Arabinonucleosides: Nucleosides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Anemia, Refractory: A severe sometimes chronic anemia, usually macrocytic in type, that does not respond to ordinary antianemic therapy.Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts: Chronic refractory anemia with granulocytopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Myeloblasts and progranulocytes constitute 5 to 40 percent of the nucleated marrow cells.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic: A myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative disease characterized by monocytosis, increased monocytes in the bone marrow, variable degrees of dysplasia, but an absence of immature granulocytes in the blood.Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)Molluginaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain triterpenoid saponins.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Ribonuclease H, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A ribonuclease activity that is a component of the HIV REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE. It removes the RNA strand of the RNA-DNA heteroduplex produced by reverse transcription. Once the RNA moiety is removed a double stranded DNA copy of the HIV RNA can be synthesized.Organothiophosphorus Compounds: Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.RNA, Antisense: RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Ancitabine: Congener of CYTARABINE that is metabolized to cytarabine and thereby maintains a more constant antineoplastic action.Aclarubicin: An anthracycline produced by Streptomyces galilaeus. It has potent antineoplastic activity.6-Mercaptopurine: An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Thioguanine: An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Erythrocruorins: High molecular weight (1,500,000 to 3,000,000) hemoglobins found in the plasma of many polychete and oligochete annelid worms and various mollusks. They bind one mole of oxygen per heme and function as oxygen carriers.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration: An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Surgical Mesh: Any woven or knit material of open texture used in surgery for the repair, reconstruction, or substitution of tissue. The mesh is usually a synthetic fabric made of various polymers. It is occasionally made of metal.United StatesNational Health Insurance, United StatesPolypropylenes: Propylene or propene polymers. Thermoplastics that can be extruded into fibers, films or solid forms. They are used as a copolymer in plastics, especially polyethylene. The fibers are used for fabrics, filters and surgical sutures.MEDLARS: A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.

Base pairing of anhydrohexitol nucleosides with 2,6-diaminopurine, 5-methylcytosine and uracil asbase moiety. (1/176)

Hexitol nucleic acids (HNAs) with modified bases (5-methylcytosine, 2,6-diaminopurine or uracil) were synthesized. The introduction of the 5-methylcytosine base demonstrates that N -benzoylated 5-methylcytosyl-hexitol occurs as the imino tautomer. The base pairing systems (G:CMe, U:D, T:D and U:A) obey Watson-Crick rules. Substituting hT for hU, hCMefor hC and hD for hA generally leads to increased duplex stability. In a single case, replacement of hC by hCMedid not result in duplex stabilization. This sequence-specific effect could be explained by the geometry of the model duplex used for carrying out the thermal stability study. Generally, polypurine HNA sequences give more stable duplexes with their RNA complement than polypyrimidine HNA sequences. This observation supports the hypothesis that, besides changes in stacking pattern, the difference in conformational stress between purine and pyrimidine nucleosides may contribute to duplex stability. Introduction of hCMeand hD in HNA sequences further increases the potential of HNA to function as a steric blocking agent.  (+info)

Comparison of the mechanism of cytotoxicity of 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2- fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine, 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro- beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine, and 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro- beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine in CEM cells. (2/176)

In an effort to understand biochemical features that are important to the selective antitumor activity of 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine [Cl-F( upward arrow)-dAdo], we evaluated the biochemical pharmacology of three structurally similar compounds that have quite different antitumor activities. Cl-F( upward arrow)-dAdo was 50-fold more potent as an inhibitor of CEM cell growth than were either 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine [Cl-F( downward arrow)-dAdo] or 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2, 2-difluoro-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)adenine [Cl-diF( upward arrow downward arrow)-dAdo]. The compounds were similar as substrates of deoxycytidine kinase. Similar amounts of their respective triphosphates accumulated in CEM cells, and the rate of disappearance of these metabolites was also similar. Cl-F( upward arrow)-dAdo was 10- to 30-fold more potent in its ability to inhibit the incorporation of cytidine into deoxycytidine nucleotides than either Cl-F( downward arrow)-dAdo or Cl-diF( upward arrow downward arrow)-dAdo, respectively, which indicated that ribonucleotide reductase was differentially inhibited by these three compounds. Thus, the differences in the cytotoxicity of these agents toward CEM cells were not related to quantitative differences in the phosphorylation of these agents to active forms but can mostly be accounted for by differences in the inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase activity. Furthermore, the inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis by Cl-F( downward arrow)-dAdo and Cl-diF( upward arrow downward arrow)-dAdo at concentrations similar to those required for the inhibition of DNA synthesis can help explain the poor antitumor selectivity of these two agents because all cells require RNA and protein synthesis.  (+info)

Oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates as potential antisense agents. (3/176)

Oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates have several applications, including their potential use as improved antisense agents for interfering with the RNA function within cells. In order to provide robust and generally applicable conjugation chemistry, we developed a novel approach of fragment coupling of pre-synthesized peptides to the 2'-position of a selected nucleotide within an otherwise protected oligonucleotide chain attached to a solid support.  (+info)

Biochemical pharmacology and resistance to 2-chloro-2'-arabino-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine, a novel analogue of cladribine in human leukemic cells. (4/176)

The objective of the present study was to investigate the biochemical pharmacology of 2-chloro-2'-arabino-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (CAFdA)--a fluorinated analogue of cladribine [2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine, Leustatin (CdA)] with improved acid and metabolic stability--in human leukemic cell lines and in mononuclear cells isolated from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). We have also made and characterized two cell lines that are not sensitive to the growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of CAFdA. Incubation of cells isolated from the blood of CLL and AML patients with various concentrations of CdA or of CAFdA accumulated CdA and CAFdA nucleotides in a dose-dependent manner. A significantly higher rate of phosphorylation to monophosphates was observed for CAFdA than for CdA in cells from CLL patients (n = 14; P = 0.04). The differences in the phosphorylation were even more pronounced for the respective triphosphates in both CLL (n = 14; P = 0.001) and AML (n = 4; P = 0.04) cells. Retention of CAFdA 5'-triphosphate (CAFdATP) was also longer than that for CdA 5'-triphosphate (CdATP) in cells from leukemic patients. The relative efficacy of CAFdA as a substrate for purified recombinant deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), the key enzyme in the activation of nucleoside analogues, was very high and exceeded that of CdA as well as the natural substrate, deoxycytidine, by a factor of 2 and 8, respectively. The Km for CAFdA with dCK was also lower than that for CdA, as measured in crude extracts from the human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line CCRF-CEM and the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL60. Acquired resistance to CAFdA in HL60 and in CCRF-CEM cell lines was directly correlated to the decreased activity of the nucleoside phosphorylating enzyme, dCK. Resistant cells also showed a considerable degree of cross-resistance to analogues that were activated by dCK. These observations demonstrated that dCK phosphorylates CAFdA more efficiently than CdA. Furthermore, CAFdATP is apparently more stable than CdATP and the mechanisms of resistance to CAFdA are similar to those leading to CdA resistance. These results encourage studies on the clinical effect of CAFdA in lymphoproliferative diseases.  (+info)

Arabinosylguanine-induced apoptosis of T-lymphoblastic cells: incorporation into DNA is a necessary step. (5/176)

