AraC Transcription Factor: A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that positively and negatively regulates the expression of proteins required for the uptake and catabolism of L-ARABINOSE.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.ArabinoseSp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.

Binding site recognition by Rns, a virulence regulator in the AraC family. (1/134)

The expression of CS1 pili by enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli is regulated at the transcriptional level and requires the virulence regulator Rns, a member of the AraC family of regulatory proteins. Rns binds at two separate sites upstream of Pcoo (the promoter of CS1 pilin genes), which were identified in vitro with an MBP::Rns fusion protein in gel mobility and DNase I footprinting assays. At each site, Rns recognizes asymmetric nucleotide sequences in two regions of the major groove and binds along one face of the DNA helix. Both binding sites are required for activation of Pcoo in vivo, because mutagenesis of either site significantly reduced the level of expression from this promoter. Thus, Rns regulates the expression of CS1 pilin genes directly, not via a regulatory cascade. Analysis of Rns-nucleotide interactions at each site suggests that binding sites for Rns and related virulence regulators are not easily identified because they do not bind palindromic or repeated sequences. A strategy to identify asymmetric binding sites is presented and applied to locate potential binding sites upstream of other genes that Rns can activate, including those encoding the CS2 and CFA/I pili of enterotoxigenic E. coli and the global regulator virB of Shigella flexneri.  (+info)

InvF is required for expression of genes encoding proteins secreted by the SPI1 type III secretion apparatus in Salmonella typhimurium. (2/134)

The expression of genes encoding proteins secreted by the SPI1 (Salmonella pathogenicity island) type III secretion apparatus is known to require the transcriptional activators SirA and HilA. However, neither SirA nor HilA is believed to directly activate the promoters of these genes. invF, the first gene of the inv-spa gene cluster, is predicted to encode an AraC-type transcriptional activator and is required for invasion into cultured epithelial cells. However, the genes which are regulated by InvF have not been identified. In this work, an in-frame deletion in invF was constructed and tested for the expression of Phi(sigD-lacZYA), sipC::Tn5lacZY, and a plasmid-encoded Phi(sicA-lacZYA). SigD (Salmonella invasion gene) is a secreted protein required for the efficient invasion of Salmonella typhimurium into cultured eucaryotic cells. sicA (Salmonella invasion chaperone) is the first gene of a putative operon encoding the Sip/Ssp (Salmonella invasion/Salmonella secreted proteins) invasion proteins secreted by the SPI1 type III export apparatus. invF was required for the expression of the sigD, sicA, and sipC fusions. This is the first demonstration that there is a functional promoter in the intergenic sequence between spaS and sicA. In addition, several proteins were either absent from or found in reduced amounts in the culture supernatants of the invF mutant. Therefore, invF is required for the optimal expression of several genes encoding SPI1-secreted proteins. Genetic evidence is also presented suggesting there is HilA-dependent readthrough transcription from the invF promoter at least through sipC.  (+info)

Amino acid-DNA contacts by RhaS: an AraC family transcription activator. (3/134)

RhaS, an AraC family protein, activates rhaBAD transcription by binding to rhaI, a site consisting of two 17-bp inverted repeat half-sites. In this work, amino acids in RhaS that make base-specific contacts with rhaI were identified. Sequence similarity with AraC suggested that the first contacting motif of RhaS was a helix-turn-helix. Assays of rhaB-lacZ activation by alanine mutants within this potential motif indicated that residues 201, 202, 205, and 206 might contact rhaI. The second motif was identified based on the hypothesis that a region of especially high amino acid similarity between RhaS and RhaR (another AraC family member) might contact the nearly identical DNA sequences in one major groove of their half-sites. We first made targeted, random mutations and then made alanine substitutions within this region of RhaS. Our analysis identified residues 247, 248, 250, 252, 253, and 254 as potentially important for DNA binding. A genetic loss-of-contact approach was used to identify whether any of the RhaS amino acids in the first or second contacting motif make base-specific DNA contacts. In motif 1, we found that Arg202 and Arg206 both make specific contacts with bp -65 and -67 in rhaI1, and that Arg202 contacts -46 and Arg206 contacts -48 in rhaI2. In motif 2, we found that Asp250 and Asn252 both contact the bp -79 in rhaI1. Alignment with the recently crystallized MarA protein suggest that both RhaS motifs are likely helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motifs.  (+info)

The 17-gene ethanolamine (eut) operon of Salmonella typhimurium encodes five homologues of carboxysome shell proteins. (4/134)

The eut operon of Salmonella typhimurium encodes proteins involved in the cobalamin-dependent degradation of ethanolamine. Previous genetic analysis revealed six eut genes that are needed for aerobic use of ethanolamine; one (eutR), encodes a positive regulator which mediates induction of the operon by vitamin B12 plus ethanolamine. The DNA sequence of the eut operon included 17 genes, suggesting a more complex pathway than that revealed genetically. We have correlated an open reading frame in the sequence with each of the previously identified genes. Nonpolar insertion and deletion mutations made with the Tn10-derived transposable element T-POP showed that at least 10 of the 11 previously undetected eut genes have no Eut phenotype under the conditions tested. Of the dispensable eut genes, five encode apparent homologues of proteins that serve (in other organisms) as shell proteins of the carboxysome. This bacterial organelle, found in photosynthetic and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, may contribute to CO2 fixation by concentrating CO2 and excluding oxygen. The presence of these homologues in the eut operon of Salmonella suggests that CO2 fixation may be a feature of ethanolamine catabolism in Salmonella.  (+info)

Functional domains of the TOL plasmid transcription factor XylS. (5/134)

The alkylbenzoate degradation genes of Pseudomonas putida TOL plasmid are positively regulated by XylS, an AraC family protein, in a benzoate-dependent manner. In this study, we used deletion mutants and hybrid proteins to identify which parts of XylS are responsible for the DNA binding, transcriptional activation, and benzoate inducibility. We found that a 112-residue C-terminal fragment of XylS binds specifically to the Pm operator in vitro, protects this sequence from DNase I digestion identically to the wild-type (wt) protein, and activates the Pm promoter in vivo. When overexpressed, that C-terminal fragment could activate transcription as efficiently as wt XylS. All the truncations, which incorporated these 112 C-terminal residues, were able to activate transcription at least to some extent when overproduced. Intactness of the 210-residue N-terminal portion was found to be necessary for benzoate responsiveness of XylS. Deletions in the N-terminal and central regions seriously reduced the activity of XylS and caused the loss of effector control, whereas insertions into the putative interdomain region did not change the basic features of the XylS protein. Our results confirm that XylS consists of two parts which probably interact with each other. The C-terminal domain carries DNA-binding and transcriptional activation abilities, while the N-terminal region carries effector-binding and regulatory functions.  (+info)

Cooperative action of the catabolite activator protein and AraC in vitro at the araFGH promoter. (6/134)

Full activation of transcription of the araFGH promoter, p(FGH), requires both the catabolite activator protein (CAP) and AraC protein. At p(FGH), the binding site for CAP is centered at position -41.5, an essential binding site for AraC is centered at position -79.5, and a second, nonessential binding site is centered at position -154.5. In this work, we used the minimal promoter region required for in vivo activation of p(FGH) to examine the roles of CAP and AraC in stimulating formation of open complexes at p(FGH). Migration retardation assays of open complexes showed that RNA polymerase binds exceptionally tightly to the AraC-CAP-p(FGH) complex and that the order of addition of proteins to the initiating complex is important. Similar assays with RNA polymerase containing truncated alpha subunits suggest that AraC interacts with the C-terminal domain of the alpha subunit. Finally, AraC protein also acts to prevent the improper binding of RNA polymerase at a pseudo promoter near the true p(FGH) promoter.  (+info)

