Arabinose is a simple, pentose sugar (a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms) that is a constituent of various polysaccharides and glycosides, particularly found in plant tissues and some microorganisms, and can be metabolized in humans as a source of energy through the pentose phosphate pathway.
A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that positively and negatively regulates the expression of proteins required for the uptake and catabolism of L-ARABINOSE.
Xylose is a monosaccharide, a type of sugar, that is commonly found in woody plants and fruits, and it is used in medical testing to assess the absorptive capacity of the small intestine.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Regulatory genes which encode a cyclic AMP receptor protein required for L-arabinose utilization in E. coli. It is an example of positive control or regulation of gene expression in the bacterial operon.
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long, often branched chains of repeating monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds, which serve as energy storage molecules (e.g., glycogen), structural components (e.g., cellulose), and molecular recognition sites in various biological systems.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Glycoside Hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds, resulting in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and oligosaccharides into simpler sugars.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A family of gram-positive, saprophytic bacteria occurring in soil and aquatic environments.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Methylgalactosides are disaccharides consisting of a galactose molecule linked to a methyl group through a glycosidic bond, found in certain food sources and potentially used as sweeteners.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The process that starts the transcription of an RNA molecule. It includes the assembly of the initiation complex and establishment of the start site.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.
Diaminopimelic acid (DAP) is a crucial intermediate in the biosynthesis of L-lysine, an essential amino acid, and is also a significant component of peptidoglycan, a cell wall polymer in bacteria.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.

The Salmonella typhi melittin resistance gene pqaB affects intracellular growth in PMA-differentiated U937 cells, polymyxin B resistance and lipopolysaccharide. (1/706)

Salmonella typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever in humans. A cell-culture based assay involving the human monocyte macrophage cell line U937 has been developed to examine S. typhi invasion and survival. An S. typhi PhoP- (null) mutant was shown to be restricted in net growth in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) differentiated U937 (PMA-U937) cells, and an S. typhi PhoPc (constitutive) mutant showed a defect in invasion. Neither of the phoP/Q mutants were growth impaired in HeLa cells, however the PhoPc mutant was impaired in invasion. As opposed to what was found for S. typhi, Salmonella typhimurium wild-type, PhoP- and PhoPc mutants grew equally well in PMA-U937 cells, indicating that the PhoP(-)-mediated net growth restriction in the PMA-U937 cells was S. typhi specific. An S. typhi mutation, pqaB::MudJ, recently shown to be a PhoP-activated locus, was shown to have a net growth defect in PMA-U937 cells. Sequencing of the S. typhipqaB gene revealed it had 98% identity to the fifth gene in a S. typhimurium PmrA/B regulated operon necessary for 4-aminoarabinose lipid A modification and polymyxin B resistance. The pqaB locus was regulated by PmrA/B (whose activity is modulated by PhoP-PhoQ) and the pqaB transposon mutant was sensitive to polymyxin B. The lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of S. typhi and S. typhimurium wild-type, PhoP- and PhoPc mutants, were compared by SDS-PAGE and silver staining. Differences in the LPS profile between the two Salmonella species were observed, and shown to be affected differently by the PhoPc mutation. Additionally, the pqaB::MudJ mutation affected S. typhi LPS. The effects on LPS may have ramifications for the difference between S. typhi and S. typhimurium infection of hosts.  (+info)

Effect of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine 5'-monophosphate and 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylhypoxanthine 5'-monophosphate on experimental herpes simplex keratitis. (2/706)

Treatment of established experimental keratitis caused by herpes simplex virus with 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine 5'-monophosphate (Ara-AMP) or 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosylhypoxanthine 5'-monophosphate (Ara-HxMP) showed that the Ara-AMP, in a concentration of 2 or 20%, had a significant effect on the keratitis but that 0.4% Ara-HxMP showed only minimal activity. Ara-AMP was also effective in the treatment of idoxuridine-resistant keratitis. No local toxicity with a high concentration (20%) of Ara-AMP was seen, but the duration of therapy was brief.  (+info)

Transcriptional activation of ydeA, which encodes a member of the major facilitator superfamily, interferes with arabinose accumulation and induction of the Escherichia coli arabinose PBAD promoter. (3/706)

Induction of genes expressed from the arabinose PBAD promoter is very rapid and maximal at low arabinose concentrations. We describe here two mutations that interfere with the expression of genes cloned under arabinose control. Both mutations map to the ydeA promoter and stimulate ydeA transcription; overexpression of YdeA from a multicopy plasmid confers the same phenotype. One mutation is a large deletion that creates a more efficient -35 region (ATCACA changed to TTCACA), whereas the other affects the initiation site (TTTT changed to TGTT). The ydeA gene is expressed at extremely low levels in exponentially growing wild-type cells and is not induced by arabinose. Disruption of ydeA has no detectable effect on cell growth. Thus, ydeA appears to be nonessential under usual laboratory growth conditions. The ydeA gene encodes a membrane protein with 12 putative transmembrane segments. YdeA belongs to the largest family of bacterial secondary active transporters, the major facilitator superfamily, which includes antibiotic resistance exporters, Lac permease, and the nonessential AraJ protein. Intracellular accumulation of arabinose is strongly decreased in mutant strains overexpressing YdeA, suggesting that YdeA facilitates arabinose export. Consistent with this interpretation, very high arabinose concentrations can compensate for the negative effect of ydeA transcriptional activation. Our studies (i) indicate that YdeA, when transcriptionally activated, contributes to the control of the arabinose regulon and (ii) demonstrate a new way to modulate the kinetics of induction of cloned genes.  (+info)

Phylogenetic analysis of Ara+ and Ara- Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates and development of a multiplex PCR procedure for rapid discrimination between the two biotypes. (4/706)

A Burkholderia pseudomallei-like organism has recently been identified among some soil isolates of B. pseudomallei in an area with endemic melioidosis. This organism is almost identical to B. pseudomallei in terms of morphological and biochemical profiles, except that it differs in ability to assimilate L-arabinose. These Ara+ isolates are also less virulent than the Ara- isolates in animal models. In addition, clinical isolates of B. pseudomallei available to date are almost exclusively Ara-. These features suggested that these two organisms may belong to distinctive species. In this study, the 16S rRNA-encoding genes from five clinical (four Ara- and one Ara+) and nine soil isolates (five Ara- and four Ara+) of B. pseudomallei were sequenced. The nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the 16S rRNA-encoding gene of the Ara+ biotype was similar to but distinctively different from that of the Ara- soil isolates, which were identical to the classical clinical isolates of B. pseudomallei. The nucleotide sequence differences in the 16S rRNA-encoding gene appeared to be specific for the Ara+ or Ara- biotypes. The differences were, however, not sufficient for classification into a new species within the genus Burkholderia. A simple and rapid multiplex PCR procedure was developed to discriminate between Ara- and Ara+ B. pseudomallei isolates. This new method could also be incorporated into our previously reported nested PCR system for detecting B. pseudomallei in clinical specimens.  (+info)

Substrate sequestration by a proteolytically inactive Lon mutant. (5/706)