9-Beta-D-Arabinosylguanine (ara-G) is a recently introduced and effective treatment for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but how ara-G and ara-G triphosphate (ara-GTP) kill cells is not known. We hypothesized that, in cycling T-lymphoblastoid cells, ara-G may act directly by incorporation into DNA, which may lead to apoptosis. Hence, blocking the incorporation of ara-G monophosphate (ara-GMP) into DNA may prevent apoptosis. To test this hypothesis, we performed experiments in a T-lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (CCRF-CEM) after synchronization with a double aphidicolin block. Intracellular accumulation of ara-GTP was neither cell cycle dependent nor affected by aphidicolin (53 +/- 5 microM/h without aphidicolin, 50 +/- 5 microM/h with aphidicolin). Cells at the G1-S boundary accumulated 75 +/- 7 microM ara-GTP with minimal incorporation into DNA (5 +/- 2 pmol ara-GMP/mg DNA) and had little biochemical or morphological evidence of apoptosis. In marked contrast, cells in S phase had significantly more ara-G incorporated into DNA (24 +/- 4 pmol ara-GMP/mg DNA), although the cytosolic concentration of ara-GTP (85 +/- 7 microM) was similar to that in the G1-enriched population. In the S-phase cells, there was a corresponding increase in apoptosis (measured as high molecular weight DNA fragmentation and morphological changes), and the incorporation of ara-GTP into DNA resulted in a >95% inhibition of DNA synthesis. There was a direct linear relationship between the number of cells in S phase and both the total number of ara-GMP molecules in DNA and the inhibition of DNA synthesis. Blocking of ara-GTP incorporation into S-phase DNA abolished biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis, even in the presence of cytotoxic level of intracellular ara-GTP. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the incorporation of ara-GTP into DNA is the critical event that mediates the induction of apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of nelarabine and 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl guanine in pediatric and adult patients during a phase I study of nelarabine for the treatment of refractory hematologic malignancies. (6/176)

PURPOSE: To characterize the pharmacokinetics of nelarabine (506U78), the water-soluble prodrug of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl guanine (ara-G), and ara-G in pediatric and adult patients with refractory hematologic malignancies. Ara-G is phosphorylated within leukemic cells to form ara-G triphosphate (ara-GTP), which acts to terminate DNA chain elongation, resulting in cell death. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The pharmacokinetics of nelarabine and/or ara-G were evaluated in 71 patients (25 pediatric and 46 adult patients) on the first day of therapy. Blood was collected at specified times for the determination of plasma nelarabine and ara-G concentrations. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of nelarabine between any of the groups of patients. The harmonic mean half-life (t1/2) of nelarabine in pediatric and adult patients was 14.1 minutes and 16.5 minutes, respectively. The maximum concentrations (C(max)) of ara-G occurred at or near the end of the nelarabine infusion. The C(max) of ara-G ranged from 11.6 micromol/L to 308.7 micromol/L at nelarabine doses of 5 to 75 mg/kg and was linearly related to the nelarabine dose. No statistically significant differences were noted for the pharmacokinetic parameter estimates of ara-G between adult male and female patients. In children versus adults, the dose-normalized C(max), time of the C(max), and the steady-state volume of distribution of ara-G were similar. However, the clearance of ara-G was higher in pediatric patients (0.312 L.h(-1).kg(-1)) as compared with adult patients (0. 213 L.h(-1).kg(-1)) (P <.001). The t1/2 of ara-G was shorter in pediatric patients as compared with adult patients (2.1 hours v 3.0 hours; P <.01). CONCLUSION: Nelarabine is an effective prodrug of ara-G, allowing systemic concentrations of ara-G that result in clinical activity.  (+info)

Differential incorporation of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine and 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylguanine into nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. (7/176)

The anti-leukemic nucleoside analogs 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (araC) and 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylguanine (araG) are dependent on intracellular phosphorylation for pharmacological activity. AraC is efficiently phosphorylated by deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). Although araG is phosphorylated by dCK in vitro, it is a preferred substrate of mitochondrial deoxyguanosine kinase. We have used autoradiography to show that araC was incorporated into nuclear DNA in Molt-4 and CEM T-lymphoblastoid cells as well as in Chinese hamster ovary cells. In contrast, araG was predominantly incorporated into mitochondrial DNA in the investigated cell lines, without detectable incorporation into nuclear DNA. These data suggest that the molecular targets of araG and araC may differ.  (+info)

Retroviral transduction of cancer cell lines with the gene encoding Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase. (8/176)

Nucleoside kinases from several species are investigated as "suicide genes" for treatment of malignant tumors by combined gene/chemotherapy. We have recently cloned a multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase of Drosophila melanogaster (Dm-dNK), and we have shown that the enzyme phosphorylates cytotoxic pyrimidine and purine nucleoside analogs. The broad substrate specificity of the enzyme, as well as its very high catalytic rate, makes it a unique member of the nucleoside kinase enzyme family. In the present study, we evaluated Dm-dNK as a suicide gene by constructing a replication-deficient retroviral vector that expresses the enzyme. The human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line MIA PaCa-2 and a thymidine kinase-deficient osteosarcoma cell line were transduced with the recombinant virus. We showed that Dm-dNK can be expressed in human cells, that the enzyme retained its enzymatic activity, and that it is localized in the cell nuclei due to a nuclear localization signal in its C-terminal region. The cells expressing Dm-dNK exhibited increased sensitivity to several cytotoxic nucleoside analogs, such as 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine, 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylthymine, (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine, 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine, and 2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine. These findings suggest that Dm-dNK may be used as a suicide gene in combined gene/chemotherapy of cancer.  (+info)

