or iPLA2σ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA25 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 tau or iPLA2τ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA26 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 upsilon or iPLA2υ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA27 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 phi or iPLA2φ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA28 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 chi or iPLA2χ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA29 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 psi or iPLA2ψ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA30 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 omega or iPLA2ω) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA31 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 pi or iPLA2π) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, arachidonic acid release, and cell signaling pathways.

PNPLA32 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 rho or iPLA2ρ) is involved in the regulation of intracellular triacylglycerol metabolism, particularly in adipocytes and muscle cells. PNPLA33 (calcium-independent phospholipase A2 sigma or iPLA2σ) has been implicated in membrane remodeling, ar

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube-like structure in the respiratory system that connects the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (the two branches leading to each lung). It is composed of several incomplete rings of cartilage and smooth muscle, which provide support and flexibility. The trachea plays a crucial role in directing incoming air to the lungs during inspiration and outgoing air to the larynx during expiration.

A chemical stimulation in a medical context refers to the process of activating or enhancing physiological or psychological responses in the body using chemical substances. These chemicals can interact with receptors on cells to trigger specific reactions, such as neurotransmitters and hormones that transmit signals within the nervous system and endocrine system.

Examples of chemical stimulation include the use of medications, drugs, or supplements that affect mood, alertness, pain perception, or other bodily functions. For instance, caffeine can chemically stimulate the central nervous system to increase alertness and decrease feelings of fatigue. Similarly, certain painkillers can chemically stimulate opioid receptors in the brain to reduce the perception of pain.

It's important to note that while chemical stimulation can have therapeutic benefits, it can also have adverse effects if used improperly or in excessive amounts. Therefore, it's essential to follow proper dosing instructions and consult with a healthcare provider before using any chemical substances for stimulation purposes.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Pyrones" is not a medical term, but rather a chemical term used to describe a class of organic compounds known as lactones with a characteristic eight-membered ring. These compounds are found in various natural sources such as plants and fungi, and some have been studied for their potential biological activities.

However, if you meant "pyrexia" instead of "pyrones," then I can provide the medical definition:

Pyrexia is a term used to describe an abnormally elevated body temperature, also known as fever. In adults, a core body temperature of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher is generally considered indicative of pyrexia. Fever is often a response to an infection or inflammation in the body and can be part of the immune system's effort to combat pathogens.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

Ionomycin is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound used in medical and biological research. Ionomycin is a type of ionophore, which is a molecule that can transport ions across cell membranes. Specifically, ionomycin is known to transport calcium ions (Ca²+).

In medical research, ionomycin is often used to study the role of calcium in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, and muscle contraction. It can be used to selectively increase intracellular calcium concentrations in experiments, allowing researchers to observe the effects on cell function. Ionomycin is also used in the study of calcium-dependent enzymes and channels.

It's important to note that ionomycin is not used as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine due to its potential toxicity and narrow range of applications.

NADH, NADPH oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the redox reaction between NADH or NADPH and various electron acceptors. These enzymes play a crucial role in cellular metabolism by transferring electrons from NADH or NADPH to other molecules, which is essential for many biochemical reactions.

NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen) and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen) are coenzymes that act as electron carriers in redox reactions. They consist of a nicotinamide ring, which undergoes reduction or oxidation by accepting or donating electrons and a proton (H+).

NADH, NADPH oxidoreductases are classified based on their structure and mechanism of action. Some examples include:

1. Dehydrogenases: These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of NADH or NADPH to NAD+ or NADP+ while reducing an organic substrate. Examples include lactate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase.
2. Oxidases: These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of NADH or NADPH to NAD+ or NADP+ while reducing molecular oxygen (O2) to water (H2O). Examples include NADH oxidase and NADPH oxidase.
3. Reductases: These enzymes catalyze the reduction of various electron acceptors using NADH or NADPH as a source of electrons. Examples include glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, and nitrate reductase.

Overall, NADH, NADPH oxidoreductases are essential for maintaining the redox balance in cells and play a critical role in various metabolic pathways, including energy production, detoxification, and biosynthesis.

Dioctyl Sulfosuccinic Acid (DOS) is a type of organic compound that is used as a surfactant and a dispersing agent in various industrial and commercial applications. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, soluble in water and most organic solvents.

In medical terms, Dioctyl Sulfosuccinic Acid is not commonly used as a therapeutic agent. However, it may be used as an excipient or a component of the formulation in some pharmaceutical products. It has been used as a component in some oral and topical medications to improve their solubility, absorption, and stability.

It is important to note that while Dioctyl Sulfosuccinic Acid itself is not considered harmful, like any other chemical substance, it should be handled with care and used appropriately to avoid any potential health risks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there is no such thing as "Prostaglandins A." Prostaglandins are a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids in the body, and they have diverse hormone-like effects in various tissues. They are typically classified into several groups based on their chemical structure, including prostaglandin D, E, F, I, and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). Prostaglandin A is not a recognized subtype of prostaglandins.

If you have any questions about a specific type of prostaglandin or another medical topic, please don't hesitate to ask!

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. A catalyst lowers the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby allowing the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. This can be particularly important in biological systems, where enzymes act as catalysts to speed up metabolic reactions that are essential for life.

Stearic acid is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical compound. It is a saturated fatty acid with the chemical formula C18H36O2. Stearic acid is commonly found in various foods such as animal fats and vegetable oils, including cocoa butter and palm oil.

In a medical context, stearic acid might be mentioned in relation to nutrition or cosmetics. For example, it may be listed as an ingredient in some skincare products or medications where it is used as an emollient or thickening agent. It's also worth noting that while stearic acid is a saturated fat, some studies suggest that it may have a more neutral effect on blood cholesterol levels compared to other saturated fats. However, this is still a topic of ongoing research and debate in the medical community.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases are a group of enzymes that play a role in the breakdown and recycling of complex carbohydrates in the body. Specifically, they help to break down gangliosides, which are a type of molecule found in cell membranes.

