Lipoxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS.Lipoxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.Arachidonate Lipoxygenases: Enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of arachidonic acid to hydroperoxyarachidonates. These products are then rapidly converted by a peroxidase to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. The positional specificity of the enzyme reaction varies from tissue to tissue. The final lipoxygenase pathway leads to the leukotrienes. EC 1.13.11.- .Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Arachidonic Acids12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid: A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Masoprocol: A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins: Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASE.4,5-Dihydro-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-amine: A dual inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. It exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The drug also enhances pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and has a protective effect after myocardial ischemia.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids: Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic Acid: A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Eicosanoids: A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).Leukotriene A4: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta(1E,3E,5Z,8Z)))-3-(1,3,5,8-Tetradecatetraenyl)oxiranebutanoic acid. An unstable allylic epoxide, formed from the immediate precursor 5-HPETE via the stereospecific removal of a proton at C-10 and dehydration. Its biological actions are determined primarily by its metabolites, i.e., LEUKOTRIENE B4 and cysteinyl-leukotrienes. Alternatively, leukotriene A4 is converted into LEUKOTRIENE C4 by glutathione-S-transferase or into 5,6-di-HETE by the epoxide-hydrolase. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Eicosanoic Acids: 20-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Thromboxane B2: A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Quinacrine: An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Thromboxanes: Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Fatty Acids, Essential: Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).Flavanones: A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Lipoxins: Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic Acid: A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Linolenic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.Cyclooxygenase 1: A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Leukotriene C4: The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Group IV Phospholipases A2: A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.ZymosanN-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine: A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Lysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Phosphatidic Acids: Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.Thromboxane-A Synthase: An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC 5.3.99.5.Epoxide Hydrolases: Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha: The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides, Synthetic: Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Hydroxyurea: An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Receptors, Leukotriene: Cell-surface receptors that bind LEUKOTRIENES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. The leukotriene receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their affinities for the endogenous leukotrienes LTB4; LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Caffeic Acids: A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Prostaglandins G: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin G2.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Intramolecular Oxidoreductases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.DiglyceridesLeukotriene E4: A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Meclofenamic Acid: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.Fibrosarcoma: A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)Benzeneacetamides: Compounds based on benzeneacetamide, that are similar in structure to ACETANILIDES.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Group VI Phospholipases A2: A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC 2.3.1.23.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Plasmalogens: GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.Salicylates: The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Cyclohexanones: Cyclohexane ring substituted by one or more ketones in any position.Hydroxy Acids: Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.Thimerosal: An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Receptors, Leukotriene B4: A class of cell surface leukotriene receptors with a preference for leukotriene B4. Leukotriene B4 receptor activation influences chemotaxis, chemokinesis, adherence, enzyme release, oxidative bursts, and degranulation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. There are at least two subtypes of these receptors. Some actions are mediated through the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Group II Phospholipases A2: A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Group X Phospholipases A2: A secreted phospholipase A2 subtype that contains a interfacial-binding region with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. This enzyme group may play a role in eliciting ARACHIDONIC ACID release from intact cellular membranes and from LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Members of this group bind specifically to PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.TritiumLipoxygenases: Dioxygenases that catalyze the peroxidation of methylene-interrupted UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Autacoids: A chemically diverse group of substances produced by various tissues in the body that cause slow contraction of smooth muscle; they have other intense but varied pharmacologic activities.Prostaglandin Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit the action of prostaglandins.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Prostaglandins H: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.QuinolinesSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Benzoquinones: Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides: Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Phospholipid Ethers: Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Dideoxyadenosine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Protein Inhibitors: Compounds that bind to and inhibit the action of 5-LIPOXYGENASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Leukotriene D4: One of the biologically active principles of SRS-A. It is generated from LEUKOTRIENE C4 after partial hydrolysis of the peptide chain, i.e., cleavage of the gamma-glutamyl portion. Its biological actions include stimulation of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, and increases in vascular permeability. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Trifluoperazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.Receptors, Eicosanoid: Cell surface proteins that bind eicosanoids with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Among the eicosanoid receptors are receptors for the prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Glycerophospholipids: Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.EstersNADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Nonheme Iron Proteins: Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.PyransHydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Umbelliferones: 7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.

cDNA cloning of 15-lipoxygenase type 2 and 12-lipoxygenases of bovine corneal epithelium. (1/375)

Bovine corneal epithelium contains arachidonate 12- and 15-lipoxygenase activity, while human corneal epithelium contains only 15-lipoxygenase activity. Our purpose was to identify the corneal 12- and 15-lipoxygenase isozymes. We used cDNA cloning to isolate the amino acid coding nucleotide sequences of two bovine lipoxygenases. The translated sequence of one lipoxygenase was 82% identical with human 15-lipoxygenase type 2 and 75% identical with mouse 8-lipoxygenase, whereas the other translated nucleotide sequence was 87% identical with human 12-lipoxygenase of the platelet type. Expression of 15-lipoxygenase type 2 and platelet type 12-lipoxygenase mRNAs were detected by Northern analysis. In addition to these two lipoxygenases, 12-lipoxygenase of leukocyte (tracheal) type was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing, and Northern analysis. Finally, PCR and sequencing suggested that human corneal epithelium contains 15-lipoxygenase types 1 and 2.  (+info)

Murine 12(R)-lipoxygenase: functional expression, genomic structure and chromosomal localization. (2/375)

A cDNA, recently cloned (by Krieg et al. (1998)) from mouse skin, was shown to encode a 12(R)-lipoxygenase. When expressed in HEK cells, the recombinant protein converted methyl arachidonate into the corresponding 12-HETE ester which was shown to be the R-enantiomer by chiral phase chromatography. Neither arachidonic acid nor linoleic acid were substrates for the recombinant protein. The structure of the 12(R)-lipoxygenase gene is unique among all animal lipoxygenases in that it is divided into 15 exons and 14 introns spanning approximately 12.5 kb. By interspecific backcross analysis, the 12(R)-lipoxygenase gene was localized to the central region of mouse chromosome 11.  (+info)

Tissue-specific translational regulation of alternative rabbit 15-lipoxygenase mRNAs differing in their 3'-untranslated regions. (3/375)

By screening a rabbit reticulocyte library, an alternative 15-LOX transcript of 3.6 kb (15-LOX mRNA2) was detected containing a 1019 nt longer 3'-untranslated region (UTR2) than the main 2.6 kb mRNA (15-LOX mRNA1). In anaemic animals, northern blotting showed that 15-LOX mRNA2 was predominantly expressed in non-erythroid tissues, whereas 15-LOX mRNA1 was exclusively expressed in red blood cells and bone marrow. The 15-LOX 3'-UTR2 mRNA2 contained a novel 8-fold repetitive CU-rich motif, 23 nt in length (DICE2). This motif is related but not identical to the 10-fold repetitive differentiation control element (DICE1) of 19 nt residing in the 15-LOX UTR1 mRNA1. DICE1 was shown to interact with human hnRNP proteins E1 and K, thereby inhibiting translation. From tissues expressing the long 15-LOX mRNA2, two to three unidentified polypeptides with molecular weights of 53-55 and 90-93 kDa which bound to DICE2 were isolated by RNA affinity chromatography. A 93 kDa protein from lung cytosol, which was selected by DICE2 binding, was able to suppress translational inhibition of 15-LOX mRNA2, but not of 15-LOX mRNA1, by hnRNP E1. A possible interaction between DICE1/DICE2 cis / trans factors in translational control of 15-LOX synthesis is discussed. Furthermore, the 3'-terminal part of the highly related rabbit leukocyte-type 12-LOX gene was analysed. Very similar repetitive CU-rich elements of the type DICE1 (20 repeats) and DICE2 (nine repeats) were found in the part corresponding to the 3'-UTR of the mRNA.  (+info)

Effects of mutant p53 expression on human 15-lipoxygenase-promoter activity and murine 12/15-lipoxygenase gene expression: evidence that 15-lipoxygenase is a mutator gene. (4/375)

Human 15-lipoxygenase (h15-LO) is present on chromosome 17p13.3 in close proximity to the tumor-suppressor gene, p53. 15-LO is implicated in antiinflammation, membrane remodeling, and cancer development/metastasis. The murine BALB/c embryo fibroblast cell line, (10)1val, expresses p53 in mutant (mt) conformation when grown at 39 degrees C and in wild-type conformation when grown at 32 degrees C. Transfection of h15-LO promoter constructs (driving luciferase reporter) into (10)1val cells and into p53-deficient (10)1 cells resulted in a marked increase in h15-LO promoter activity in (10)1val cells at 39 degrees C, but not at 32 degrees C, or as compared with (10)1 cells. Transfection of h15-LO promoter deletion constructs, however, resulted in total loss of activity in both cell types at 32 degrees C and 39 degrees C. Cotransfection of (10)1 cells with h15-LO promoter (driving luciferase reporter) along with increasing levels of a mt p53 expression vector demonstrated dose-dependent capacity of mt p53 to induce 15-LO promoter activity. No effect was observed with wild-type p53. In contrast to h15-LO promoter activity, (10)1val cells had significantly lower levels of endogenous (murine) 12/15-LO (mouse analog of h15-LO) mRNA and protein when grown at 39 degrees C compared with cells grown at 32 degrees C. Our data support the hypothesis that loss of a tumor-suppressor gene (p53), or "gain-of-function activities" resulting from the expression of its mutant forms, regulates 15-LO promoter activity in man and in mouse, albeit in directionally opposite manners. The studies define a direct link between 15-LO activity and an established tumor-suppressor gene located in close chromosomal proximity.  (+info)

