A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that positively and negatively regulates the expression of proteins required for the uptake and catabolism of L-ARABINOSE.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.

Binding site recognition by Rns, a virulence regulator in the AraC family. (1/134)

The expression of CS1 pili by enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli is regulated at the transcriptional level and requires the virulence regulator Rns, a member of the AraC family of regulatory proteins. Rns binds at two separate sites upstream of Pcoo (the promoter of CS1 pilin genes), which were identified in vitro with an MBP::Rns fusion protein in gel mobility and DNase I footprinting assays. At each site, Rns recognizes asymmetric nucleotide sequences in two regions of the major groove and binds along one face of the DNA helix. Both binding sites are required for activation of Pcoo in vivo, because mutagenesis of either site significantly reduced the level of expression from this promoter. Thus, Rns regulates the expression of CS1 pilin genes directly, not via a regulatory cascade. Analysis of Rns-nucleotide interactions at each site suggests that binding sites for Rns and related virulence regulators are not easily identified because they do not bind palindromic or repeated sequences. A strategy to identify asymmetric binding sites is presented and applied to locate potential binding sites upstream of other genes that Rns can activate, including those encoding the CS2 and CFA/I pili of enterotoxigenic E. coli and the global regulator virB of Shigella flexneri.  (+info)

InvF is required for expression of genes encoding proteins secreted by the SPI1 type III secretion apparatus in Salmonella typhimurium. (2/134)

The expression of genes encoding proteins secreted by the SPI1 (Salmonella pathogenicity island) type III secretion apparatus is known to require the transcriptional activators SirA and HilA. However, neither SirA nor HilA is believed to directly activate the promoters of these genes. invF, the first gene of the inv-spa gene cluster, is predicted to encode an AraC-type transcriptional activator and is required for invasion into cultured epithelial cells. However, the genes which are regulated by InvF have not been identified. In this work, an in-frame deletion in invF was constructed and tested for the expression of Phi(sigD-lacZYA), sipC::Tn5lacZY, and a plasmid-encoded Phi(sicA-lacZYA). SigD (Salmonella invasion gene) is a secreted protein required for the efficient invasion of Salmonella typhimurium into cultured eucaryotic cells. sicA (Salmonella invasion chaperone) is the first gene of a putative operon encoding the Sip/Ssp (Salmonella invasion/Salmonella secreted proteins) invasion proteins secreted by the SPI1 type III export apparatus. invF was required for the expression of the sigD, sicA, and sipC fusions. This is the first demonstration that there is a functional promoter in the intergenic sequence between spaS and sicA. In addition, several proteins were either absent from or found in reduced amounts in the culture supernatants of the invF mutant. Therefore, invF is required for the optimal expression of several genes encoding SPI1-secreted proteins. Genetic evidence is also presented suggesting there is HilA-dependent readthrough transcription from the invF promoter at least through sipC.  (+info)

Amino acid-DNA contacts by RhaS: an AraC family transcription activator. (3/134)

RhaS, an AraC family protein, activates rhaBAD transcription by binding to rhaI, a site consisting of two 17-bp inverted repeat half-sites. In this work, amino acids in RhaS that make base-specific contacts with rhaI were identified. Sequence similarity with AraC suggested that the first contacting motif of RhaS was a helix-turn-helix. Assays of rhaB-lacZ activation by alanine mutants within this potential motif indicated that residues 201, 202, 205, and 206 might contact rhaI. The second motif was identified based on the hypothesis that a region of especially high amino acid similarity between RhaS and RhaR (another AraC family member) might contact the nearly identical DNA sequences in one major groove of their half-sites. We first made targeted, random mutations and then made alanine substitutions within this region of RhaS. Our analysis identified residues 247, 248, 250, 252, 253, and 254 as potentially important for DNA binding. A genetic loss-of-contact approach was used to identify whether any of the RhaS amino acids in the first or second contacting motif make base-specific DNA contacts. In motif 1, we found that Arg202 and Arg206 both make specific contacts with bp -65 and -67 in rhaI1, and that Arg202 contacts -46 and Arg206 contacts -48 in rhaI2. In motif 2, we found that Asp250 and Asn252 both contact the bp -79 in rhaI1. Alignment with the recently crystallized MarA protein suggest that both RhaS motifs are likely helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motifs.  (+info)

The 17-gene ethanolamine (eut) operon of Salmonella typhimurium encodes five homologues of carboxysome shell proteins. (4/134)

The eut operon of Salmonella typhimurium encodes proteins involved in the cobalamin-dependent degradation of ethanolamine. Previous genetic analysis revealed six eut genes that are needed for aerobic use of ethanolamine; one (eutR), encodes a positive regulator which mediates induction of the operon by vitamin B12 plus ethanolamine. The DNA sequence of the eut operon included 17 genes, suggesting a more complex pathway than that revealed genetically. We have correlated an open reading frame in the sequence with each of the previously identified genes. Nonpolar insertion and deletion mutations made with the Tn10-derived transposable element T-POP showed that at least 10 of the 11 previously undetected eut genes have no Eut phenotype under the conditions tested. Of the dispensable eut genes, five encode apparent homologues of proteins that serve (in other organisms) as shell proteins of the carboxysome. This bacterial organelle, found in photosynthetic and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, may contribute to CO2 fixation by concentrating CO2 and excluding oxygen. The presence of these homologues in the eut operon of Salmonella suggests that CO2 fixation may be a feature of ethanolamine catabolism in Salmonella.  (+info)

Functional domains of the TOL plasmid transcription factor XylS. (5/134)

The alkylbenzoate degradation genes of Pseudomonas putida TOL plasmid are positively regulated by XylS, an AraC family protein, in a benzoate-dependent manner. In this study, we used deletion mutants and hybrid proteins to identify which parts of XylS are responsible for the DNA binding, transcriptional activation, and benzoate inducibility. We found that a 112-residue C-terminal fragment of XylS binds specifically to the Pm operator in vitro, protects this sequence from DNase I digestion identically to the wild-type (wt) protein, and activates the Pm promoter in vivo. When overexpressed, that C-terminal fragment could activate transcription as efficiently as wt XylS. All the truncations, which incorporated these 112 C-terminal residues, were able to activate transcription at least to some extent when overproduced. Intactness of the 210-residue N-terminal portion was found to be necessary for benzoate responsiveness of XylS. Deletions in the N-terminal and central regions seriously reduced the activity of XylS and caused the loss of effector control, whereas insertions into the putative interdomain region did not change the basic features of the XylS protein. Our results confirm that XylS consists of two parts which probably interact with each other. The C-terminal domain carries DNA-binding and transcriptional activation abilities, while the N-terminal region carries effector-binding and regulatory functions.  (+info)

Cooperative action of the catabolite activator protein and AraC in vitro at the araFGH promoter. (6/134)

Full activation of transcription of the araFGH promoter, p(FGH), requires both the catabolite activator protein (CAP) and AraC protein. At p(FGH), the binding site for CAP is centered at position -41.5, an essential binding site for AraC is centered at position -79.5, and a second, nonessential binding site is centered at position -154.5. In this work, we used the minimal promoter region required for in vivo activation of p(FGH) to examine the roles of CAP and AraC in stimulating formation of open complexes at p(FGH). Migration retardation assays of open complexes showed that RNA polymerase binds exceptionally tightly to the AraC-CAP-p(FGH) complex and that the order of addition of proteins to the initiating complex is important. Similar assays with RNA polymerase containing truncated alpha subunits suggest that AraC interacts with the C-terminal domain of the alpha subunit. Finally, AraC protein also acts to prevent the improper binding of RNA polymerase at a pseudo promoter near the true p(FGH) promoter.  (+info)

Mutational analysis of the highly conserved C-terminal residues of the XylS protein, a member of the AraC family of transcriptional regulators. (7/134)

The XylS protein of the TOL plasmid of Pseudomonas putida belongs to the so-called AraC/XylS family of regulators, that includes more than 100 different bacterial proteins. A conserved stretch of about 100 amino acids is present at the C-terminal end. This conserved region is believed to contain seven alpha-helices, including two helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding motifs (alpha(2)-T-alpha(3) and alpha(5)-Talpha-(6)), connected by a linker alpha-helix (alpha(4)), and two flanking alpha-helices (alpha(1) and alpha(7)). The second HTH motif is the region with the highest homology in the proteins of the family, with certain residues showing almost 90% identity. We have constructed XylS single mutants in the most conserved residues and have analysed their ability to stimulate transcription from its cognate promoter, Pm, fused to 'lacZ. The analysis revealed that mutations in the alpha(5)-helix conserved residues had little effect on the XylS transcriptional activity, whereas the distribution of polarity in the alpha(6)-helix was important for the activity. The strongest effect of the mutations was observed in conserved residues located outside the DNA binding domain, namely, Gly-290 in the turn between the two helices, Pro-309 located downstream of alpha(6), and Leu-313, in the small last helix alpha(7), that seems to play an important role in the activation of RNA-polymerase. Our analysis shows that conservation of amino acids in the family reflects structural requirements rather than functionality in specific DNA interactions.  (+info)

Recognition of overlapping nucleotides by AraC and the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase. (8/134)

The Escherichia coli promoter p(BAD), under the control of the AraC protein, drives the expression of mRNA encoding the AraB, AraA, and AraD gene products of the arabinose operon. The binding site of AraC at p(BAD) overlaps the RNA polymerase -35 recognition region by 4 bases, leaving 2 bases of the region not contacted by AraC. This overlap raises the question of whether AraC substitutes for the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase in recognition of the -35 region or whether both AraC and sigma make important contacts with the DNA in the -35 region. If sigma does not contact DNA near the -35 region, p(BAD) activity should be independent of the identity of the bases in the hexamer region that are not contacted by AraC. We have examined this issue in the p(BAD) promoter and in a second promoter where the AraC binding site overlaps the -35 region by only 2 bases. In both cases promoter activity is sensitive to changes in bases not contacted by AraC, showing that despite the overlap, sigma does read DNA in the -35 region. Since sigma and AraC are thus closely positioned at p(BAD), it is possible that AraC and sigma contact one another during transcription initiation. DNA migration retardation assays, however, showed that there exists only a slight degree of DNA binding cooperativity between AraC and sigma, thus suggesting either that the normal interactions between AraC and sigma are weak or that the presence of the entire RNA polymerase is necessary for significant interaction.  (+info)