There are several different isoforms of beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases, including A, B, and S. These isoforms are formed by different combinations of subunits, which can affect their activity and substrate specificity.

Mutations in the genes that encode for these enzymes can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease. These conditions are characterized by an accumulation of gangliosides in the brain, which can cause progressive neurological deterioration and death.

Treatment for these conditions typically involves managing symptoms and providing supportive care, as there is currently no cure. Enzyme replacement therapy has been explored as a potential treatment option, but its effectiveness varies depending on the specific disorder and the age of the patient.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Flavonoids are a type of plant compounds with antioxidant properties that are beneficial to health. They are found in various fruits, vegetables, grains, and wine. Flavonoids have been studied for their potential to prevent chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer due to their ability to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress.

There are several subclasses of flavonoids, including:

1. Flavanols: Found in tea, chocolate, grapes, and berries. They have been shown to improve blood flow and lower blood pressure.
2. Flavones: Found in parsley, celery, and citrus fruits. They have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
3. Flavanonols: Found in citrus fruits, onions, and tea. They have been shown to improve blood flow and reduce inflammation.
4. Isoflavones: Found in soybeans and legumes. They have estrogen-like effects and may help prevent hormone-related cancers.
5. Anthocyanidins: Found in berries, grapes, and other fruits. They have antioxidant properties and may help improve vision and memory.

It is important to note that while flavonoids have potential health benefits, they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or a healthy lifestyle. It is always best to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

Hydrazines are not a medical term, but rather a class of organic compounds containing the functional group N-NH2. They are used in various industrial and chemical applications, including the production of polymers, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. However, some hydrazines have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, such as in the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Exposure to high levels of hydrazines can be toxic and may cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. Therefore, medical professionals should be aware of the potential health hazards associated with hydrazine exposure.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication, which is a synthetic version of a natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is often used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system in a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain skin conditions.

Dexamethasone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, which triggers a range of anti-inflammatory effects. These include reducing the production of chemicals that cause inflammation, suppressing the activity of immune cells, and stabilizing cell membranes.

In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, dexamethasone can also be used to treat other medical conditions, such as certain types of cancer, brain swelling, and adrenal insufficiency. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, liquids, creams, and injectable solutions.

Like all medications, dexamethasone can have side effects, particularly if used for long periods of time or at high doses. These may include mood changes, increased appetite, weight gain, acne, thinning skin, easy bruising, and an increased risk of infections. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking dexamethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds produced by a variety of plants, including cannabis. They are responsible for the distinctive aromas and flavors found in different strains of cannabis. Terpenes have been found to have various therapeutic benefits, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial properties. Some terpenes may also enhance the psychoactive effects of THC, the main psychoactive compound in cannabis. It's important to note that more research is needed to fully understand the potential medical benefits and risks associated with terpenes.

Pleurisy is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pleura, which are the thin membranes that surround the lungs and line the inside of the chest cavity. The pleura normally produce a small amount of lubricating fluid that allows for smooth movement of the lungs during breathing. However, when they become inflamed (a condition known as pleuritis), this can cause pain and difficulty breathing.

The symptoms of pleurisy may include sharp chest pain that worsens with deep breathing or coughing, shortness of breath, cough, fever, and muscle aches. The pain may be localized to one area of the chest or may radiate to other areas such as the shoulders or back.

Pleurisy can have many different causes, including bacterial or viral infections, autoimmune disorders, pulmonary embolism (a blood clot that travels to the lungs), and certain medications or chemicals. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the inflammation, as well as managing symptoms such as pain and breathing difficulties with medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or opioids. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as thoracentesis (removal of fluid from the chest cavity) may be necessary.

Mixed Function Oxygenases (MFOs) are a type of enzyme that catalyze the addition of one atom each from molecular oxygen (O2) to a substrate, while reducing the other oxygen atom to water. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous compounds, including drugs, carcinogens, and environmental pollutants.

MFOs are primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells and consist of two subunits: a flavoprotein component that contains FAD or FMN as a cofactor, and an iron-containing heme protein. The most well-known example of MFO is cytochrome P450, which is involved in the oxidation of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds such as steroids, fatty acids, and vitamins.

MFOs can catalyze a variety of reactions, including hydroxylation, epoxidation, dealkylation, and deamination, among others. These reactions often lead to the activation or detoxification of xenobiotics, making MFOs an important component of the body's defense system against foreign substances. However, in some cases, these reactions can also produce reactive intermediates that may cause toxicity or contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer.

Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), also known as free fatty acids (FFA), refer to fatty acid molecules that are not bound to glycerol in the form of triglycerides or other esters. In the bloodstream, NEFAs are transported while bound to albumin and can serve as a source of energy for peripheral tissues. Under normal physiological conditions, NEFA levels are tightly regulated by the body; however, elevated NEFA levels have been associated with various metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

The endothelium is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelial cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. The vascular endothelium, specifically, refers to the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, inflammation, and permeability of the vessel wall. They also contribute to the growth and repair of the vascular system and are involved in various pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes.

Pyrazolones are a group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that contain a pyrazole ring in their chemical structure. They have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Pyrazolones include drugs such as phenylbutazone, oxyphenbutazone, and aminopyrine. However, due to their potential for serious side effects, including agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cells), pyrazolones are rarely used in modern clinical practice.

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a chemical compound that plays a crucial role in energy transfer within cells. It is a nucleotide, which consists of a adenosine molecule (a sugar molecule called ribose attached to a nitrogenous base called adenine) and two phosphate groups.

In the cell, ADP functions as an intermediate in the conversion of energy from one form to another. When a high-energy phosphate bond in ADP is broken, energy is released and ADP is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which serves as the main energy currency of the cell. Conversely, when ATP donates a phosphate group to another molecule, it is converted back to ADP, releasing energy for the cell to use.