Albumin modifies the metabolism of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids via 12-lipoxygenase in human platelets. (5/375)

12-Lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase 1 are the dominating enzymes that metabolize arachidonic acid in human platelets. In addition to the conversion of arachidonic acid to 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 12-lipoxygenase can also utilize 5(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid to form 5(S), 12(S)-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 14(R), 15(S)-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, respectively. Furthermore, 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid works as an inhibitor for 12-lipoxygenase. In the present paper we have studied the influence of albumin on the in vitro metabolism of 5 - and 15 -hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, and 5,15 -dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid by the platelet 12-lipoxygenase. The presence of albumin reduced the formation of 5(S),12(S)- dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid from 5(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, however, it had no effect on the 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid production from endogenous arachidonic acid. In contrast, when 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was incubated with activated platelets, the formation of 14(R), 15(S)- dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid was stimulated by the presence of albumin. Furthermore, albumin reduced the inhibitory action 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid had on 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid formation from endogenous arachidonic acid. However, addition of exogenous arachidonic acid (20 microm) to the incubations inverted the effects of albumin on the conversion of 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid to 14(R),15(S)- dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and the production of 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in these incubations. Based on the Scatchard equation, the estimates of the binding constants to albumin were 1.8 x 10(5) for 15 -HETE, 1.4 x 10(5) for 12-HETE, and 0.9 x 10(5) for 5 -HETE respectively. These results suggest an important role of albumin for the regulation of the availability of substrates for platelet 12-lipoxygenase.  (+info)

Relationship of arachidonic acid metabolizing enzyme expression in epithelial cancer cell lines to the growth effect of selective biochemical inhibitors. (6/375)

Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolizing enzymes are emerging as significant mediators of growth stimulation for epithelial cells. The relative contribution of the various family members of AA metabolizing enzymes to epithelial cancer cell growth is not known. To study this question, we first analyzed a series of epithelial cancer cells to establish the relative frequency of expression for the various enzymes. We analyzed the expression of five AA metabolizing enzymes as well as 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) in a panel of human epithelial cancer cell lines (n = 20) using reverse transcription-PCR. From this analysis, we found that cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and FLAP were universally expressed in all cancer cell lines tested. For the remaining enzymes, the expression of COX-2, 12-LOX, and 15-LOX varied among cell lines, 60, 35, and 90%, respectively. Although the pattern of expression varied among the different cell types, all of the enzymes were expressed in all major cancer histologies. Using a panel of selective biochemical AA metabolizing enzyme inhibitors, we then evaluated the effect of these agents on cell lines with known expression status for the AA metabolizing enzymes. For the enzymes that were not universally expressed, growth inhibition by selective biochemical inhibitors did not closely correlate with the expression status of specific enzymes (P > 0.05). For the universally expressed enzymes, the LOX inhibitors were more potent growth inhibitors than the COX inhibitors. The frequent expression of the AA metabolizing enzymes suggests that AA metabolism pathway may be modulated in response to xenobiotic exposure during carcinogenesis. Although establishing a priori AA metabolizing enzyme status was not consistently informative about what AA metabolizing enzyme inhibition would be most growth inhibitory, the frequent inhibition of many epithelial cancers by these biochemical inhibitors opens a new avenue for cancer therapy and intervention in carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Resistance to type 1 diabetes induction in 12-lipoxygenase knockout mice. (7/375)

Leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) gene expression in pancreatic beta cells is upregulated by cytotoxic cytokines like IL-1beta. Recent studies have demonstrated that 12-LO inhibitors can prevent glutamate-induced neuronal cell death when intracellular glutathione stores are depleted. Therefore, 12-LO pathway inhibition may prevent beta-cell cytotoxicity. To evaluate the role of 12-LO gene expression in immune-mediated islet destruction, we used 12-LO knockout (12-LO KO) mice. Male homozygous 12-LO KO mice and control C57BL/6 mice received 5 consecutive daily injections of low-dose streptozotocin to induce immune-mediated diabetes. Fasting serum glucose and insulin levels were measured at 7-day intervals, and the mice were followed up for 28 days. 12-LO KO mice were highly resistant to diabetes development compared with control mice and had higher serum insulin levels on day 28. Isolated pancreatic islets were treated with IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma for 18 hours. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in cytokine-treated islets from C57/BL6 mice decreased 54% from that of untreated islets. In marked contrast, the same cytokine mix led to only a 26% decrease in islets from 12-LO KO mice. Furthermore, cytokine-induced 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) production was absent in 12-LO KO islets but present in C57/BL6 islets. Isolated peritoneal macrophages were stimulated for 48 hours with IFN-gamma + LPS and compared for nitrate/nitrite generation. 12-LO KO macrophages generated 50% less nitrate/nitrite when compared with C57BL/6 macrophages. In summary, elimination of leukocyte 12-LO in mice ameliorates low dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes by increasing islet resistance to cytokines and decreasing macrophage production of nitric oxide.  (+info)

Evidence for 12-lipoxygenase induction in the vessel wall following balloon injury. (8/375)