The enantiomeric siderophores pyochelin and enantiopyochelin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas protegens promote growth under iron limitation and activate transcription of their biosynthesis and uptake genes via the AraC-type regulator PchR. Here we investigated siderophore binding to PchR in vitro using fluorescence spectroscopy. A fusion of the N-terminal domain of P. aeruginosa PchR with maltose binding protein (MBP-PchRPAO) bound iron-loaded (ferri-) pyochelin with an affinity (Kd) of 41 ± 5 μM. By contrast, no binding occurred with ferri-enantiopyochelin. Stereospecificity of a similar fusion protein of the P. protegens PchR (MBP-PchRCHA0) was less pronounced. The Kds of MBP-PchRCHA0 for ferri-enantiopyochelin and ferri-pyochelin were 24 ± 5 and 40 ± 7 μM, respectively. None of the proteins interacted with the iron-free siderophore enantiomers, suggesting that transcriptional activation by PchR occurs only when the respective siderophore actively procures iron to the c
AraC Transcription Factor: A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that positively and negatively regulates the expression of proteins required for the uptake and catabolism of L-ARABINOSE.
The transcriptional activator GadE, for Glutamic acid decarboxylase, is positively autoregulated [3, 14]and controls the transcription of genes involved in the maintenance of pH homeostasis, including the principal acid resistance system [3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 17, 18, 19] glutamate dependent (GAD), also referred as the GAD system, and genes involved in multidrug efflux, among others [3, 12, 13, 20, 21, 22] GadE also controls the expression of two transcription factors related to acid resistance, GadW and GadX, and for this reason it is considered the central activator of the acid response system [3, 4] GadE is encoded by the gadE-mdtEF operon, inducible by low pH [8] which is located in the region called the acid fitness island [21] Expression of gadE is controlled by an unusually large 798-bp upstream intergenic region, termed the sensory integration locus [15] At least six regulators related to the acid resistance system, GadE, GadX, GadW, EvgA, YdeO, and MnmE, are involved in the direct regulation ...
pbad/his A, B, and C pbad/myc-his A, B, and C Vectors for Dose-Dependent Expression of Recombinant Proteins Containing N- or C-Terminal 6 His Tags in E. coli Catalog nos. V430-01, V Version J 29
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F-, araC14, leuB6(Am), secA206(aziR), fhuA23, lacY1, tsx-67, purE42, glnX44(AS), galK2(Oc), λ-, trpE38, sup-78(Mal+)?, rfbC1?, mgl-51?, rpsL109(strR), malA38?, glpR201, xylA5, mtl-1, thiE1 ...
kspansinler, pHa bağlı hücre genişlemesine aracılık eden ve izole edilmiş hücre duvarlarında geniş aileli bitki proteinleridir. [1] Ekspans
Mae hwn yn gyfuniad o Ystadegau ac Ymchwil Weithrediadol yn ogystal ag astudiaeth gyffredinol o Fathemateg mewn cwrs sydd wedii deilwran ofalus i anghenion y rhai sydd am gadw eu dewisiadaun agored ac syn chwilio am gyfleoedd gyrfa ardderchog.
Transcription factor that regulates the expression of several genes involved in the transport and metabolism of L-arabinose (PubMed:4362626, PubMed:328165, PubMed:6251457, PubMed:2962192, PubMed:6319708, PubMed:2231717, PubMed:1447222). Functions both as a positive and a negative regulator (PubMed:328165, PubMed:6251457). In the presence of arabinose, activates the expression of the araBAD, araE, araFGH and araJ promoters (PubMed:4362626, PubMed:328165, PubMed:6251457, PubMed:2962192, PubMed:6319708, PubMed:2231717, PubMed:1447222). In the absence of arabinose, negatively regulates the araBAD operon (PubMed:6251457). Represses its own transcription (PubMed:328165). Acts by binding directly to DNA (PubMed:4943786, PubMed:6251457, PubMed:2962192, PubMed:2531226, PubMed:1447222).
We have constructed a series of plasmid vectors (pBAD vectors) containing the PBAD promoter of the araBAD (arabinose) operon and the gene encoding the positive and negative regulator of this promoter, araC. Using the phoA gene and phoA fusions to monitor expression in these vectors, we show that the ratio of induction/repression can be 1,200-fold, compared with 50-fold for PTAC-based vectors. phoA expression can be modulated over a wide range of inducer (arabinose) concentrations and reduced to extremely low levels by the presence of glucose, which represses expression. Also, the kinetics of induction and repression are very rapid and significantly affected by the ara allele in the host strain. Thus, the use of this system which can be efficiently and rapidly turned on and off allows the study of important aspects of bacterial physiology in a very simple manner and without changes of temperature. We have exploited the tight regulation of the PBAD promoter to study the phenotypes of null ...
convert-matrix -v 1 -from transfac -i GadW.1nt_upstream-noorf-ovlp-2str.20.cons_quality_logo ; Input files ; input GadW.1nt_upstream-noorf-ovlp-2str.20.cons_quality_matrix.tf ; prior GadW.1nt_upstream-noorf-ovlp-2str.20.cons_quality1nt_upstream-noorf_Escherichia_coli_K_12_substr__MG1655_uid57779-ovlp-1str.freq.gz_inclusive.tab ; Input format transfac ; Output files ; output GadW.1nt_upstream-noorf-ovlp-2str.20.cons_quality_matrix_info.txt ; Output format tab ; pseudo-weight 1 ; Background model ; Bernoulli model (order=0) ; Strand undef ; Background pseudo-frequency 0.01 ; Residue probabilities ; a 0.29063 ; c 0.20784 ; g 0.20492 ; t 0.29662 A 6 3 5 14 0 6 0 4 9 9 0 8 3 3 9 4 9 11 7 5 C 11 1 1 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 7 3 1 3 1 0 4 6 0 0 G 0 3 9 0 0 3 4 0 4 0 0 5 2 2 1 3 0 0 2 8 T 0 10 2 3 16 7 11 13 4 8 10 1 11 9 6 10 4 0 8 4 // a 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.8 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.3 c 0.6 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 g 0.0 0.2 0.5 ...
C - Tilt: 0° - Segments: 1( 10- 28), 2( 39- 59), 3( 83- 107), 4( 126- 149), 5( 158- 178), 6( 192- 216), 7( 220- 237), 8( 243- 262 ...
Plasmid pBAD/HisB-PhoCl-MBP from Dr. Robert Campbells lab contains the insert PhoCl fused to Maltose-Binding Protein and is published in Nat Methods. 2017 Mar 13. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.4222. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid pBAD/HisD-rsTagRFP from Dr. Vladislav Verkhushas lab contains the insert rsTagRFP and is published in Chem Biol. 2010 Jul 30;17(7):745-55. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Gade, A., Gerlach, C., Starrfelt, R., & Pedersen, P.M. (Red.) (2009). Klinisk neuropsykologi. København: Frydenlund, kap. 14: Forstyrrelser i motivation og målrettet adfærd Forstyrrelser i motivation og målrettet adfærd Apati: i klinisk forstand er mangel på motivation, som giver sig udslag i nedsat evne til at handle. føle og danne tanker, selvom der ikke er…
F-, araC14, leuB6(Am), secA206(aziR), fhuA23, lacY1, proC83, tsx-67, purE42, glnX44(AS), galK2(Oc), λ-, trpE38, xthA15, his-208, rfbC1, mgl-51, argG77, rpsL109(strR), glpR201, xylA5, mtl-1, ilvA681, katG17::Tn10, thiE1, metA160 ...
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The Millicell-ERS-2 (Electrical Resistance System) voltohmmeter for cell analysis reliably measures membrane potential and resistance of epithelial cells in culture .
N. Dunkel, T. Hertlein, R. Franz, O. Reuss, C. Sasse, T. Schäfer, K. Ohlsen, J. Morschhäuser; Role of different peptide transporters in nutrient acquisition in Candida albicans. Eukaryot Cell 2013. doi:10.1128/EC.00008-13 C. Sasse, R. Schillig, A. Reimund, J. Merk, J. Morschhäuser; Inducible and constitutive activation of two polymorphic promoter alleles of the Candida albicans multidrug efflux pump MDR1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012. doi:10.1128/AAC.00264-12 C. Sasse, N. Dunkel, T. Schafer, S. Schneider, F. Dierolf, K. Ohlsen, J. Morschhäuser; The stepwise acquisition of fluconazole resistance mutations causes a gradual loss of fitness in Candida albicans. Mol Microbiol 2012, 86, 539-556. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08210.x Schubert S, Popp C, Rogers PD, Morschhäuser J, 2011, Functional dissection of a Candida albicans zinc cluster transcription factor, the multidrug resistance regulator Mrr1. Eukaryot. Cell, published ahead of print on 17 June 2011, doi:10.1128/EC.05100-11. Schubert ...
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In theory, this genetic construction is able to detect different concentrations of a compound provided that you have three different promoters that are sensitive to different concentrations of the substance. Based on the amount of compound detected, the bacteria will produce one of three reporter proteins. For our project, we decided to use the same sensors and reporter proteins that the University of British Columbia team used in their 2009 iGEM project. Therefore we began with 3 promoters: pBAD wild type, pBAD weak and pBAD strong; each promoter was able to detect arabinose at different concentrations. Our reporter proteins were GFP, YFP, and RFP (Cherry). We arranged the constructions so that GFP is produced when the cells were induced with low concentrations of arabinose, YFP is produced when induced with medium concentrations and RFP (Cherry) is produced when there is a high concentration. The mechanism that enables this behavior will be explained in two parts, the first part involves the ...
Prof. Stephen W. Teitsworths research centers on experimental, computational, and theoretical studies of deterministic and stochastic nonlinear electronic transport in nanoscale systems. Three particular areas of current interest are: 1) stochastic nonlinear electronic transport phenomena in semiconductor superlattices and tunnel diode arrays; 2) complex bifurcations associated with the deterministic dynamics of electronic transport in negative differential resistance systems; and 3) strategies for stabilizing negative differential resistance systems against the formation of space-charge waves.. ...
Organ fechan syn rhan or system fustlog a syn cadw cronfa fechan o hylif y bustl yw coden y bustl. Maer bustl yn cael ei gynhyrchu gan yr iau cyn cael ei ryddhau ir goden drwyr drwythel afuol. Fel arfer mae rhwng 30 a 60 mililitr of fustl yn cael ei gadw oddi fewn ir goden. Pan mae bwyd syn cynnwys braster yn mynd drwyr system dreulio maen gwneud i goden y fustl ryddhau bustl drwy ddwythell y fustl ir dwodenwm er mwyn emylseiddior braster er mwyn ir corff allu ei dreulion haws. Cymysgedd o ddwr a sawl halen hepatig ywr bustl yn bennaf sydd hefyd yn cynnwys bilirwbin a gynhyrchir fel sgil-wastraff prosesu haearn yn y gwaed er mwyn ei gludo or corff. Mae yna gerrig yn gallu ffurfio yn y goden weithiau syn gallu bod yn boenus tu hwnt a bydd angen triniaeth feddygol i gael gwared â nhw fel arfer. ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
How is Association Royale des Architectes de Charleroi (French: Royal Association of Architects of Charleroi; Charleroi, Belgium) abbreviated? ARAC stands for Association Royale des Architectes de Charleroi (French: Royal Association of Architects of Charleroi; Charleroi, Belgium). ARAC is defined as Association Royale des Architectes de Charleroi (French: Royal Association of Architects of Charleroi; Charleroi, Belgium) rarely.
Arao, T., Ueshima, K., Matsumoto, K., Nagai, T., Kimura, H., Hagiwara, S., Sakurai, T., Haji, S., Kanazawa, A., Hidaka, H., Iso, Y., Kubota, K., Shimada, M., Utsunomiya, T., Hirooka, M., Hiasa, Y., Toyoki, Y., Hakamada, K., Yasui, K., Kumada, T., Toyoda, H., Sato, S., Hisai, H., Kuzuya, T., Tsuchiya, K., Izumi, N., Arii, S., Nishio, K. and Kudo, M. (2013), FGF3/FGF4 amplification and multiple lung metastases in responders to sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology, 57: 1407-1415. doi: 10.1002/hep.25956 ...