*Clofarabine

... is a purine nucleoside antimetabolite marketed in the US and Canada as Clolar. In Europe and Australia/New Zealand the product is marketed under the name Evoltra. It is FDA-approved for treating relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children after at least two other types of treatment have failed. It is not known if it extends life expectancy. Some investigations of effectiveness in cases of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) have been carried out. Ongoing trials are assessing its efficacy, if any, for managing other cancers. Clolar was Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 28 December 2004. (Under accelerated approval regulations requiring further clinical studies.) Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). Clofarabine quickly kills leukaemia cells in the blood. The body may react to this. Signs include hyperkalemia, hyperuricemia, and hyperphosphatemia. TLS is very serious and can lead to death if it is not treated right away. ...

*Barrera hematoencefàlica - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure

El 2015, investigadors de l'IRB -amb la participació de científics del Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research de Munic i del Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón- varen publicat els seus treballs sobre el desenvolupament d'una petita proteïna (un pèptid de 12 aminoàcids) capaç de travessar la barrera i resistir les proteases (enzims que trenquen les proteïnes quan intenten creuar la barrera). Van modificar el pèptid -ja conegut- i el van unir a la transferrina, una proteïna que transporta el ferro que el cervell necessita i que travessa la barrera gràcies a receptors específics. Per verificar els seus experiments, fets en ratolins, van unir la molècula "llançadora" a una nanopartícula fluorescent, comprobant per mitjà de tècniques de neuroimatge que creuava la barrera hematoencefàlica. Aquest descobriment obre la porta a afegir eficaçment a dita "llançadora" diferents substàncies adients per tractar malalties neurodegeneratives o tumors. Per exemple, s'està treballant a ...

*Fago

... is a town and municipality located in the province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain. Its Postal Code is 22729 On 13 January 2007, the mayor of Fago town, Miguel José Grima Masiá, was murdered. CAI Aragón-Fago www.valledeanso.com/fago News on Fago Coordinates: 42°44′07″N 0°51′56″W / 42.73528°N 0.86556°W / 42.73528; - ...

*Toyota ZR engine

The ZR engine gasoline-engine-family, introduced in 2007 by Toyota Motor Corporation, uses a DOHC 16-valve cylinder head with a 4-cylinder die-cast block. Engines displace either 1.6-liters, 1.8-liters or 2.0-liters. All engines in this family are equipped with Toyota's dual VVT-i technology that optimizes both intake and exhaust valve timing. This engine family is also the first to use Toyota's Valvematic system, first appearing on the Noah and Voxy in 2007 and then the European Avensis in 2009. The Toyota 1ZR-FE is a DOHC, 16-valve, 1.6 L (1598cc) engine equipped with dual VVT-i. This engine is available with either manual gearbox (5 Speed) or a "multi-mode" manual transmission (MM-T 5 Speed). This new engine is now replacing the 3ZZ-FE engine in most applications. Output for this engine is rated at 124 hp (92 kW) at 6000 rpm and 116 lb⋅ft (157 N⋅m) of torque at 5200 rpm net. Specifications Engine type : In-Line 4-cylinder DOHC 16-valve Bore x Stroke : 80.5 x 78.5 mm Compression Ratio : ...