Lon protein of Escherichia coli is an ATP-dependent protease responsible for the rapid turnover of both abnormal and naturally unstable proteins, including SulA, a cell division inhibitor made after DNA damage, and RcsA, a positive regulator of transcription. Lon is a multimer of identical 94-kDa subunits, each containing a consensus ATPase motif and a serine active site. We found that overexpressing Lon, which is mutated for the serine active site (LonS679A) and is therefore devoid of proteolytic activity, unexpectedly led to complementation of the UV sensitivity and capsule overproduction of a lon deletion mutant. SulA was not degraded by LonS679A, but rather was completely protected by the Lon mutant from degradation by other cellular proteases. We interpret these results to mean that the mutant LonS679A binds but does not degrade Lon substrates, resulting in sequestration of the substrate proteins and interference with their activities, resulting in apparent complementation. Lon that carried a mutation in the consensus ATPase site, either with or without the active site serine, was no longer able to complement a Deltalon mutant. These in vivo results suggest that the pathway of degradation by Lon couples ATP-dependent unfolding with movement of the substrate into protected chambers within Lon, where it is held until degradation proceeds. In the absence of degradation the substrate remains sequestered. Comparison of our results with those from a number of other systems suggest that proteins related to the regulatory portions of energy-dependent proteases act as energy-dependent sequestration proteins.  (+info)

Mapping an interface of SecY (PrlA) and SecE (PrlG) by using synthetic phenotypes and in vivo cross-linking. (6/706)

SecY and SecE are integral cytoplasmic membrane proteins that form an essential part of the protein translocation machinery in Escherichia coli. Sites of direct contact between these two proteins have been suggested by the allele-specific synthetic phenotypes exhibited by pairwise combinations of prlA and prlG signal sequence suppressor mutations in these genes. We have introduced cysteine residues within the first periplasmic loop of SecY and the second periplasmic loop of SecE, at a specific pair of positions identified by this genetic interaction. The expression of the cysteine mutant pair results in a dominant lethal phenotype that requires the presence of DsbA, which catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds. A reducible SecY-SecE complex is also observed, demonstrating that these amino acids must be sufficiently proximal to form a disulfide bond. The use of cysteine-scanning mutagenesis enabled a second contact site to be discovered. Together, these two points of contact allow the modeling of a limited region of quaternary structure, establishing the first characterized site of interaction between these two proteins. This study proves that actual points of protein-protein contact can be identified by using synthetic phenotypes.  (+info)

Specific chromosome alterations in fluconazole-resistant mutants of Candida albicans. (7/706)

The exposure of Candida albicans to fluconazole resulted in the nondisjunction of two specific chromosomes in 17 drug-resistant mutants, each obtained by an independent mutational event. The chromosomal changes occurred at high frequencies and were related to the duration of the drug exposure. The loss of one homologue of chromosome 4 occurred after incubation on a fluconazole medium for 7 days. A second change, the gain of one copy of chromosome 3, was observed after exposure for 35 or 40 days. We found that the mRNA levels of ERG11, CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1, the candidate fluconazole resistance genes, remained either the same or were diminished. The lack of overexpression of putative drug pumps or the drug target indicated that some other mechanism(s) may be operating. The fluconazole resistance phenotype, electrophoretic karyotypes, and transcript levels of mutants were stable after growth for 112 generations in the absence of fluconazole. This is the first report to demonstrate that resistance to fluconazole can be dependent on chromosomal nondisjunction. Furthermore, we suggest that a low-level resistance to fluconazole arising during the early stages of clinical treatment may occur by this mechanism. These results support our earlier hypothesis that changes in C. albicans chromosome number is a common means to control a resource of potentially beneficial genes that are related to important cellular functions.  (+info)

Escherichia coli gene ydeA encodes a major facilitator pump which exports L-arabinose and isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. (8/706)

Inactivation of the Escherichia coli gene ydeA, which encodes a member of the major facilitator superfamily, decreased the efflux of L-arabinose, thereby affecting the expression of AraC-regulated genes. In addition, overexpression of ydeA decreased the expression of genes regulated by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside.  (+info)

Arabinose is a simple sugar or monosaccharide that is a stereoisomer of xylose. It is a pentose, meaning it contains five carbon atoms, and is classified as a hexahydroxyhexital because it has six hydroxyl (-OH) groups attached to the carbon atoms. Arabinose is found in various plant polysaccharides, such as hemicelluloses, gums, and pectic substances. It can also be found in some bacteria and yeasts, where it plays a role in their metabolism. In humans, arabinose is not an essential nutrient and must be metabolized by specific enzymes if consumed.

AraC (also known as C/EBPε or NF-IL6) is a transcription factor that belongs to the family of proteins known as CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs). These proteins play crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression, differentiation, and development of various tissues.

AraC functions as a homodimer or heterodimer with other C/EBP family members to bind to specific DNA sequences called CCAAT boxes, which are present in the promoter regions of target genes. Upon binding, AraC regulates the transcription of these genes, either activating or repressing their expression depending on the context and interacting proteins.

AraC is widely expressed in various tissues, including hematopoietic cells, where it plays essential roles in granulocyte development and function. In addition, AraC has been implicated in the regulation of inflammatory responses, cell cycle progression, and oncogenesis. Dysregulation of AraC activity has been associated with several diseases, including cancer and inflammatory disorders.

Xylose is a type of sugar that is commonly found in plants and wood. In the context of medical definitions, xylose is often used in tests to assess the function of the small intestine. The most common test is called the "xylose absorption test," which measures the ability of the small intestine to absorb this sugar.

In this test, a patient is given a small amount of xylose to drink, and then several blood and/or urine samples are collected over the next few hours. The amount of xylose that appears in these samples is measured and used to determine how well the small intestine is absorbing nutrients.

Abnormal results on a xylose absorption test can indicate various gastrointestinal disorders, such as malabsorption syndromes, celiac disease, or bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine.

Monosaccharides are simple sugars that cannot be broken down into simpler units by hydrolysis. They are the most basic unit of carbohydrates and are often referred to as "simple sugars." Monosaccharides typically contain three to seven atoms of carbon, but the most common monosaccharides contain five or six carbon atoms.

The general formula for a monosaccharide is (CH2O)n, where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. The majority of monosaccharides have a carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone) and multiple hydroxyl groups. These functional groups give monosaccharides their characteristic sweet taste and chemical properties.

The most common monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, and galactose, all of which contain six carbon atoms and are known as hexoses. Other important monosaccharides include pentoses (five-carbon sugars) such as ribose and deoxyribose, which play crucial roles in the structure and function of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Monosaccharides can exist in various forms, including linear and cyclic structures. In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides often form cyclic structures through a reaction between the carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group, creating a hemiacetal or hemiketal linkage. These cyclic structures can adopt different conformations, known as anomers, depending on the orientation of the hydroxyl group attached to the anomeric carbon atom.

Monosaccharides serve as essential building blocks for complex carbohydrates, such as disaccharides (e.g., sucrose, lactose, and maltose) and polysaccharides (e.g., starch, cellulose, and glycogen). They also participate in various biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell recognition, and protein glycosylation.

A pentose is a monosaccharide (simple sugar) that contains five carbon atoms. The name "pentose" comes from the Greek word "pente," meaning five, and "ose," meaning sugar. Pentoses play important roles in various biological processes, such as serving as building blocks for nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and other biomolecules.

Some common pentoses include:

1. D-Ribose - A naturally occurring pentose found in ribonucleic acid (RNA), certain coenzymes, and energy-carrying molecules like adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
2. D-Deoxyribose - A pentose that lacks a hydroxyl (-OH) group on the 2' carbon atom, making it a key component of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
3. Xylose - A naturally occurring pentose found in various plants and woody materials; it is used as a sweetener and food additive.
4. Arabinose - Another plant-derived pentose, arabinose can be found in various fruits, vegetables, and grains. It has potential applications in the production of biofuels and other bioproducts.
5. Lyxose - A less common pentose that can be found in some polysaccharides and glycoproteins.

Pentoses are typically less sweet than hexoses (six-carbon sugars) like glucose or fructose, but they still contribute to the overall sweetness of many foods and beverages.