Comparison with MarA structure.Both of the amino acids in H-T-H 1 of RhaS that make sequence-specific DNA contacts align with MarA residues also predicted to make specific DNA contacts. Arg202 of RhaS aligns with MarA Trp42. One of the base pairs contacted by each of these amino acids is a G-C base pair in the analogous position in the two binding sites (−56 at marRAB and −67 atrhaBAD), while each of these residues also makes additional, different contacts (Fig. 4). Arg206 of RhaS aligns with Arg46 of MarA. In this case, the identical amino acid contacts the identical base pair in the analogous position in the two binding sites (G-C at −56 inmarRAB and −67 in rhaBAD), and each amino acid also contacts a C-G base pair (−55 at marRAB and −65 atrhaBAD). MarA has a third amino acid in H-T-H 1 that contacts DNA (Gln45). MarA Gln45 aligns with RhaS His205, which was found to be important for DNA binding by RhaS but not specific for any base positions. It seems likely that only Arg202 and ...
Fishpond Australia, Hyper Bio Assembler for 3D Cellular Systems: 2015 by Tatsuo Arai (Edited ) Fumihito Arai (Edited )Buy . Books online: Hyper Bio Assembler for 3D Cellular Systems: 2015, 2015, Fishpond.com.au
The subsequent equations model the probability of active complex for each element in our circuit. PBAD represents the probability that the pBAD promoter will be unbound by araC and thus active. PTET represents the probability that the pTET promoter will be unbound by tetR and thus active. PRiboswitch expresses the probability that the riboswitch is bound by theophylline, and thus active. For simplicity, it has been modeled here as an activator-controlled promoter. PTale Binding Site, which may be abbreviated to PTBS expresses the probability that the TALe binding site is unbound by the TAL repressor, and thus active ...
Dating website reviews 2014 A single high dose of idarubicin combined with high-dose ... - http://www.academia.edu/13330306/A_single_high_dose_of_idarubicin_combined_with_high-dose_ARA-C_for_treatment_of_first_relapse_in_childhood_high-risk_acute_lymphoblastic_leukaemia_a_study_of_the_AIEOP_ ...
Blogger Black Buzz states that John Hanson, the first president of the country under the Articles of Confederation was a Moor/Black. He is also ignored and relegated to an obscure footnote in the annals of American history. George Washington was the first president of the country under the U.S. Consititution. Warren G. Hardings sister taught in a Black segregated school in segregated Washington, D.C. for all her life and she never married. Hardings sister loved the students under her charge and inspired and motivated them to be all that they could be in the post Plessey/Jim Crow era. Records show that she was rather fair skin with semi-kinky hair. It has been reported that some of Mr. Hardings relatives are very well aware of the fact that their great grandfather had Black ancestors.. The Hardings, like many Blacks of that era, passed for White because of the brutal, harsh, cruel, inhumane and ungodly treatment that people of color suffered at that time. My Mothers great uncle, Kit Gady who ...
Arai, M., Suzuki, R., Ando, T. & Kishimoto, N. 2014 2 28 Developments in Maritime Transportation and Exploitation of Sea Resources - Proceedings of IMAM 2013, 15th International Congress of the International Maritime Association of the Mediterranean. 巻 1, p. 171-181 11 p.. 研究成果: 著書の章/レポート/会議のプロシーディングス › 会議での発言 ...
The nice folks at TeleNav have done a series of video interviews with prominent tech sites and bloggers. At CTIA this year, they had a chance to catch up with our own Lisa Gade and chat with her about mobile trends, her favorite devices and everything mobile ...
Moto Liberty is well known for a reason… I picked up my new Arai Corsair-X this past weekend. And Antonio personally switched out the lining and cheek pads from another Corsair-X to make sure my medium size fit me correctly. And even though Im a prior Arai owner and knew what I was looking for, he spent 30 minutes or so with me as I tried on all the current Arai models. I ended up going from an older Quantum, to the new Corsair-X, as it fit me just a bit better.. ...
In plant effector-triggered immunity (ETI), intracellular nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) receptors are activated by specific pathogen effectors. The ArabidopsisTIR (Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor domain)-NLR (denoted TNL) gene pair, RPS4 and RRS1, confers resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 expressing the Type III-secreted effector, AvrRps4. Nuclear accumulation of AvrRps4, RPS4, and the TNL resistance regulator EDS1 is necessary for ETI. RRS1 possesses a C-terminal WRKY transcription factor DNA binding domain suggesting that important RPS4/RRS1 recognition and/or resistance signaling events occur at the nuclear chromatin. In Arabidopsis accession Ws-0, the RPS4Ws/RRS1Ws allelic pair governs resistance to Pst/AvrRps4 accompanied by host programed cell death (pcd). In accession Col-0, RPS4Col/RRS1Col effectively limits Pst/AvrRps4 growth without pcd. Constitutive expression of HA-StrepII tagged RPS4Col (in a 35S:RPS4-HS line) confers ...
In plant effector-triggered immunity (ETI), intracellular nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) receptors are activated by specific pathogen effectors. The ArabidopsisTIR (Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor domain)-NLR (denoted TNL) gene pair, RPS4 and RRS1, confers resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 expressing the Type III-secreted effector, AvrRps4. Nuclear accumulation of AvrRps4, RPS4, and the TNL resistance regulator EDS1 is necessary for ETI. RRS1 possesses a C-terminal WRKY transcription factor DNA binding domain suggesting that important RPS4/RRS1 recognition and/or resistance signaling events occur at the nuclear chromatin. In Arabidopsis accession Ws-0, the RPS4Ws/RRS1Ws allelic pair governs resistance to Pst/AvrRps4 accompanied by host programed cell death (pcd). In accession Col-0, RPS4Col/RRS1Col effectively limits Pst/AvrRps4 growth without pcd. Constitutive expression of HA-StrepII tagged RPS4Col (in a 35S:RPS4-HS line) confers ...
Transcriptional activation of quinoline degradation operons of Pseudomonas putida 86 by the AraC/XylS-type regulator OxoS and cross-regulation of the PqorM promoter by XylS
Son yüz yılda yakıt tüketiminin tüm dünya üzerinde artması ve fosil yakıtların çevreye verdikleri zarar ve yakın süreç içerisinde tükenecek olma kaygısı alternatif yakıt kaynakların oluşturulma çabasını arttırmıştır. Alternatif yakıt kaynaklarından olan biyodizel, sahip olduğu avantajlarla fosil yakıtlara alternatif olma özellğgine sahiptir. Biyodizel üretimi mevcut sistemlerde metanolün ve biyolojik yağların transesterifikasyon reaksiyonu sonucu gerçekleştirilmektedir. Son dönem de yapılan çalışmalar, biyodizel yakıtının üretiminde etanol kullanımının biyolojik organizmalar aracılığıyla gerçekleştirmesi üzerine odaklanmış bulunmaktadır. Mum esteri sentaz enzimi (WS/DGAT) yakın tarih içerisinde keşfedilmiş olup farklı mikroorganizmalar da yapılan çalışmalar ile mum esteri sentaz enzimi aracılığı ile pilot ölçekte yağ asidi etil ester (mikrodizel) üretimi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Fakat geniş substrat seçiciliği ...
This trial will compare the efficacy and tolerability of cytarabine [cytosine arabinoside] with or without laromustine [Cloretazine, VNP40101M] in patients with
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The ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of membrane transporters is one of the largest protein classes known, and counts numerous proteins involved in the trafficking of biological molecules across
4.215 mm boya, 1.850 mm genişliğe ve 1. 665 mm yüksekliğe sahip olan aracın aks mesafesi 2.500 mm. 20 inç çaplı jantlara sahip olan konseptte yan aynalar yerine kameralar kullanan Suzuki köşeli hatlara sahip dış mekan tasarımına sahip olan otomobilin iç mekanını henüz hazırlamamış ...
Gövdenin yan tarafında sunulan grafikler, klasik tasarıma sahip, 17 inç çaplı jantlar, siyah veya gri renklerde alınabilen yan aynalar ve özel renkli iç mekan kaplamalarıyla standart modellerden ayrılan aracın 1.2 ile 1.4 litre hacimli benzinli, 1.6 ile 2 litre hacimli Diesel motorlu versiyonları bulunuyor ...
J:200656 Mead TJ, Wang Q, Bhattaram P, Dy P, Afelik S, Jensen J, Lefebvre V, A far-upstream (-70 kb) enhancer mediates Sox9 auto-regulation in somatic tissues during development and adult regeneration. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Apr;41(8):4459-69 ...
Taslimi, Parham; Aslan, Hatice Esra; Demir, Yeliz; Oztaskin, Necla; Maraş, Ahmet; Gulçin, İlhami; Beydemir, Sukru; Goksu, Suleyman (Elsevier, 2018-11) ...
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The cytocidal activity of arabinosyl-5-azacytosine (araAC) and its effect on the synthesis and methylation of DNA in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 was examined and compared with three other cytidine analogues. Treatment for 2 hr with 10(-6)M arabinosylcytosine (araC), araAC, 5-azacytidine (AZC), or 2-deoxy-5-azacytidine (dAZC) produced a 7-30% reduction in cell viability. Prolongation of drug exposure to 24 hr significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of all analogues, and particularly dAZC. AZC and dAZC were potent inhibitors of DNA methylation in the absence of inhibition of DNA synthesis, whereas araC and araAC primarily affected DNA synthesis. RNA synthesis was not affected by any of the analogues. dAZC and AZC were incorporated into DNA to a greater extent than were araC or araAC upon short- and long-term drug exposure, whereas only AZC was incorporated into RNA. These data indicate that araAC appears to behave more as an analogue of araC rather than of dAZC or AZC, wherein it ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of suitable internal controls to study expression of a Staphylococcus aureus multidrug resistance system by quantitative real-time PCR. AU - Theis, Torsten. AU - Skurray, Ronald. AU - Brown, Melissa. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. M3 - Article. VL - 70. SP - 355. EP - 362. JO - Journal of Microbiological Methods. JF - Journal of Microbiological Methods. SN - 0167-7012. IS - 2. ER - ...
Increased levels of glucocorticoid receptors and enhanced glucocorticoid receptor auto-regulation after hydrocortisone challenge in B-lymphoblastoids from patients with affective disorders ...
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The hamstrings play an interesting role in the deadlift, and when utilized correctly can create a strong efficient deadlift in powerlifting.
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by Tanaka, K and Arao, T and Tamura, D and Aomatsu, K and Furuta, K and Matsumoto, K and Kaneda, H and Kudo, K and Fujita, Y and Kimura, H and Yanagihara, K and Yamada, Y and Okamoto, I and Nakagawa, K and Nishio, K and Ooki, A and Yamashita, K and Yamaguchi, K and Asayama, M and Kadowaki, S and Hara, H and Yamada-murano, T and Arima, M and Tada, M and Watanabe, M and Yamashita-Kashima, Y and Shu, S and Yorozu, K and Iwai, T and Hashizume, K and Fujimoto-Ouchi, K and Harada, N and Tamaki, T and Shimizu, T and Katashiba, Y and Mikayama, H and Nomura, S and Kobayashi, N and Lim, H. Y and Kim, H and Park, C. K and Hour, T.- C and Wu, H.- L and Chuang, S.- J and Lu, C.- Y and Huang, C.- Y and Wu, W.- J and Pu, Y.- S and Wang, S.- W and Wu, H.- H and Wang, P.- C and Chou, W.- Y and Tang, C.- H and Tan, K.- L and Gan, S.- H and Hassan, R and Abdullah, A. D and Husin, A and Baba, A. A and Ankathil, R and Nagai, T and De Velasco, M. A and Sato, A and Nogami, N and Shinkai, T and Kozuki, T and Ogino, A ...