*Four-stroke engine

Nikolaus August Otto as a young man was a traveling salesman for a grocery concern. In his travels, he encountered the internal combustion engine built in Paris by Belgian expatriate Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir. In 1860, Lenoir successfully created a double-acting engine that ran on illuminating gas at 4% efficiency. The 18 litre Lenoir Engine produced only 2 horsepower. The Lenoir engine ran on illuminating gas made from coal, which had been developed in Paris by Philip Lebon.[1]. In testing a replica of the Lenoir engine in 1861, Otto became aware of the effects of compression on the fuel charge. In 1862, Otto attempted to produce an engine to improve on the poor efficiency and reliability of the Lenoir engine. He tried to create an engine that would compress the fuel mixture prior to ignition, but failed as that engine would run no more than a few minutes prior to its destruction. Many other engineers were trying to solve the problem, with no success.[1]. In 1864, Otto and Eugen Langen founded ...

*Toyota S engine

The Toyota S Series engines are a family of straight-4 engines with displacement from 1.8 L to 2.2 L produced by Toyota Motor Corporation from January 1980 to August 2007. The series has cast iron engine blocks and alloy cylinder heads. The 1.8 L (1,832 cc) 1S is the first version of the S-series engine. It is a member of Toyota's Lasre engine family (Lightweight Advanced Super Response Engine). Bore and stroke are 80.5 x 90.0 mm. The engine was first seen in 1981, and was fitted to a wide range of Toyotas, in both RWD and FWD applications. Original 1S engine, designed for longitudinal, rear-wheel-drive applications. Designated 1S-U with Japanese emissions controls. Production: July 1981 - unknown Displacement: 1832 cc Mounting: longitudinal Type: SOHC 8-valve Bore/stroke: 80.5 × 89.9 mm Compression ratio: 9.1 Outputs: 100 PS (74 kW) at 5,400 rpm / 152 N·m (112 lb·ft) at 3,400 rpm Applications: Toyota Celica (SA60) Toyota Carina (SA60) Toyota Corona (ST140) Toyota Mark II (SX70) Adaption of ...

*Motorcycle engine

A motorcycle engine is an engine that powers a motorcycle. Motorcycle engines are typically two-stroke or four-stroke internal combustion engines, but other engine types, such as Wankels and electric motors, have been used in small numbers. Although some mopeds, such as the VéloSoleX, had friction drive to the front tire, a motorcycle engine normlally drives the rear wheel, power being sent to the driven wheel by belt, chain or shaft. Most engines have a gearbox with up to six ratios. Reverse gear is occasionally found on heavy tourers, for example the Honda GL1600, and sidecar motorcycles, such as the Ural. The rider changes gears on most motorcycles using a foot-pedal and manual clutch, but early models had hand-levers. More recently, some have automatic or semi-automatic gearboxes. Outside the United States, engine capacities typically ranged from about 50 cc to 650 cc; but in Europe since 1968 motorcycles with larger capacities have become common, ranging as high as the Triumph Rocket 3's ...

*Stirling engine

The Stirling engine (or Stirling's air engine as it was known at the time) was invented and patented in 1816.[10] It followed earlier attempts at making an air engine but was probably the first put to practical use when, in 1818, an engine built by Stirling was employed pumping water in a quarry.[11] The main subject of Stirling's original patent was a heat exchanger, which he called an "economiser" for its enhancement of fuel economy in a variety of applications. The patent also described in detail the employment of one form of the economiser in his unique closed-cycle air engine design[12] in which application it is now generally known as a "regenerator". Subsequent development by Robert Stirling and his brother James, an engineer, resulted in patents for various improved configurations of the original engine including pressurization, which by 1843, had sufficiently increased power output to drive all the machinery at a Dundee iron foundry.[13]. Though it has been disputed,[14] it is widely ...

*Uniflow steam engine

Uniflow engines potentially allow greater expansion in a single cylinder without the relatively cool exhaust steam flowing across the hot end of the working cylinder and steam ports of a conventional "counterflow" steam engine during the exhaust stroke. This condition allows higher thermal efficiency. The exhaust ports are only open for a small fraction of the piston stroke, with the exhaust ports closed just after the piston begins traveling toward the admission end of the cylinder. The steam remaining within the cylinder after the exhaust ports are closed is trapped, and this trapped steam is compressed by the returning piston. This is thermodynamically desirable as it preheats the hot end of the cylinder before the admission of steam. However, the risk of excessive compression often results in small auxiliary exhaust ports being included at the cylinder heads. Such a design is called a semi-uniflow engine. Engines of this type usually have multiple cylinders in an in-line arrangement, and may ...