OBJECTIVE: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation are key events in the development of atherosclerosis and restenosis following angioplasty. These events are mediated by several growth factors and cytokines whose cellular effects include activation of phospholipases and arachidonic acid metabolism via the lipoxygenase (LO) pathway. Since 12-LO products have potent growth and chemotactic effects, we have examined if 12-LO is upregulated in the neointima of injured rat carotid arteries and also if LO inhibition could attenuate neointimal thickening. METHODS: The left common carotid arteries of male Sprague Dawley rats were injured using a 1.8 F PTCA balloon catheter. Four-fourteen days after injury, injured and uninjured tissue samples were processed for histology, and immunohistochemistry or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to examine 12-LO expression. RESULTS: Twelve days after injury, immunohistochemical staining with a 12-LO antibody revealed intense staining in injured left carotid arteries, mainly in neointimal VSMCs and inflammatory cells, but not in the uninjured right arteries. There was also a marked upregulation of 12-LO mRNA (over five-fold by competitive PCR) in the injured arteries. Treatment of the arteries with a LO inhibitor, phenidone, soon after injury resulted in significant inhibition of neointimal thickening. In contrast, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, ibuprofen, had no effect. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate for the first time that balloon injury results in marked induction of 12-LO mRNA and protein expression in the vessel wall. Furthermore, LO pathway activation may mediate, at least in part, the development of the lesion or plaque instability, suggesting a novel target for therapeutic intervention to block these pathological events.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of epidermis-type lipoxygenases for skin barrier function and adipocyte differentiation. AU - Fürstenberger, Gerhard. AU - Epp, Nikolas. AU - Eckl, Katja Martina. AU - Hennies, Hans Christian. AU - Jørgensen, Claus. AU - Hallenborg, Philip. AU - Kristiansen, Karsten. AU - Krieg, Peter. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - 12R-lipoxygenase (12R-LOX) and epidermis-type LOX-3 (eLOX-3) are novel members of the multigene family of mammalian LOX. A considerable gap exists between the identification of these enzymes and their biologic function. Here, we present evidence that 12R-LOX and eLOX-3, acting in sequence, and eLOX-3 in combination with another, not yet identified LOX are critically involved in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes and adipocytes, respectively. Mutational inactivation of 12R-LOX and/or eLOX-3 has been found to be associated with development of an inherited ichthyosiform skin disorder in humans and genetic ablation of 12R-LOX causes a severe impairment ...
Two types of 12-lipoxygenase that catalyze the transformation of arachidonic acid to 12(S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE) have been previously classified into platelet-type and leukocyte-type categories. Here, we document, for the first time, a molecular characterization of both forms within the same species. The amino acid sequence of the murine platelet 12-lipoxygenase deduced from its cDNA is 58% identical to the murine spleen/leukocyte 12-lipoxygenase. Expression constructs carrying the cDNAs for the two 12-lipoxygenase forms were introduced into human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The platelet-type enzyme metabolized arachidonic acid exclusively to 12-HPETE, whereas the leukocyte-type enzyme formed both 12-HPETE and 15-hydro(pero)xyeicosatetraenoic acid in a ratio of approximately 3:1. Linoleic acid was metabolized to a similar extent by the latter enzyme to 13-hydro(pero)xyoctadecadienoic acid but not by the platelet enzyme. Mutagenesis and deletion of the highly conserved ...
Convincing evidence exists implicating leukocyte-type 12/15-LO as a key player in the development of atherosclerosis and restenosis. KO of the 12/15-LO gene in apolipoprotein E- and LDL receptor-deficient mice, 2 models of robust atherosclerosis, resulted in a marked decrease in atherosclerosis development in vivo.5,7 Marked upregulation of 12/15-LO occurred in VSMCs after balloon carotid injury in rats, and restenosis was significantly blocked with a pharmacological 12/15-LO inhibitor as well as a specific ribozyme targeted to cleave 12/15-LO.4,27 Many events and pathways involving 12/15-LO have been proposed to contribute to atherosclerosis and restenosis. Much is understood concerning the ability of 12/15-LO within macrophages to participate in the oxidation of LDL, an early event in vascular lesion formation.2,7-9,28 However, 12/15-LO activity and products also increase in endothelial cells and VSMCs at the time of injury and in response to growth factors and cytokines. 12S-HETE, the ...
A LOX definition according to enzyme classification is linoleate: oxygen oxidoreductase (for plant LOX) and arachidonate: oxygen oxidoreductase (for mammalian LOX). Historically LOX are classified according to their positional specificity of the dioxygenation of their most common substrates linoleate (C-18) in plants, and arachidonic acid (C-20) in mammals. Accordingly, a LOX reacting at the ω-6 position of the substrate (as counted from the tail end of the fatty acid) in plants is referred to as a 13-LOX (alternate: linoleate ω6-LOX) and in mammals as a 15-LOX (alternate: arachidonate ω6-LOX). In plants 9-, and 13-LOX and in mammals, 5-, 8-, 12- and 15-LOX are known. When necessary, the stereoconfiguration is specified (e.g. 12S-LOX and 12R-LOX). In mammals, isoenzymes that exhibit the same position-specificity are named additionally after the prototypical tissue of their occurrence (e.g. platelet-type, leukocyte-type and epidermis-type 12S-LOX) [1 ...
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21:30, 9 February 2014 (diff , hist) . . (+18)‎ . . m Eliezer Yudkowsky ‎ (Changed link which previously redirected back to this page to a more useful link to EYs LW posts. Simplified wikicode in a link.) ...
Nejste si jistí, kde můžete koupit injekční steroidy? Více než 98 injekčních steroidů, z nichž můžete vybírat. Garance dodání.
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Balkan Lifestyle magazin je Vaše novo mjesto na internetu na kome ćete se brzo i kvalitetno informisati i zabaviti. Mjesto na kome su vesti koje ćete želeti da prepričate drugima. Nudimo vam najnovije vijesti iz svijeta muzike, televizije, mode, ljepote i zdravlja, a pored vijesti nudimo vam i mnoštvo drugih zabavnih stranica ...
Complete information for ALOX15 gene (Protein Coding), Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
jo to existuje, t eba klackem po hlav . um te si p edstavit e z jedn ko ky m ete m t za rok p ibli n 15 kus potomk ..... a z toho je t eba 10 ko ek a 5 kocour .. ili 11 ko ek kr t 15 potomk za rok je 165. za dva roky z jedn ko ky je mo n aby kolem bar ku l talo 181 ko ek. d ky nechci. ...
Telef nica O2 inovovala svou voln p stupnou SMS br nu 1188. M ete z n pos lat a 100 SMS za hodinu zdarma, a to v pln m rozsahu 160 znak . K vyu it t to nab dky je ale nutn registrace doprov zen mohutn m dotazn kem.
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Stran se povezuje s katalogi knjižnic, knjigarn in drugih virov knjig, kjer lahko iščete knjigo z uporabo ISBN-ja. Če ste prispeli na to stran s klikom na povezavo ISBN številke iz Wikipedijine strani, potem povezave spodaj (označene z "Poišči knjigo") iščejo doloeno knjigo po tej ISBN številki. Če želite spremeniti iskalne povezave spodaj, vnesite drugo ISBN število v ISBN iskalno polje. Presledki in pomišljaji v ISBN številu niso pomembni. Opozorilo: Število se začne izza dvopičja "ISBN-10:" in "ISBN-13:". ...
Stran se povezuje s katalogi knjižnic, knjigarn in drugih virov knjig, kjer lahko iščete knjigo z uporabo ISBN-ja. Če ste prispeli na to stran s klikom na povezavo ISBN številke iz Wikipedijine strani, potem povezave spodaj (označene z "Poišči knjigo") iščejo doloeno knjigo po tej ISBN številki. Če želite spremeniti iskalne povezave spodaj, vnesite drugo ISBN število v ISBN iskalno polje. Presledki in pomišljaji v ISBN številu niso pomembni. Opozorilo: Število se začne izza dvopičja "ISBN-10:" in "ISBN-13:". ...
Odprti smo za sodelovanje z zdravstvenimi ustanovami, zasebniki in vsemi, ki ocenjujejo, da bi jim sodelovanje z ustnim higienikom koristilo. Vljudno vabljeni, da nas pokličete na telefonsko številko 040 747 896 ali pa nas kontaktirate preko elektronske pošte na [email protected] ...
Art.5334 Materijal • Meka kravlja koža Podstava • 3D-odstojni materijal (100% poliestersko vlakno) • Ugodna prozračna mrežasta unutarnja podstava (100% poliestersko vlakno) Udobnost/Opremljenost • 1 unutarnji džep • 2 vanjska džepa • Patentni zatvarači na prednjoj i stražnjoj strani i rukavima • Prilagođivač boka • Streč koža na ramenima i laktovima • Meki ovratnik • AIR-VENT patentni zatvarač s prednje strane • Manšete od rastezljivog materijala • KEVLAR Streč na unutarnjoj strani rukava Sigurnost • EN 1621-1 certificirani SAS-TEC 3-D štitnici na ramenima i laktovima • Ovojnica od meke pjene na ramenima • Dvodjelni sustav protektora za leđa • CE štitnik za leđa, može se povisiti • Posebna pjenasta podloga na leđima • Opcionalna ripstop torba s ariklom 9316 • Spojni patentni zatvarač • Čičak za nadogradivi prsni protektor, Art. 9280 • Metalni patent zatvarač za bolju sigurnost • Sigurnosni šavovi Veličine 50, 54, 56, 58 Boje ...
Download Cephei Contact Manager 1.5.0 - Manažer kontaktů., Cephei Contact Manager je šikovná aplikace, která umožňuje spravovat data týkající se kontaktů, projektů a upomínek. Jedná se o kompletní systém pro správu kontaktů a komunikace s vašimi klienty. Můžete vytvořit projekt a připojit k němu jeden či více kontaktů. Program má mnoho nastavení.
S c lem usnadnit u ivatel m pou vat na e webov str nky vyu v me cookies. Pou v n m na ch str nek souhlas te s ukl d n m soubor cookie ve va em po ta i / za zen . Nastaven cookies m ete zm nit v nastaven va eho prohl e e ...