Template_Wiki}} ==Notebook== May 25, 2010 to May 29, 2010 ,hr> ,ul> ,li>Davidson traveled to Missouri Western and further discussed project ideas,/li> ,/ul> ,br> June 1, 2010 ,hr> ,ul> ,li>Tested to find lethal concentration of Tet in plated and liquid mediums,/li> ,li>Verified RCBS with our sequences and researched codon optimization methods,/li> ,li>Analyzed probabilities for constructs A and B,/li> ,li>Learned lab protocols and organized lab ,li>Created list of needed parts and parts we need ,/ul> ,br> June 2, 2010 ,hr> ,ul> ,li>Mini prepped, diagnostic RP digest, preparative digest, ligation, pBAD+RBS-RFP ,/li> ,li>Researched different ways to optimize a gene,/li> ,li>Began simulation for Constructs A and B,/li> ,li>Learned miniprep and digestion protocols ,li>Learned how to document gels ,/ul> ,br> June 3, 2010 ,hr> ,ul> ,li>Mini prepped, diagnostic RP digest, preparative digest, ligation, pBAD+RBS-RFP ,/li> ,li>Researched restriction sites and created proposal for ...
Timothy W. Jones is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Zaman çözülmesi Mikrodalga İletkenlik aracılığıyla İnce film Fotovoltaik Malzemeler rekombinasyon Dinamikleri
defnyddio olew a chynhwysion eraill, yna maer gwerth ynnin cynyddu. Mae wd gwenith yr hydd am golli pwysau yn bwysig yn y cynnwys carbohydradau araf, syn eich galluogi i gynnal ymdeimlad o fwydydd am gyfnod hir. Mae yna broteinau digestible hefyd yn y pryd hwn, syn bwysig i feinwer cyhyrau. I golli pwysau, mae sawl opsiwn ar gyfer defnyddio wd gwenith yr hydd . Gallwch chi gadw at y diet priodol, gan ychwanegu at y diet gydar pryd hwn. Mae yna hefyd amrywiad o ddeiet mono. Argymhellir peidio â choginio am golli pwysau, ond i uwd stemio. I wneud hyn, gallwch ei lenwi â dŵr am y noson, ond maen well gwneud hyn mewn thermos, a fydd yn caniatáu ichi ddod â uwd, er enghraifft, i weithio. Yn ogystal, gallwch fwyta 1 afal y dydd, yn ogystal â iogwrt neu iogwrt di-fraster, ond heb fod yn fwy nag 1 litr y dydd. ...
Luc Besson , France , 2017 , 129. Or cyfarwyddwr gweledigaethol Luc Besson daw ffilm antur newydd yn seiliedig ar y gyfres llyfrau comig. Yn y 28ain ganrif, mae Valerian a Laureline yn dîm o weithredwyr arbennig syn gyfrifol am gadw trefn ar draws y tiriogaethau dynol. Ar aseiniad, maer ddau yn cychwyn ar gwest i ddinas ryfeddol Alpha, metropolis lle mae rhywogaethau o bob cwr or bydysawd wedi cydgyfarfod dros ganrifoedd i rannu gwybodaeth, deallusrwydd a diwylliannau ei gilydd.. ...
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Chalhoub, B.; Allouis, S.; Šafář, Jan; Janda, Jaroslav; Bellec, A.; Sarda, X.; Arar, C.; Lefévre, A.; Rouault, P.; Pateyron, S.; Dupin, A.; Burgio, G.; Georget, C.; Sourdille, P.; Faivre-Rampant, P.; Caboche, M.; Moore, G.; Bernard, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav ...
Many EAEC encode a transcriptional factor named aggR (aggregative regulator), part of the AraC family of transcription ... Stage two: After AAF factors in stage 1, adherence to the mucosa is characterized by the presence a biofilm. The production of ... Stage One: Aggregative adherence factors (AAF) are responsible for the adhesion to the intestinal mucosa. AAF are made up of ... Strains of EAEC are highly genetically heterogeneous, and the identification of virulence factors important for pathogenesis ...
Furthermore, a number of genes are cofactors act as negative transcription factors for FLC genes. FLC genes also have a large ... In the absence of Arabinose but presence of araC, araC regions form dimers, and bind to bring ara02 and araI1 domains closer by ... Promoter (biology) Activator (genetics) Operon Regulation of gene expression Transcription factor lac repressor P300/CBP ... In the presence of both Arabinose and araC, araC binds with the arabinose and acts as an activator. This conformational change ...
... bind to the transcription factors themselves to control transcription. Negative regulators act to prevent transcription or ... araC". Journal of Molecular Biology. 104 (3): 557-566. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(76)90120-0. PMID 781294. Wong, Oi Kwan; Guthold, ... and control mRNA transcription. There could be several transcription factors that need to bind to one regulatory element in ... Plant Transcription Factor Database Regulator+Gene at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) http ...
CTP synthase levels have been shown to be dependent on levels of the transcription factor Myc. In turn, CTP synthase activity ... Mutations in the CTP synthase have been seen to confer resistance to cytotoxic drugs such as cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) in a ... Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell model of leukemia though such mutations were not found in human patients with ara-C resistance ...
The chromosomal translocations encode abnormal fusion proteins, usually transcription factors whose altered properties may ... All FAB subtypes except M3 are usually given induction chemotherapy with cytarabine (ara-C) and an anthracycline (most often ... The chance of cure for a specific person depends on a number of prognostic factors. The single most important prognostic factor ... the GATA2 transcription factor, and thereby to a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease, GATA2 deficiency. This disease is ...
Its transcription is regulated by the same factors that regulate fasR transcription, but with a higher intensity, suggesting, ... Gene fasR is an araC-like transcriptional regulator. Its transcription can be induced in vitro in cultures containing certain ... which has its transcription induced by cytokinin and turns proline into glutamic acid, and a factor involved in molybdenum ... with the attenuation of virulence in att mutants, that att may regulate fas transcription. Transcription of att operon is ...
In the transcription factor ETS wHTH folds into a helix-turn-helix motif on a four-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet scaffold ... and Xy1S/Ada/AraC". FEBS Letters. 372 (2-3): 215-21. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)00988-L. PMID 7556672. S2CID 3037519. Aravind L, ... These include the LuxR-type DNA-binding HTH domain found in bacterial transcription factors and the helix-turn-helix motif ... Sharrocks AD, Brown AL, Ling Y, Yates PR (December 1997). "The ETS-domain transcription factor family". The International ...
The splicing of GPR56 induces tumorigenic responses as a result of activating transcription factors, such as COX2, iNOS, and ... Araç D, Boucard AA, Bolliger MF, Nguyen J, Soltis SM, Südhof TC, Brunger AT (March 2012). "A novel evolutionarily conserved ... December 2013). "G-protein coupled receptor 56 promotes myoblast fusion through serum response factor- and nuclear factor of ... Gpr56 is a transcriptional target of the heptad complex of hematopoietic transcription factors, and is required for ...
"Murine macrophage mannose receptor promoter is regulated by the transcription factors PU.1 and SP1". Blood. 90 (10): 4135-43. ... araC, a promoter region that regulates the expression of GFP (specifically, the GFP gene will be expressed only in the presence ... and basal expression of the myeloid human Fc gamma R1b gene is mediated by a functional PU.1 site and a transcription initiator ...
... has been shown to be a biomarker and influence arabinose C (ara-C; cytarabine) responsiveness. Viral protein x (Vpx) has ... SAMHD1 was identified as the cellular protein responsible of the reverse transcription block to HIV-1 infection observed in ... Powell RD, Holland PJ, Hollis T, Perrino FW (December 2011). "Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome gene and HIV-1 restriction factor ... Second, promoter methylation can prevent SAMHD1 mRNA transcription. Third, miRNA-155 and miRNA-181a can prevent the translation ...
Araç D, Boucard AA, Bolliger MF, Nguyen J, Soltis SM, Südhof TC, Brunger AT (Mar 2012). "A novel evolutionarily conserved ... Transcription of the EMR3 gene results in two alternative spliced forms: a surface protein with extracellular, 7TM, and ... Stacey M, Lin HH, Hilyard KL, Gordon S, McKnight AJ (Jun 2001). "Human epidermal growth factor (EGF) module-containing mucin- ... Hamann, J; Aust, G; Araç, D; Engel, FB; Formstone, C; Fredriksson, R; Hall, RA; Harty, BL; Kirchhoff, C; Knapp, B; Krishnan, A ...
In the presence of Ybt, a member of the AraC family of transcriptional regulators, activates expression from the psn, irp2 and ... Siderophores, compounds of low molecular mass with high affinities for ferric iron, are important virulence factors in ... "Reduced synthesis of the Ybt siderophore or production of aberrant Ybt-like molecules activates transcription of yersiniabactin ... a virulence factor of Yersinia pestis". Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 100 (9): 1495-1500. doi:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2006.04. ...
"A phylogenomic analysis of bacterial helix-turn-helix transcription factors.". FEMS Microbiol Rev 33 (2): 411-29. PMID 19076237 ... Bakterijski regulatorni heliks-zavoj-heliks proteini, AraC familija Identifikatori Simbol HTH_AraC ... "Prokaryotic transcription regulators: more than just the helix-turn-helix motif.". Curr Opin Struct Biol 12 (1): 98-106. PMID ...
Zhang C, Atasoy D, Araç D, Yang X, Fucillo MV, Robison AJ, Ko J, Brunger AT, Südhof TC (May 2010). "Neurexins physically and ... which then phosphorylates the guanine exchange factor (GEF), ephexin1. Phosphorylated ephexin1 can then activate the small ... particular spine leads to the dimerization of N-cadherin which is then cleaved leading the repression of CBP/CREB transcription ...
... granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) - granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) - granulocytopenia ... ARAC) - AIDS service organization (ASO) - The AIDS Show - AIDS Vaccine 200 - AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition - AIDS wasting ... transcription - transfusion - translation - transmission - transplacental - treatment IND - triglycerides - tuberculin skin ... host factors - HPTN - HPV - HRSA - HTLV-I - HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) - HTLV-II - ...
A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that positively and negatively regulates the expression of proteins required for the ... Ara-C Transcription Regulator; AraC Repressor; AraC Transcription Regulator; Repressor, AraC; Transcription Factor, AraC; ... AraC Transcription Factor. Subscribe to New Research on AraC Transcription Factor A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that ... Transcription Factors: 20597*Repressor Proteins: 32*AraC Transcription Factor*E coli AraC protein ...
We applied this method to the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors, which is a large family of transcriptional regulators ... Computer-Based Annotation of Putative AraC/XylS-Family Transcription Factors of Known Structure but Unknown Function. Andreas ... We applied this method to the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors. ... the case of the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors," Genetica, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 65-76, 2008. View at Publisher · ...
... Andreas ... A description of the genetic context of predicted binding sites of the uncharacterized AraC/XylS transcription factors; Table ... of the analysis of the genetic context of predicted binding sites of the uncharacterized AraC/XylS transcription factors. ... Figure S1: Electrostatic potential surface representations of AraC/XylS family members calculated with the software DelPhi; ...