*Lotus 900 series

The Lotus 900 series is a family of internal combustion engines designed and built by Lotus Cars of Hethel in the United Kingdom. Successor to the Lotus-Ford Twin Cam, the 900 was the first complete engine developed by Lotus. The engine was built from 1972 to 1999. As early as 1964 Lotus recognized the need to find a replacement for the Lotus Twin Cam engine. Colin Chapman issued a brief that listed the features wanted in a new engine, including `high efficiency, flexibility, torque and smoothness which was suitable for hand assembly'. Unable to find this combination in any existing engine the company used outside consultants and internal resources to define the characteristics of the next Lotus engine. After having rejected a 120° V6 as too wide for Lotus' chassis and a 60° V6 as too tall for their bodywork, the engineers determined that a 2-litre inline-four engine was the optimal choice. This future engine would have four valves per cylinder (16 valves total) operated by belt-driven dual ...

*Engine displacement

... for a typical reciprocating piston engine is a volume calculated by multiplying together three values, the distance travelled by the piston (i.e. the stroke length) multiplied by the circular area determined by a cylinder's bore, multiplied by the number of cylinders. If the bore and stroke are in inches, the displacement will be given in cubic inches, and if in millimetres or centimetres, it will be in cubic centimetres or litres. Occasionally, vehicle manufacturers will publicize an engine's bore and stroke in inches but switch to metric cc or L for displacement. The formula is: ...

*Gecko (software)

Development of the layout engine now known as Gecko began at Netscape in 1997, following the company's purchase of DigitalStyle. The existing Netscape rendering engine, originally written for Netscape Navigator 1.0 and upgraded through the years, was slow, did not comply well with W3C standards, had limited support for dynamic HTML and lacked features such as incremental reflow (when the layout engine rearranges elements on the screen as new data is downloaded and added to the page). The new layout engine was developed in parallel with the old, with the intention being to integrate it into Netscape Communicator when it was mature and stable. At least one more major revision of Netscape was expected to be released with the old layout engine before the switch.. After the launch of the Mozilla project in early 1998, the new layout engine code was released under an open-source license. Originally unveiled as Raptor, the name had to be changed to NGLayout (next generation layout) due to trademark ...