Mutational analysis of the highly conserved C-terminal residues of the XylS protein, a member of the AraC family of transcriptional regulators. (7/134)

The XylS protein of the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida belongs to the so-called AraC/XylS family of regulators, that includes more than 100 different bacterial proteins. A conserved stretch of about 100 amino acids is present at the C-terminal end. This conserved region is believed to contain seven alpha-helices, including two helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding motifs (alpha(2)-T-alpha(3) and alpha(5)-Talpha-(6)), connected by a linker alpha-helix (alpha(4)), and two flanking alpha-helices (alpha(1) and alpha(7)). The second HTH motif is the region with the highest homology in the proteins of the family, with certain residues showing almost 90% identity. We have constructed XylS single mutants in the most conserved residues and have analysed their ability to stimulate transcription from its cognate promoter, Pm, fused to 'lacZ. The analysis revealed that mutations in the alpha(5)-helix conserved residues had little effect on the XylS transcriptional activity, whereas the distribution of polarity in the alpha(6)-helix was important for the activity. The strongest effect of the mutations was observed in conserved residues located outside the DNA binding domain, namely, Gly-290 in the turn between the two helices, Pro-309 located downstream of alpha(6), and Leu-313, in the small last helix alpha(7), that seems to play an important role in the activation of RNA-polymerase. Our analysis shows that conservation of amino acids in the family reflects structural requirements rather than functionality in specific DNA interactions.  (+info)

Recognition of overlapping nucleotides by AraC and the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase. (8/134)

The Escherichia coli promoter p(BAD), under the control of the AraC protein, drives the expression of mRNA encoding the AraB, AraA, and AraD gene products of the arabinose operon. The binding site of AraC at p(BAD) overlaps the RNA polymerase -35 recognition region by 4 bases, leaving 2 bases of the region not contacted by AraC. This overlap raises the question of whether AraC substitutes for the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase in recognition of the -35 region or whether both AraC and sigma make important contacts with the DNA in the -35 region. If sigma does not contact DNA near the -35 region, p(BAD) activity should be independent of the identity of the bases in the hexamer region that are not contacted by AraC. We have examined this issue in the p(BAD) promoter and in a second promoter where the AraC binding site overlaps the -35 region by only 2 bases. In both cases promoter activity is sensitive to changes in bases not contacted by AraC, showing that despite the overlap, sigma does read DNA in the -35 region. Since sigma and AraC are thus closely positioned at p(BAD), it is possible that AraC and sigma contact one another during transcription initiation. DNA migration retardation assays, however, showed that there exists only a slight degree of DNA binding cooperativity between AraC and sigma, thus suggesting either that the normal interactions between AraC and sigma are weak or that the presence of the entire RNA polymerase is necessary for significant interaction.  (+info)