"AraC Transcription Factor" by people in this website by year, and whether "AraC Transcription Factor" was a major or minor ... "AraC Transcription Factor" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "AraC Transcription Factor" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "AraC Transcription Factor". ...
Represses its own transcription (PubMed:328165). Acts by binding directly to DNA (PubMed:4943786, PubMed:6251457, PubMed: ... Transcription factor that regulates the expression of several genes involved in the transport and metabolism of L-arabinose ( ... Transcription factor that regulates the expression of several genes involved in the transport and metabolism of L-arabinose ( ... IPR018062 HTH_AraC-typ_CS. IPR020449 Tscrpt_reg_HTH_AraC-type. Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF02311 AraC_binding, 1 hit. ...
1996) TOL plasmid transcription factor XylS binds specifically to the Pm operator sequence. Mol. Microbiol. 20:569-579. ... Supporting this is the observation that only 9 bp of the 17-bp AraC binding site araI1 are critical for AraC binding (31). ... The numbering is relative to the transcription start sites of Pcoo (29), Pcfa(20), and PvirB (40), which are shown by wavy ... 1992) AraC protein contacts asymmetric sites in Escherichia coli araFGH promoter. J. Biol. Chem. 267:24848-24857. ...
... arabinose-inducible transcription factor; pKD46K, a form of pKD46 in which the bla gene is replaced with the aadA gene that ... Cas9, Cas9 endonuclease; pJ23119, synthetic promoter (38); N20, 20-bp region complementary to the targeting region (38); araC, ... CRISPR RNA maturation by trans-encoded small RNA and host factor RNase III. Nature 471:602-607. doi:10.1038/nature09886. ...
AraC,+] Phrase Type. Transcription factor. Function. Promoter. Binding Sites. Growth Conditions. Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, ... Transcription factor. Function. Promoter. Binding Sites. Growth Conditions. Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak). Reference(s). ... Transcription factor. Function. Promoter. Binding Sites. Growth Conditions. Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak). Reference(s). ... Transcription factor. Function. Promoter. Binding Sites. Evidence (Confirmed, Strong, Weak). Reference(s). ...
Many EAEC encode a transcriptional factor named aggR (aggregative regulator), part of the AraC family of transcription ... Stage two: After AAF factors in stage 1, adherence to the mucosa is characterized by the presence a biofilm. The production of ... Stage One: Aggregative adherence factors (AAF) are responsible for the adhesion to the intestinal mucosa. AAF are made up of ... Strains of EAEC are highly genetically heterogeneous, and the identification of virulence factors important for pathogenesis ...
Transcription is dependent on the transcription factor AraC, the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) and cAMP.1 Publication. Manual ... usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down- ...
Specifically, we have characterized the pleiotropic transcription factor rsp (50), a member of the AraC family of ... In summary, our results provide new evidence that a S. aureus regulatory system involving the rsp transcription factor is ... Rsp is a transcription regulator; hence, we tested this hypothesis by analysis of differential transcription and protein ... as well as the virulence factor genes lukAB, chs, scpA, and hla. We verified the relative expression of these factors during ...
Ultimately, ToxT, a member of the AraC/XylS transcription regulator family, is responsible for activating the transcription of ... regulatory network controls virulence gene expression and responds to various environmental signals and transcription factors. ... Effects of double point mutations of heptad repeats on ctxAB transcription. β-Galactosidase results from ctxAB::lacZ double ... Effects of single point mutations on ctxAB transcription. β-Galactosidase results from ctxAB::lacZ single point mutations are ...
Several transcription factors that belong to the ArsR, HxlR, TetR, MarR, and AraC families were identified; however, none of ... elongation factor G, polynucleotide phosphorylase, RNase PH, and tRNA (uracil-5-)-methyltransferase]. The TM7_GTL1 gene for the ... as is a putative competence factor (ComF) gene. ...
To assess the regulatory role of these transcription factors, we disrupted each of the 13 response regulator genes by ... Two of these response regulators are obviously the first representatives of a new subfamily containing an AraC-type DNA-binding ...
Two are luxR family members, yhiF and yhiE, and two, yhiX and yhiW, are putative transcription factor genes of the araC family. ... With the exception of yiaG, which codes for a putative transcription factor with a pI of 8.1, the remainder of these genes, ... The fact that four of the nine acid-inducible genes in the gadA region encode transcription factors suggests that the AR genes ... Our results demonstrate that yhiE, encoding a putative transcription factor of the luxR family, is important for AR; mutation ...
Schuller et al (2012) Computer-based annotation of putative AraC/XylS-family transcription factors of known structure but ... Yang G-P et al (1999) Structure of the Mesorhizobium huakuii and Rhizobium galegae Nod factors: a cluster of phylogenetically ... Korner H et al (2003) Phylogeny of the bacterial superfamily of Crp-Fnr transcription regulators: exploiting the metabolic ... Brechenmacher et al (2008) Transcription profiling of Soybean nodulation by Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Mol Plant Microbe ...
If these transcription factors have a profound effect on whether or not transcription can occur (Kleinert, et al., 2003) , then ... Second, AraC is the right promoter for this circuit. Although there are many benefits for using an arabinose inducible promoter ... transcription factors. One of the main ideas of synthetic biology is the expression of proteins from foreign enzymes, for ... If there is no expression in the third, then the foreign promoter lacks the necessary transcription factors to operate in the ...
... transcriptional factors DksA (RNA polymerase-binding transcription factor, FP0218) and NusG (transcriptional elongation factor ... DECGs encoding transcriptional factors from the families AraC (FP0253, FP0984, and FP0994), TetR (FP0423), LysR (FP0763), and ... transcriptional factors, different subunits of DNA-directed RNA polymerase, translation factors, elongation factors, electron ... AraC family transcriptional regulators and extracytoplasmic function-type sigma factor) with putative functions in carbon ...
AraC family" FT /note="GO_component: GO:0005622 - intracellular; FT GO_function: GO:0003700 - transcription factor activity; FT ... AraC family" FT /note="GO_component: GO:0005622 - intracellular; FT GO_function: GO:0003700 - transcription factor activity; FT ... transcription factor activity; FT GO_process: GO:0006355 - regulation of transcription, FT DNA-dependent" FT /db_xref=" ... transcription factor FT activity; GO_process: GO:0006355 - regulation of FT transcription, DNA-dependent" FT /db_xref=" ...
The DNA-binding domain as a functional indicator: the case of the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors Genetica, 133, 65- ... Phylogenetic distribution of DNA-binding transcription factors in bacteria and archaea Computational Biology and Chemistry, 28 ... Genomic cloning of mouse MIF (macrophage inhibitory factor) and genetic mapping of the human and mouse expressed gene and nine ...
The DNA-binding domain as a functional indicator: the case of the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors Genetica, 133, 65- ... B. B. Finlay, J. L. Puente, W. Deng, S. Gruenheid y B. A. Vallance 2004 Bacterial virulence factors and uses thereof. .UNAM - ... B. B. Finlay, J. L. Puente, W. Deng, S. Gruenheidy y B. A. Vallance 2004 Bacterial virulence factors and uses.UNAM -Universidad ... B. B. Finlay, J. L. Puente, W. Deng, S. Gruenheid y B. A. Vallance 2004 Bacterial Virulence Factors and Uses Thereof. .UNAM - ...
... with particular attention to studying the regulation of transcription initiation in Escherichia coli. ... Browning, D, Savery, N, Kolb, A & Busby, S (2009) Assays for transcription factor activity. Methods in Molecular Biology: DNA- ... location of AraC-regulated genes in Escherichia coli K-12. BMC Microbiology DOI 10.1186/s12866-017-1079-2 ... Grainger, D, Aiba, H, Hurd, D, Browning, D & Busby, S (2007) Transcription factor distribution in E coli: studies with FNR ...
AraC, GntR and TetR families that form 64 orthologous groups of regulators. Most of the reconstructed regulons are local and ... AraC, GntR and TetR families that form 64 orthologous groups of regulators. Most of the reconstructed regulons are local and ... Analysis of regulatory gene regions revealed candidate DNA motifs and reconstructed regulons for 268 transcription factors from ... Analysis of regulatory gene regions revealed candidate DNA motifs and reconstructed regulons for 268 transcription factors from ...
sind:105175752 transcription termination factor MTEF1, K15032 308 101 ( -) 29 0.301 103 ,-, 1 smk:Sinme_0132 Integrase ... eae:EAE_06680 AraC family transcriptional regulator 317 100 ( -) 29 0.328 67 ,-, 1 eai:106846986 RUN and SH3 domain containing ... pmaj:107212821 general transcription factor II-I repeat K03121 974 100 ( -) 29 0.330 97 ,-, 1 pms:KNP414_03465 signal peptidase ... nvl:108558264 heat shock factor protein isoform X1 K09414 508 100 ( -) 29 0.307 137 ,-, 1 oca:OCAR_4416 conserved hypothetical ...
... and the tcp operon are activated by an AraC family transcription factor, ToxT (2, 5, 18, 21). Expression of toxT is, in turn, ... VieA regulates transcription of ctxA. The wild-type (AC-V61), ΔvieA (AC-V1386), vieA(E170A) (AC-V1596), and ΔtoxR (AC-V744) ... We show that transcription of both ctxA and toxT is repressed by an increased intracellular concentration of c-diGMP and that ... Since we have shown that transcription of toxT is altered in vieA mutant strains that exhibit increased levels of c-diGMP, it ...
... which is a member of the AraC family of transcription factors, activates the expression of hrpB to hrpF operons ( Figure 2 2 ... a bZIP transcription factor) and O sTFIIA1 (a small subunit of the transcription factor IIA), which increase disease ... Kay, S., Hahn, S., Marois, E., Hause, G., and Bonas, U. (2007) A bacterial effector acts as a plant transcription factor and ... Th us, induces gene expression and causes hypertrophy of plant mesophyll cells by mimicking eukaryotic transcription factors ( ...
... the signature has been identified within the N-terminal effector domain in a subgroup of bacterial AraC transcription factors. ... FACTOR INHIBITING HIF-1 ALPHA IN COMPLEX WITH R-2-HYDROXYGLUTARATE. 2yde. FACTOR INHIBITING HIF-1 ALPHA IN COMPLEX WITH S-2- ... Factor inhibiting HIF-1 alpha in complex with Clioquinol. 3kcy. Factor inhibiting HIF-1 alpha in complex with 8- ... JmjC domains were identified in numerous eukaryotic proteins containing domains typical of transcription factors, such as PHD, ...
IpgC is released and acts as a coactivator of the transcription factor MxiE for the transcription of virulence genes within the ... a member of the AraC/XylS family of transcriptional activators. The SicA-InvF complex is required to activate transcription ... EseE augments transcription of the escC-eseE operon. (A) The mRNA levels of escC, eseB, escA, eseC, eseD, eseE, escB, eseG, ... Regulation of transcription by the activity of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion apparatus. Mol Microbiol 43:1543-1553. ...