*Heat shield

As a result, a heat shield is often fitted by both amateur and professional personnel during a phase of engine tuning.. Heat shields are also used to cool engine mount vents. When a vehicle is at higher speed there is enough ram air to cool the under hood engine compartment, but when the vehicle is moving at lower speeds or climbing a gradient there is a need of insulating the engine heat to get transferred to other parts around it, e.g. Engine Mounts. With the help of proper thermal analysis and use of heat shields, the engine mount vents can be optimised for the best performances.[1]. ...
Clofarabine (injection) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of pediatric patients 1 to 21 years old with relapsed acute or refractory lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who have had at least 2 prior treatment regimens.. There is no recommended standard treatment for relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia in older patients. Cytarabine is the most commonly used drug to treat these patients. This study will determine if there is benefit by combining clofarabine with cytarabine. Patients will be randomized to receive up to 3 cycles of treatment with either placebo in combination with cytarabine or clofarabine in combination with cytarabine. Randomization was stratified by remission status following the first induction regimen (no remission [i.e., CR1 = refractory] or remission ,6 months vs CR1 = remission ≥6 months). CR1 is defined as remission after first pre-study induction regimen. The safety and tolerability of clofarabine in combination with cytarabine ...
Clofarabine (injection) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of pediatric patients 1 to 21 years old with relapsed acute or refractory lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who have had at least 2 prior treatment regimens.. There is no recommended standard treatment for relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia in older patients. Cytarabine is the most commonly used drug to treat these patients. This study will determine if there is benefit by combining clofarabine with cytarabine. Patients will be randomized to receive up to 3 cycles of treatment with either placebo in combination with cytarabine or clofarabine in combination with cytarabine. Randomization was stratified by remission status following the first induction regimen (no remission [i.e., CR1 = refractory] or remission ,6 months vs CR1 = remission ≥6 months). CR1 is defined as remission after first pre-study induction regimen. The safety and tolerability of clofarabine in combination with cytarabine ...
The goal of this clinical research study is to learn if clofarabine given by mouth on a weekly schedule can help to control MDS. The safety of clofarabine given by mouth will also be studied.
Sapacitabine cancer drug molecule (nucleoside analogue). Stylized skeletal formula (chemical structure): Atoms are shown as color-coded circles: hydrogen (hidden), carbon (grey), nitrogen (blue), oxygen (red). - Stock Image F018/3177
The goal of this clinical research study is to compare the ability of decitabine given alone versus the combination of sapacitabine and decitabine to control AML. The safety of the drug combination will also be studied.
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between cladribine and clofarabine. View detailed information regarding this drug interaction.
HUMAN BODY TOTAL CARE (HBTC) WITH AFR. A treatment protocol By Wilson Aragão "The head is the region of the human body where a number of independent functions are performed: breath, smell, taste, chewing, vision, hearing, balance and neuronal integration."(Melvin Moss)¹ "…and the balance of all these functions is directly related to the spatial position of the temporomandibular joints - TMJ." (Wilson Aragão).² The HBTC is a treatment protocol wich reaches all parts of the human body, from the head, integrating all encephalic nerves and their functions, like breathing, chewing, swallowing, smell, taste, hearing, balance and vision. For human beings, breathing, both inhaling and exhaling, must be completely performed by nose. When someone breathes through the nose, the air is filtered by the nasal cavities structures, which are surrounded by the turbines where the air has to make turns to reach the nasalpharynx due to the sinusoidal path. Air is also filtered by the cilia, which retain dirt ...
Nelarabine (Arranon) chemotherapy side effects, how its given, how it works, precautions and self care tips for treatment of leukemia and lymphoma
Goya route in Aragón: turistinformation om turist- och kulturrutter i Spanien. Karta, intressanta platser, logi och aktiviteter.
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This "Cited by" count includes citations to the following articles in Scholar. The ones marked * may be different from the article in the profile ...
Looking for online definition of clofarabine in the Medical Dictionary? clofarabine explanation free. What is clofarabine? Meaning of clofarabine medical term. What does clofarabine mean?
Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside antimetabolite marketed in the US and Canada as Clolar. In Europe and Australia/New Zealand the product is marketed under the name Evoltra. It is FDA-approved for treating relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children after at least two other types of treatment have failed. It is not known if it extends life expectancy. Some investigations of effectiveness in cases of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) have been carried out. Ongoing trials are assessing its efficacy, if any, for managing other cancers. Clolar was Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 28 December 2004. (Under accelerated approval regulations requiring further clinical studies.) Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). Clofarabine quickly kills leukaemia cells in the blood. The body may react to this. Signs include hyperkalemia, hyperuricemia, and hyperphosphatemia. TLS is very serious and can lead to death if it is not treated right away. ...