Prvn z znam rostliny zobrazuje parametry p i po zen . Kliknut m na hyperlink "uprav" je m ete nastavit (samoz ejm pouze ty Va e) a tak p i adit rodov a druhov jm no ...
Již v lednu a únoru můžete najít stánek společnosti NUTREND v 11 komplexech po celé ČR. Od 15hod. pro Vás bude připravena ochutnávka tyčinek, proteinů, gainerů, ale také soutěže o zajimavé ceny. Naším
Kdy se ve Sn movn projedn valo vyd n poslanc Andreje Babi e a Jaroslava Falt nka k trestn m st h n kv li ap mu hn zdu, p edseda vl dy prohl sil, e ijeme v zemi, kde si m ete objednat st h n a pravd podobn dostat n koho do v zen . Tato slova jsou p ipom n na dodnes a ur it dlouho je t ...
Informacije o datoteci. Veličina datoteke za preuzimanje i potreban prostor na uređaju ili microSD™/SD™ kartici iznosi 2,2 GB. Ako je datoteka za preuzimanje prevelika za vaš uređaj, podatke možete spremiti na microSD/SD karticu (za programiranje kartografskih podataka mogu se koristiti reciklirane microSD kartice).. ...
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Bonjour, Jai un probleme avec mon ordinateur, il a ete infecte par un virus qui menerve beaucoup. Effectivement, des pop-up de recommandation antivirus/spyware apparaissent tous les 5 min (sur I
Svaz kulturistiky a fitness České republiky pořádá pohárové soutěže v kategorii: kulturistika, klasická kulturistika, physigue men, fitness bikiny, bodyfitness. Na místě můžete ochutnat a koupit produ
Universal Animal M Stak je popolen hardgainer paket. Močna formula v izdelku M Stak vas bo hitro prepričala, da lahko tudi vi hitro in veliko lažje dosežete nove nivoje moči in mase.
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Objectif : Le principal but de cette etude a ete la mise en evidence de la mycoflore associee aux plants de fraisier provenant de… Expand ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human 5 Lipoxygenase protein (ab114310). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Ete was a five-year-old boy. At 2:00 in the morning, he woke up screaming with pain from a headache. Mom gave him Tylenol but he was not able to go back to sleep. By the time I saw him, he had suffered with headache for almost twenty-four hours. His vital signs were normal and he had no other complaints or recent illnesses, but Ete looked miserable, holding the top of his head with tears in his eyes.. In adults, sudden on-set headaches like this may be caused by a subarachnoid hemorrhage. This is a very serious condition caused by the rupture of an abnormal blood vessel, usually an aneurysm, at the base of the brain. If the aneurysm is not discovered and treated, complications can lead to brain damage or death.. The work-up for adult patients with this kind of headache is very straightforward. A CT scan of the head shows brain hemorrhage in about ninety percent of people who have one. If the CT is normal, we recommend a lumbar puncture to make sure there is no blood in the fluid that bathes the ...
sp:LIDS_GAEGR] linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase / 9,12-octadecadienoate 8-hydroperoxide 8S-isomerase (EC:1.13.11.60 5.4.4.6); K17864 linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase / 9,12-octadecadienoate 8-hydroperoxide 8S-isomerase [EC:1.13.11.60 5.4.4.6] ...
sp:LIDS_GAEGR] linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase / 9,12-octadecadienoate 8-hydroperoxide 8S-isomerase (EC:1.13.11.60 5.4.4.6); K17864 linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase / 9,12-octadecadienoate 8-hydroperoxide 8S-isomerase [EC:1.13.11.60 5.4.4.6] ...
... ,The latex-free, PVC-free Antibacterial Hydro Personal catheter combines two remarkable innovations into one exclusive catheter that delivers an antibacterial agent while providing the virtually friction-free movement of a hydrophilic coating.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Vzorka obsahuje:AQUANATURE System hydro Očný krém 2ml AQUANATURE System hydro je sériová starostlivosť určená pre nedostatočne hydratovanú pleť, ktorá vykazuje prvé vrásky. Viaže veľké množstvo vlhkosti v pleti a zvlhčuje pokožku zvnútra, vyplňuje jemné línie a...(600320)
Optimum PLATINUM HYDRO WHEY 1590g, Optimum Nutrition, : Proteiny na r st sval nad 1500g, Koncentrace: 76-90%, Platinum Hydro Whey je 100% ist hydrolyzovan syrov tkov protein s pr m rnou molekul rn hmotnosti kolem 1 000 dalton . nik tn peptidov struktura zaji uje nejrychlej a naprosto ... - V e pro fitness, kulturistiku a aerobik. Posilovac stroje a sportovn v iva pro dom c a komer n posilovny.
Article UV systems for spas & hydro pools - Case Study. With the rise of health centres and leisure clubs throughout the UK, a key feature in many modern facilities is the inclusion of spas and hydro pools. As a specialist aquatic application, spas a...
For sale a genuine WET WORKS IMAGING hydro dipped hard hat. That has been custom dipped and then clear coated for that mirror like shine you see in our photos. We are the only hydro dippers approved by the manufacturer to dip the Ridgeline hard hat.
Get information about the Boost Mobile Unlimited Starter plan with the Kyocera Hydro Icon. The Kyocera Hydro Icon is compatible with the Boost Mobile Unlimited Starter Plan on the Boost Mobile network.
Deschamps, J. D., Gautschi, J. T., Whitman, S., Johnson, T. A., Gassner, N. C., Crews, P., & Holman, T. R. (2007). Discovery of platelet-type 12-human lipoxygenase selective inhibitors by high-throughput screening of structurally diverse libraries. Bioorg ...
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Herbs that mimic hydro cortizone - Hypoglycemia without Diabetes - Benjimester on HubPages. Oxyhives is natural homeopathic solution to relieve the miserable symptoms of hives.
The most sustainable national power systems in the world combine nuclear with hydro for mass low-carbon generation, a World Energy Council study shows.
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HPLC Application #17941: Polar Probes on Synergi Hydro. Column used: Synergi™ 4 µm Hydro-RP 80 Å, LC Column 150 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00F-4375-E0
Lahka negovalna in zaščitna krema za maksimalno, dolgo trajajočo navlaženost. Obogatena je z izredno učinkovitim hydro complex, ki nudi takojšnjo ...
ELBI of America in Houston, TX is a leading provider of Diaphragm Hydro Pneumatic Tanks with the latest development in well-tank technology.
North Vancouver RCMP have backed off on a request that would have forced BC Hydro to turn over the records of more than a thousand North Vancouver homeowners using large amounts of power to...
Formulated with hyaluronic acid, Neutrogena® Hydro Boost Hydrating Tint is the first water gel foundation that applies flawlessly to create a fresh look. Neutrogena
The Pitlochry Hydro Hotel is located in Pitlochry, just 24 miles from Perth. Guests can enjoy the on-site bar. Free private parking is available on site.
The 64oz Wide Mouth-Growler by Hydro Flask lets you fill up on your favorite brew while keeping it ice-cold for a post hike pint.
Za n m ch pat, kde je j dro pudla.Moje plej da dotaz postr d logickou koherenci proto, e jsem myln p edpokl dala, e n kter ch z t ch v c v te. Pokud se k v m ani nedoneslo, e Gallo v sledky laboratorn ch m en zm nil, pak ch pu, e se k tomu nem ete vyj d it. Naposledy v m zde d v m odkaz na cel zn n otev en ho dopisu asopisu Science od des tek odborn k pot , co to vy lo najevo.http://rethinkingaids.com.93.seekdotnet.com/Home/tabid/146/Default.aspx . V n m si m ete zhruba p e st, o co lo. Dokonce jsou k dispozici i kopie zpr v z laborato e psan na stroji, do kter ch pozd ji Gallo rukou ud lal zm ny - prakticky co se mu nehodilo za krtal a napsal opak. Jestli e se t m odm t te zab vat, pak nem te pr vo m napadat. J netvrd m e je to pravda, pt m se, jak se k tomu stav odborn ve ejnost. Pokud ta to ignoruje, pak nem e po m cht t, abych konkretizovala sv dotazy - to bych mohla do alel ja.. ...
1J&]Th~~ ~~~~~ 3AKA)I(III Ill nOJlY~III! BPEMSI nPOCTO 5b1Tb 3AOPOBbiM! 3n1 ,KI.13HeHHO none3Hble KHI.1rl.1 noMoryr saM nony- ~1.1Tb AOCTaTO~Hble 3HaHJ.1SI, ~T06bl cnpaBJ.1TbCSI C mo6biMI.1 HeAyraMII1, nopTstll.\111MI.1 eawy ,KI.13Hb 1.1 ,KI!13Hb BaWJ.1X 6nii13KJ.1X. ~TO COBETYIOT BPA~I!1 3HI.\111KflOneA1115l caMblX pacnpoCTpaHeHHbiX 3a6onesaH111~ . npoCTO 111 AOCTynHO- 0 caxapHOM A111a6eTe, OCTeOXOHAP03e , r111nepTOH111111 , ap111TM111111 , naHKpeaT111Te, npocTanne , 6poHx111an b HO~ acTMe , AepMaT111Te . CospeMeHHble MeTOAbl o6cneAOBaH1115l 111 n e4eH1115l , HOB ble 111 HaAe,KHble cnoco6bl 03AOposneH1115l . KAKnE~ii!Tb?n03BOHO~HHK HD3BOHOMHUK 0 0 0 0 60n111 B Cn111He , OrpaH1114eHHa5l nOAB111,KHOCTb n05lCH1111.\bl, OHeMeH111e KOH e4HOCTe~, 4aCTble ronoBHble 6on111 HepeAKO Ha4111HaJOT 6ecnoK0111Tb y,Ke B Mono AOM B03pacTe . Bbl Y3HaeTe 0 np1114111HaX 111 npocp111naKT111Ke OCTeOXOHAP03a ; 0 ne4eH111111 Me,Kn03BOHKOBO~ rp bi,K111111 PaA111Kyn111Ta; o cnoco6ax npeoAoneH1115l nocneACTB111~ ...
Oran ov postele 80x200 cm. Ob ben postele 80x200 cm prvotriednej kvality u n s n jdete u od 60 . i u h ad te postele 80x200 cm v modernom alebo klasickom t le, u n s si m ete vybra a z 170 druhov. V ponuke m me man elsk i jednol kov postele, rozkladacie i s lo n m priestorom a na deti akaj i pekn poschodov postele. V etky si m ete jednoducho vyh ada pomocou n ho praktick ho filtra. Doru me v m ich a domov. Nev hajte sa na n s obr ti . Ta prav poste 80x200 cm ak pr ve na v s.
Suunto Movescount je rozširujúca sa športová komunita, kde si môžete vytvoriť vlastný športový denník, v ktorom budete zhromažďovať a zdieľať svoje aktivity a prispôsobovať si hodinky.. Ak ste to ešte neurobili, prejdite na stránku www.movescount.com a zaregistrujte sa. Keď budete mať používateľský účet, môžete ho prepojiť s hodinkami dvomi spôsobmi:. ...
Ima puno videa o Access Barsu koje možete istražiti! Evo nekoliko sa kojima predlažemo da započnete, bez određenog redoslijeda. Što vam govori i golica vašu znatiželju? Možete također nastaviti na Youtube kanalu Access Consciousnessa. Ili saznati o Accessovom prijenosu uživo za još više mogućnosti. ...