... mediating ara-C drug- induced apoptosis. Most recently, we demonstrated that the fusion protein Bcr-Abl negatively regulates ... The transcription factor ZNF224 was recently identified as a proapoptotic factor in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), ... Sodaro, Gaetano (2017) THE REGULATORY ROLE OF THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ZNF224 IN CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA. [Tesi di ... Taken together, our results identify new mechanisms by which ZNF224 transcription factor exerts an anti-oncogenic effect in CML ...
The inferred regulatory network includes 82 transcription factors and their DNA binding sites, 8 riboswitches and 6 ... To explore conservation and variations in the Shewanella transcriptional networks we analyzed the repertoire of transcription ... factors and performed genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of regulons in 16 Shewanella genomes. ... 37], the AraC-family activator PruR in the Pseudomonas spp. [38], and the predicted GntR-family regulator HypR* in the ...
  • A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that positively and negatively regulates the expression of proteins required for the uptake and catabolism of L-ARABINOSE. (curehunter.com)
  • Cloning, sequence, transcription start site and DNA binding sites of regulatory proteins. (uniprot.org)
  • The expression of CS1 pili by enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli is regulated at the transcriptional level and requires the virulence regulator Rns, a member of the AraC family of regulatory proteins. (asm.org)
  • VirF from the genus Yersinia regulates the expression of multiple virulence factors, including secreted Yop proteins encoded by unlinked genes present on the same virulence plasmid that encodes VirF ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • the late genes encoded many morphogenesis and mature virion membrane proteins, including those involved in entry, in addition to early transcription factors. (asm.org)
  • The Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes invF and invG encode homologues of the AraC and PulD family of proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major nosocomial pathogen which can express the SoxS, MarA, Rob, and RamA proteins, and the accompanying paper shows that the increased transcription of ramA is associated with tigecycline resistance ( M. Veleba and T. Schneiders , Antimicrob. (asm.org)
  • AraC proteins contain two helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding motifs. (elsevier.com)
  • ToxR can directly affect gene expression by binding to promoters, including those for the ctx operon, the genes encoding two outer membrane proteins OmpU and OmpT, and the gene encoding ToxT, a transcriptional regulator belonging to the AraC family of proteins ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, two other membrane proteins, TcpP and TcpH, are also required to work synergistically with ToxR and ToxS to activate toxT transcription ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Engagement of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) with its cognate receptor on the cell surface induces an intracellular signaling cascade comprising the adaptor proteins tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) or TRAF5, whereas signaling downstream of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) utilizes TRAF6. (asm.org)
  • In light of available knowledge of the properties of DNA binding proteins, it make sense to assume that most of these sites have nothing to do with regulating transcription. (blogspot.cz)
  • An important question in genomics is to understand how a class of proteins called "transcription factors" controls the expression level of other genes in the genome in a cell-type-specific manner - a process that is essential to human development. (blogspot.cz)
  • ExtraTrain includes all extragenic regions corresponding to all completely annotated genomes of bacteria and archaea available at NCBI [ 12 ] and all regulatory proteins included in UniProt [ 13 ] belonging to all the most significant families of transcriptional regulatory proteins (excluding sigma factors) defined in prokaryotes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Mechanistically, we observed an enhanced activation of the CBP/p300 joining transcription element CREB (cAMP response element-binding proteins) correlating to the NKG2D-L upregulation. (woofahs.com)
  • One such regulator, Rns, activates transcription of the genes encoding CS1 and CS2 pili ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Ultimately, ToxT, a member of the AraC/XylS transcription regulator family, is responsible for activating the transcription of the virulence genes. (nih.gov)
  • Many EAEC encode a transcriptional factor named aggR (aggregative regulator), part of the AraC family of transcription activators. (wikipedia.org)
  • To assess the regulatory role of these transcription factors, we disrupted each of the 13 response regulator genes by insertional mutagenesis. (nih.gov)
  • In Xanthomonas, the genes for the T3SS are regulated by HrpX, which is an AraC-type transcriptional regulator. (ufl.edu)
  • The " Rha mnose r egulator," RhaR, is a transcription factor that regulates genes involved in L-rhamnose degradation and coregulates with the global transcriptional regulator CRP. (unam.mx)
  • Bioinformatic analyses of the available Klebsiella genome sequences show that an additional AraC-type regulator is encoded chromosomally. (asm.org)
  • In this work, we characterize this novel AraC-type regulator, hereby called RarA (Regulator of antibiotic resistance A), which is encoded in K. pneumoniae , Enterobacter sp. (asm.org)
  • Structures of the Escherichia coli transcription activator and regulator of diauxie, XylR: an AraC DNA-binding family member with a LacI/GalR ligand-binding domain. (duke.edu)
  • The transcription factor GbdR is the specific regulator of choline metabolism and it belongs to the Arac/XylS family of transcriptional regulators. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an important regulator of the chronic inflammation contributing to tumour progression. (storysteel.ml)
  • 2008). HrpG is an important regulator that controls the expression of the type III secretion system by interacting with the downstream AraC-family transcription factor, HrpX (Noel et al. (cdantigens.com)
  • At the top of the hierarchy are AphA, a winged-helix transcription factor, and AphB, a LysR-type regulator, that together activate expression of the tcpPH genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We applied this method to the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors, which is a large family of transcriptional regulators found in many bacteria controlling the expression of genes involved in diverse biological functions. (hindawi.com)
  • We applied this method to the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors. (hindawi.com)
  • AraC/XylS is a large family of transcriptional regulators found in many bacteria controlling the expression of genes with diverse biological functions involved in metabolism, stress response, and virulence [ 2 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These regulators bind cooperatively to activate transcription of the unusual operon rhaSR , which encodes two transcriptional regulators, RhaS and RhaR (30% identical), both members of the AraC/XylS family of transcriptional regulators and involved in L-rhamnose transport and degradation [9, 10] . (unam.mx)
  • MarA (multiple antibiotics resistance activator) is a member of the AraC/XylS family of TFs found in a variety of medically important bacteria, particularly the Enterobacteriaceae. (melolab.org)
  • There are other family oriented approaches like AraC-XylS [ 3 ] and BacTregulators [ 4 ] covering all bacteria and archaea but their knowledge contents are limited to two families. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Self-Conjugation of the Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence Factor Plasmid of Four Typical EPEC Isolates BioMed Research International, 2017, 6325736. (unam.mx)
  • Research in Steve Busby's lab is concerned with understanding the molecular mechanisms that control gene expression in bacteria, with particular attention to studying the regulation of transcription initiation in Escherichia coli . (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Working with Escherichia coli K-12, over the past 25 years, the lab has elucidated some of the basic rules of promoter recognition by RNA polymerase and some of the fundamental mechanisms by which transcription activators function (see reviews listed below). (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • We investigate the hypothesis that, in Escherichia coli , while the concentration of RNA polymerases differs in different growth conditions, the fraction of RNA polymerases free for transcription remains approximately constant within a certain range of these conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Functional prediction of hypothetical transcription factors of Escherichia coli K-12 based on expression data Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, 16, 157-166. (unam.mx)
  • The functional landscape bound to the transcription factors of Escherichia coli K-12 Computational Biology and Chemistry, 58, 93-103. (unam.mx)
  • A DNA-binding repressor blocks the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter, thus preventing transcription of the genes into messenger RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A co-repressor is a molecule that can bind to the repressor and make it bind to the operator tightly, which decreases transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lac repressor is constitutively expressed and usually bound to the operator region of the promoter, which interferes with the ability of RNA polymerase (RNAP) to begin transcription of the lac operon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The operon consists of a regulatory repressor gene (araC), three control sites (ara02, ara01, araI1, and araI2), two promoters (Parac/ParaBAD) and three structural genes (araBAD). (wikipedia.org)
  • 3279415 ). In the absence of arabinose, AraC binds to the araO2 and araI1 half-sites in the promoter region of the araBAD operon, leading to the formation of a DNA loop that blocks access of RNA polymerase to the promoter. (uniprot.org)
  • However, the toxboxes required for the activation of transcription from the cholera toxin promoter PctxAB have not been identified. (nih.gov)
  • Second, AraC is the right promoter for this circuit. (igem.org)
  • After establishing this, we apply a standard model-fitting procedure to fully characterize the in vivo kinetics of the rate-limiting steps in transcription initiation of the P lac/ara-1 promoter from distributions of intervals between transcription events in cells with different RNA polymerase concentrations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the design, we considered the possibility that the constitutive promoter could continue with transcription even after getting to the double terminator and to avoid this, we designed the AND construction with the inducible promoter before the constitutive one. (igem.org)