AraC Transcription Factor: A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that positively and negatively regulates the expression of proteins required for the uptake and catabolism of L-ARABINOSE.
pbad/his A, B, and C pbad/myc-his A, B, and C Vectors for Dose-Dependent Expression of Recombinant Proteins Containing N- or C-Terminal 6 His Tags in E. coli Catalog nos. V430-01, V Version J 29
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Transcription factor that regulates the expression of several genes involved in the transport and metabolism of L-arabinose (PubMed:4362626, PubMed:328165, PubMed:6251457, PubMed:2962192, PubMed:6319708, PubMed:2231717, PubMed:1447222). Functions both as a positive and a negative regulator (PubMed:328165, PubMed:6251457). In the presence of arabinose, activates the expression of the araBAD, araE, araFGH and araJ promoters (PubMed:4362626, PubMed:328165, PubMed:6251457, PubMed:2962192, PubMed:6319708, PubMed:2231717, PubMed:1447222). In the absence of arabinose, negatively regulates the araBAD operon (PubMed:6251457). Represses its own transcription (PubMed:328165). Acts by binding directly to DNA (PubMed:4943786, PubMed:6251457, PubMed:2962192, PubMed:2531226, PubMed:1447222).
convert-matrix -v 1 -from transfac -i GadW.1nt_upstream-noorf-ovlp-2str.20.cons_quality_logo ; Input files ; input GadW.1nt_upstream-noorf-ovlp-2str.20.cons_quality_matrix.tf ; prior GadW.1nt_upstream-noorf-ovlp-2str.20.cons_quality1nt_upstream-noorf_Escherichia_coli_K_12_substr__MG1655_uid57779-ovlp-1str.freq.gz_inclusive.tab ; Input format transfac ; Output files ; output GadW.1nt_upstream-noorf-ovlp-2str.20.cons_quality_matrix_info.txt ; Output format tab ; pseudo-weight 1 ; Background model ; Bernoulli model (order=0) ; Strand undef ; Background pseudo-frequency 0.01 ; Residue probabilities ; a 0.29063 ; c 0.20784 ; g 0.20492 ; t 0.29662 A 6 3 5 14 0 6 0 4 9 9 0 8 3 3 9 4 9 11 7 5 C 11 1 1 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 7 3 1 3 1 0 4 6 0 0 G 0 3 9 0 0 3 4 0 4 0 0 5 2 2 1 3 0 0 2 8 T 0 10 2 3 16 7 11 13 4 8 10 1 11 9 6 10 4 0 8 4 // a 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.8 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.3 c 0.6 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 g 0.0 0.2 0.5 ...
C - Tilt: 0° - Segments: 1( 10- 28), 2( 39- 59), 3( 83- 107), 4( 126- 149), 5( 158- 178), 6( 192- 216), 7( 220- 237), 8( 243- 262 ...
Plasmid pBAD/HisD-rsTagRFP from Dr. Vladislav Verkhushas lab contains the insert rsTagRFP and is published in Chem Biol. 2010 Jul 30;17(7):745-55. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Gade, A., Gerlach, C., Starrfelt, R., & Pedersen, P.M. (Red.) (2009). Klinisk neuropsykologi. København: Frydenlund, kap. 14: Forstyrrelser i motivation og målrettet adfærd Forstyrrelser i motivation og målrettet adfærd Apati: i klinisk forstand er mangel på motivation, som giver sig udslag i nedsat evne til at handle. føle og danne tanker, selvom der ikke er…
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The Millicell-ERS-2 (Electrical Resistance System) voltohmmeter for cell analysis reliably measures membrane potential and resistance of epithelial cells in culture .
N. Dunkel, T. Hertlein, R. Franz, O. Reuss, C. Sasse, T. Schäfer, K. Ohlsen, J. Morschhäuser; Role of different peptide transporters in nutrient acquisition in Candida albicans. Eukaryot Cell 2013. doi:10.1128/EC.00008-13 C. Sasse, R. Schillig, A. Reimund, J. Merk, J. Morschhäuser; Inducible and constitutive activation of two polymorphic promoter alleles of the Candida albicans multidrug efflux pump MDR1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012. doi:10.1128/AAC.00264-12 C. Sasse, N. Dunkel, T. Schafer, S. Schneider, F. Dierolf, K. Ohlsen, J. Morschhäuser; The stepwise acquisition of fluconazole resistance mutations causes a gradual loss of fitness in Candida albicans. Mol Microbiol 2012, 86, 539-556. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08210.x Schubert S, Popp C, Rogers PD, Morschhäuser J, 2011, Functional dissection of a Candida albicans zinc cluster transcription factor, the multidrug resistance regulator Mrr1. Eukaryot. Cell, published ahead of print on 17 June 2011, doi:10.1128/EC.05100-11. Schubert ...
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Prof. Stephen W. Teitsworths research centers on experimental, computational, and theoretical studies of deterministic and stochastic nonlinear electronic transport in nanoscale systems. Three particular areas of current interest are: 1) stochastic nonlinear electronic transport phenomena in semiconductor superlattices and tunnel diode arrays; 2) complex bifurcations associated with the deterministic dynamics of electronic transport in negative differential resistance systems; and 3) strategies for stabilizing negative differential resistance systems against the formation of space-charge waves.. ...
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PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Arao, T., Ueshima, K., Matsumoto, K., Nagai, T., Kimura, H., Hagiwara, S., Sakurai, T., Haji, S., Kanazawa, A., Hidaka, H., Iso, Y., Kubota, K., Shimada, M., Utsunomiya, T., Hirooka, M., Hiasa, Y., Toyoki, Y., Hakamada, K., Yasui, K., Kumada, T., Toyoda, H., Sato, S., Hisai, H., Kuzuya, T., Tsuchiya, K., Izumi, N., Arii, S., Nishio, K. and Kudo, M. (2013), FGF3/FGF4 amplification and multiple lung metastases in responders to sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology, 57: 1407-1415. doi: 10.1002/hep.25956 ...
Fishpond Australia, Hyper Bio Assembler for 3D Cellular Systems: 2015 by Tatsuo Arai (Edited ) Fumihito Arai (Edited )Buy . Books online: Hyper Bio Assembler for 3D Cellular Systems: 2015, 2015, Fishpond.com.au
The subsequent equations model the probability of active complex for each element in our circuit. PBAD represents the probability that the pBAD promoter will be unbound by araC and thus active. PTET represents the probability that the pTET promoter will be unbound by tetR and thus active. PRiboswitch expresses the probability that the riboswitch is bound by theophylline, and thus active. For simplicity, it has been modeled here as an activator-controlled promoter. PTale Binding Site, which may be abbreviated to PTBS expresses the probability that the TALe binding site is unbound by the TAL repressor, and thus active ...
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The nice folks at TeleNav have done a series of video interviews with prominent tech sites and bloggers. At CTIA this year, they had a chance to catch up with our own Lisa Gade and chat with her about mobile trends, her favorite devices and everything mobile ...
In plant effector-triggered immunity (ETI), intracellular nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) receptors are activated by specific pathogen effectors. The ArabidopsisTIR (Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor domain)-NLR (denoted TNL) gene pair, RPS4 and RRS1, confers resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 expressing the Type III-secreted effector, AvrRps4. Nuclear accumulation of AvrRps4, RPS4, and the TNL resistance regulator EDS1 is necessary for ETI. RRS1 possesses a C-terminal "WRKY" transcription factor DNA binding domain suggesting that important RPS4/RRS1 recognition and/or resistance signaling events occur at the nuclear chromatin. In Arabidopsis accession Ws-0, the RPS4Ws/RRS1Ws allelic pair governs resistance to Pst/AvrRps4 accompanied by host programed cell death (pcd). In accession Col-0, RPS4Col/RRS1Col effectively limits Pst/AvrRps4 growth without pcd. Constitutive expression of HA-StrepII tagged RPS4Col (in a 35S:RPS4-HS line) confers ...
In plant effector-triggered immunity (ETI), intracellular nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) receptors are activated by specific pathogen effectors. The ArabidopsisTIR (Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor domain)-NLR (denoted TNL) gene pair, RPS4 and RRS1, confers resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 expressing the Type III-secreted effector, AvrRps4. Nuclear accumulation of AvrRps4, RPS4, and the TNL resistance regulator EDS1 is necessary for ETI. RRS1 possesses a C-terminal "WRKY" transcription factor DNA binding domain suggesting that important RPS4/RRS1 recognition and/or resistance signaling events occur at the nuclear chromatin. In Arabidopsis accession Ws-0, the RPS4Ws/RRS1Ws allelic pair governs resistance to Pst/AvrRps4 accompanied by host programed cell death (pcd). In accession Col-0, RPS4Col/RRS1Col effectively limits Pst/AvrRps4 growth without pcd. Constitutive expression of HA-StrepII tagged RPS4Col (in a 35S:RPS4-HS line) confers ...