Tražite li određeni zakazani tečaj ili događaj? Ovdje ćete ga pronaći!. Pogledajte kalendar na ovoj stranici (spuštajte se po listi i ona će se proširiti) ili koristite našu funkciju Pronađi bilo koji tečaj (siva kućica). Možete resetirati svoje filtere i rafinirati svoju pretragu kako bi pronašli dostupne tečajeve i događaje u svojoj blizini. ...
Les résumés sont publiés sur le site Web à titre informatif seulement et ne doivent pas être considérés comme des publications. La configuration de certains navigateurs peut entraîner des erreurs daffichage des polices. Les résumés seront publiés sur le site Web 10 jours ouvrables après leur date de soumission. ...
The Amino Whey je naš najpopularniji visokopostotni protein sa 86% čistog proteina. Ima dodatne amino kiseline, manje od 1g OH i masti i različite ukuse.
mám v plánu dietu (něco jako kdybych šel na prkna s tím, že nejspíš nepůjdu), prostě pořádně to sesekat, ať konečně vypadám jako sportující člověk. Mám dotaz ohledně před a potréninkového napoje. Bohužel nemám prachy na to, abych si koupil amina + bcaa + protein/hydro, proto se ptám jestli si vystačím jen s hydrem (alespoň v prní půlce diety, kdy jsou S konstantní, vyhodí se kraviny z jídelníčku a přidá se pohyb) a jestli mám vzít jen hydro nebo např. Ultra Speed 80 Fair Power ®, co je podle Vás lepší ...
This is a brilliant facial which goes deep and works from the inside out. There is no down time but some clients may feel a redness which can be covered with make up should you choose. You will start to notice results very quickly and this is a great boost to the skin. You can have this treatment once a month. Also, great for neck and décolletage.. ...
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Absolutní špička mezi proteiny - 100% čistý syrovátkový protein, upravený enzymatickou hydrolýzou k zajištění maximální vstřebatelnosti a efektivity.
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Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) is an all India common engineering entrance examination which is conducted for admission in various engineering colleges and courses all over the country.
Exhaling, bend in the waist and touch the forehead on the floor keeping the hands straight. After taking the final position, continue smooth breathing.(as shown in the picture). Position Like Yogamudra here too the abdomen gets folded. Further, attempt should be made to have this fold as compl. ete as possible. The frontward stretched arms greatly help in getting this fold. However, the hands should be kept as much outstretched as possible ...
Beta Alanin oproti iným doplnkom výživy, ktoré sú zamerané len na určitý typ výkonu, je vhodný k akémukoľvek športu. Vo svaloch vytvára karnozín, ktorý slúži na zvýšenie aeróbnej kapacity, sily, vytrvalosti, zabraňuje svalovej únave počas náročných tréningov, takisto podporuje nárast svalovej hmoty a odbúravanie tukov. S týmto prípravkom dokážete odcvičiť ako intenzívny tréning s krátkymi prestávkami, pretože odďaľuje svalovú únavu, tak isto aj silový a objemový tréning s ťažkými váhami, pretože posilňuje všetky typy svalových vlákien. Beta Alanin má jedinečnú schopnosť odbúravať kysleinu mliečnu a tým znižuje riziko svalovej horúčky po intenzývnom tréningu. ...
Apple MJ1K2ZM/A je USB-C víceportový digitální AV adaptér a slouží k připojení MacBooku s USB-C portem k HDMI displeji. Navíc k němu můžete připojit standardní USB zařízení a USB-C nabíjecí kabel. Adaptér také umožní zrcadlit displej MacBooku na televizor nebo monitor s rozhraním HDMI v HD rozlišení až 1080p při 60 Hz nebo v UHD rozlišení 3840 x 2160 při 30 Hz. Přenáší také video obsah. Adaptér připojte k USB-C portu na MacBooku a pak HDMI kabelem (prodává se samostatně) k Cena DATART.cz včetně... ...
Již dříve došlo ke změně termínu olomouckého koncertu na Korunní pevnůstce. S blížícím se koncertem změnu raději znovu připomínáme. Místo soboty 23. 6. byl pořadatelem stanovený nový termín na neděli 24. června 2018 od 18:00 hod. Zakoupené vstupenky zůstávají v platnosti a není potřeba je vyměňovat. Zákazníci, kterým náhradní termín koncertu nevyhovuje již bohužel nyní nemohou vstupenky u prodejce vrátit. Pokud byste chtěli nabídnout své vstupenky k prodeji, můžete využít otevřených komentářů pod článkem.
Če iščete partnerja na vaši poti do dobre kondicije, potem bi vam radi predstavili kolo Vita Elite Disc. Okvir kolesa je izdelan iz našega aluminija E5 Premium, kar je jamstvo za trpežnost, moč in odzivnost. Z zavedanjem, da se boste gnali naprej kilometer za kilometrom smo za vas izbrali zanesljiv paket specifičnih ženskih komponent, s katerimi bodo dolge vožnje bolj prijetne. Poleg tega smo vključili še celo vrsto lastnosti za višje udobje, ki pa ne zmanjšajo splošne učinkovitosti kolesa, med drugim sta takšni stvari naša ženska fitnes geometrija ter vstavki Zertz za dušenje vibracij. K temu dodajte še močne disk zavore, s katerimi se boste ustavili v trenutku in dobili boste kolo, ki vas med kolesarjenjem razvaja s superiornim občutkom nadzora in udobja.
Svalová pump a nabudenie na tréning NO-Xplode 600g spolu v jednom. N.O.-XPLODE od BSN je zárukou poriadného tréningu a napumovania. NO Xplode zosúladuje silu a energiu s mysľou, čím dokážete posun&am
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Minhen i okolina - tražim posao čuvanja deteta, ili dece. Imam jako dobro iskustvo, predana sam i pedantna. Za sve dodatne informacije, možete me kontaktirati. Molim, samo ozbiljne ponude.. Jasmina 060/184- ...
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The invention is directed to the enhanced expression and purification of lipoxygenase enzymes. These enzymes are of wide-spread industrial importance, often produced in heterologous microbial systems. Preferably, the lipoxygenase produced by the methods of the invention is a plant-derived enzyme and expressed at high-levels in a microbial system that includes a protease-deficient host and one or more chaperone expression plasmids. The invention is also directed to amino acid and nucleic acid fragments of the lipoxygenase enzyme including fragments in expression constructs encoding all or a portion of one or more lipoxygenase genes. The invention is also directed to methods of manufacturing bread and other food and also non-food products with lipoxygenase manufactured by the methods of the invention.
UNTIVEROS MAYORGA, Charlton Fernando; NUNEZ CHAVEZ, Olga; TAPIA ZEGARRA, Lenibet Miriam y TAPIA ZEGARRA, Gino Guillermo. Diabetes mellitus type 2 at the Hospital II Essalud - Cañete: Demographic and Clinical Aspects. Rev Med Hered [online]. 2004, vol.15, n.1, pp.19-23. ISSN 1018-130X.. Objective: To determine the sociodemographic characteristics of patients with type 2 Diabetes mellitus followed up in the General Medicine office and Diabetes Program at Hospital II EsSALUD-Cañete and its relationship with the glycemia. Material and Methods: A descriptive, case series study was conducted, including ninety four patients with type-2 Diabetes randomly chosen at the time of their outpatient office visit where an interview and planned physical examination took place during the months of June and July 2001. Results: The mean age was 64.56 + 11.61. Fifty three patients were women (56.4%). Illiteracy and primary level (51.3%) were the predominant levels of education achieved. On the other hand, 68.1% of ...
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15 Lipoxygenase 1小鼠单克隆抗体[3G8](ab119774)可与大鼠, 狗, 人, 猴样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Rat Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (Alox5) in samples from serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, tissue homogenates. Now available in a cost efficient pack of 5 plates of 96 wells each, conveniently packed along with the other reagents in 5 separate kits ...
Arachidonate lipoxygenase 3. Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (bullous ichthyosis, bCIE) ...
Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type, also known as ALOX12B, 12R-LOX, and arachiconate lipoygenase 3, is a lipoxygenase-type ... Among the human lipoxygenases, ALOX12B is most closely (54% identity) related in amino acid sequence to ALOXE3 ALOX12B ... The gene is located on chromosome 17 at position 13.1 where it forms a cluster with two other lipoxygenases, ALOXE3 and ALOX15B ... Muñoz-Garcia A, Thomas CP, Keeney DS, Zheng Y, Brash AR (March 2014). "The importance of the lipoxygenase-hepoxilin pathway in ...
Nugteren, D. H. (1975). "Arachidonate lipoxygenase in blood platelets". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 380 (2): 299-307. doi: ... Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1, 15-LOX-1, ALOX15), which is expressed in far more tissues that ALOX12, metabolizes ... sequence indetity to mouse Arachidonate 8-lipoxygenase. Mouse e-12LO metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly to 12(S)-HETE ... "Arachidonate dilates basilar artery by lipoxygenase-dependent mechanism and activation of K(+) channels". American Journal of ...
They include (HEPE is hydroxy-eicsapentaenoic acid): 5-HEPE (see Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase#Eicosapentaenoic acid), 12-HEPE, ... The enzymes 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1 or ALOX15) and 15-lipoxygenase-2 (15-LO-2, ALOX15B) metabolize arachidonic acid to the S ... Other reactions of lipoxygenases generate cellular damage; murine models implicate 15-lipoxygenase in the pathogenesis of ... Lipoxygenases (LOXs): 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX or ALOX5) initiates the metabolism of arachidonic acid to 5- ...
... lipoxygenase MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.450.025 - arachidonate lipoxygenases MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.450.025.020 - arachidonate ... Type XII collagen MeSH D12.776.860.300.250.600 - procollagen MeSH D12.776.860.300.250.700 - tropocollagen MeSH D12.776.860.300. ... arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.687 - retinal dehydrogenase MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.925 - tyrosine 3- ... 5-lipoxygenase MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.450.025.025 - arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.450.025.030 - ...