  • This TFs acts as repressors in the absence of metals, when there is metal in the cell, the metal binds to the transcription factor and make a conformation change that dissolves the affinity of the protein for their binding sites and let the promoter free to recruit RNA polymerase to start transcription[1]. (igem.org)
  • It´s a transcription factor from phi29 phage , which is a phage of B. subtilis , it is the activator of the A3 promoter[4,5]. (igem.org)
  • It is another activator transcription factor, its origin is Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, its correspondent promoter is LasB[20]. (igem.org)
  • The DNA binding domain was able to repress in vitro transcription from abrBp and to activate transcription from the promoter for the spoIIG operon ( spoIIGp ) in vitro. (asmscience.org)
  • Repressors bind to a DNA operator blocking the RNA polymerase (RNAP) promoter binding, subsequent effector binding to the EBD leads to derepression allowing transcription initiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activators bind to DNA operator sequences permitting RNAP binding to the promoter to active transcription, often requiring aTF contact with the RNAP α-subunit [ 3 , 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Initiation of transcription under both cultural conditions occurred at the same transcription start point (tsp), 23 bp downstream from a putative BoxA promoter element. (labome.org)
  • The intron 1 GATA motif anchors the intron 8 GATA motif to the ALAS2 proximal promoter region, thereby forming a long-range enhancer loop to confer high-level ALAS2 transcription 13 . (nature.com)
  • RNAP is then able to bind to the promoter and begin transcription of the lacZYA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present work, we describe how gbdR transcription can be initiated from a σ 54 -dependent promoter. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • P BAD represents the probability that the pBAD promoter will be unbound by araC and thus active. (igem.org)
  • Analysis of regulatory gene regions revealed candidate DNA motifs and reconstructed regulons for 268 transcription factors from the LacI, ROK, DeoR, AraC, GntR, and TetR families that form 64 orthologous groups of regulators. (frontiersin.org)
  • That is, they serve to model the concentration of araC bound to pBAD and tetR bound to pTET given the concentrations of the ligands, arabinose and aTc. (igem.org)
  • Transcription and translation are essential processes for protein expression. (igem.org)
  • The work with RNA polymerase has focused on the roles of the alpha and sigma subunits, whilst the work on transcription activation has developed from studies of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (known as CRP or CAP), which have established a paradigm for understanding transcription activation in bacteria. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • The enzymes necessary for transcription of early genes are packaged in the infectious particle and expressed immediately after entry of the core into the cytoplasm, whereas de novo RNA, protein, and DNA synthesis is required for transcription of intermediate and late genes. (asm.org)
  • This transcription factor is composed of two domains, a C-terminal domain that contains two potential helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motifs and an N-terminal domain involved in l-rhamnose binding and dimerization of the protein [2, 5, 11] . (unam.mx)
  • Comparison of the predicted sequence of InvF with translated sequences in the existing databases indicated that this protein is homologous to members of the AraC family of prokaryotic transcription regulators. (nih.gov)
  • To compare the feasibility and analytical characteristics of flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and targeted error-corrected sequencing of GATA binding protein 1 (globin transcription factor 1) (GATA1) mutations as methods to detect MRD in DS AML. (cancer.gov)
  • Here, it is demonstrated that untreated and cytarabine (AraC)-treated IGH/MYC-positive Burkitt lymphoma cells accumulate a high number of potentially lethal DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and display low levels of the BRCA2 tumor suppressor protein, which is a key element of homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DSB repair. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Following phosphorylation, IκBα becomes ubiquitinated by an E3 ligase complex consisting of β-transducing repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP) ( 10 ) and is subsequently degraded by the proteasome, thus releasing p65/p50 into the nucleus and allowing transcription to occur. (asm.org)
  • A large family of structurally-related transcription factors that were originally discovered based upon their close sequence homology to an HMG-box domain found in SEX-DETERMINING REGION Y PROTEIN. (harvard.edu)
  • The jun-B protein, and perhaps other members of the jun family, may play a role in regulating the genomic response to growth factors. (labome.org)
  • Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • The protein plays a role in regulating DNA topology and activation of RIBOSOMAL RNA transcription. (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • When SAM is present, it binds to the MetJ protein, increasing its affinity for its cognate operator site, which halts transcription of genes involved in methionine synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike AraC, which is a well-studied protein, little is known about XylR. (duke.edu)
  • However, its N-terminal d-xylose-binding domain contains a periplasmic-binding protein (PBP) fold with structural homology to LacI/GalR transcription regulators. (duke.edu)
  • Dissecting the protein architecture of DNA-binding transcription factors in bacteria and archaea Microbiology, 163, 1167-1178. (unam.mx)
  • Protein-DNA interactions play pivotal roles in many biological processes such as DNA transcription, replication and repair. (melolab.org)
  • We have combined the use of these potentials together with software for the 3D modelling of protein-DNA complexes, which has allowed us to recover in a large degree the known experimental binding sites for several transcription factors (TF). (melolab.org)
  • For example, we have recently shown that primitive AML cells aberrantly express the tumor suppressor genes IRF1 (interferon regulatory factor 1) and DAPK (death-associated protein kinase). (bloodjournal.org)
  • 2009). The fleQ gene encodes a sigma 54 factor cognate activator that is essential for normal flagellation and transcription of the promoters of the fliE, fliL, fliQ, flgB, flgG, flhF and flhBA genes in Xcc strain XC17 (Hu et al. (cdantigens.com)
  • 2007. Directed evolution of AraC for improved compatibility of arabinose and lactose-inducible promoters . (lbl.gov)
  • Transcription of the genes required for l-arabinose and d-xylose consumption is regulated by the sugar-responsive transcription factors, AraC and XylR. (duke.edu)
  • In contrast, the VieA phosphoreceiver and helix-turn-helix domains are not necessary for regulation of vps transcription ( 51 ). (asm.org)
  • The binding of ToxT to toxboxes is required to activate the transcription of virulence genes, and toxboxes in several virulence gene promoters have been characterized. (nih.gov)
  • Later on, the lab turned its attention to more complicated promoters that are regulated by many different factors. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • The intermediate transcription factor genes have early promoters, late transcription factor genes have intermediate promoters, and early transcription factor genes have late promoters, providing a cascade mechanism of regulation ( 4 , 9 , 10 , 15 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • When the two promoters detect cadmium, they would not repress anymore and start transcription of P4 or LasR, and we will know it is working because our bacterium will be red, because of our reporter gene (RFP). (igem.org)
  • We report that Yersinia pestis LcrF binds to and activates transcription of ExsA-dependent promoters in P. aeruginosa and that plasmid-expressed ExsA complements a Y. pestis lcrF mutant for T3SS gene expression. (elsevier.com)
  • To determine whether our synthetic transcription factors would effectively repress the constitutive family of Anderson promoters, we placed the a TALe target sequence downstream of a number of Anderson promoters. (igem.org)
  • A derivative of VACV strain Copenhagen, called vv811, lacking 55 open reading frames in the left and right terminal regions of the genome was reported to still inhibit NF-κB activation downstream of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), suggesting the presence of one or more additional inhibitors. (asm.org)
  • In the presence of L-rhamnose, RhaR binds in tandem to two repeat sequences upstream of the rhaS intergenic region to activate transcription by overlapping the -35 box of rhaS p. (unam.mx)
  • We present here an integrated bioinformatics method for the functional annotation of transcription factors that combines sequence-based relationships and three-dimensional (3D) structural similarity of transcriptional regulators with computer prediction of their cognate DNA binding sequences. (hindawi.com)
  • Two of these response regulators are obviously the first representatives of a new subfamily containing an AraC-type DNA-binding effector domain. (nih.gov)
  • We show that the overexpression of rarA results in a multidrug resistance phenotype which requires a functional AcrAB efflux pump but is independent of the other AraC regulators. (asm.org)
  • ExsA activates type III secretion system (T3SS) gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and is a member of the AraC family of transcriptional regulators. (elsevier.com)
  • The transcription regulation properties of Spo0A are more diverse than have been demonstrated for other response regulators. (asmscience.org)
  • Sarkar A, Hochedlinger K. The sox family of transcription factors: versatile regulators of stem and progenitor cell fate. (harvard.edu)
  • Virulence factors regulated by Rns-like activators are not limited to pili. (asm.org)
  • 13 In seeking to further characterize this observation, we reasoned that transcriptional activators such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) might lie upstream of IRF-1. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This page displays every known transcription unit of this operon and their known regulation. (unam.mx)
  • Furthermore, real-time PCR assays showed that EseE positively regulated the transcription of the translocon operon escC - eseE , comprising escC , eseB , escA , eseC , eseD , and eseE . (asm.org)
  • In vitro transcription assays indicate that the α-CTD of the RNA polymerase is partially dispensable for RhaR activation and is required for CRP activation of the rhaSR operon [9, 10] . (unam.mx)
  • Apparently, expression of the operons involved in transport and degradation of L-rhamnose first requires expression of RhaR, which induces transcription of the rhaSR operon. (unam.mx)
  • Transcription of the rhaSR operon is induced when E. coli is grown on L-rhamnose in the absence of glucose. (unam.mx)
  • Here we show that it also represses transcription of genes including the pel operon involved in EPS biosynthesis, and that this repression is relieved by c-di-GMP. (bioseek.eu)
  • Activation and repression of gene expression in bacteria is usually mediated by DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) that specifically recognize TF-binding sites (TFBSs) in upstream regions of target genes, and also by various regulatory RNA structures including cis -acting metabolite-sensing riboswitches and attenuators encoded in the leader regions of target genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, the signature has been identified within the N-terminal effector domain in a subgroup of bacterial AraC transcription factors. (embl.de)