ADP also plays a role in blood clotting and other physiological processes. In the coagulation cascade, ADP released from damaged red blood cells can help activate platelets and initiate the formation of a blood clot.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, which originates from the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. It can be divided into several parts, including the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The ascending aorta gives rise to the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, which supply blood to the head, neck, and upper extremities. The descending aorta travels through the thorax and abdomen, giving rise to various intercostal, visceral, and renal arteries that supply blood to the chest wall, organs, and kidneys.

The seminal vesicles are a pair of glands located in the male reproductive system, posterior to the urinary bladder and superior to the prostate gland. They are approximately 5 cm long and have a convoluted structure with many finger-like projections called infoldings. The primary function of seminal vesicles is to produce and secrete a significant portion of the seminal fluid, which makes up the bulk of semen along with spermatozoa from the testes and fluids from the prostate gland and bulbourethral glands.

The secretion of the seminal vesicles is rich in fructose, which serves as an energy source for sperm, as well as various proteins, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals that contribute to maintaining the optimal environment for sperm survival, nourishment, and transport. During sexual arousal and ejaculation, the smooth muscles in the walls of the seminal vesicles contract, forcing the stored secretion into the urethra, where it mixes with other fluids before being expelled from the body as semen.

The nuclear envelope is a complex and double-membrane structure that surrounds the eukaryotic cell's nucleus. It consists of two distinct membranes: the outer nuclear membrane, which is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, and the inner nuclear membrane, which is closely associated with the chromatin and nuclear lamina.

The nuclear envelope serves as a selective barrier between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, controlling the exchange of materials and information between these two cellular compartments. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are embedded in the nuclear envelope at sites where the inner and outer membranes fuse, forming aqueous channels that allow for the passive or active transport of molecules, such as ions, metabolites, and RNA-protein complexes.

The nuclear envelope plays essential roles in various cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, and chromosome organization. Additionally, it is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle, undergoing disassembly and reformation during mitosis to facilitate equal distribution of genetic material between daughter cells.

The kidney cortex is the outer region of the kidney where most of the functional units called nephrons are located. It plays a crucial role in filtering blood and regulating water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance in the body. The kidney cortex contains the glomeruli, proximal tubules, loop of Henle, and distal tubules, which work together to reabsorb necessary substances and excrete waste products into the urine.

Cycloheximide is an antibiotic that is primarily used in laboratory settings to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. It is derived from the actinobacteria species Streptomyces griseus. In medical terms, it is not used as a therapeutic drug in humans due to its significant side effects, including liver toxicity and potential neurotoxicity. However, it remains a valuable tool in research for studying protein function and cellular processes.

The antibiotic works by binding to the 60S subunit of the ribosome, thereby preventing the transfer RNA (tRNA) from delivering amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain during translation. This inhibition of protein synthesis can be lethal to cells, making cycloheximide a useful tool in studying cellular responses to protein depletion or misregulation.

In summary, while cycloheximide has significant research applications due to its ability to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, it is not used as a therapeutic drug in humans because of its toxic side effects.

A smooth muscle within the vascular system refers to the involuntary, innervated muscle that is found in the walls of blood vessels. These muscles are responsible for controlling the diameter of the blood vessels, which in turn regulates blood flow and blood pressure. They are called "smooth" muscles because their individual muscle cells do not have the striations, or cross-striped patterns, that are observed in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Smooth muscle in the vascular system is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and by hormones, and can contract or relax slowly over a period of time.

Epoxy compounds, also known as epoxy resins, are a type of thermosetting polymer characterized by the presence of epoxide groups in their molecular structure. An epoxide group is a chemical functional group consisting of an oxygen atom double-bonded to a carbon atom, which is itself bonded to another carbon atom.

Epoxy compounds are typically produced by reacting a mixture of epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A or other similar chemicals under specific conditions. The resulting product is a two-part system consisting of a resin and a hardener, which must be mixed together before use.

Once the two parts are combined, a chemical reaction takes place that causes the mixture to cure or harden into a solid material. This curing process can be accelerated by heat, and once fully cured, epoxy compounds form a strong, durable, and chemically resistant material that is widely used in various industrial and commercial applications.