... arachidonate lipoxygenases MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.444.050.055 --- arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.444. ... arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.444.525 --- protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.722 ... 050.060 --- arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.444.050.065 --- ... steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.737 --- steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.748 --- steroid 17- ...
... arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase EC 1.13.11.34: arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase EC 1.13.11.35: pyrogallol 1,2-oxygenase EC 1.13.11.36: ... linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase EC 1.13.11.61: linolenate 9R-lipoxygenase EC 1.13.11.62: linoleate 10R-lipoxygenase EC 1.13.11.63: ... arachidonate 8-lipoxygenase EC 1.13.11.41: 2,4'-dihydroxyacetophenone dioxygenase EC 1.13.11.42: deleted EC 1.13.11.43: ... lipoxygenase EC 1.13.11.13: ascorbate 2,3-dioxygenase EC 1.13.11.14: 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate 3,4-dioxygenase EC 1.13.11.15: 3,4- ...
Nugteren DH (February 1975). "Arachidonate lipoxygenase in blood platelets". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 380 (2): 299-307. ... Delta12-lipoxygenase, 12Delta-lipoxygenase, C-12 lipoxygenase, leukotriene A4 synthase, and LTA4 synthase. ALOX12, often termed ... "Entrez Gene: ALOX12 arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase". Yamamoto S, Suzuki H, Ueda N (March 1997). "Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenases". ... Muñoz-Garcia A, Thomas CP, Keeney DS, Zheng Y, Brash AR (March 2014). "The importance of the lipoxygenase-hepoxilin pathway in ...
... , also known as ALOX5, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, or 5-LO, is a non-heme iron-containing enzyme (EC 1.13 ... that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5 gene.[5] Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase is a member of the lipoxygenase family of enzymes. ... "Alox5 - arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase". WikiGenes.. *^ Fahel JS, de Souza MB, Gomes MT, Corsetti PP, Carvalho NB, Marinho FA, de ... arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase activity. • dioxygenase activity. • metal ion binding. • protein binding. • oxidoreductase activity ...
Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type II (ALOX15B), also termed 15-lipoxygenase-2, 15-LOX-2, and 15-LOX-2. It metabolizes ... soybean lipoxygenase L1 and L3, coral 8-lipoxygenase, human 5-lipoxygenase, rabbit 15-lipoxygenase and porcine leukocyte 12- ... erythrocyte type 15-lipoxygenase (or 15-lipoxygenase, erythrocyte type), reticulocyte type 15-lipoxygenase (or 15-lipoxygenase ... Based on detailed analyses of 15-lipoxygenase 1 and stabilized 5-lipoxygenase, lipoxygenase structures consist of a 15 ...
... s are compounds that slow or stop the action of the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5- ... Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase ...Specific function: Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a ... Lipoxygenase inhibitors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MeSH list of agents 82016859. ... Zileuton is a specific inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase and thus inhibits leukotriene (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) formation. Both ...
"Depletion of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase up-regulates arachidonate metabolism by 12S-lipoxygenase and ... untranslated region of human glutathione peroxidase 4 influences lipoxygenase metabolism". Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 29 (2): 174-8 ... 16 (12): 1180-1191. doi:10.1038/ncb3064. Smith AC, Mears AJ, Bunker R, Ahmed A, MacKenzie M, Schwartzentruber JA, Beaulieu CL, ... "Glutathione peroxidase 4 senses and translates oxidative stress into 12/15-lipoxygenase dependent- and AIF-mediated cell death ...
... arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase 2, 15-lipoxygenase-2, 15-LOX-2, 15-LO-2, arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type II, arachidonate 15- ... ALOX15 (also termed arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, 15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-LO-1, 15-LOX-1) is, like other lipoxygenases, a seminal ... Consequently, human ALOX15 is now referred to as arachidonate-15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-LOX-1, 15-LO-1, human 12 ... Sigal E, Grunberger D, Craik CS, Caughey GH, Nadel JA (April 1988). "Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (omega-6 lipoxygenase) from ...
Ghosh J, Myers CE (1998). "Inhibition of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase triggers massive apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells ... mediates the survival-promoting effects of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase in prostate cancer cells". Cancer Lett. 336 (1): 185-95 ... Hussey HJ, Tisdale MJ (1996). "Inhibition of tumour growth by lipoxygenase inhibitors". Br. J. Cancer. 74 (5): 683-687. doi: ... Wijkander J, O'Flaherty JT, Nixon AB, Wykle RL (1995). "5-Lipoxygenase products modulate the activity of the 85-kDa ...
Main article: Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor. Drugs that inhibit the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme will inhibit the synthetic ... 1. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase ...Specific function: Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a ... arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase) or leukotriene receptor antagonist (cysteinyl leukotriene receptors) and consequently opposes the ... Leukotriene receptor antagonists, such as montelukast, zafirlukast, and pranlukast,[2] and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, like ...
In humans, the active ingredient hyperforin is also an inhibitor of PTGS1, arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, SLCO1B1 and an inducer ... It is a medicinal herb with antidepressant activity and anti-inflammatory properties as an arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase ... Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase ...Specific function: Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a ... and 5-lipoxygenase at low concentrations of 0.3 µmol/L and 1.2 µmol/L, respectively [52], and of PGE2 production in vitro [53] ...
Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type II is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALOX15B gene. ALOX15B, also known as 15- ... "Entrez Gene: ALOX15B arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, type B". Human ALOX15B genome location and ALOX15B gene details page in the ... Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase 15-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid ALOX15 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000179593 - Ensembl, May ... "Evidence that arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase 2 is a negative cell cycle regulator in normal prostate epithelial cells". The ...
First, human eosinophils use Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase-1 (or possibly Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase-2 to metabolize 5-oxo-ETE ... oxygenation of this arachidonic acid with by activated arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) to form 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6E,8Z,11Z, ... This transcellular production typically involves the limited variety of cell types that express active 5-lipoxygenase, lack ... and lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 39 (2): 180-90. doi:10.1124/dmd.110.035121. PMC 3033693 ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein also known as 5-lipoxygenase activating protein, or FLAP, is a protein that in ... Zintzaras E, Rodopoulou P, Sakellaridis N (March 2009). "Variants of the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein ( ... "Associations of genetic polymorphisms of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein with risk of coronary artery disease in ... "Cytogenetic and radiation hybrid mapping of human arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP) to chromosome 13q12 ...
Kuhn, Hartmut; Walther, Matthias; Kuban, Ralf Jürgen (2002). "Mammalian arachidonate 15-lipoxygenases". Prostaglandins & Other ... 15-Lipoxygenase 1[edit]. 15-lipoxygenase 1 (ALOX15), while best known for converting the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, ... 15-lipoxygenase 2[edit]. 15-lipoxygenase type 2 (ALOX15B) strongly prefers arachidonic acid over linoleic acid and in ... and 15-lipoxygenase-2, and selected metabolites of the latter lipoxygenases show no such association.[66][67][68] Similarly ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase Leukotriene 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid Greene ER, Huang S, Serhan ... The primary product of the lipoxygenase, 15-HPETE is believed to react with the enzyme further to produce the 14,15-epoxide, ... Claesson HE (September 2009). "On the biosynthesis and biological role of eoxins and 15-lipoxygenase-1 in airway inflammation ... Forsell PK, Brunnström A, Johannesson M, Claesson HE (2012). "Metabolism of anandamide into eoxamides by 15-lipoxygenase-1 and ...
... arachidonate lipoxygenase 3". Schneider C, Brash AR (August 2002). "Lipoxygenase-catalyzed formation of R-configuration ... Epidermis-type lipoxygenase 3 (ALOXE3 or eLOX3) is a member of the lipoxygenase family of enzymes; in humans, it is encoded by ... The epidermis-type lipoxygenases are now regarded as a distinct subclass within the multigene family of mammalian lipoxygenases ... Among the human lipoxygenases, ALOXE3 is most closely (54% identity) related in amino acid sequence to ALOX12B. ALOXE3, ALOX12B ...
Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase (processes essential fatty acids to leukotrienes, which are important agents in the inflammatory ... 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2017-03-04. "Search results - 10[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND ("has ccds"[Properties] AND alive[ ... 2017-05-12. Retrieved 2017-05-19. "Chromosome 10: Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". Ensembl Release 88. 2017-03-29. Retrieved ... 90 (1-2): 1-12. doi:10.1159/000015653. PMID 11060438. Gilbert F (2001). "Chromosome 10". Genet Test. 5 (1): 69-82. doi:10.1089/ ...
... by the arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase-1-based or arachidonate 15-lipoxygenased-2-based metabolism of 5-oxo-ETE; and f) conversion ... also termed arachidonate-5-lipoxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LO, and 5-LOX). ALOX5 metabolizes arachidonic acid to its ... 12-Lipoxygenase (i.e. ALOX12) to metabolize 5(S)-HETE to 5(S),12(S)-diHETE. The activity of this product has not yet been fully ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase has been identified as playing a significant role in the survival of prostate cancer cells. ... In particular, arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors produce massive, rapid programmed cell death in prostate cancer cells. ... Ghosh J, Myers CE (October 1998). "Inhibition of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase triggers massive apoptosis in human prostate ... The 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathway is implicated in the development and progression of human cancers. 5-LOX, whose crystal ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase has been identified as playing a significant role in the survival of prostate cancer cells.[186][ ... arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors produce massive, rapid programmed cell death in prostate cancer cells.[186][187][188] ... "Inhibition of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase triggers massive apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. ... The 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathway is implicated in the development and progression of human cancers. 5-LOX, whose crystal ...
Main article: Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor. Drugs that inhibit the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme will inhibit the synthetic ... 1. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase ...Specific function: Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a ... arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase) or leukotriene receptor antagonist (cysteinyl leukotriene receptors) and consequently opposes the ... Leukotriene receptor antagonists, such as montelukast, zafirlukast, and pranlukast,[2] and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, like ...
Other lipoxygenases-8-LO, 12-LO and 15-LO-make other eicosanoid-like products. To act, 5-LO uses the nuclear-membrane enzyme 5- ... Phinney, SD; RS Odin; SB Johnson & RT Holman (March 1, 1990). "Reduced arachidonate in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl ... Lipoxygenase oxidation removes no C=C double bonds, and leads to the LK. After oxidation, the eicosanoids are further modified ... DGLA and EPA compete with AA for access to the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes. So the presence of DGLA and EPA in ...
Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase) Homo sapiens, Authors: Sreeparna Banerjee, Asli Erdog. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... Arachidonate lipoxygenase (ALOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) polymorphisms and colon cancer risk.. Goodman JE, Bowman ED, Chanock ... lipoxygenases together with 5-lipoxygenase are also particularly high in tumours from patients who died of breast cancer. ... arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase activity iron ion binding protein binding cytoplasm cytosol cytosol aging positive regulation of ...
OMIM: ARACHIDONATE 12-OXIDOREDUCTASE; ALOX12*Gene Ontology: Alox12 *Mouse Phenome DB: Alox12 *UCSC: Chr.11:70,241,455- ... arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase. Synonyms: 9930022G08Rik, Alox12p, P-12LO. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, and ... Vega: OTTMUSG6035 (Alox12, arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase)*CCDS: 24942, 24942.1* ...
The role of lipoxygenases in epidermis.. 23621129. 2013. Non-syndromic autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis in the Israeli ... Lipoxygenases mediate the effect of essential fatty acid in skin barrier formation: a proposed role in releasing omega- ... This review covers the background to discovery of the two key lipoxygenases (LOX) involved in epidermal barrier function, 12R- ... It was shown that 12R-lipoxygenase is involved in MUC5AC expression via ERK- and Sp1-signalling pathways.. ...
Arachidonate lipoxygenases add oxygen molecules at different locations on the arachidonic acid molecule, producing a variety of ... This enzyme is part of a family of enzymes called arachidonate lipoxygenases. Most of these enzymes help add an oxygen molecule ... arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Printable PDF Open All Close All ... OMIM: ARACHIDONATE 12-LIPOXYGENASE, R TYPE. *. Eckl KM, Krieg P, Küster W, Traupe H, André F, Wittstruck N, Fürstenberger G, ...
Linoleate 9S-lipoxygenase 2. Solanum tuberosum (Potato). Loading... O35936 Arachidonate 8S-lipoxygenase. Mus musculus (Mouse). ... Manganese lipoxygenase. Magnaporthe oryzae (strain 70-15 / ATCC MYA-4617 / FGSC 8958) (Rice blast fungus). Loading... ...
1999) Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase isozymes. Adv Exp Med Biol 447:37-44. ... Growth Cone Collapse Induced by Semaphorin 3A Requires 12/15-Lipoxygenase. Keith Mikule, Jesse C. Gatlin, Becky A. de la ... Growth Cone Collapse Induced by Semaphorin 3A Requires 12/15-Lipoxygenase. Keith Mikule, Jesse C. Gatlin, Becky A. de la ... Sema3A and 12(S)-HETE treatment of DRG growth cones causes a loss of adhesive area. IRM images were taken before (left) and ...
Nugteren, D. H. (1975). "Arachidonate lipoxygenase in blood platelets". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 380 (2): 299-307. doi: ... Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1, 15-LOX-1, ALOX15), which is expressed in far more tissues that ALOX12, metabolizes ... sequence indetity to mouse Arachidonate 8-lipoxygenase. Mouse e-12LO metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly to 12(S)-HETE ... "Arachidonate dilates basilar artery by lipoxygenase-dependent mechanism and activation of K(+) channels". American Journal of ...
ARACHIDONATE LIPOXYGENASE 3; ALOXE3. 607800. ATP-BINDING CASSETTE, SUBFAMILY A, MEMBER 12; ABCA12. ... The twelve genes known to be associated with ARCI are ABCA12, ALOX12B, ALOXE3, CASP14, CERS3, CYP4F22, LIPN, NIPAL4, PNPLA1, ... Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R-type. ALOX12B database. ALOX12B. ALOX12B. ALOXE3. 17p13. ​.1. Hydroperoxide isomerase ALOXE3 ... Normal gene product. The protein product of ALOX12B, the enzyme arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R-type (12R-LOX), has 701 amino ...
Buy our Recombinant Human 12 Lipoxygenase protein. Ab112250 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been ... Arachidonate 12 lipoxygenase, 12S type. *Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase. *Arachidonate 12-oxidoreductase. *Lipoxin synthase 12-LO ... Belongs to the lipoxygenase family.. Contains 1 lipoxygenase domain.. Contains 1 PLAT domain. ... Recombinant Human 12 Lipoxygenase protein. See all 12 Lipoxygenase proteins and peptides. ...
Twelve artemisinin-based compounds and scopoletin have been included in the analysis. None of the compounds were commonly found ... Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase RNA. Inflammation, carcinogenesis, membrane remodeling. 0.399. GC32483. M32313. SRD5A1. Steroid-5- ... Yang, Y.F.; Xu, W.; Song, W.; Ye, M.; Yang, X.W. Transport of twelve coumarins from angelicae pubescentis radix across a mdck- ... Genome Biol. 2011, 12, R83. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]. *Berman, H.M.; Westbrook, J.; Feng, Z.; Gilliland, G.; Bhat, ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal 12 Lipoxygenase antibody [EPR11380(B)] validated for WB and tested in Human and Rat. Immunogen ... Arachidonate 12 lipoxygenase antibody. *Arachidonate 12 lipoxygenase, 12S type antibody. *Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase antibody ... Belongs to the lipoxygenase family.. Contains 1 lipoxygenase domain.. Contains 1 PLAT domain. ... All lanes : Anti-12 Lipoxygenase antibody [EPR11380(B)] (ab168384) at 1/1000 dilution. Lane 1 : A431 lysate. Lane 2 : Human ...
EC 1.13.11.33 (arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase) inhibitor A lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with the action of arachidonate ... baicalein (CHEBI:2979) has role EC 1.13.11.33 (arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase) inhibitor (CHEBI:64996) baicalein (CHEBI:2979) has ... A lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with the action of arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.11.31). ... baicalein (CHEBI:2979) has role EC 1.13.11.31 (arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase) inhibitor (CHEBI:64995) ...
arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type. 98 203575_at. casein kinase 2, alpha prime polypeptide. ... 12. (canceled) 13. (canceled) 14. The method of claim 6, wherein the method further comprises taking a biopsy of the target ... 12. 224570_s_at. interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2. 13. 224571_at. interferon regulatory factor 2 binding ...
Formation of the mammalian skin barrier requires both the essential fatty acid linoleate and the two lipoxygenases 12R- ... lipoxygenase (12R-LOX) and epidermal lipoxygenase-3 (eLOX3), alth ... EC 1.13.11.31/Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase Comments/Corrections ... Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase / genetics, metabolism*. Ceramides / genetics, metabolism*. Epidermis / metabolism*. Fatty Acids, ... Lipoxygenases mediate the effect of essential fatty acid in skin barrier formation: a proposed role in releasing omega- ...