Transcriptional activation of quinoline degradation operons of Pseudomonas putida 86 by the AraC/XylS-type regulator OxoS and cross-regulation of the PqorM promoter by XylS
This trial will compare the efficacy and tolerability of cytarabine [cytosine arabinoside] with or without laromustine [Cloretazine, VNP40101M] in patients with
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The ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of membrane transporters is one of the largest protein classes known, and counts numerous proteins involved in the trafficking of biological molecules across
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J:200656 Mead TJ, Wang Q, Bhattaram P, Dy P, Afelik S, Jensen J, Lefebvre V, A far-upstream (-70 kb) enhancer mediates Sox9 auto-regulation in somatic tissues during development and adult regeneration. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Apr;41(8):4459-69 ...
Taslimi, Parham; Aslan, Hatice Esra; Demir, Yeliz; Oztaskin, Necla; Maraş, Ahmet; Gulçin, İlhami; Beydemir, Sukru; Goksu, Suleyman (Elsevier, 2018-11) ...
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The cytocidal activity of arabinosyl-5-azacytosine (araAC) and its effect on the synthesis and methylation of DNA in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 was examined and compared with three other cytidine analogues. Treatment for 2 hr with 10(-6)M arabinosylcytosine (araC), araAC, 5-azacytidine (AZC), or 2-deoxy-5-azacytidine (dAZC) produced a 7-30% reduction in cell viability. Prolongation of drug exposure to 24 hr significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of all analogues, and particularly dAZC. AZC and dAZC were potent inhibitors of DNA methylation in the absence of inhibition of DNA synthesis, whereas araC and araAC primarily affected DNA synthesis. RNA synthesis was not affected by any of the analogues. dAZC and AZC were incorporated into DNA to a greater extent than were araC or araAC upon short- and long-term drug exposure, whereas only AZC was incorporated into RNA. These data indicate that araAC appears to behave more as an analogue of araC rather than of dAZC or AZC, wherein it ...
Increased levels of glucocorticoid receptors and enhanced glucocorticoid receptor auto-regulation after hydrocortisone challenge in B-lymphoblastoids from patients with affective disorders ...
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by Tanaka, K and Arao, T and Tamura, D and Aomatsu, K and Furuta, K and Matsumoto, K and Kaneda, H and Kudo, K and Fujita, Y and Kimura, H and Yanagihara, K and Yamada, Y and Okamoto, I and Nakagawa, K and Nishio, K and Ooki, A and Yamashita, K and Yamaguchi, K and Asayama, M and Kadowaki, S and Hara, H and Yamada-murano, T and Arima, M and Tada, M and Watanabe, M and Yamashita-Kashima, Y and Shu, S and Yorozu, K and Iwai, T and Hashizume, K and Fujimoto-Ouchi, K and Harada, N and Tamaki, T and Shimizu, T and Katashiba, Y and Mikayama, H and Nomura, S and Kobayashi, N and Lim, H. Y and Kim, H and Park, C. K and Hour, T.- C and Wu, H.- L and Chuang, S.- J and Lu, C.- Y and Huang, C.- Y and Wu, W.- J and Pu, Y.- S and Wang, S.- W and Wu, H.- H and Wang, P.- C and Chou, W.- Y and Tang, C.- H and Tan, K.- L and Gan, S.- H and Hassan, R and Abdullah, A. D and Husin, A and Baba, A. A and Ankathil, R and Nagai, T and De Velasco, M. A and Sato, A and Nogami, N and Shinkai, T and Kozuki, T and Ogino, A ...
Template_Wiki}} ==Notebook== May 25, 2010 to May 29, 2010 ,hr> ,ul> ,li>Davidson traveled to Missouri Western and further discussed project ideas,/li> ,/ul> ,br> June 1, 2010 ,hr> ,ul> ,li>Tested to find lethal concentration of Tet in plated and liquid mediums,/li> ,li>Verified RCBS with our sequences and researched codon optimization methods,/li> ,li>Analyzed probabilities for constructs A and B,/li> ,li>Learned lab protocols and organized lab ,li>Created list of needed parts and parts we need ,/ul> ,br> June 2, 2010 ,hr> ,ul> ,li>Mini prepped, diagnostic RP digest, preparative digest, ligation, pBAD+RBS-RFP ,/li> ,li>Researched different ways to optimize a gene,/li> ,li>Began simulation for Constructs A and B,/li> ,li>Learned miniprep and digestion protocols ,li>Learned how to document gels ,/ul> ,br> June 3, 2010 ,hr> ,ul> ,li>Mini prepped, diagnostic RP digest, preparative digest, ligation, pBAD+RBS-RFP ,/li> ,li>Researched restriction sites and created proposal for ...
Timothy W. Jones is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Zaman çözülmesi Mikrodalga İletkenlik aracılığıyla İnce film Fotovoltaik Malzemeler rekombinasyon Dinamikleri
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Chalhoub, B.; Allouis, S.; Šafář, Jan; Janda, Jaroslav; Bellec, A.; Sarda, X.; Arar, C.; Lefévre, A.; Rouault, P.; Pateyron, S.; Dupin, A.; Burgio, G.; Georget, C.; Sourdille, P.; Faivre-Rampant, P.; Caboche, M.; Moore, G.; Bernard, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav ...
The genus Vibrio includes serious human pathogens, such as V. vulnificus (Vv) and V. cholerae (Vc). Some species infect shellfish, such as Vibrio nigripulchritudo (Vn), which is a shrimp pathogen. Vibrio species encode PecS, a member of the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family of transcription factors. PecS is encoded by the pecS gene and expression is auto regulatory. The pecS gene is divergently oriented to pecM, which encodes an efflux pump. Vibrio species feature frequent duplication of pecS-pecM genes, which may facilitate how these species adapt from being free living motile bacteria in water columns to colonizing host tissues as biofilms to evade distinct environmental pressures. Vibrio vulnificus, commonly associated with consumption of undercooked oyster encodes a single pecS-pecM gene pair. Vv PecS was shown to bind two sites within the pecS-pecM (iSM) intergenic region with Kd = 0.3 ± 0.1 nM, a binding that is attenuated by purine ligands xanthine and urate. A unique DNA
pGLO™ & GFP Central Framework of Molecular Biology DNA RNA Protein Trait What is Transformation? • Uptake of foreign DNA, often a circular plasmid GFP Beta-lactamase Ampicillin Resistance What is a plasmid? • A circular piece of autonomously replicating DNA • Originally evolved by bacteria • May express antibiotic resistance gene or be modified to express proteins of interest Protein Size • Beta Lactamase - Ampicillin resistance • Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) - Aequorea victoria jellyfish gene • araC regulator protein - Regulates GFP transcription Transformation Procedure Day 1 Day 2 Bacterial Transformation Cell wall GFP Bacterial chromosomal DNA Beta lactamase (ampicillin resistance) pGLO plasmids Bacterial DNA Bacterial cell Plasmid DNA Genomic DNA Transcriptional Regulation • Lactose operon • Arabinose operon • pGLO plasmid Methods of Transformation • Electroporation - Electrical shock makes cell membranes permeable to DNA • Calcium Chloride/Heat-Shock - ...
A Multidisciplinary Approach to Head and Neck Neoplasms is a comprehensive how-to guide that addresses the medical and surgical treatment of the most common and challenging neoplasms in head and neck surgery. It takes a hands-on approach to describing the latest surgical techniques, including intraoperative navigation, robotic surgery, image guidance for sinus tumors, and endoscopic skull base procedures. This book will be the reference of choice for residents and fellows, experienced otolaryngologists, and head and neck surgeons ...
Akaike, Y; Arai, Y; Taguchi, H; and Satoh, H, "Effect of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-isobutyl-3-(beta-maltosyl)-1- -nitrosourea on experimental tumors." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3216 ...
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Holland, Janet (2008) Timescapes: An ESRC Qualitative Longitudinal study 2. In: NCRM Research Methods Festival 2008, 30th June - 3rd July 2008, St Catherines College, Oxford. (Unpublished) ...
On Sept. 26, 2002, the F.B.I. called Project A-O and told the Canadian police that Mr. Arar was scheduled to arrive in about one hour from Zurich. The F.B.I. also said it planned to question Mr. Arar and then send him back to Switzerland. Responding to a fax from the F.B.I., the Mounted Police provided the American investigators with a list of questions for Mr. Arar. Like the other information, it included many false claims about Mr. Arar, the commission found.. The Canadian police "had no idea of what would eventually transpire, the commission said. "It did not occur to them that the American authorities were contemplating sending Mr. Arar to Syria.". While the F.B.I. and the Mounted Police kept up their communications about Mr. Arar, Canadas Department of Foreign Affairs was not told about his detention for almost three days. Its officials, acting on calls from worried relatives, had been trying to find him. Similarly, American officials denied Mr. Arars requests to speak with the Canadian ...