In the medical field, epoxy compounds are sometimes used as dental restorative materials or as adhesives for bonding medical devices or prosthetics. However, it's important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to certain components of epoxy compounds, so their use must be carefully evaluated and monitored in a medical context.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Nugteren, D. H. (1975). "Arachidonate lipoxygenase in blood platelets". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Lipids and Lipid ... Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1, 15-LOX-1, ALOX15), which is expressed in far more tissues that ALOX12, metabolizes ... sequence identity to mouse Arachidonate 8-lipoxygenase. Mouse e-12LO metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly to 12(S)-HETE ... "Arachidonate dilates basilar artery by lipoxygenase-dependent mechanism and activation of K(+) channels". American Journal of ...
... and arachidonate lipoxygenase 3, is a lipoxygenase-type enzyme composed of 701 amino acids and encoded by the ALOX12B gene. The ... "Entrez Gene: ALOX12B arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type". Boeglin WE, Kim RB, Brash AR (June 1998). "A 12R-lipoxygenase in ... Among the human lipoxygenases, ALOX12B is most closely (54% identity) related in amino acid sequence to ALOXE3 ALOX12B ... Muñoz-Garcia A, Thomas CP, Keeney DS, Zheng Y, Brash AR (March 2014). "The importance of the lipoxygenase-hepoxilin pathway in ...
... , also known as ALOX5, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, or 5-LO, is a non-heme iron-containing enzyme (EC 1.13 ... Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase is a member of the lipoxygenase family of enzymes. It transforms essential fatty acids (EFA) ... "Alox5 - arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase". WikiGenes. Fahel JS, de Souza MB, Gomes MT, Corsetti PP, Carvalho NB, Marinho FA, de ... Arachidonate+5-Lipoxygenase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ALOX5 genome ...
... s are compounds that slow or stop the action of the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5- ... 1. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase ...Specific function: Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a ... Antileukotriene agents Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase ALOX5-inhibiting drugs David L. Nelson, Michael M. Cox. Lehninger's ... Lipoxygenase+inhibitors at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MeSH list of agents 82016859 ...
... see Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase § Eicosapentaenoic acid); PGE3, PGD3, PGF3α, and Δ(17)-6-keto PGF1α; PGI3 (see Essential fatty ... The enzymes 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1 or ALOX15) and 15-lipoxygenase-2 (15-LO-2, ALOX15B) metabolize arachidonic acid to the S ... Other reactions of lipoxygenases generate cellular damage; murine models implicate 15-lipoxygenase in the pathogenesis of ... Lipoxygenases (LOXs): 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX or ALOX5) initiates the metabolism of arachidonic acid to 5- ...
Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type II (ALOX15B), also termed 15-lipoxygenase-2, 15-LOX-2, and 15-LOX-2. It metabolizes ... soybean lipoxygenase L1 and L3, coral 8-lipoxygenase, human 5-lipoxygenase, rabbit 15-lipoxygenase and porcine leukocyte 12- ... erythrocyte type 15-lipoxygenase (or 15-lipoxygenase, erythrocyte type), reticulocyte type 15-lipoxygenase (or 15-lipoxygenase ... "ALOX5 arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". Haeggström, J. Z.; Funk, C. D. (2011). "Lipoxygenase ...
... may refer to: Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, an enzyme This set ...
... lipoxygenase MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.450.025 - arachidonate lipoxygenases MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.450.025.020 - arachidonate ... Type XII collagen MeSH D12.776.860.300.250.600 - procollagen MeSH D12.776.860.300.250.700 - tropocollagen MeSH D12.776.860.300. ... arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.687 - retinal dehydrogenase MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.925 - tyrosine 3- ... 5-lipoxygenase MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.450.025.025 - arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.450.025.030 - ...
... lipoxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.444.050 - arachidonate lipoxygenases MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.444.050.055 - arachidonate ... arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.444.525 - protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.722 - ... 5-lipoxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.444.050.060 - arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.444.050.065 - ... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915.737 - steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170. ...
... arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase EC 1.13.11.34: arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase EC 1.13.11.35: pyrogallol 1,2-oxygenase EC 1.13.11.36: ... inoleate 8R-lipoxygenase EC 1.13.11.61: linolenate 9R-lipoxygenase EC 1.13.11.62: linoleate 10R-lipoxygenase EC 1.13.11.63: β- ... arachidonate 8-lipoxygenase EC 1.13.11.41: 2,4′-dihydroxyacetophenone dioxygenase EC 1.13.11.42: identical to EC 1.13.11.11, ... lipoxygenase EC 1.99.2.2: deleted, now EC 1.13.11.1, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase EC 1.99.2.3: deleted, now EC 1.13.11.3, ...
Nugteren DH (February 1975). "Arachidonate lipoxygenase in blood platelets". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Lipids and ... Delta12-lipoxygenase, 12Delta-lipoxygenase, and C-12 lipoxygenase. ALOX12, often termed plate platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase, is ... "Entrez Gene: ALOX12 arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase". Yamamoto S, Suzuki H, Ueda N (March 1997). "Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenases". ... Muñoz-Garcia A, Thomas CP, Keeney DS, Zheng Y, Brash AR (March 2014). "The importance of the lipoxygenase-hepoxilin pathway in ...
"Depletion of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase up-regulates arachidonate metabolism by 12S-lipoxygenase and ... untranslated region of human glutathione peroxidase 4 influences lipoxygenase metabolism". Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 29 (2): 174-8 ... 16 (12): 1180-1191. doi:10.1038/ncb3064. PMC 4894846. PMID 25402683. Smith AC, Mears AJ, Bunker R, Ahmed A, MacKenzie M, ... "Glutathione peroxidase 4 senses and translates oxidative stress into 12/15-lipoxygenase dependent- and AIF-mediated cell death ...
... arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase 2, 15-lipoxygenase-2, 15-LOX-2, 15-LO-2, arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type II, arachidonate 15- ... ALOX15 (also termed arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, 15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-LO-1, 15-LOX-1) is, like other lipoxygenases, a seminal ... Consequently, human ALOX15 is now referred to as arachidonate-15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-LOX-1, 15-LO-1, human 12 ... Sigal E, Grunberger D, Craik CS, Caughey GH, Nadel JA (April 1988). "Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (omega-6 lipoxygenase) from ...