  • Crp is the general transcription factor and AraC the specific transcription factor. (slideplayer.com)
  • A comparison between orthologous genes revealed that global regulatory functions such as transcription, translation, replication and genes relating to the central carbon metabolism, presented similar changes in their levels of expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that the response to glucose is partially conserved in model organisms E. coli and B. subtilis , including genes encoding basic functions such as transcription, translation, replication and genes involved in the central carbon metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 19 showed that bursts of RNA production can emerge due to positive supercoiling build-up on a DNA segment, which eventually stops transcription initiation for a short period until the release of the supercoiling by gyrase. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Following the consumption of contaminated food or water by a human host, the Vibrio cholerae bacterium produces virulence factors, including cholera toxin (CT), which directly causes voluminous diarrhea, producing cholera. (nih.gov)
  • In V. cholerae , the causative agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera, c-diGMP concentration affects transcription of Vibrio exopolysaccharide synthesis ( vps ) genes that are required for biofilm formation ( 51 ). (asm.org)
  • The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae , has provided an excellent model system for identifying bacterial virulence factors and for understanding the regulatory networks governing their expression ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • A complex regulatory network controls virulence gene expression and responds to various environmental signals and transcription factors. (nih.gov)
  • From these observations, a wide range of gene expression behaviours have been reported and, therefore, significantly different probabilistic models of transcription have been proposed. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An efficient response mechanism is the regulation of transcription, the first step in gene expression, according to environmental demands. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, despite this translocation, vv811ΔA49 still inhibited TNF-α- and IL-1β-induced NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression and the transcription and production of cytokines induced by these agonists. (asm.org)
  • Sensing is commonly associated with the regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level mediated by an allosteric transcription factor (aTF). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The interactions of transcription factors (TFs) with DNA regulatory elements clearly play an important role in determining gene expression outputs, yet the regulatory logic underlying functional transcription factor binding is poorly understood. (blogspot.cz)
  • We intersected the gene expression data with transcription factor binding data (based on ChIP-seq and DNase-seq) within 10 kb of the transcription start sites of expressed genes. (blogspot.cz)
  • Using this approach, we found that only a small subset of genes bound by a factor were differentially expressed following the knockdown of that factor, suggesting that most interactions between TF and chromatin do not result in measurable changes in gene expression levels of putative target genes. (blogspot.cz)
  • One major approach to this problem is to study where these transcription factors bind in the genome, but this does not tell us about the effect of that binding on gene expression levels and it is generally accepted that much of the binding does not strongly influence gene expression. (blogspot.cz)
  • Real-time polymerase chain reactions, immunofluorescence staining and extracellular matrix mineralization assay confirmed that the functions of the loaded growth factor are fully preserved after fabrication. (bireme.br)
  • The virus-encoded multisubunit RNA polymerase, in conjunction with class-specific transcription factors, transcribes the genes of each class. (asm.org)
  • Abundance, diversity and domain architecture variability in prokaryotic DNA-binding transcription factors PLoS ONE, 13, e0195332. (unam.mx)
  • Exportin 4 mediates a novel nuclear import pathway for Sox family transcription factors. (harvard.edu)
  • We conclude that ENV1 is a key factor in connecting nutrient signalling with light response and establishes a signalling output pathway independent of BLR1 and BLR2. (omicsdi.org)
  • ppGpp couples transcription elongation to the nucleotide excision repair pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • We found that microRNA-146a is a target of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α or -2α in relation to the stage of monocytopoiesis and the level of hypoxia, and demonstrated the regulation of the microRNA-146a/CXCR4 pathway by hypoxia in monocytes derived from CD34 + cells. (haematologica.org)
  • Thus, in myeloid leukemic cell lines, hypoxia-mediated control of the microRNA-146a/CXCR4 pathway depends only on the capacity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α to up-regulate microRNA-146a, which in turn decreases CXCR4 expression. (haematologica.org)
  • The inferred regulatory network includes 82 transcription factors and their DNA binding sites, 8 riboswitches and 6 translational attenuators. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sandwalk: Are most transcription factor binding sites functional? (blogspot.cz)
  • Are most transcription factor binding sites functional? (blogspot.cz)
  • We see the same opposing views when it comes to transcription factor binding sites. (blogspot.cz)
  • Nevertheless, an appreciable percentage of the genome will be available for binding so that typical ENCODE assays detect thousand of binding sites for each transcription factor. (blogspot.cz)
  • Eukaryotic transcription factors usually bind a sufficiently numerous set of binding sites in a genome, allowing the determination of a motif for the DNA binding site for every transcription factor. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Both toxboxes are essential for DNA binding and the full activation of ctxAB transcription. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of double point mutations of heptad repeats on ctxAB transcription. (nih.gov)
  • This regulation occurred at the transcriptional level, and ectopically altering the c-diGMP concentration by expression of diguanylate cyclase or phosphodiesterase enzymes also affected ctxAB transcription. (asm.org)
  • It seems to me that the onus is on those claiming that a transcription factor binding site is functional. (blogspot.cz)
  • These data allowed us to prepare a genome-wide early, intermediate, and late transcription map. (asm.org)
  • The idea that most of our genome is transcribed (pervasive transcription) seems to indicate that genes occupy most of the genome. (blogspot.cz)
  • However, transcription of the virus genome in L cells, while reduced in rate, is not decreased in extent. (storysteel.gq)
  • Identification of FleQ from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a c-di-GMP-responsive transcription factor. (bioseek.eu)
  • The c-diGMP phosphodiesterase activity of VieA was also required for maximal transcription toxT but did not influence the activity of ToxR or expression of TcpP. (asm.org)
  • The transcription kinetics assays the authors carried out predicted that Spo0A-P stimulated the conversion of an unstable intermediate to one that could initiate RNA synthesis rapidly. (asmscience.org)
  • The genetic experiments and the in vitro assays lead to the conclusion that the transcription activation functions of Spo0A lie in the C-terminal domain and that these functions are inhibited by the N-terminal domain. (asmscience.org)
  • Mutations at conserved residues in the VieA EAL domain result in an elevated c-diGMP concentration and activation of vps transcription. (asm.org)
  • section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction. (uniprot.org)
  • DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) regulate cellular functions in prokaryotes, often in response to environmental stimuli. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AggR regulates many plasmid, as well chromosomally encoded, virulence factors, that include genes implicated in aggregative adherence fimbriae biogenesis and toxin production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Androgen receptors purified by ion-exchange chromatography were unable to bind to ARE, suggesting the presence of other factors required for DNA binding. (labome.org)
  • 1984. Important self-management behaviors for children have been characterized within four broad areas prevention, intervention, compensatory behaviors, and management of inn mental factors (McNabb, Wilson-Pessano, Jacobs, 1986). (imbc-med.ru)
  • A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. (umassmed.edu)
  • In this way, RhaS activates transcription of L-rhamnose gene clusters. (unam.mx)
  • Transcription factor binding motifs help to elucidate regulatory mechanism. (systemsbiology.net)
  • Two determinants, cholera enterotoxin (CT) and toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) are critical factors responsible for this organism's virulence. (pnas.org)
  • In V. cholerae , the major virulence factors are cholera toxin (CT) and the colonization factor, toxin coregulated pilus (TCP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, B. subtilis functions not found in E. coli , such as sporulation and competence were shown to be interconnected, forming modules subject to catabolic repression at the level of transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our in vivo data indicate that FleQ represses pel transcription and that pel transcription is not repressed when intracellular c-di-GMP levels are high. (bioseek.eu)
  • Not all of those sites will be bound by the transcription factor in vivo because some of the DNA will be tightly wrapped up in dense chromatin domains. (blogspot.cz)
  • Similarly, VirF of Shigella flexneri regulates plasmid-encoded virulence factors required for invasion and spreading within epithelial cells ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Expression of the virulence genes is often tightly regulated by environmental, metabolic and other factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By rendering RNAP backtracking-prone, ppGpp couples transcription to DNA repair and prompts transitions between repair and recovery states. (sciencemag.org)
  • ppGpp acts synergistically with the transcription factor DksA, which also interacts with RNAP ( 5 , 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In resting cells, IκBα is found in complex with NF-κB transcription factor subunits p65 and p50, preventing their nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB-dependent gene transcription. (asm.org)
  • TRANSFAC database [ 1 ] compiles eukaryotic cis-acting regulatory DNA elements and trans-acting factors covering from yeast to humans. (beds.ac.uk)
  • gbdR transcription can be activated by NtrC in the absence of a preferential nitrogen source, by CbrB in the absence of a preferential carbon source, and by the integration host factor favouring DNA bending. (microbiologyresearch.org)