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TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 The possible unnatural functional group compositions for R1 and R2. Compound R1 (or R2) R2 (or R1) 1 β-Ribose β-Ribose 2 β-Ribose α-Arabinose 3 β-Ribose β-Arabinose 4 β-Ribose β-Xylose 5 β-Ribose β-Lyxose 6 β-Ribose β-Allose 7 β-Ribose β-Altrose 8 β-Ribose β-Mannose 9 β-Ribose β-Gulose 10 β-Ribose β-Idose 11 β-Ribose β-Talose 12 β-Ribose β-Tagatose 13 β-Ribose β-Fructose 14 β-Ribose β-Glucose 15 β-Ribose β-Galactose 16 β-Ribose α-Rhamnose 17 β-Ribose c-6-Deoxy-xylo-hexos-4-ulosyl 18 α-Arabinose β-Ribose 19 α-Arabinose β-Lyxose 20 α-Arabinose β-Allose 21 α-Arabinose β-Altrose 22 α-Arabinose β-Mannose 23 α-Arabinose β-Gulose 24 α-Arabinose β-Idose 25 α-Arabinose β-Talose 26 α-Arabinose β-Tagatose 27 α-Arabinose β-Fructose 28 β-Arabinose β-Ribose 29 β-Arabinose β-Lyxose 30 β-Arabinose β-Allose 31 β-Arabinose β-Altrose 32 β-Arabinose β-Mannose 33 β-Arabinose β-Gulose 34 β-Arabinose β-Idose 35 β-Arabinose ...
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Nöromiyotoni, sürekli kas lifi hareketinden kaynaklı kas gerginliğiyle kendini belli eden nöromüsküler bir hipereksitilabite bozukluğudur. Bu rahatsızlık, voltaja duyarlı, presinaptik potasyum kanallarına karşı gerek izolasyon gerekse paraneoplastik bir süreç görevi üstlenen yüksek antikor seviyesine sahip immün aracılı bir bozukluktur. Belirtileri arasında kasların rahatlama hareketi esnasında kas çekilmesi (miyokimi), kramplar, psödomiyotoni (kas gevşemesinde gecikme), aşırı terleme ve bazen de kas güçsüzlüğü sayılabilir. Bu olgu sunumnda, bir ay boyunca her iki uyluğunda ağrı tespit edilen yetmiş iki yaşında bir erkek hastayı incelemekteyiz. Buna göre hastalık, ayaklara ve göğüs bölgesini de içine alacak şekilde git gide kötüleşmiş durumdaydı. Çekilen beyin tomografisinde, beyin atrofisi olduğu ortaya çıkmıştı. EMG sonuçları, tipik Isaacs Sendromu belirtisi olan karakteristik dalga sıklığı ve genişliği tespitiyle ...
Affiliation:東京農業大学,応用生物科学部,教授, Research Field:製造化学・食品,応用生物化学・栄養化学,食品科学・栄養科学,Pediatrics,Eating habits, studies on eating habits, Keywords:オリザシスタチン,食品,食品機能,生体調節機能,コメ,生体調節因子,高度不飽和脂肪酸,PKU,氷核細菌,機能性蛋白質, # of Research Projects:33, # of Research Products:3
Text. Russell, G. and Kelly, S., Looking beyond risk: A study of lay epidemiology of childhood disorders, Health, Risk and Society 13 (2), 2011: 129-145.. ...
L Arabinose is a monosaccharide containing 5 carbon atoms. L-Arabinose is a white crystalline powder with a sweetness about 50% of that of sugar. ...
Koichiro Kuwahara, Yoshihiko Saito, Makoto Takano, Yuji Arai, Shinji Yasuno, Yasuaki Nakagawa, Nobuki Takahashi, Yuichiro Adachi, Genzo Takemura, Minoru Horie, Yoshihiro Miyamoto, Takayuki Morisaki, Shinobu Kuratomi, Akinori Noma, Hisayoshi Fujiwara, Yasunao Yoshimasa, Hideyuki Kinoshita, Rika Kawakami, Ichiro Kishimoto, Michio Nakanishi, Satoru Usami, Yoshitomo Saito, Masaki Harada, Kazuwa Nakao ...
Rief M, Chen MY, Vavere AL, Kendziora B, Miller JM, Bandettini WP, Cox C, George RT, Lima J, Di Carli M, Plotkin M, Zimmermann E, Laule M, Schlattmann P, Arai AE, Dewey M.. Radiology. 2017; ():.. ...
YidC is a polytopic inner membrane protein with a molecular mass of 60 kDa. To facilitate its purification, a histidine tag was introduced at the C‐terminus of YidC, and the gene was placed under control of the lac promoter yielding the expression vector pEH1hisYidC. To determine whether His‐tagged YidC is functional in vivo, pEH1hisYidC was transformed to the YidC depletion strain JS7131 (Samuelson et al., 2000). In this strain, the chromosomal yidC gene is disrupted and an intact yidC gene under control of the araBAD promoter has been introduced. JS7131 is not viable on Luria-Bertani (LB) agar plates containing 0.2% glucose, since under these conditions expression of yidC from the araBAD promoter is tightly repressed. Transformation with pEH1hisYidC restored growth of JS7131 in the presence of glucose (Figure 1A), indicating that plasmid‐encoded, His‐tagged YidC is functional. For overproduction, pEH1hisYidC was transformed to strain E. coli SF100 (Baneyx and Georgiou, 1990). YidC ...
China Supply Sweeteners Food Grade D (-) -Arabinose Arabinose, Find details about China Arabinose, Food Additive from China Supply Sweeteners Food Grade D (-) -Arabinose Arabinose - Wuhan Dahua Weiye Pharmaceutical Chemical Co., Ltd.
Adult mouse DRG neurones have been maintained for 14 days in cultures where non-neuronal cell proliferation was inhibited by the inclusion of 5 × 10(−6) microM-cytosine arabinoside (AraC) in the medium from the onset of culture. On uncoated plastic neurone numbers significantly declined in the absence of non-neuronal cell outgrowth compared with uninhibited co-cultures. However, when neurones were maintained in the presence of AraC on certain coated surfaces this decrease in neurone numbers was not observed. Combinations of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LAM) proved most effective for 7 and 14 days in vitro, although either was beneficial if used separately. Microexudates produced by the fibroblast line, 3T6, also significantly improved neuronal counts for 14 days in vitro. However, a microexudate derived from primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes, although advantageous for 7 days in vitro, was not effective in maintaining neurones over the 14-day culture period, reminiscent of previous ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Keiichi Torimoto, Yosuke Okada, Hiroko Mori, Takashi Otsuka, Mayuko Kawaguchi, Megumi Matsuda, Fumi Kuno, Kei Sugai, Satomi Sonoda, Maiko Hajime, Kenichi Tanaka, Tadashi Arao, Yoshiya Tanaka].
Inducing gene expression from an all-or-none promoter at subsaturating inducer concentrations results in a heterogeneous population of cells in which some are fully induced and others are induced very little, if at all. What is often confusing about this phenomenon in practice is that a population of cells will typically respond in a linear manner to increased concentration of inducer. What is really happening, though, is that more cells in the population are being turned on as inducer concentration is increased, but there are still some cells in the population that are not induced at all. The on phenotype is a result of inducer importers being turned on when a cell is exposed to the inducer, resulting in increased uptake of the inducer. At subsaturating inducer concentrations, there is not enough inducer to go around for all of the cells, so those that get their importer turned on first get all of the the inducer ...
Template:HokkaidoU_Japan}} ,div class="linkbar">,div class="prev">[[Team:HokkaidoU_Japan/Notebook/September22,September 22]],/div>[[Team:HokkaidoU_Japan/Notebook,Notebook]],div class="next">[[Team:HokkaidoU_Japan/Notebook/September24,September 24]],/div>,/div> *Amplifiable BAC plasmid ([http://partsregistry.org/Part:BBa_J61031 BBa_J61031]) purification *Colony PCR of AraC+RBS+pSB1A3 *Electroporetion of BAC plasmid into DH5α MG1655 = Bac Vecter Purification = Used Qiagen miniprep kit, qiaprep for miniprep #Transfered 1.3 mL of BAC plasmid solution incubated overnight into 1.5 mL tube #Centrifuged at 4C, 15000 rpm for 1 min #Discarded the supernatant and added remaining solution. #Centrifuged at 4C, 15000 rpm for 1 min #Discarded the supernatant #Suspended on 250 uL of Buffer P1 #Added 250 ul Buffer P2 inverted few times to mix, solution turned green #Added 350 ul Buffer N3 mixed by inversion, precipitation apeared #Centrifuged at 4C, 13000 rpm for 10 min #Transfered the supernatant to filtration ...
Background: Obesity is a common health problem and rapidly increasing among Saudi Arabians. There is no studies that aim at identifying the prevalence and the main risk factors of obesity in Arar city.
Streptomyces luteireticuli ATCC ® 27446™ Designation: ISP 5509 TypeStrain=True Application: Produces acetopyrrothine thiolutin Produces aureothricin Produces mycometoxin A and B Produces restriction endonuclease SluI
Yasuhiro Hashimoto, M.D.1), Satoshi Futakawa, M.D.1), Masakazu Miyajima, M.D.2), Shinobu Kitazume, M.D.5), Kiyomitsu Nara, M.D.1), Keiro Shirotani, M.D.1), Atsushi Kuno, M.D.3), Hiromi Ito, M.D.3), Takashi Honda, M.D.4), Katsutoshi Furukawa, M.D.6), Kazuhiro Tasaki, M.D.7), Hiroyuki Arai, M.D.6), Tatsuhiko Yuasa, M.D.8), Masafumi Abe, M.D.7), Hisashi Narimatsu, M.D.3) and Hajime Arai, M.D.2). CLINICA NEUROL, 50: 971 ,972, 2010. ...
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周幸華; Sawade S; Kokeguchi S; Miyamoto M; Sawada K; Fujimoto C; Wataki T; Hirosue M; Shimizu A; Chou HH; Kurihara H; Arai H; Takashiba S and Murayama ...