Xylans are a type of complex carbohydrate, specifically a hemicellulose, that are found in the cell walls of many plants. They are made up of a backbone of beta-1,4-linked xylose sugar molecules and can be substituted with various side groups such as arabinose, glucuronic acid, and acetyl groups. Xylans are indigestible by humans, but they can be broken down by certain microorganisms in the gut through a process called fermentation, which can produce short-chain fatty acids that have beneficial effects on health.

Galactans are a type of complex carbohydrates known as oligosaccharides that are composed of galactose molecules. They can be found in certain plants, including beans, lentils, and some fruits and vegetables. In the human body, galactans are not digestible and can reach the colon intact, where they may serve as a substrate for fermentation by gut bacteria. This can lead to the production of short-chain fatty acids, which have been shown to have various health benefits. However, in some individuals with irritable bowel syndrome or other functional gastrointestinal disorders, consumption of galactans may cause digestive symptoms such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea.

Actinomycetales is an order of Gram-positive bacteria that are characterized by their filamentous morphology and branching appearance, resembling fungi. These bacteria are often found in soil and water, and some species can cause diseases in humans and animals. The name "Actinomycetales" comes from the Greek words "actis," meaning ray or beam, and "mykes," meaning fungus.

The order Actinomycetales includes several families of medical importance, such as Mycobacteriaceae (which contains the tuberculosis-causing Mycobacterium tuberculosis), Corynebacteriaceae (which contains the diphtheria-causing Corynebacterium diphtheriae), and Actinomycetaceae (which contains the actinomycosis-causing Actinomyces israelii).

Actinomycetales are known for their complex cell walls, which contain a unique type of lipid called mycolic acid. This feature makes them resistant to many antibiotics and contributes to their ability to cause chronic infections. They can also form resistant structures called spores, which allow them to survive in harsh environments and contribute to their ability to cause disease.

Overall, Actinomycetales are important both as beneficial soil organisms and as potential pathogens that can cause serious diseases in humans and animals.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight mistake in your question. "araC" is not a term that is typically associated with genes in medical or genetic contexts. It is possible that you may have meant "araC," which is an abbreviation for the chemical name of a drug called cytarabine, which is used to treat various types of cancer.

If you are asking about genes, I would be happy to provide some information on that topic! Genes are segments of DNA that contain the instructions for making proteins or regulating gene expression. They are passed down from parents to offspring and can influence various traits and characteristics, including physical features, metabolism, and susceptibility to certain diseases.

If you have any further questions or need clarification on a specific genetic concept, please let me know!

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long chains of monosaccharide units (simple sugars) bonded together by glycosidic linkages. They can be classified based on the type of monosaccharides and the nature of the bonds that connect them.

Polysaccharides have various functions in living organisms. For example, starch and glycogen serve as energy storage molecules in plants and animals, respectively. Cellulose provides structural support in plants, while chitin is a key component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons.

Some polysaccharides also have important roles in the human body, such as being part of the extracellular matrix (e.g., hyaluronic acid) or acting as blood group antigens (e.g., ABO blood group substances).

Carbohydrates are a major nutrient class consisting of organic compounds that primarily contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are classified as saccharides, which include monosaccharides (simple sugars), disaccharides (double sugars), oligosaccharides (short-chain sugars), and polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates).

Monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of a single sugar molecule that cannot be broken down further by hydrolysis. Disaccharides, like sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt sugar), are formed from two monosaccharide units joined together.

Oligosaccharides contain a small number of monosaccharide units, typically less than 20, while polysaccharides consist of long chains of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharide units. Polysaccharides can be further classified into starch (found in plants), glycogen (found in animals), and non-starchy polysaccharides like cellulose, chitin, and pectin.

Carbohydrates play a crucial role in providing energy to the body, with glucose being the primary source of energy for most cells. They also serve as structural components in plants (cellulose) and animals (chitin), participate in various metabolic processes, and contribute to the taste, texture, and preservation of foods.

Galactose is a simple sugar or monosaccharide that is a constituent of lactose, the disaccharide found in milk and dairy products. It's structurally similar to glucose but with a different chemical structure, and it plays a crucial role in various biological processes.

Galactose can be metabolized in the body through the action of enzymes such as galactokinase, galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, and UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase. Inherited deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to metabolic disorders like galactosemia, which can cause serious health issues if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

In summary, Galactose is a simple sugar that plays an essential role in lactose metabolism and other biological processes.

Glycoside hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds found in various substrates such as polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and glycoproteins. These enzymes break down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars by cleaving the glycosidic linkages that connect monosaccharide units.

Glycoside hydrolases are classified based on their mechanism of action and the type of glycosidic bond they hydrolyze. The classification system is maintained by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). Each enzyme in this class is assigned a unique Enzyme Commission (EC) number, which reflects its specificity towards the substrate and the type of reaction it catalyzes.

These enzymes have various applications in different industries, including food processing, biofuel production, pulp and paper manufacturing, and biomedical research. In medicine, glycoside hydrolases are used to diagnose and monitor certain medical conditions, such as carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, a rare inherited disorder affecting the structure of glycoproteins.

Carbohydrate metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then used for energy or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. This process involves several enzymes and chemical reactions that convert carbohydrates from food into glucose, fructose, or galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body.

The hormones insulin and glucagon regulate carbohydrate metabolism by controlling the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Insulin is released from the pancreas when blood sugar levels are high, such as after a meal, and promotes the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Glucagon, on the other hand, is released when blood sugar levels are low and signals the liver to convert stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the bloodstream.

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism can result from genetic defects or acquired conditions that affect the enzymes or hormones involved in this process. Examples include diabetes, hypoglycemia, and galactosemia. Proper management of these disorders typically involves dietary modifications, medication, and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Base composition in genetics refers to the relative proportion of the four nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, so the base composition is often expressed in terms of the ratio of adenine + thymine (A-T) to guanine + cytosine (G-C). This ratio can vary between species and even between different regions of the same genome. The base composition can provide important clues about the function, evolution, and structure of genetic material.

Micromonosporaceae is a family of actinobacteria that are gram-positive, aerobic, and have high guanine-cytosine content in their DNA. These bacteria are typically found in soil and aquatic environments. They are known for producing a wide range of bioactive compounds with potential applications in medicine, agriculture, and industry. The cells of Micromonosporaceae are usually rod-shaped and may form branching filaments or remain as single cells. Some members of this family can form spores, which are often resistant to heat, drying, and chemicals.

It's worth noting that the medical significance of Micromonosporaceae is not well established, but some species have been found to produce antibiotics and other bioactive compounds with potential therapeutic applications. For example, the genus Micromonospora includes several species that are known to produce various antibiotics, such as micromonosporin, xanthomycin, and gentamicin C1A. However, further research is needed to fully understand the medical relevance of this family of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Rhamnose is a naturally occurring sugar or monosaccharide, that is commonly found in various plants and some fruits. It is a type of deoxy sugar, which means it lacks one hydroxyl group (-OH) compared to a regular hexose sugar. Specifically, rhamnose has a hydrogen atom instead of a hydroxyl group at the 6-position of its structure.

Rhamnose is an essential component of various complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates found in plant cell walls, such as pectins and glycoproteins. It also plays a role in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and is used in the production of some antibiotics.

In medical contexts, rhamnose may be relevant to research on bacterial infections, plant-derived medicines, or the metabolism of certain sugars. However, it is not a commonly used term in clinical medicine.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

'Escherichia coli (E. coli) proteins' refer to the various types of proteins that are produced and expressed by the bacterium Escherichia coli. These proteins play a critical role in the growth, development, and survival of the organism. They are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, translation, repair, and regulation.