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, also known as ALOX5, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, or 5-LO, is a non-heme iron-containing enzyme (EC 1.13 ... that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5 gene.[5] Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase is a member of the lipoxygenase family of enzymes. ... "Alox5 - arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase". WikiGenes.. *^ Fahel JS, de Souza MB, Gomes MT, Corsetti PP, Carvalho NB, Marinho FA, de ... arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase activity. • dioxygenase activity. • metal ion binding. • protein binding. • oxidoreductase activity ...
Arachidonate lipoxygenase 3. Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (bullous ichthyosis, bCIE) ...
ALOXE3: arachidonate lipoxygenase 3. *ALPL: alkaline phosphatase, biomineralization associated. *ALS2: ALS2, alsin Rho guanine ...
ALOX15B; arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, type B [KO:K08022] [EC:1.13.11.- 1.13.11.33]. ... ALOX12; arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12S type [KO:K00458] [EC:1.13.11.31]. 242 ALOX12B; arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type ... Identification of the 11,14,15- and 11,12, 15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids as endothelium-derived relaxing factors of rabbit ...
Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... ALOX15 (Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ALOX15 include Asthma, Nasal Polyps, ... arachidonate-15-lipoxygenase,lipid peroxidating enzyme implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders as well as ... Orally active 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) inhibitor. 128253-31-6. BW-B 70C. 5-Lipoxygenase inhibitor. 134470-38-5 ...
Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type, also known as ALOX12B, 12R-LOX, and arachiconate lipoygenase 3, is a lipoxygenase-type ... Among the human lipoxygenases, ALOX12B is most closely (54% identity) related in amino acid sequence to ALOXE3 ALOX12B ... The gene is located on chromosome 17 at position 13.1 where it forms a cluster with two other lipoxygenases, ALOXE3 and ALOX15B ... Muñoz-Garcia A, Thomas CP, Keeney DS, Zheng Y, Brash AR (March 2014). "The importance of the lipoxygenase-hepoxilin pathway in ...
Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (w-6 lipoxygenase) from human leukocytes. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:5328-5332. ... Immunohistochemical study on arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase in porcine leukocytes and other tissues. J Histochem Cytochem. 1991;39 ... Related expression of arachidonate 12- and 15-lipoxygenases in animal and human lung tissue. Am J Physiol. 1991;261:L399-L405. ... 5-Lipoxygenase and human pulmonary artery endothelial cell proliferation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;282:H585-H593. ...
Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase Inhibitors (0) see Lipoxygenase Inhibitors. Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitors (0) see ... Lipoxygenase Inhibitors. Aromatase Inhibitors (10) • Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of ... Amebicides (12) • Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal ...
Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase Inhibitors (0) see Lipoxygenase Inhibitors. Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitors (0) see ... Lipoxygenase Inhibitors. Aromatase Inhibitors (10) • Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of ...
  • In view of platelet-leukocyte interactions and potent chemotactic activity of 12-HETE for aortic smooth muscle cell migration, increased 12-lipoxygenase activity may predispose individuals to atherosclerosis, thromboembolism and emphysema commonly found in smokers. (elsevier.com)
  • Calcium dependency of aortic smooth muscle cell migration induced by 12-l-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid. (elsevier.com)
  • It has been reported that 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE), the lipoxygenase product of AA, is able to inhibit both thromboxane synthase (Hammarström and Falardeau, 1977) and platelet diglyceride lipase (Rittenhouse-Simmons, 1980). (springer.com)
  • Thromboxane A synthase 1 (platelet) ( THAS ) forms 12-hydroxyheptadeca-5,8,10-trienoic acid and malonic dialdehyde as a byproduct, Thromboxane A(,2 ) [ 38 ], [ 39 ] and Thromboxane B2 . (bio-rad.com)
  • Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase (12-LOX) is one of several LOX isoforms that has iron as a cofactor and oxygenates polyunsaturated fatty acids. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Lipoxygenases mediate the effect of essential fatty acid in skin barrier formation: a proposed role in releasing omega-hydroxyceramide for construction of the corneocyte lipid envelope. (nih.gov)
  • Arachidonate lipoxygenases add oxygen molecules at different locations on the arachidonic acid molecule, producing a variety of substances called fatty acid hydroperoxides. (nih.gov)
  • 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) is a derivative of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, containing a Hydroxyl residue at carbon 12 and a 5Z,8Z,10E,14Z Cis-trans isomerism configuration (Z=cis, E=trans) in its four double bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • When platelets are aggregated by some of these agents such as thrombin or collagen, polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly arachidonic acid) are liberated from membrane phospholipids and then subsequently oxygenated via cyclooxygenase and/or lipoxygenase. (springer.com)
  • The PUFA precursors to the eicosanoids include: Arachidonic acid (AA), i.e. 5Z, 8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid is ω-6 fatty acid, with four double bonds in the cis configuration (see Cis-trans isomerism) each located between carbons 5-6, 8-9, 11,-12, and 14-15. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), 8Z, 11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid is an ω-6 fatty acid with three cis double bonds, each located between carbons 8-9, 11,-12, and 14-15. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, various phospholipase A2s and diacylglycerol lipases are activated during cell stimulation, proceed to release these fatty acids from their storage sites, and thereby are key regulators in the formation of lipoxygenase-dependent metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arachidonic acid ( AA ), i.e. 5 Z , 8 Z ,11 Z ,14 Z -eicosatetraenoic acid is ω-6 fatty acid, with four double bonds in the cis configuration (see Cis-trans isomerism ) each located between carbons 5-6, 8-9, 11-12, and 14-15. (wikipedia.org)
  • Omega 3 fatty acids inhibit tumor growth by a number of mechanisms including suppression of COX-2 expression and, for EPA at least, the alternative substrate produces different cyclooxygenase (PGE 3 ) and lipoxygenase (LTB 5 ) products that have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. (hindawi.com)
  • Lipoxygenases catalyze the conversion of poly-unsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane-mainly arachidonic acid and linoleic acid-to produce oxidized pro-inflammatory lipid intermediates. (elsevier.com)
  • It is also related (30.4% amino acid sequence identity) to the recently defined receptor, GPR31, for the hydroxyl-carboxy fatty acid 12-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the lipoxygenase family of structurally related nonheme iron dioxygenases involved in the production of fatty acid hydroperoxides. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5-HEDH has relatively little ability to oxidize 5(S)-hydroxyl-tetradecadienoic acid, the R stereoisomer of 5(S)-HETE (5(R)-HETE), or a racemic mixture of 8-HETE, and does not oxidize 12(S)-HETE, 15(S)-HETE, leukotriene B4, a racemate mixture of 9-HETE, a racemate mixture of 11-HETE, or a 5(S)-hydroxy-6-trans 12 carbon dienoic fatty acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sub-human primates, although not extensively examined, appear to have 12-lipoxygenase expression patterns that resemble those of sub-primate mammals or humans depending on the closeness of there genetic relateness to these species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hambrecht GS, Adesuyi SA, Holt S, Ellis EF (1987) Brain 12 - HETE formation in different species, brain regions, and in brain microvessels. (springer.com)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L) selectively induces apoptosis in various cancer cells in vitro and in vivo , with little or no toxicity in normal cells ( 9 - 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specifically, 12(S)-HETE enhanced the activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters, mimicked phorbol ester-induced adhesion of keratinocytes to fibronectin and mimicked phorbol ester repression of expression of a differentiation-related gene, keratin-1. (glycosciences.de)
  • ALOX12B is also capable of metabolizing free linoleic acid to 9(R)-hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (9R-HpODE) which is also rapidly converted to its hydroxyl derivative, 9-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9R-HODE). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to arachidonic acid, ALOX12B metabolizes linoleic acid (LA) to 9(R)-hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (9R-HpODE): LA + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 9R-HpODE. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, molecular oxygen (O2) is added to carbon 12 of arachidonic acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid) and concurrently the 8Z double bond in this arachidonate moves to the 9E position to form the intermediate product, 12S-hydroperoxy-5Z,8Z,10E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 12S-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid or 12S-HpETE). (wikipedia.org)