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Transformants are grown in TB medium. Stable inserts of 10-40 kb can be grown overnight with shaking at 37 °C in the presence of 1X Arabinose Induction Solution. DNA minipreps can be performed by standard methods.. For BACs and unstable smaller inserts, it may be necessary to grow the cultures without induction to an OD600 of 0.2-0.3. To reach this OD, it is convenient to grow the cultures overnight at 37 °C without shaking. The following morning, dilute the cultures 2-10 fold, and grow at 37 °C with shaking at 225 rpm for 30 minutes. For each ml of culture, add 1 μl of 1000 X Arabinose Induction Solution. Continue growth for 2-3 hours at 37 °C with shaking at 225 rpm.. Prepare DNA minipreps according to standard protocols.. ...
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With the Centre Directors having set out their visions of the future for their respective institutions, the ESRC Chief Executive - Professor Paul Boyle - concluded the conference. He stated that the ESRC had made a very wise choice when it agreed to fund the Genomics Network a decade ago. The Network exemplifies the historic and future requirement for research into the societal impact of developments in the life sciences, and it will still be a number of years until it is known exactly how successful the ESRCs investment has been. In many ways, "This is not the end…" Professor Boyle stated. Although the ESRC may not now fund the Network directly, it will remain very supportive of the sort of social science research Network Centres have, and will continue, to undertake ...
Shigella is a highly adapted human pathogen, mainly found in the developing world and causing a severe enteric syndrome. The highly sophisticated infectious strategy of Shigella banks on the capacity to invade the intestinal epithelial barrier and cause its inflammatory destruction. The cellular pathogenesis and clinical presentation of shigellosis are the sum of the complex action of a large number of bacterial virulence factors mainly located on a large virulence plasmid (pINV). The expression of pINV genes is controlled by multiple environmental stimuli through a regulatory cascade involving proteins and sRNAs encoded by both the pINV and the chromosome. The primary regulator of the virulence phenotype is VirF, a DNA-binding protein belonging to the AraC family of transcriptional regulators. The virF gene, located on the pINV, is expressed only within the host, mainly in response to the temperature transition occurring when the bacterium transits from the outer environment to the intestinal ...
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Affiliation:北里大学,医学部,助手, Research Field:Gastroenterology,応用薬理学・医療系薬学, Keywords:CGRP,カプサイシン,capsaicin,neural emergency system,CD31,ニューラルエマージェンシーシステム,胃粘膜傷害,一次求心性知覚神経,gastric mucosal injury,血管新生, # of Research Projects:2, # of Research Products:10
In a vehicle having a voltage regulated electric alternator driven by an engine for supplying power to drive electrical loads and to charge a vehicle battery, a method of maintaining battery state-of-charge includes adaptively learning a system voltage set-point during a first mode of engine operation probabalistically resulting in an electrical system operative in set-point regulation. The method further determines from the adaptively learned system voltage set-point and a present system voltage during a second mode of engine operation that the electrical system is operative in auto-regulation. Idle speed is controlled in response to the regulation state of the electrical system to maintain the system in set-point regulation to ensure adequate battery charge or minimal battery discharge during the second mode of engine operation.
We are a global research and policy engagement centre funded by the Economic & Social Research Council (ESRC), bringing together development studies and science & technology studies.. We are based ...
G. Caramori, M. Fabbri, D. Paioli, F. Falcone, C. Severino, G. Felisatti, O. Arar, I.M. Adcock, K. Fan Chung, P.J. Barnes, A. Ciaccia, A. Papi ...
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Many EAEC encode a transcriptional factor named aggR (aggregative regulator), part of the AraC family of transcription ... The study utilized Classification and Regression Tree analysis, or CART analysis, to identify sets of EAEC factors which were ... Strains of EAEC are highly genetically heterogeneous, and the identification of virulence factors important for pathogenesis ... AggR regulates many plasmid, as well chromosomally encoded, virulence factors, that include genes implicated in aggregative ...
In addition, several other proteins, called transcription cofactors, bind to the transcription factors themselves to control ... araC". Journal of Molecular Biology. 104 (3): 557-566. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(76)90120-0. Wong, Oi Kwan; Guthold, Martin; Erie, ... and control mRNA transcription. There could be several transcription factors that need to bind to one regulatory element in ... Plant Transcription Factor Database Regulator Gene at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) http ...
The chromosomal translocations encode abnormal fusion proteins, usually transcription factors whose altered properties may ... All FAB subtypes except M3 are usually given induction chemotherapy with cytarabine (ara-C) and an anthracycline (most often ... the chance of cure for a specific person depends on a number of prognostic factors. The single most important prognostic factor ... Risk factors include smoking, previous chemotherapy or radiation therapy, myelodysplastic syndrome, and exposure to the ...
Its transcription is regulated by the same factors that regulate fasR transcription, but with a higher intensity, suggesting, ... Gene fasR is an araC-like transcriptional regulator. Its transcription can be induced in vitro in cultures containing certain ... which has its transcription induced by cytokinin and turns proline into glutamic acid, and a factor involved in molybdenum ... with the attenuation of virulence in att mutants, that att may regulate fas transcription. Transcription of att operon is ...
Ezekowitz Murine Macrophage Mannose Receptor Promoter Is Regulated by the Transcription Factors PU.1 and SP1 Blood, Nov 1997; ... araC, a promoter region that regulates the expression of GFP (specifically, the GFP gene will be expressed only in the presence ... and basal expression of myeloid human Fc gamma R1b gene is mediated by a functional PU.1 site and a transcription initiator ...
The splicing of GPR56 induces tumorigenic responses as a result of activating transcription factors, such as COX2, iNOS, and ... Araç D, Boucard AA, Bolliger MF, Nguyen J, Soltis SM, Südhof TC, Brunger AT (Mar 2012). "A novel evolutionarily conserved ... Gpr56 is a transcriptional target of the heptad complex of hematopoietic transcription factors, and is required for ... "G-protein coupled receptor 56 promotes myoblast fusion through serum response factor- and nuclear factor of activated T-cell- ...
In the transcription factor ETS wHTH folds into a helix-turn-helix motif on a four-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet scaffold ... and Xy1S/Ada/AraC". FEBS Lett. 372 (2-3): 215-21. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)00988-L. PMID 7556672. Aravind L, Anantharaman V, ... These include the LuxR-type DNA-binding HTH domain found in bacterial transcription factors and the helix-turn-helix motif ... Sharrocks AD, Brown AL, Ling Y, Yates PR (1997). "The ETS-domain transcription factor family". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 29 ( ...
... has been shown to be a biomarker and influence arabinose C (ara-C; cytarabine) responsiveness. Viral protein x (Vpx) has ... SAMHD1 was identified as the cellular protein responsible of the reverse transcription block to HIV-1 infection observed in ... Powell RD, Holland PJ, Hollis T, Perrino FW (December 2011). "Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome gene and HIV-1 restriction factor ... Second, promoter methylation can prevent SAMHD1 mRNA transcription. Third, miRNA-155 and miRNA-181a can prevent the translation ...
Araç D, Boucard AA, Bolliger MF, Nguyen J, Soltis SM, Südhof TC, Brunger AT (Mar 2012). "A novel evolutionarily conserved ... Transcription of the EMR3 gene results in two alternative spliced forms: a surface protein with extracellular, 7TM, and ... Stacey M, Lin HH, Hilyard KL, Gordon S, McKnight AJ (Jun 2001). "Human epidermal growth factor (EGF) module-containing mucin- ... Hamann, J; Aust, G; Araç, D; Engel, FB; Formstone, C; Fredriksson, R; Hall, RA; Harty, BL; Kirchhoff, C; Knapp, B; Krishnan, A ...