E. coli is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe that is commonly found in the intestines of warm-blooded organisms. It is widely used as a model organism in scientific research due to its well-studied genetics, rapid growth, and ability to be easily manipulated in the laboratory. As a result, many E. coli proteins have been identified, characterized, and studied in great detail.

Some examples of E. coli proteins include enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as lactase, sucrase, and maltose; proteins involved in DNA replication such as the polymerases, single-stranded binding proteins, and helicases; proteins involved in transcription such as RNA polymerase and sigma factors; proteins involved in translation such as ribosomal proteins, tRNAs, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases; and regulatory proteins such as global regulators, two-component systems, and transcription factors.

Understanding the structure, function, and regulation of E. coli proteins is essential for understanding the basic biology of this important organism, as well as for developing new strategies for combating bacterial infections and improving industrial processes involving bacteria.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

Xylosidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of xylosides, which are glycosides with a xylose sugar. Specifically, they cleave the terminal β-1,4-linked D-xylopyranoside residues from various substrates such as xylooligosaccharides and xylan. These enzymes play an important role in the breakdown and metabolism of plant-derived polysaccharides, particularly hemicelluloses, which are a major component of plant biomass. Xylosidases have potential applications in various industrial processes, including biofuel production and animal feed manufacturing.

Gordonia bacterium is a type of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that belongs to the family Gordoniaceae. These bacteria are typically found in soil, water, and clinical specimens such as respiratory secretions, wounds, and blood. They are catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, and many species can produce colonies with a distinctive orange or pink color due to the production of pigments such as gordoniabactin.

Gordonia species are generally considered to be low-virulence organisms, but they have been associated with various types of infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. These infections can include respiratory tract infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and skin and soft tissue infections.

Gordonia species are often resistant to many antibiotics, including beta-lactams, macrolides, and aminoglycosides. Therefore, identification of the specific Gordonia species and susceptibility testing are important for guiding appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Methylgalactosides" is not a recognized term in medical or biological nomenclature. It appears that the term may be a combination of "methyl," a common chemical modification, and "galactosides," which are compounds containing galactose, a type of sugar. However, without more context, it's difficult to provide an accurate definition or medical relevance.

If you meant a different term or need information on a related topic, please provide more details so I can give a more helpful response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lignin" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of biology and chemistry, particularly in botany and wood science. Lignin is a complex organic polymer that binds cellulose fibers together, providing strength and rigidity to the cell walls of plants. It is a major component of wood and bark.

If you have any medical terms you would like defined or any other questions, please let me know!

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Transcription initiation, genetic is the process by which the transcription of a gene is initiated. It is the first step in gene expression, where the information encoded in DNA is copied into RNA. This process involves the unwinding of the double-stranded DNA at the promoter region of the gene, followed by the recruitment of the RNA polymerase enzyme and other transcription factors to the promoter site. Once assembled, the RNA polymerase begins to synthesize an RNA copy of the gene's sequence, starting from the transcription start site (TSS). This RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA), will then be translated into a protein or used to produce non-coding RNAs with various functions. Transcription initiation is tightly regulated and can be influenced by various factors such as promoter strength, transcription factor availability, and chromatin structure.

'Medicago sativa' is the scientific name for a plant species more commonly known as alfalfa. In a medical context, alfalfa is often considered a herbal supplement and its medicinal properties include being a source of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions such as kidney problems, asthma, arthritis, and high cholesterol levels. However, it's important to note that the effectiveness of alfalfa for these uses is not conclusively established by scientific research and its use may have potential risks or interactions with certain medications. Always consult a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Aldose-ketose isomerases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between aldoses and ketoses, which are different forms of sugars. These enzymes play an essential role in carbohydrate metabolism by facilitating the reversible conversion of aldoses to ketoses and vice versa.

Aldoses are sugars that contain a carbonyl group (a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom) at the end of the carbon chain, while ketoses have their carbonyl group located in the middle of the chain. The isomerization process catalyzed by aldose-ketose isomerases helps maintain the balance between these two forms of sugars and enables cells to utilize them more efficiently for energy production and other metabolic processes.

There are several types of aldose-ketose isomerases, including:

1. Triose phosphate isomerase (TPI): This enzyme catalyzes the interconversion between dihydroxyacetone phosphate (a ketose) and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (an aldose), which are both trioses (three-carbon sugars). TPI plays a crucial role in glycolysis, the metabolic pathway that breaks down glucose to produce energy.
2. Xylulose kinase: This enzyme is involved in the pentose phosphate pathway, which is a metabolic route that generates reducing equivalents (NADPH) and pentoses for nucleic acid synthesis. Xylulose kinase catalyzes the conversion of D-xylulose (a ketose) to D-xylulose 5-phosphate, an important intermediate in the pentose phosphate pathway.
3. Ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase: This enzyme is also part of the pentose phosphate pathway and catalyzes the interconversion between D-ribulose 5-phosphate (an aldose) and D-xylulose 5-phosphate (a ketose).
4. Phosphoglucomutase: This enzyme catalyzes the reversible conversion of glucose 1-phosphate (an aldose) to glucose 6-phosphate (an aldose), which is an important intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis.
5. Phosphomannomutase: This enzyme catalyzes the reversible conversion of mannose 1-phosphate (a ketose) to mannose 6-phosphate (an aldose), which is involved in the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates.

These are just a few examples of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between aldoses and ketoses, highlighting their importance in various metabolic pathways.

Diaminopimelic acid (DAP) is a biochemical compound that is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of several amino acids and the cell wall of bacteria. It is a derivative of the amino acid lysine, and is a key component of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. Diaminopimelic acid is not commonly found in proteins of higher organisms, making it a useful marker for the identification and study of bacterial cell wall components and biosynthetic pathways.

Root nodules in plants refer to the specialized structures formed through the symbiotic relationship between certain leguminous plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, most commonly belonging to the genus Rhizobia. These nodules typically develop on the roots of the host plant, providing an ideal environment for the bacteria to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, a form that can be directly utilized by the plant for growth and development.

The formation of root nodules begins with the infection of the plant's root hair cells by Rhizobia bacteria. This interaction triggers a series of molecular signals leading to the differentiation of root cortical cells into nodule primordia, which eventually develop into mature nodules. The nitrogen-fixing bacteria reside within these nodules in membrane-bound compartments called symbiosomes, where they reduce atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia through an enzyme called nitrogenase.

The plant, in turn, provides the bacteria with carbon sources and other essential nutrients required for their growth and survival within the nodules. The fixed nitrogen is then transported from the root nodules to other parts of the plant, enhancing its overall nitrogen nutrition and promoting sustainable growth without the need for external nitrogen fertilizers.

In summary, root nodules in plants are essential structures formed through symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, allowing leguminous plants to convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form while also benefiting the environment by reducing the reliance on chemical nitrogen fertilizers.

Artificial gene fusion refers to the creation of a new gene by joining together parts or whole sequences from two or more different genes. This is achieved through genetic engineering techniques, where the DNA segments are cut and pasted using enzymes called restriction endonucleases and ligases. The resulting artificial gene may encode for a novel protein with unique functions that neither of the parental genes possess. This approach has been widely used in biomedical research to study gene function, create new diagnostic tools, and develop gene therapies.

Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases are a type of enzyme that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in xylans, which are complex polysaccharides made up of beta-1,4-linked xylose residues. Xylan is a major hemicellulose component found in the cell walls of plants, and endo-1,4-beta Xylanases play an important role in the breakdown and digestion of plant material by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and animals. These enzymes are widely used in industrial applications, such as biofuel production, food processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing, to break down xylans and improve the efficiency of various processes.