Antileukotriene Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor Antihistamines Hooper, Nigel M. (2013). Membrane dipeptidase. Handbook of ... Leukotrienes are produced from arachidonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase (which is made from phospholipids in the cell membrane) and ... ISBN 978-0-12-382219-2. "Montelukast". Medicines Complete. doi:10.18578/BNF.236887386. Retrieved October 9, 2019. "Montelukast ...
Ghosh J, Myers CE (1998). "Inhibition of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase triggers massive apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells ... mediates the survival-promoting effects of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase in prostate cancer cells". Cancer Lett. 336 (1): 185-95 ... Hussey HJ, Tisdale MJ (1996). "Inhibition of tumour growth by lipoxygenase inhibitors". Br. J. Cancer. 74 (5): 683-687. doi: ... Wijkander J, O'Flaherty JT, Nixon AB, Wykle RL (1995). "5-Lipoxygenase products modulate the activity of the 85-kDa ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase "Flavocoxid". livertox.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-07-20. This article incorporates text from this ... 12 (5): 1143-1148. doi:10.1089/jmf.2008.0244. ISSN 1557-7600. PMC 2784890. PMID 19857081. (Source attribution, Dosage forms, ... Complete resolution upon stopping flavocoxid has occurred in 2 to 12 weeks. Immunoallergic features have been mild and ...
Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type II is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALOX15B gene. ALOX15B, also known as 15- ... "Entrez Gene: ALOX15B arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, type B". Human ALOX15B genome location and ALOX15B gene details page in the ... Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase 15-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid ALOX15 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000179593 - Ensembl, May ... "Evidence that arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase 2 is a negative cell cycle regulator in normal prostate epithelial cells". The ...
First, human eosinophils use Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase-1 (or possibly Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase-2 to metabolize 5-oxo-ETE ... oxygenation of this arachidonic acid by activated arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) to form 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z- ... This transcellular production typically involves the limited variety of cell types that express active 5-lipoxygenase, lack ... and lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 39 (2): 180-90. doi:10.1124/dmd.110.035121. PMC 3033693 ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein also known as 5-lipoxygenase activating protein, or FLAP, is a protein that in ... Zintzaras E, Rodopoulou P, Sakellaridis N (March 2009). "Variants of the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein ( ... "Associations of genetic polymorphisms of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein with risk of coronary artery disease in ... "Cytogenetic and radiation hybrid mapping of human arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP) to chromosome 13q12 ...
Kuhn, Hartmut; Walther, Matthias; Kuban, Ralf Jürgen (2002). "Mammalian arachidonate 15-lipoxygenases". Prostaglandins & Other ... and 15-lipoxygenase-2, and selected metabolites of the latter lipoxygenases show no such association. Similarly selective ... "Characterization and separation of the arachidonic acid 5-lipoxygenase and linoleic acid omega-6 lipoxygenase (arachidonic acid ... 15-lipoxygenase type 2 (ALOX15B) strongly prefers arachidonic acid over linoleic acid and in consequence is relatively poor in ...
"Entrez Gene: ALOXE3 arachidonate lipoxygenase 3". Schneider C, Brash AR (August 2002). "Lipoxygenase-catalyzed formation of R- ... Epidermis-type lipoxygenase 3 (ALOXE3 or eLOX3) is a member of the lipoxygenase family of enzymes; in humans, it is encoded by ... The epidermis-type lipoxygenases are now regarded as a distinct subclass within the multigene family of mammalian lipoxygenases ... Among the human lipoxygenases, ALOXE3 is most closely (54% identity) related in amino acid sequence to ALOX12B. ALOXE3, ALOX12B ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase Leukotriene 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid Greene ER, Huang S, Serhan ... The primary product of the lipoxygenase, 15-HPETE is believed to react with the enzyme further to produce the 14,15-epoxide, ... Claesson HE (September 2009). "On the biosynthesis and biological role of eoxins and 15-lipoxygenase-1 in airway inflammation ... Forsell PK, Brunnström A, Johannesson M, Claesson HE (2012). "Metabolism of anandamide into eoxamides by 15-lipoxygenase-1 and ...
... by the arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase-1-based or arachidonate 15-lipoxygenased-2-based metabolism of 5-oxo-ETE; and f) conversion ... also termed arachidonate-5-lipoxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LO, and 5-LOX). ALOX5 metabolizes arachidonic acid to its ... 12-Lipoxygenase (i.e. ALOX12) to metabolize 5(S)-HETE to 5(S),12(S)-diHETE. The activity of this product has not yet been fully ...
Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase (processes essential fatty acids to leukotrienes, which are important agents in the inflammatory ... 2017-05-12. Retrieved 2017-05-19. "Chromosome 10: Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". Ensembl Release 88. 2017-03-29. Retrieved ... 90 (1-2): 1-12. doi:10.1159/000015653. PMID 11060438. S2CID 28931509. Gilbert F (2001). "Chromosome 10". Genet Test. 5 (1): 69- ... ligand 12, SDF-1, scyb12 DDX50: DExD-box helicase 50 DEPP: decidual protein induced by progesterone DHX32: DEAH-box helicase 32 ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, B-cell linker, BCAR1, BCR gene, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor, C-Met, CBLB, CD117, CD22, CD28, CDKN1B ... Lepley RA, Fitzpatrick FA (September 1994). "5-Lipoxygenase contains a functional Src homology 3-binding motif that interacts ... "Competitive binding assay of src homology domain 3 interactions between 5-lipoxygenase and growth factor receptor binding ... 6 (12): 1651-8. PMID 9019171. Kharbanda S, Saleem A, Shafman T, Emoto Y, Taneja N, Rubin E, Weichselbaum R, Woodgett J, Avruch ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) and LTC4 synthase (LTC4S), which couples ... Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Funk, Colin D. (2011-09-22). "Lipoxygenase and Leukotriene Pathways: Biochemistry, Biology, and Roles in ... "Expanding expression of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway within the arterial wall during human atherogenesis". Proceedings of the ... Dvash, Efrat; Har-Tal, Michal; Barak, Sara; Meir, Ofir; Rubinstein, Menachem (2015-12-11). "Leukotriene C4 is the major trigger ...