In the presence of Ybt, a member of the AraC family of transcriptional regulators, activates expression from the psn, irp2 and ... Siderophores, compounds of low molecular mass with high affinities for ferric iron, are important virulence factors in ... "Reduced synthesis of the Ybt siderophore or production of aberrant Ybt-like molecules activates transcription of yersiniabactin ... a virulence factor of Yersinia pestis". Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 100 (9): 1495-1500. doi:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2006.04. ...
"A phylogenomic analysis of bacterial helix-turn-helix transcription factors.". FEMS Microbiol Rev 33 (2): 411-29. PMID 19076237 ... Bakterijski regulatorni heliks-zavoj-heliks proteini, AraC familija Identifikatori Simbol HTH_AraC ... "Prokaryotic transcription regulators: more than just the helix-turn-helix motif.". Curr Opin Struct Biol 12 (1): 98-106. PMID ...
... granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) - granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) - granulocytopenia ... ARAC) - AIDS service organization (ASO) - The AIDS Show - AIDS Vaccine 200 - AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition - AIDS wasting ... transcription - transfusion - translation - transmission - transplacental - treatment IND - triglycerides - tuberculin skin ... host factors - HPTN - HPV - HRSA - HTLV-I - HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) - HTLV-II - ...
... granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) - granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) - granulocytopenia ... ARAC) - AIDS service organization (ASO) - The AIDS Show - AIDS Vaccine 200 - AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition - AIDS wasting ... transcription - transfusion - translation - transmission - transplacental - treatment IND - triglycerides - tuberculin skin ... host factors - HPTN - HPV - HRSA - HTLV-I - HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) - HTLV-II - ...
A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that positively and negatively regulates the expression of proteins required for the ... Ara-C Transcription Regulator; AraC Repressor; AraC Transcription Regulator; Repressor, AraC; Transcription Factor, AraC; ... AraC Transcription Factor. Subscribe to New Research on AraC Transcription Factor A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that ... Transcription Factors: 20597*Repressor Proteins: 32*AraC Transcription Factor*E coli AraC protein ...
We applied this method to the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors, which is a large family of transcriptional regulators ... Computer-Based Annotation of Putative AraC/XylS-Family Transcription Factors of Known Structure but Unknown Function. Andreas ... We applied this method to the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors. ... the case of the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors," Genetica, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 65-76, 2008. View at Publisher · ...
... Andreas ... A description of the genetic context of predicted binding sites of the uncharacterized AraC/XylS transcription factors; Table ... of the analysis of the genetic context of predicted binding sites of the uncharacterized AraC/XylS transcription factors. ... Figure S1: Electrostatic potential surface representations of AraC/XylS family members calculated with the software DelPhi; ...
Represses its own transcription (PubMed:328165). Acts by binding directly to DNA (PubMed:4943786, PubMed:6251457, PubMed: ... Transcription factor that regulates the expression of several genes involved in the transport and metabolism of L-arabinose ( ... Transcription factor that regulates the expression of several genes involved in the transport and metabolism of L-arabinose ( ... IPR018062 HTH_AraC-typ_CS. IPR020449 Tscrpt_reg_HTH_AraC-type. Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF02311 AraC_binding, 1 hit. ...
1996) TOL plasmid transcription factor XylS binds specifically to the Pm operator sequence. Mol. Microbiol. 20:569-579. ... Supporting this is the observation that only 9 bp of the 17-bp AraC binding site araI1 are critical for AraC binding (31). ... The numbering is relative to the transcription start sites of Pcoo (29), Pcfa(20), and PvirB (40), which are shown by wavy ... 1992) AraC protein contacts asymmetric sites in Escherichia coli araFGH promoter. J. Biol. Chem. 267:24848-24857. ...
Specifically, we have characterized the pleiotropic transcription factor rsp (50), a member of the AraC family of ... In summary, our results provide new evidence that a S. aureus regulatory system involving the rsp transcription factor is ... Rsp is a transcription regulator; hence, we tested this hypothesis by analysis of differential transcription and protein ... as well as the virulence factor genes lukAB, chs, scpA, and hla. We verified the relative expression of these factors during ...
Transcription is dependent on the transcription factor AraC, the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) and cAMP (PubMed:328165, PubMed: ... "The araC promoter: transcription, mapping and interaction with the araBAD promoter.". Hirsh J., Schleif R.. Cell 11:545-550( ... transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the ... "Arabinose-induced binding of AraC protein to araI2 activates the araBAD operon promoter.". Lee N., Francklyn C., Hamilton E.P. ...
Ultimately, ToxT, a member of the AraC/XylS transcription regulator family, is responsible for activating the transcription of ... regulatory network controls virulence gene expression and responds to various environmental signals and transcription factors. ... Effects of double point mutations of heptad repeats on ctxAB transcription. β-Galactosidase results from ctxAB::lacZ double ... Effects of single point mutations on ctxAB transcription. β-Galactosidase results from ctxAB::lacZ single point mutations are ...
Several transcription factors that belong to the ArsR, HxlR, TetR, MarR, and AraC families were identified; however, none of ... elongation factor G, polynucleotide phosphorylase, RNase PH, and tRNA (uracil-5-)-methyltransferase]. The TM7_GTL1 gene for the ... as is a putative competence factor (ComF) gene. ...
Two are luxR family members, yhiF and yhiE, and two, yhiX and yhiW, are putative transcription factor genes of the araC family. ... With the exception of yiaG, which codes for a putative transcription factor with a pI of 8.1, the remainder of these genes, ... The fact that four of the nine acid-inducible genes in the gadA region encode transcription factors suggests that the AR genes ... Our results demonstrate that yhiE, encoding a putative transcription factor of the luxR family, is important for AR; mutation ...
Schuller et al (2012) Computer-based annotation of putative AraC/XylS-family transcription factors of known structure but ... Yang G-P et al (1999) Structure of the Mesorhizobium huakuii and Rhizobium galegae Nod factors: a cluster of phylogenetically ... Korner H et al (2003) Phylogeny of the bacterial superfamily of Crp-Fnr transcription regulators: exploiting the metabolic ... Brechenmacher et al (2008) Transcription profiling of Soybean nodulation by Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Mol Plant Microbe ...
... transcriptional factors DksA (RNA polymerase-binding transcription factor, FP0218) and NusG (transcriptional elongation factor ... DECGs encoding transcriptional factors from the families AraC (FP0253, FP0984, and FP0994), TetR (FP0423), LysR (FP0763), and ... transcriptional factors, different subunits of DNA-directed RNA polymerase, translation factors, elongation factors, electron ... AraC family transcriptional regulators and extracytoplasmic function-type sigma factor) with putative functions in carbon ...
AraC family" FT /note="GO_component: GO:0005622 - intracellular; FT GO_function: GO:0003700 - transcription factor activity; FT ... AraC family" FT /note="GO_component: GO:0005622 - intracellular; FT GO_function: GO:0003700 - transcription factor activity; FT ... transcription factor activity; FT GO_process: GO:0006355 - regulation of transcription, FT DNA-dependent" FT /db_xref=" ... transcription factor FT activity; GO_process: GO:0006355 - regulation of FT transcription, DNA-dependent" FT /db_xref=" ...
Many EAEC encode a transcriptional factor named aggR (aggregative regulator), part of the AraC family of transcription ... The study utilized Classification and Regression Tree analysis, or CART analysis, to identify sets of EAEC factors which were ... Strains of EAEC are highly genetically heterogeneous, and the identification of virulence factors important for pathogenesis ... AggR regulates many plasmid, as well chromosomally encoded, virulence factors, that include genes implicated in aggregative ...