'Clostridium acetobutylicum' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in soil and aquatic environments. It is a species of the genus Clostridium, which includes many bacteria capable of producing industrial chemicals through fermentation.

'Clostridium acetobutylicum' is particularly known for its ability to produce acetic acid and butyric acid, as well as solvents such as acetone and butanol, during the process of anaerobic respiration. This makes it a potential candidate for biotechnological applications in the production of biofuels and other industrial chemicals.

However, like many Clostridium species, 'Clostridium acetobutylicum' can also produce toxins and cause infections in humans and animals under certain circumstances. Therefore, it is important to handle this organism with care and follow appropriate safety protocols when working with it in a laboratory setting.

Pectins are complex polysaccharides that are commonly found in the cell walls of plants. In the context of food and nutrition, pectins are often referred to as dietary fiber. They have a variety of important functions within the body, including promoting digestive health by adding bulk to stools and helping to regulate bowel movements.

Pectins are also used in the medical field as a demulcent, which is a substance that forms a soothing film over mucous membranes. This can be helpful in treating conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

In addition to their use in medicine, pectins are widely used in the food industry as a gelling agent, thickener, and stabilizer. They are commonly found in jams, jellies, and other preserved fruits, as well as in baked goods and confectionery products.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Vitamin K2, also known as menaquinone, is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process and bone metabolism. It is one of the two main forms of Vitamin K (the other being Vitamin K1 or phylloquinone), and it is found in animal-based foods and fermented foods.

Vitamin K2 is a collective name for a group of vitamin K compounds characterized by the presence of a long-chain fatty acid attached to the molecule. The most common forms of Vitamin K2 are MK-4 and MK-7, which differ in the length of their side chains.

Vitamin K2 is absorbed more efficiently than Vitamin K1 and has a longer half-life, which means it stays in the body for a longer period. It is stored in various tissues, including bones, where it plays an essential role in maintaining bone health by assisting in the regulation of calcium deposition and helping to prevent the calcification of blood vessels and other soft tissues.

Deficiency in Vitamin K2 is rare but can lead to bleeding disorders and weakened bones. Food sources of Vitamin K2 include animal-based foods such as liver, egg yolks, and fermented dairy products like cheese and natto (a Japanese food made from fermented soybeans). Some studies suggest that supplementing with Vitamin K2 may have benefits for bone health, heart health, and cognitive function. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

Ribose is a simple carbohydrate, specifically a monosaccharide, which means it is a single sugar unit. It is a type of sugar known as a pentose, containing five carbon atoms. Ribose is a vital component of ribonucleic acid (RNA), one of the essential molecules in all living cells, involved in the process of transcribing and translating genetic information from DNA to proteins. The term "ribose" can also refer to any sugar alcohol derived from it, such as D-ribose or Ribitol.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Uronic acids are a type of organic compound that are carboxylic acids derived from sugars (carbohydrates). They are formed by the oxidation of the primary alcohol group (-CH2OH) on a pentose sugar, resulting in a carboxyl group (-COOH) at that position.

The most common uronic acid is glucuronic acid, which is derived from glucose. Other examples include galacturonic acid (derived from galactose), iduronic acid (derived from glucose or galactose), and mannuronic acid (derived from mannose).

Uronic acids play important roles in various biological processes, such as the formation of complex carbohydrates like glycosaminoglycans, which are major components of connective tissues. They also serve as important intermediates in the metabolism of sugars and other carbohydrates.

Xylitol is a type of sugar alcohol used as a sugar substitute in various food and dental products. It has a sweet taste similar to sugar but with fewer calories and less impact on blood sugar levels, making it a popular choice for people with diabetes or those looking to reduce their sugar intake. Xylitol is also known to have dental benefits, as it can help prevent tooth decay by reducing the amount of bacteria in the mouth that cause cavities.

Medically speaking, xylitol is classified as a carbohydrate and has a chemical formula of C5H12O5. It occurs naturally in some fruits and vegetables, but most commercial xylitol is produced from corn cobs or other plant materials through a process called hydrogenation. While generally considered safe for human consumption, it can have a laxative effect in large amounts and may be harmful to dogs, so it's important to keep it out of reach of pets.

rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is not a type of gene itself, but rather a crucial component that is transcribed from genes known as ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In cells, rRNA plays an essential role in protein synthesis by assembling with ribosomal proteins to form ribosomes. Ribosomes are complex structures where the translation of mRNA into proteins occurs. There are multiple types of rRNA molecules, including 5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNAs in eukaryotic cells, each with specific functions during protein synthesis.

In summary, 'Genes, rRNA' would refer to the genetic regions (genes) that code for ribosomal RNA molecules, which are vital components of the protein synthesis machinery within cells.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