When acting on GLA, arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase produces no leukotrienes and the conversion by the enzyme of arachidonic acid ... Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-01-12. Horrobin D.F. (From the Efamol Research Institute. Kentville. Nova Scotia. ... ISBN 1-893997-17-0. Retrieved 2007-12-07. Eckey, EW (1954). Vegetable Fats and Oils (volume 123 of American Chemical Society ...
... arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase) or leukotriene receptor antagonist (cysteinyl leukotriene receptors) and consequently opposes the ... drugs such as MK-886 that block the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) inhibit functioning of 5-lipoxygenase and may help ... Zileuton is a specific inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase and thus inhibits leukotriene (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) formation. Both ... Bishayee K, Khuda-Bukhsh AR (September 2013). "5-lipoxygenase antagonist therapy: a new approach towards targeted cancer ...
... see Lipoxygenase#Biological function and classification#Human lipoxygenases) that also contains a very long chain fatty acid. ... and concurrently the 8Z double bond in this arachidonate moves to the 9E position to form the intermediate product, 12S- ... Muñoz-Garcia, A; Thomas, C. P.; Keeney, D. S.; Zheng, Y; Brash, A. R. (2014). "The importance of the lipoxygenase-hepoxilin ... Muñoz-Garcia, A; Thomas, C. P.; Keeney, D. S.; Zheng, Y; Brash, A. R. (2014). "The importance of the lipoxygenase-hepoxilin ...
... is an enzyme that metabolizes an eicosanoid product of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5(S)-hydroxy-6S,8Z,11Z,14Z- ... Other eicosanoid oxireductases that use NADP+ and NADPH as cofactors include LTB4 12-hydroxy dehydrogenase which metabolizes ... 12-HETE) and LTB4 to their corresponding 12-oxo analogs and 11-hydroxy-TXB2 dehydrogenase, which metabolizes TXB2 to its 11-oxo ... and does not oxidize 12(S)-HETE, 15(S)-HETE, leukotriene B4, a racemate mixture of 9-HETE, a racemate mixture of 11-HETE, or a ...
"Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase" by people in this website by ... Hepoxilin A(3) facilitates neutrophilic breach of lipoxygenase-expressing airway epithelial barriers. J Immunol. 2012 Nov 15; ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase" by people in Profiles. ...
Mouse ALOX5(Arachidonate-5-Lipoxygenase) ELISA Kit. Mouse ALOX5(Arachidonate-5-Lipoxygenase) ELISA Kit ... Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse Arachidonate 15 lipoxygenase B(ALOX15B) in samples from ... Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse Arachidonate 15 lipoxygenase B(ALOX15B) in samples from ... Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse Arachidonate 15 lipoxygenase B(ALOX15B) in samples from ...
Nugteren, D. H. (1975). "Arachidonate lipoxygenase in blood platelets". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Lipids and Lipid ... Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1, 15-LOX-1, ALOX15), which is expressed in far more tissues that ALOX12, metabolizes ... sequence identity to mouse Arachidonate 8-lipoxygenase. Mouse e-12LO metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly to 12(S)-HETE ... "Arachidonate dilates basilar artery by lipoxygenase-dependent mechanism and activation of K(+) channels". American Journal of ...
Arachidonate lipoxygenases add oxygen molecules at different locations on the arachidonic acid molecule, producing a variety of ... This enzyme is part of a family of enzymes called arachidonate lipoxygenases. Most of these enzymes help add an oxygen molecule ... Krieg P, Furstenberger G. The role of lipoxygenases in epidermis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Mar;1841(3):390-400. doi: 10.1016/ ... Mashima R, Okuyama T. The role of lipoxygenases in pathophysiology; new insights and future perspectives. Redox Biol. 2015 Dec; ...
Furthermore, di-GA inhibited the generation of lymphendothelial gaps by cancer cell spheroid-secreted lipoxygenase metabolites ... Ha TJ, Nihei K, Kubo I (2004) Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of octyl gallate. J Agric Food Chem 52 (10): 3177-3181 ... From twelve months after its original publication, this work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial- ... Nie D, Tang K, Diglio C, Honn KV (2000) Eicosanoid regulation of angiogenesis: role of endothelial arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase ...
Numerous pro-inflammatory enzymes, e.g., cyclooxygenase-2, arachidonate 5-lipoksygenase and 12-lipoxygenase, are activated ... IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, TGF-β. 8 weeks. [114]. Animal study. Male C57BL/6 J, ob/ob mice and nonobese littermates in a model of ... 12 weeks. [117]. Animal study. Male Golden-Syrian hamsters (4 weeks old) in an HFD-induced obesity model; HFD group or HFD + ... 12 weeks. [116]. Animal study. Male Wistar rats (100-120 g) in an HFD-induced obesity model; control group, HFD control group, ...
Human ALOX15(Arachidonate-15-Lipoxygenase) ELISA Kit. Contact us: [email protected]. Pig Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase (ALOX15) ... Human ALOX15B(Arachidonate-15-Lipoxygenase, Type B) ELISA Kit. *Human ALPPL2(Alkaline Phosphatase, Placental Like Protein 2) ... Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Arachidonate 15 lipoxygenase B(ALOX15B) in samples from ... Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Arachidonate 15 lipoxygenase B(ALOX15B) in samples from ...
Hinokitiol, a selective inhibitor of the platelet-type isozyme of arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase: H. Suzuki, et al.; Biochem. ...
Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase ELISA KIT; 12/15-lipoxygenase ELISA KIT; Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, leukocyte-type (EC:1.13. ... Arachidonate omega-6 lipoxygenaseALOX15 ELISA KIT; LOG15 ELISA KIT; 15-LOX ELISA KIT; 15-LOX-1 ELISA KIT; 12-LOX ELISA KIT. ...
arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase. 17p13.1. DMG:vanEijk_2014. PMID:cooccur. 5176. SERPINF1. EPC-1 , OI12 , OI6 , PEDF , PIG35. ... phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1. 18q21.32. CV:PGCnp. DMG:Jaffe_2016. ... C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12. 10q11.1. CV:GWAScat. CV:GWASdb. CV:PGCnp. Expression. PMID:cooccur. ... kallikrein related peptidase 12. 19q13.33. CV:PGCnp. DMG:Wockner_2014. GO_Annotation. ...
Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, Type II, Rat. 1 MRP1_HUMAN. P33527. CHEMBL3004. Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein 1, Human ... Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, Rat. 1 LX15B_RAT. Q8K4F2. CHEMBL3289. ... Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, Human. 1 LX12L_RAT. Q02759. CHEMBL2741. ... Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, Human. 1 LOX15_HUMAN. P16050. CHEMBL2903. ...
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... lipoxygenase in A431 cells. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ... Dive into the research topics of Hsp90α recruited by Sp1 is important for transcription of 12(S)- ... Hsp90α recruited by Sp1 is important for transcription of 12(S)-lipoxygenase in A431 cells. ...
Name: arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase. Synonyms: 12-LO, L-12LO, Alox12l. Type: Gene ...
arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12S type.... ANKRD2. 26287. ANKRD2. ankyrin repeat domain 2 [Source:HGNC S.... ...
... arachidonate 15- lipoxygenase; c-CASP8: cleaved caspase; c-CASP3: cleaved caspase 3; CTSD: cathepsin D; CTSB: cathepsin B; CTSL ... METHODS: We used Miles assays to assess the effects of inhibitors of COX, 5-lipoxygenase, epoxyeicosatrienoic acid generation, ... 12. Early upregulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2α in motor neurons is induced by misfolded SOD1 in a mouse model of ... prior to and following a 12-week intervention with 3 g fish oil/day (1.1 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + 0.8 g DHA) or 3 g corn ...
ALOX12B, Epidermis-type lipoxygenase 12, Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R-type, 12R-LOX, 12R-lipoxygenase. ...
... and 8S-Lipoxygenase: Their Relationship to Other Mammalian Lipoxygenases; A.R. Brash, et al. Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase ... Part II: Metabolic Regulation of Lipoxygenases: Lipoxygenase Inhibitors. The Release of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their ... Pharmacological Aspects of 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibition; R. Müller-Peddinghaus. Part III: Products of the Lipoxygenase Pathways ... Part I: Enzymology, Molecular Biology, and Biological Functions of Mammalian Lipoxygenases. Mammalian 15-Lipoxygenases: ...
Hemodynamic role of arachidonate 12- and 5-lipoxygenases in nephrotoxic serum nephritis. (Wu SH, Bresnahan BA, Lianos EA) ... 2304-12 PMID: 1361493 PMCID: PMC443383 SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-0027096798 12/01/1992 28 Citations ...
Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase ELISA Kits * ARAF ELISA Kits * Arc ELISA Kits * ARCN1 ELISA Kits ... 12, Issue 2, pp. e0172353, (2017) (PubMed). Abdel-Rafei, Amin, Hasan: "Novel effect of Daflon and low-dose γ-radiation in ...
Arachidonate. 5-lipoxygenase. Arachidonate. 5-lipoxygenase. Glutathione. peroxidase 1. Prostaglandin. G/H synthase 1. ... 11,12-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid. H. 2. O. H. 2. O. 11,12-DiHETrE. 5-HPETE. O. 2. H. 2. O. O. 2. H. 2. O. Glutathione. Oxidized ... 11,12,15-THETA. H. 2. O. O. 2. 16(R)-HETE. H. 2. O. O. 2. 14,15-Epoxy-5,8,11-. eicosatrienoic acid. H. 2. O. H. 2. O. 14,15- ... Arachidonate. 15-lipoxygenase. B. Cytochrome P450. 2E1. Arachidonate. 12-. lipoxygenase,. 12R-type. Cytochrome P450. 2J2. ...
IMA-1 is a small molecule that interrupt the arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12)-acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) interaction. ... 1 directly binds to a pocket in ALOX12 proximal to its ACC1-interacting surface instead of inhibiting ALOX12 lipoxygenase ...
Goodman JE, Bowman ED, Chanock SJ, Alberg AJ, Harris CC: Arachidonate lipoxygenase (ALOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) ... Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive ... Epub 2004 Aug 12. [Article] Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. Pharmacological action?. Actions. ... FASEB J. 1991 Jun;5(9):2304-12. [Article] *Takahashi Y, Ueda N, Yoshimoto T, Yamamoto S, Yokoyama C, Miyata A, Tanabe T, Fuse I ...
Brash, A. R., & Ingram, C. D. (1986). Lipoxygenase metabolism of endogenous arachidonate in leukocytes: GC-MS analyses of ... 2010). Effect of ω-3 and ω-9 fatty acid rich oils on lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases enzymes and on the growth of a mammary ... Hwang, D. H. (1982). Characteristics of the formation of the platelet lipoxygenase product from endogenous arachidonic acid. ... Smith, W. L., & Murphy, R. C. (2002). The eicosanoids: cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and epoxygenase pathways. In D. E. Vance ...
You are here: Home1 / ELISA Kits2 / Mouse Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase B (ALOX15B) ELISA Kit ... 24Mouse Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase B (ALOX15B) ELISA Kit. ... Mouse Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase B (ALOX15B) ELISA Kit. ... doronscientific.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/doron-scintific-logo.png [email protected] 00:04:242023-08-06 ... https://doronscientific.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/doron-scintific-logo.png 0 0 [email protected] https:// ...
... then adult performance in the underinformative Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase conditions falls to 88% for scalars and 67% for non ... For non-scalar expressions, the distribution was 12, 2 and 6 resp. Posted on June 29, 2017 by admin ... For non-scalar expressions, the distribution was 12, 2 and 6 respectively. This classification reveals that the majority (17 ... 13 out of 20 for scalars and 12 out of 20 for non-scalars) consistently accepted underinformative utterances. As mentioned, ...
1.13.11.31 arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase - BRENDA: BS260735 ATP + 5,8,11-eicosatrienoic_acid + CoA <=> AMP + diphosphate + 5,8, ...
15-Lipoxygenase use Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase 15-Methylprostaglandin E2 use Arbaprostil 15-Methylprostaglandin F2alpha use ... 12-S-HETE use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid 12-S-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14- ... 12-R-HETE use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid ... 5-Lipoxygenase use Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase 5- ...
15-Lipoxygenase use Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase. 15-Methylprostaglandin E2 use Arbaprostil. 15-Methylprostaglandin F2alpha use ... 12-S-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid use 12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid ...
15-Lipoxygenase use Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase. 15-Methylprostaglandin E2 use Arbaprostil. 15-Methylprostaglandin F2alpha use ... 12-S-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid use 12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid ...
  • Description: Quantitative sandwich ELISA for measuring Mouse Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) in samples from cell culture supernatants, serum, whole blood, plasma and other biological fluids. (glideruniversity.org)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). (umassmed.edu)
  • 12-Lipoxygenase plays a key role in cell death caused by glutathione depletion and arachidonic acid in rat oligodendrocytes. (umassmed.edu)
  • Description: The ALOX5 gene encodes a member of the lipoxygenase gene family and plays a dual role in the synthesis of leukotrienes from arachidonic acid. (glideruniversity.org)