The DNA-binding domain as a functional indicator: the case of the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors Genetica, 133, 65- ... Phylogenetic distribution of DNA-binding transcription factors in bacteria and archaea Computational Biology and Chemistry, 28 ... Genomic cloning of mouse MIF (macrophage inhibitory factor) and genetic mapping of the human and mouse expressed gene and nine ...
The DNA-binding domain as a functional indicator: the case of the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors Genetica, 133, 65- ... B. B. Finlay, J. L. Puente, W. Deng, S. Gruenheid y B. A. Vallance 2004 Bacterial virulence factors and uses thereof. .UNAM - ... B. B. Finlay, J. L. Puente, W. Deng, S. Gruenheidy y B. A. Vallance 2004 Bacterial virulence factors and uses.UNAM -Universidad ... B. B. Finlay, J. L. Puente, W. Deng, S. Gruenheid y B. A. Vallance 2004 Bacterial Virulence Factors and Uses Thereof. .UNAM - ...
The DNA-binding domain as a functional indicator: the case of the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors Genetica, 133, 65- ... Transcription Factors in Escherichia coli Prefer the Holo Conformation PLoS ONE, 8, e65723 [correction 2013 vol 8 (8)].. ... The functional landscape bound to the transcription factors of Escherichia coli K-12 Computational Biology and Chemistry, 58, ... Phylogenetic distribution of DNA-binding transcription factors in bacteria and archaea Computational Biology and Chemistry, 28 ...
... with particular attention to studying the regulation of transcription initiation in Escherichia coli. ... Browning, D, Savery, N, Kolb, A & Busby, S (2009) Assays for transcription factor activity. Methods in Molecular Biology: DNA- ... location of AraC-regulated genes in Escherichia coli K-12. BMC Microbiology DOI 10.1186/s12866-017-1079-2 ... Grainger, D, Aiba, H, Hurd, D, Browning, D & Busby, S (2007) Transcription factor distribution in E coli: studies with FNR ...
AraC, GntR and TetR families that form 64 orthologous groups of regulators. Most of the reconstructed regulons are local and ... AraC, GntR and TetR families that form 64 orthologous groups of regulators. Most of the reconstructed regulons are local and ... Analysis of regulatory gene regions revealed candidate DNA motifs and reconstructed regulons for 268 transcription factors from ... Analysis of regulatory gene regions revealed candidate DNA motifs and reconstructed regulons for 268 transcription factors from ...
... a mutant defective in a gene encoding an AraC family transcription factor, PA14_71070 (corresponding to PA5380), was found to ... encodes a predicted AraC/XylS family transcription factor.. Transposon insertion 159 bp downstream of the PA5380 start codon ... PA5380 encodes a transcription factor that is required for growth on choline, GB, and DMG.PA5380, one of the genes disrupted by ... Once DMG is catabolized to sarcosine, an uncharacterized sarcosine-responsive transcription factor may contribute to induction ...
CT and TCP are regulated by a cascade of transcription factors: these include, but are not limited to, ToxR and TcpP, which are ... an AraC family transcriptional regulator (5, 15, 24). Both ToxT and ToxR activate transcription of the ctxAB operon, which ... The ΔvieSAB mutation might (i) delay the timing of ctxA transcription induction, (ii) reduce the level of ctxA transcription ... VieSAB system is required for maintenance of ctxAB transcription.It has previously been reported that ctxA transcription is ...
... cholerae virulence genes is subject to regulation by a cascade of transcription factors. The direct activator of transcription ... ToxT is a member of the large AraC/XylS family of transcriptional regulators and also activates transcription of five other ... In addition to its role as the direct activator of ctx and tcpA transcription, ToxT is known to activate transcription of five ... We located the start sites of transcription and identified the DNA binding sites from which ToxT activates transcription of ...
The soxS gene product, SoxS protein, belongs to the AraC/XylS family of DNA-binding transcription factors (3), but its activity ... 1996) SoxR, a [2Fe-2S] transcription factor, is active only in its oxidized form. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:10094-10098. ... 1996) The redox state of the [2Fe-2S] clusters in SoxR protein regulates its activity as a transcription factor. J. Biol. Chem. ... SoxR is a member of the MerR family of metal-binding transcription factors, and it exists in solution as a homodimer, with each ...
C. aurantiacus induced transcription of the predicted L-Rha utilization genes when L-Rha was present in the growth medium and ... coli is mediated by two rhamnose-responsive positive transcription factors (TFs) from the AraC family, RhaS, and RhaR (Tobin ... These results confirm that the rha and rhm operons, that are predicted to be controlled by RhaR and RhmR transcription factors ... Among this large set of predicted L-Rha catabolic regulators, only two transcriptional factors, an AraC-type activator in B. ...
sind:105175752 transcription termination factor MTEF1, K15032 308 101 ( -) 29 0.301 103 ,-, 1 smk:Sinme_0132 Integrase ... eae:EAE_06680 AraC family transcriptional regulator 317 100 ( -) 29 0.328 67 ,-, 1 eai:106846986 RUN and SH3 domain containing ... pmaj:107212821 general transcription factor II-I repeat K03121 974 100 ( -) 29 0.330 97 ,-, 1 pms:KNP414_03465 signal peptidase ... nvl:108558264 heat shock factor protein isoform X1 K09414 508 100 ( -) 29 0.307 137 ,-, 1 oca:OCAR_4416 conserved hypothetical ...
  • 3279415 ). In the absence of arabinose, AraC binds to the araO2 and araI1 half-sites in the promoter region of the araBAD operon, leading to the formation of a DNA loop that blocks access of RNA polymerase to the promoter. (uniprot.org)
  • 2007. Directed evolution of AraC for improved compatibility of arabinose and lactose-inducible promoters . (lbl.gov)
  • That is, they serve to model the concentration of araC bound to pBAD and tetR bound to pTET given the concentrations of the ligands, arabinose and aTc. (igem.org)
  • When incubating E.coli cultures containing the lacZ under pBAD/araC promoter, increasing concentrations of arabinose leads to higer promoter activity that results in higher amounts and subsequently higer activity of beta-galactosidase enzyme. (igem.org)
  • Its transcription can be induced in vitro in cultures containing certain carbon sources (such as glucose, sucrose, arabinose, glycerol, pyruvate, mannitol, mannose) or nitrogen sources (such as histidine), and is influenced by culture pH and optical density. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the consumption of contaminated food or water by a human host, the Vibrio cholerae bacterium produces virulence factors, including cholera toxin (CT), which directly causes voluminous diarrhea, producing cholera. (nih.gov)
  • The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae , has provided an excellent model system for identifying bacterial virulence factors and for understanding the regulatory networks governing their expression ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The EHEC virulence plasmid encodes a large number of known or potential virulence factors ( 4 ) including an RTX cytotoxin-hemolysin, Hly, and the autotransporter toxin, EspP ( 3 ), and contains tagA , which encodes a lipoprotein homologous to the cryptic ToxR-activated TagA of Vibrio cholerae . (asm.org)
  • P BAD represents the probability that the pBAD promoter will be unbound by araC and thus active. (igem.org)
  • We further characterized the pBAD/araC promoter ( Part:Bba_I0500 ) using lacZ gene that encodes for beta-galactosidase enzyme ( Part:Bba_K323133 ). (igem.org)
  • The intron 1 GATA motif anchors the intron 8 GATA motif to the ALAS2 proximal promoter region, thereby forming a long-range enhancer loop to confer high-level ALAS2 transcription 13 . (nature.com)
  • A derivative of VACV strain Copenhagen, called vv811, lacking 55 open reading frames in the left and right terminal regions of the genome was reported to still inhibit NF-κB activation downstream of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), suggesting the presence of one or more additional inhibitors. (asm.org)
  • It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54. (umassmed.edu)
  • Not all of those sites will be bound by the transcription factor in vivo because some of the DNA will be tightly wrapped up in dense chromatin domains. (blogspot.cz)
  • Investigation of Gpr56 knockout mice and BFPP patients showed that GPR56 is required for in vitro myoblast fusion via signaling of serum response factor (SRF) and nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT), but is not essential for muscle development in vivo. (wikipedia.org)