However, L-arabinose is in fact more common than D-arabinose in nature and is found in nature as a component of biopolymers ... Arabinose gets its name from gum arabic, from which it was first isolated. Originally commercialized as a sweetener, arabinose ... The operon directs the catabolism of arabinose in E. coli, and it is dynamically activated in the presence of arabinose and the ... The L-arabinose operon, also known as the araBAD operon, has been the subject of much biomolecular research. ...
Other names in common use include D-arabinose(L-fucose) isomerase, D-arabinose isomerase, L-fucose isomerase, and D-arabinose ... In enzymology, an arabinose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-arabinose ⇌ {\ ... Cohen SS (1953). "Studies on D-ribulose and its enzymatic conversion to D-arabinose". J. Biol. Chem. 201 (1): 71-84. PMID ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-arabinose aldose-ketose-isomerase. ...
This enzyme catalyses the conversion of L-arabinose to L-ribulose as the first step in the pathway of L-arabinose utilization ... In enzymology, a L-arabinose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-arabinose ⇌ {\ ... L-arabinose isomerase". J. Biol. Chem. 231 (2): 1031-7. PMID 13539034. Nakamatu T, Yamanaka K (1969). "Crystallization and ... Sa-Nogueira I, Nogueira TV, Soares S, de Lencastre H (March 1997). "The Bacillus subtilis L-arabinose (ara) operon: nucleotide ...
araA encodes L-arabinose isomerase, which catalyses isomerization between L-arabinose and L-ribulose. araB encodes ribulokinase ... Expression of the araBAD operon is activated in the absence of glucose and in the presence of arabinose. When arabinose is ... AraC acts as an activator in the presence of arabinose. AraC undergoes a conformational change when arabinose binds to the ... The regulatory gene, araC, is located upstream of the L-arabinose operon and encodes the arabinose-responsive regulatory ...
In enzymology, a D-arabinose 1-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.116) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-arabinose + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-arabinose:NAD+ 1-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include NAD+-pentose- ... III Oxidation of D-arabinose". J. Bacteriol. 74 (2): 180-185. PMC 289912. PMID 13475218. Schiwara HW, Domschke W, Domagk GF ( ... the two substrates of this enzyme are D-arabinose and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are D-arabinono-1,4-lactone, NADH, and H+. ...
In enzymology, an arabinose-5-phosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-arabinose 5 ... Other names in common use include arabinose phosphate isomerase, phosphoarabinoisomerase, and D-arabinose-5-phosphate ketol- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-arabinose-5-phosphate aldose-ketose-isomerase. ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } D-ribulose 5-phosphate Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, D-arabinose 5-phosphate, and one ...
In enzymology, a L-arabinose 1-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.46) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-arabinose + NAD+ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-arabinose:NAD+ 1-oxidoreductase. This enzyme participates in ascorbate and ... Weimberg R, Doudoroff M (December 1955). "The oxidation of L-arabinose by Pseudomonas saccharophila". The Journal of Biological ... the two substrates of this enzyme are L-arabinose and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are L-arabinono-1,4-lactone, NADH, and H+. ...
In enzymology, an UDP-arabinose 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-L-arabinose ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-L-arabinose 4-epimerase. Other names in common use include uridine ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP-D-xylose Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, UDP-L-arabinose, and one product, UDP-D- ... diphosphoarabinose epimerase, UDP arabinose epimerase, uridine 5'-diphosphate-D-xylose 4-epimerase, and UDP-D-xylose 4- ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-arabinose:NAD(P)+ 1-oxidoreductase. This enzyme is also called D-arabinose 1- ... In enzymology, a D-arabinose 1-dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] (EC 1.1.1.117) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D- ... arabinose + NAD(P)+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } D-arabinono-1,4-lactone + NAD(P)H + H+ The 3 substrates of this ... enzyme are D-arabinose, NAD+, and NADP+, whereas its 4 products are D-arabinono-1,4-lactone, NADH, NADPH, and H+. This enzyme ...
Breazeale SD, Ribeiro AA, Raetz CR (July 2003). "Origin of lipid A species modified with 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose in ... UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose+aminotransferase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.87, UDP-(beta-L-threo-pentapyranosyl-4-ulose diphosphate) ... An aminotransferase (ArnB) that generates UDP-4-deoxyl-L-arabinose". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (27): 24731-9. ...
... (EC 2.1.2.13, UDP-L-Ara4N formyltransferase, ArnAFT) is an enzyme with ... UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose+formyltransferase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... An enzyme for lipid A modification with 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose and polymyxin resistance". Biochemistry. 44 (14): 5328-38. ... Identification and function oF UDP-4-deoxy-4-formamido-L-arabinose". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (14): 14154-67. ...
Origin of lipid a species modified with 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (4): 2886-96. ... Undecaprenyl-phosphate+4-deoxy-4-formamido-L-arabinose+transferase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Identification and function oF UDP-4-deoxy-4-formamido-L-arabinose". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (14): 14154-67. ... Undecaprenyl-phosphate 4-deoxy-4-formamido-L-arabinose transferase (EC 2.7.8.30, undecaprenyl-phosphate Ara4FN transferase, ...
The classic example is the conversion of glucose to arabinose as shown below. The reaction is named after the German chemist ... Braun, Géza (1940). "D-Arabinose". Organic Syntheses. 20: 14.; Collective Volume, vol. 3, p. 101. Clarke, H. T.; Nagy, S. M. ( ...
Oxidation of D-arabinose". Journal of Bacteriology. 74 (2): 180-5. PMC 289912. PMID 13475218. Portal: Biology v t e (Articles ...
A polysaccharide of arabinose 5. Xylan - A polysaccharide of xylose Champe, Harvey, Ferrier. Biochemistry 4th Edition. 2008. 90 ...
Simpson FJ, Wolin MJ, Wood WA (1958). "Degradation of L-arabinose by Aerobacter aerogenes. I. A pathway involving ...
The arabinose system enables the take up the pentose L-arabinose, and then the conversion of intracellular arabinose in three ... Ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase is found on the well studied L-arabinose operon. This operon consists of eight genes araA-araH ... WOLIN MJ, SIMPSON FJ, WOOD WA (1958). "Degradation of L-arabinose by Aerobacter aerogenes. III Identification and properties of ... Schlelf, Robert (December 2000). "Regulation of the L-arabinose operon of Escherichia coli". Trends in Genetics. 16 (12): 559- ...
... is an analog of adenosine with the D-ribose replaced with D-arabinose. As you can see from figure 1.1 that it is a ... which contained D-arabinose rather than D-ribose. These compounds led to the synthesis of a new generation, sugar modified ...
Weimberg R, Doudoroff M (December 1955). "The oxidation of L-arabinose by Pseudomonas saccharophila". The Journal of Biological ...
They produce acid from arabinose, glucose and xylose. They do not produce indole or reduce nitrate. Symptoms of C. ...
Additionally, it cannot ferment arabinose, rhamnose, sorbitol and xylose. "Species: Acidipropionibacterium timonense". LPSN. ...
An arabinosyltransferase is a transferase enzyme acting upon arabinose. This enzyme is involved in polymerisation of ... since the arabinose residues occur only in a furanose form. This enzyme has important clinical applications as it is believed ...
For example, agrocinopine A is a phosphodiester of sucrose and L-arabinose. The name opine comes from octopine, the first opine ... Agrocinopine A is phosphodiester of sucrose and L-Arabinose. Agrocinopine B is the corresponding phosphodiester, in which the ...
Formation of Tetroses from D-Xylose and L-Arabinose". Acta Chem. Scand. 26: 1709-1710. doi:10.3891/acta.chem.scand.26-1709. ... oxidation of D-xylose and L-arabinose to D-threose and L-erythrose respectively, and oxidation of L-sorbose to afford L-threose ...
It is usually distinguished from B. pseudomallei by its ability to assimilate arabinose. Other differences between these ... Smith MD, Angus BJ, Wuthiekanun V, White NJ (1997). "Arabinose assimilation defines a nonvirulent biotype of Burkholderia ... Smith MD, Angus BJ, Wuthiekanun V, White NJ (1997). "Arabinose assimilation defines a nonvirulent biotype of Burkholderia ... Lertpatanasuwan N, Sermsri K, Petkaseam A, Trakulsomboon S, Thamlikitkul V, Suputtamongkol Y (1999). "Arabinose-positive ...