  • 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) is a derivative of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, containing a hydroxyl residue at carbon 12 and a 5Z,8Z,10E,14Z Cis-trans isomerism configuration (Z=cis, E=trans) in its four double bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was first found as a product of arachidonic acid metabolism made by human and bovine platelets through their 12S-lipoxygenase (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALOX12 metabolizes arachidonic acid almost exclusively to 12(S)-hydroperoxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HpETE or 12S-HpETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • it metabolizes arachidonic acid to 12(R)-HpETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse e-12LO metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly to 12(S)-HETE and to a lesser extent 15(S)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arachidonate lipoxygenases add oxygen molecules at different locations on the arachidonic acid molecule, producing a variety of substances called fatty acid hydroperoxides. (medlineplus.gov)
  • By UPLC-Q-Exactive-MS method and multivariate statistical analysis, a total of 15 differential metabolites were identified, including 4 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated biomarkers, of which l -tryptophan, l -leucine, uric acid, 12-HETE, arachidonic acid, PC(20:1(11Z)/14:1(9Z)) and SM(d18:0/24:1(15Z)) were exhibited an important variation, as the potential biomarkers in diabetes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sub-primate mammals, such as the mouse, rat, rabbit, cow, and pig, express platelet type 12-lipoxygenase but also a leukocyte type 12-lipoxygenase (also termed 12/15-lipoxygenase, 12/15-LOX or 12/15-LO) which is an ortholog of, and metabolically equivalent to, human 15-LO-1 in that it forms predominantly 15(S)-HpETE with 12(S)-HpETE as a minor product. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO, 12-LOX, ALO12, or platelet type 12-lipoxygenase) is encoded by the ALOX12 gene and expressed primarily in platelets and skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies indicate that the metabolism by ALOXE3 of the R stereoisomer of 12-HpETE made by ALOX12B and therefore possibly the S stereoisomer of 12-HpETE made by ALOX12 or ALOX15 is responsible for forming various hepoxilins in the epidermis of human and mouse skin and tongue and possibly other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Part II: Metabolic Regulation of Lipoxygenases: Lipoxygenase Inhibitors. (edu.au)
  • Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES. (bvsalud.org)
  • This enzyme is part of a family of enzymes called arachidonate lipoxygenases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Both genes encode enzymes, phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP), which suggest novel treatment strategies for stroke prevention. (rais.is)
  • Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Rat Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (Alox5) in samples from serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, tissue homogenates. (glideruniversity.org)
  • Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Human Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5/LOG5) in samples from serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, tissue homogenates. (glideruniversity.org)
  • Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli promotes transepithelial migration of neutrophils through a conserved 12-lipoxygenase pathway. (umassmed.edu)
  • The initial 12(S)-HpETE and 12(R)-HpETE products, regardless of their pathway of formation, are rapidly reduced to 12(S)-HETE and 12(R)-HETE, respectively, by ubiquitous cellular peroxidases, including in particular Glutathione peroxidases or, alternatively, are further metabolized as described below. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effect of 15-HETE on the 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway in Neutrophils: Genuine Inhibitor or Alternative Substrate? (edu.au)
  • Collectively, these landmark discoveries provided initial insight into the COX pathway of arachidonate metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • In this work, the metabolomic characterization of the ethanolic extracts of these species and the determination of the antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition and anti-inflammatory potential of selected compounds on the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme by molecular docking and cytoprotective activity in the SH-SY5Y cell line were carried out. (edu.pe)
  • Molecular docking evidenced significant binding affinities of some compounds for the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme, together with outstanding pharmacokinetic properties. (edu.pe)
  • during this metabolism, however, ALOX15 also forms 12(S)-HpETE as a minor product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Canine Arachidonate 15 lipoxygenase (ALOX15/LOG15) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (myelisakit.com)
  • Mutation spectrum and functional analysis of epidermis-type lipoxygenases in patients with autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Krieg P, Furstenberger G. The role of lipoxygenases in epidermis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Multi-walled carbon nanotube s stimulate arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-dependent M1 polarization of macrophages to promote proinflammatory response in vitro. (cdc.gov)
  • Multi-walled carbon nanotube s induce arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase expression and enhance the polarization and function of M1 macrophages (dataset). (cdc.gov)
  • Jobard F, Lefevre C, Karaduman A, Blanchet-Bardon C, Emre S, Weissenbach J, Ozguc M, Lathrop M, Prud'homme JF, Fischer J. Lipoxygenase-3 (ALOXE3) and 12(R)-lipoxygenase (ALOX12B) are mutated in non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE) linked to chromosome 17p13.1. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Furthermore, di-GA inhibited the generation of lymphendothelial gaps by cancer cell spheroid-secreted lipoxygenase metabolites. (nature.com)
  • Part III: Products of the Lipoxygenase Pathways and their Receptors. (edu.au)
  • Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. (drugbank.com)
  • Part I: Enzymology, Molecular Biology, and Biological Functions of Mammalian Lipoxygenases. (edu.au)
  • Changes in dietary fatty acids, specifically the polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 and ω-6 families and some derived eicosanoids from lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and cytochrome P-450, seem to control the activity of transcription factor families involved in cancer cell proliferation or cell death. (springer.com)
  • Sub-human primates, although not extensively examined, appear to have 12-lipoxygenase expression patterns that resemble those of sub-primate mammals or humans depending on the closeness of there genetic relatedness to these species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Systemic disease during Streptococcus pneumoniae acute lung infection requires 12-lipoxygenase-dependent inflammation. (umassmed.edu)
  • Mice also express an epidermal type 15-lipoxygenase (e-12LO) which has 50.8% amino acid sequence identity to human 15-LOX-2 and 49.3% sequence identity to mouse Arachidonate 8-lipoxygenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. (bvsalud.org)
  • The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS. (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase" by people in this website by year, and whether "Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)