... is a complex mixture of glycoproteins and polysaccharides, predominantly polymers of arabinose and galactose. It is ... Arabinogalactan is a biopolymer consisting of arabinose and galactose monosaccharides. It is a major component of many plant ...
Chiang C, Knight SG (1961). "L-Arabinose metabolism by cell-free extracts of Penicillium chrysogenum". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. ...
Cytosine arabinoside combines a cytosine base with an arabinose sugar. It is an antimetabolic agent with the chemical name of 1 ... Isolation of arabinose-containing nucleotides from the Caribbean sponge Cryptotheca crypta (now Tectitethya crypta) together ...
"Enzymatic Synthesis of Uridine Diphosphate Xylose and Uridine Diphosphate Arabinose". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 42 (6): 333 ...
D-Arabinose) indicating them to have opposite configurations at C-2 (epimers). Further Ruff degradation on D-Arabinose gave D- ... In 1898, Otto Ruff published his work on the transformation of D-Glucose to D-Arabinose later called the Ruff degradation. In ... thus forming D-Arabinose. This reaction was an important tool used by Emil Fischer to show that D-Glucose and D-Mannose each ... this reaction, D-Glucose is converted to D-Arabinose. In this reaction, the terminal aldehyde group is converted to a ...
However, L-arabinose is in fact more common than D-arabinose in nature and is found in nature as a component of biopolymers ... Arabinose gets its name from gum arabic, from which it was first isolated. Originally commercialized as a sweetener, arabinose ... The operon directs the catabolism of arabinose in E. coli, and it is dynamically activated in the presence of arabinose and the ... The L-arabinose operon, also known as the araBAD operon, has been the subject of much biomolecular research. ...
UDP-beta-L-arabinose biosynthesis II (from beta-L-arabinose) PlantCyc CPD-1825, CPD-1825, CPD-1825, CPD-1825, CPD-1825, CPD- ... beta-L-arabinose 1-phosphate + UTP + H+ -, UDP-beta-L-arabinopyranose + diphosphate PlantCyc CPD-1825, CPD-1825, CPD-1825, CPD- ... beta-L-arabinopyranose + ATP -, beta-L-arabinose 1-phosphate + ADP + H+ PlantCyc CPD-1825, CPD-1825, CPD-1825, CPD-1825, CPD- ... beta-L-arabinose 1-phosphate + UTP + H+ ,--, UDP-beta-L-arabinopyranose + diphosphate PlantCyc CPD-1825. ...
Arabinose ► Flinn Scientific SDS Sheets ► Learn health and safety information about chemicals. ... d(-)-Arabinose. Flinn Scientific, Inc. P.O. Box 219, Batavia, IL 60510 (800) 452-1261. Chemtrec Emergency Phone Number: (800) ...
More info for Family c.93.1.1: L-arabinose binding protein-like. Timeline for Family c.93.1.1: L-arabinose binding protein-like ... Family c.93.1.1: L-arabinose binding protein-like first appeared (with stable ids) in SCOP 1.55. *Family c.93.1.1: L-arabinose ... Lineage for Family c.93.1.1: L-arabinose binding protein-like. *Root: SCOP 1.57 *. Class c: Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) [ ... Family c.93.1.1: L-arabinose binding protein-like appears in the current release, SCOPe 2.08. ...
Sweet-taste chemoreception of D- and L-arabinose and other chiral molecules. ...
Note: These kits are not intended for diagnosing or treatment.
L-Arabinose is a ubiquitous naturally occuring saccharide. It is often used as pharmaceutical intermediate, preparing culture ... L-Arabinose is a ubiquitous naturally occuring saccharide. It is often used as pharmaceutical intermediate, preparing culture ... L-Arabinose is a ubiquitous naturally occuring saccharide. It is often used as pharmaceutical intermediate, preparing culture ...
Arabinose_bd - Arabinose-binding domain of AraC transcription regulator, N-term. PFAM:. PF12625. Sequences:. ...
L-arabinose powder uses corn cob as raw material for extraction, decolorization, dehydration, and crystallization. It is a ... Whats L-Arabinose powder?. L-arabinose powder uses corn cob as raw material for extraction, decolorization, dehydration, and ... L-arabinose is aldopentose which is more common than A-arabinose in nature, which is a kind of Non-Calorie sweetener. ... Home / Products / Sugar Substitute / L-Arabinose Powder. L-Arabinose Powder. CAS No.: 5328-37-0. Other Names: Aldehyde-L- ...
L(+) ARABINOSE (FOR BIOCHEMISTRY). CH2.(CH.OH)4.O = 150.13. Specific Rotation (10% Solution) + 103 to + 105. TLC Test Passes ... Be the first to review "L(+) Arabinose (For biochemistry)" Cancel reply. Your rating. Rate…. Perfect. Good. Average. Not that ...
Agricultural sidestreams, Arabinose, Biomass pretreatment, Biorefinery, Crystallization, Demonstration (TRL 5-7), Finished ... Agricultural sidestreams, Arabinose, Biomass pretreatment, Biorefinery, Crystallization, Demonstration (TRL 5-7), Finished ...
GO:0046373: L-arabinose metabolic process (Biological process). The chemical reactions and pathways involving L-arabinose, the ... L-arabinose occurs free, e.g. in the heartwood of many conifers, and in the combined state, in both furanose and pyranose forms ...
... trade show and technical articles about l-arabinose weight loss company manufacturers and products. ... L-Arabinose details of effects and edible methods 2023-05-26 L-arabinose, also known as gum aldose and pectin sugar, is a kind ... More news about l-arabinose weight loss company, are being released. Follow us / contact us for more l-arabinose weight loss ... If you want to know more about the l-arabinose weight loss company, the following articles will give you some help. These news ...
There are 1 words ending with ARABINOSE . Hint: Click one of the words below to view definition. All words highlighted GREEN ... List of words that end with ARABINOSE. Use the form and buttons below to filter & order results. ...
or arabinose-transport, xacB, xacC, xacD, xacE and xacF. *or arabinose-transport, xacB, xacC, xacD, KDG-aldolase, ... L-arabinose ABC transporter, permease component 2 (AraU). araV. L-arabinose ABC transporter, ATPase component AraV. Shewana3_ ... L-arabinose ABC transporter, ATPase component GguA. Shewana3_2074. gguB. L-arabinose ABC transporter, permease component GguB. ... L-arabinose ABC transporter, permease component 2 (XacI). xacJ. L-arabinose ABC transporter, ATPase component 1 (XacJ). ...
Arabinose (White Powder), Fisher BioReagents at Fishersci.com ... arabinose, alpha-arabinose, a-d-arabinopyranose, alpha-d- ...
M9 Minimal Salts Agar-Arabinose (100X15mm 20/PK) -LB (Luria-Bertani) plates are most common plate used in Bio-Labs, which ... M9 Minimal Salts Agar-Arabinose (100X15mm 20/PK). -LB (Luria-Bertani) plates are most common plate used in Bio-Labs, which ...
The Food Grade L Arabinose Market is projected to showcase substantial growth in the year 2028 compared to its base year 2021 ... In-depth analysis of the Food Grade L Arabinose Market. *Overview of the regional outlook of the Food Grade L Arabinose Market: ... Global Food Grade L Arabinose Market Research Report 2022 (Status and Outlook) Publisher: Bosson Research , Date: 2022-06-29 , ... Global Food Grade L Arabinose Market Research Report 2022 (Status and Outlook) Publisher: Bosson Research , Date: 2022-06-29 , ...
Come to Carolina.com for all of your dehydrated media needs. We have crossing, cornmeal, Eosin, phenol red, potato dextrose and many more kinds of agar to suit any classroom experiment.
Horazdovsky, B. F. ; Hogg, R. W. / Genetic reconstitution of the high-affinity L-arabinose transport system. In: Journal of ... Genetic reconstitution of the high-affinity L-arabinose transport system. / Horazdovsky, B. F.; Hogg, R. W. In: Journal of ... Horazdovsky, B. F., & Hogg, R. W. (1989). Genetic reconstitution of the high-affinity L-arabinose transport system. Journal of ... Therefore, L-arabinose-binding protein-mediated transport appears to require only two inducible membrane-associated components ...
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above. ...
Lane Wt Redβ-; uninduced with arabinose: lane pSC101 empty; induced with arabinose but without Redβ in the expression plasmid ... Protein expression was then induced with L-arabinose 0.3% for 45 minutes at +37 °C. Cells were cooled on ice for 5 minutes and ... b) Expression of Redβ from pSC101BAD-Redβ induced by arabinose and evaluated by Western using a Redβ antibody. ... arabinose induction of Red protein expression. (d) As for (b,c). In accordance with journal policy, uncropped versions of these ...
"Xylose and arabinose ... can play an important role in the management of blood glucose and insulin levels related to sucrose ... such as xylose and arabinose, furfural and HMF [hydroxymethylfurfural]," Shahriar Hossain, a materials scientist at University ...
CH: Arabinose, erythritol and inositol. AA: Cysteine. OM: Putrescine and GABA. [45]. ... arabinose, mannitol, gluconolactone, inositol, serine, proline and thymine showed significant accumulation after both 3 h and ...
Arabinose protected this protein against reaction with N-ethylmaleimide. ... the gene for arabinose-proton symport in Escherichia coli. A phage containing an araE-lacZ fusion was recovered from the ... The cloning, DNA sequence, and overexpression of the gene araE coding for arabinose-proton symport in Escherichia coli K12. ... A lambda placMu1 insertion was made into araE, the gene for arabinose-proton symport in Escherichia coli. A phage containing an ...
A is arabinose concentration. n is the number of arabinose molecules binding to each molecule of the repressor, and K is a ... unbound to arabinose. B is the maximum rate of transcription, here this rate is when induced by arabinose at highest ... If it binds arabinose, it is sequestered and cannot bind the DNA. Here, an input function is created, after Alon [2]. This ... An arabinose input acts as an inducer, permitting transcription, by binding the AraC transcription factor. This is a dual ...
Wikipedia article: The Arabinose Operon. *Wikipedia article: The Tryptophan Operon. Gene regulation in prokaryotes[edit , edit ...
Arabinose. Positive (+ve). Cellobiose. Positive (+ve). Dulcitol. Negative (-ve). Glucose. Positive (+ve). ...
Cy7 Dyes Dyes, Labeling Reagents and Kits - Fluorescent Dyes and Quenchers - Cy7 Dyes - VectorLabs
... in complex with D-arabinose. Roth, Y., Vetting, M.W., Al Obaidi, N.F., Toro, R., Morisco, L.L., Benach, J., Koss, J., Wasserman ... in complex with D-arabinose. *PDB DOI: https://doi.org/10.2210/pdb5HQJ/pdb ...
  • This latest discovery points toward that, revealing the presence of xylose, ribose, and arabinose, all of them bio-essential sugars. (slashgear.com)
  • The gum contains different sugars such as D-galactose, D-arabinose, D-xylose and D-mannose. (who.int)
  • The chemical reactions and pathways involving L-arabinose, the D-enantiomer of arabino-pentose. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The monosaccharide composition of soluble fiber was dominated by arabinose, galactose, mannose and galacturonic acid. (nih.gov)
  • Guar Gum - Arabinogalactan is a biopolymer consisting of arabinose and galactose monosaccharides. (arbico-organics.com)
  • However, L-arabinose is in fact more common than D-arabinose in nature and is found in nature as a component of biopolymers such as hemicellulose and pectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • L-arabinose, also known as gum aldose and pectin sugar, is a kind of aldopentose with a chemical formula of C5H10O5. (healthewaybio.com)
  • In nature, L-arabinose seldom exists in the form of monosaccharides, usually combined with other monosaccharides, and exists in the form of heteropolysaccharides in pectin, hemicellulose, pectic acid, bacterial polysaccharides and some glycosides. (healthewaybio.com)
  • L-arabinose, also known as gum aldose, pectin sugar, which is found in glia, hemicellulose, pectic acid, bacterial polysaccharides and certain glycosides in the form of heteropolysaccharides, having a high stability to heat and acid. (extrapolate.com)
  • Originally commercialized as a sweetener, arabinose is an inhibitor of sucrase, the enzyme that breaks down sucrose into glucose and fructose in the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • L-arabinose is aldopentose which is more common than A-arabinose in nature, which is a kind of Non-Calorie sweetener. (bio-starch.com)
  • The cloning, DNA sequence, and overexpression of the gene araE coding for arabinose-proton symport in Escherichia coli K12. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A lambda placMu1 insertion was made into araE, the gene for arabinose-proton symport in Escherichia coli. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Arabinose is an aldopentose - a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde (CHO) functional group. (wikipedia.org)
  • A classic method for the organic synthesis of arabinose from glucose is the Wohl degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The operon directs the catabolism of arabinose in E. coli, and it is dynamically activated in the presence of arabinose and the absence of glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gives the rate of transcription from the promoter dependent on the concentration of arabinose. (igem.org)
  • This gives the rate of transcription as a function of X* which represents the concentration of active repressor, unbound to arabinose. (igem.org)
  • B is the maximum rate of transcription, here this rate is when induced by arabinose at highest concentration. (igem.org)
  • A is arabinose concentration. (igem.org)
  • This occurs around 0.2% arabinose concentration. (igem.org)
  • These results prove that MalE and MalE31 can both activate the CpxR system however, MalE31, which misfolds, activates it more rapidly and at a lower level of arabinose concentration compared to MalE. (igem.org)
  • A fourth biotype, Microtus, describes Medievalis isolates lacking arabinose fermentation. (cdc.gov)
  • L-arabinose can inhibit the activity of Sucrase/Maltase. (bio-starch.com)
  • L-arabinose catabolism in Shewanella sp. (lbl.gov)
  • An arabinose input acts as an inducer, permitting transcription, by binding the AraC transcription factor. (igem.org)
  • British Library EThOS: Sweet-taste chemoreception of D- and L-arabinose and other chiral molecules. (bl.uk)
  • n is the number of arabinose molecules binding to each molecule of the repressor, and K is a binding constant. (igem.org)
  • Arabinose inducible promoter (I0500) coupled with standard ribosome binding site (B0034) and the respective maltose binding protein were transformed into competent cells containing pCpxR coupled with RFP generator (I13507). (igem.org)
  • L-arabinose occurs free, e.g. in the heartwood of many conifers, and in the combined state, in both furanose and pyranose forms, as a constituent of various plant hemicelluloses, bacterial polysaccharides etc. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Mutagenicity studies of dioxin and related compounds with the Salmonella arabinose resistant assay system. (cdc.gov)
  • L-arabinose powder uses corn cob as raw material for extraction, decolorization, dehydration, and crystallization. (bio-starch.com)
  • when unbound to arabinose a dimer restricts access of polymersase to reduce basal levels of transcription, upon binding arabinose the conformation changes and the dimer permits binding of polymerase. (igem.org)
  • While essential pentosuria is caused by genetic mutations, some people develop a non-inherited form of pentosuria if they eat excessive amounts of fruits high in L-xylulose or another pentose called L-arabinose. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Figure 1 and 2 indicate the RFP output normalized with growth ratio (OD) at different levels of arabinose. (igem.org)
  • The report structure also focuses on the competitive landscape of the Global Food Grade L Arabinose Market, this report introduces in detail the market share, market performance, product situation, operation situation, etc. of the main players, which helps the readers in the industry to identify the main competitors and deeply understand the competition pattern of the market. (extrapolate.com)
  • Expression plasmids containing various portions of araFGH operon sequences were assayed for their ability to facilitate the high-affinity L-arabinose transport process in a strain lacking the chromosomal copy of this operon. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Most of these model systems will rely on the very basic equations outlined above, with extensions to add levels of complexity, such as the transport of arabinose into a cell. (igem.org)
  • Figure 1: RFP output produced by the CpxR-I13507 system when co-transfected with I0500-B0034-MalE (red) and I0500-B0034-MalE31 (blue) at different arabinose concentrations. (igem.org)
  • OAT results showed elevated Arabinose, Lactic and Hydroxyhippuric. (latitudes.org)
  • D-(-)-Arabinose is a component used for culture media. (fishersci.com)
  • The Global Food Grade L Arabinose Market Size was estimated at USD 20.02 million in 2021 and is projected to reach USD 32.88 million by 2028, exhibiting a CAGR of 7.34% during the forecast period. (extrapolate.com)
  • This report provides a deep insight into the global Food Grade L Arabinose market covering all its essential aspects. (extrapolate.com)
  • In a word, this report is a must-read for industry players, investors, researchers, consultants, business strategists, and all those who have any kind of stake or are planning to foray into the Food Grade L Arabinose market in any manner. (extrapolate.com)
  • These were shaken for 6-8 hours and aliquoted into 5 ml cultures and induced with varying levels of arabinose(percent). (igem.org)
  • Accumulation studies demonstrated that the specific induction of all three operon coding sequences was necessary to restore high-affinity L-arabinose transport. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Horazdovsky, BF & Hogg, RW 1989, ' Genetic reconstitution of the high-affinity L-arabinose transport system ', Journal of Bacteriology , vol. 171, no. 6, pp. 3053-3059. (elsevierpure.com)