Treatment guidelines of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services state that delavirdine is "not recommended" as a component of antiretroviral regimens for initial treatment of HIV infection, because of inferior efficacy. Data supporting the effectiveness of delavirdine in combination regimens are limited, both for initial therapy and subsequent therapy. In current clinical practice, agents of demonstrated potency are preferred, and delavirdine is rarely used.. In initial therapy, delavirdine in combination with didanosine + zidovudine did not appear to be more effective than the two nucleoside analogues alone.(1) In NNRTI-naive subjects with virologic failure on dual-nucleoside analogue regimens containing lamivudine, switching to delavirdine + indinavir + a new nucleoside analogue provided superior viral load suppression compared with indinavir + a new nucleoside analogue + lamivudine.(2) A study of indinavir-experienced, NNRTI-naive subjects found a short-term benefit (in terms of ...
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as clofarabine, daunorubicin hydrochloride, cytarabine, and decitabine, work in different ways to stop the gro
Clofarabine (injection) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of pediatric patients 1 to 21 years old with relapsed ac
Purpose: Overexpression or polymorphisms of ribonucleotide reductase (RR) are described in many solid tumors, and its expression is highly correlated with survival. However, the biologic significance in multiple myeloma (MM) has not yet been elucidated. Here, we identify the role of RR in MM pathogenesis. Experimental Design: Here we studied the potential utility of RRM1 knockdown effect in multitple myeloma in vitro and in vivo. Results: Knockdown of RRM1 (large subunit) triggered significant growth inhibition, associated with apoptotic cells death, in MM cells, regardless of the existence of bone marrow microcnrivonment. To validate the role of RRM1 of xenograft model, tumor growth was significantly reduced in RRM1-knocked-down MM cells versus control MM cells. Gene expression profiling showed that p53 regulated genes were upregulated after RRM1 knockdown. Immunoblot and QRT-PCR validated that p53 pathways were acviated as well. Clofarabine (CLO), a purine nucleoside analog which inhibits both DNA
Patients who have previously received a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) are at higher risk for veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver following treatment with clofarabine (40 mg/m2) when used in combination with etoposide (100 mg/m2) and cyclophosphamide (440 mg/m2). Severe hepatotoxic events have been reported in a combination study of clofarabine in pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory acute leukemia. Two cases (2%) of VOD in the mono-therapy studies were considered related to study drug. Monitor for and discontinue Clolar if VOD is suspected ...
The goal of this clinical research study is to find the highest tolerable dose of gemcitabine (out of 6 possible doses) that can be given in combination
El Instituto de Investigaci n en Ciencias Ambientales de Arag n(IUCA) de la Universidad de Zaragoza impulsa nuevas iniciativas de investigaci n de excelencia e internacionalizaci n para el mejor conocimiento y el progreso de todas las Ciencias Ambientales.
El Instituto de Investigaci n en Ciencias Ambientales de Arag n(IUCA) de la Universidad de Zaragoza impulsa nuevas iniciativas de investigaci n de excelencia e internacionalizaci n para el mejor conocimiento y el progreso de todas las Ciencias Ambientales.
Des Moines, IA (PRWEB) February 24, 2010 -- Group legal insurance leader ARAG® has been selected as a 2009 Workplace Learning and Performance Award winner in
Sullivan, M. J. P., Talbot, J., Lewis, S. L., Phillips, O. L., Qie, L., Begne, S. K., Chave, J., Cuni-Sanchez, A., Hubau, W., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., Miles, L., Monteagudo-Mendoza, A., Sonké, B., Sunderland, T., ter Steege, H., White, L. J. T., Affum-Baffoe, K., Aiba, S. -ichiro, de Almeida, E. C., de Oliveira, E. A., Alvarez-Loayza, P., Dávila, E. Á., Andrade, A., Aragão, L. E. O. C., Ashton, P., Aymard C., G. A., Baker, T. R., Balinga, M., Banin, L. F., Baraloto, C., Bastin, J. - F., Berry, N., Bogaert, J., Bonal, D., Bongers, F., Brienen, R., Camargo, J. L. C., Cerón, C., Moscoso, V. C., Chezeaux, E., Clark, C. J., Pacheco, Á. C., Comiskey, J. A., Valverde, F. C., Coronado, E. N. H., Dargie, G., Davies, S. J., De Canniere, C., Djuikouo K., M. N., Doucet, J. - L., Erwin, T. L., Espejo, J. S., Ewango, C. E. N., Fauset, S., Feldpausch, T. R., Herrera, R., Gilpin, M., Gloor, E., Hall, J. S., Harris, D. J., Hart, T. B., Kartawinata, K., Kho, L. K., Kitayama, K., Laurance, S. G. W., Laurance, W. ...
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GlaxoSmithKlines Atriance® (nelarabine solution for infusion) has received a positive opinion from the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) for the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) in patients whose disease has not responded to, or has relapsed following, treatment with at least two chemotherapy regimens.. Atriance® is now being considered for final marketing approval by the European Commission for these difficult to treat forms of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL): T-ALL and T-LBL.. According to Paolo Paoletti, SVP and Global Head of Oncologylinks Research and Development, GSK:. "Nelarabine may offer some patients the chance to go on to have potentially curative treatment, such as a stem cell transplant, so we are delighted that nelarabine has been granted a positive opinion from the EMEA.. We are immensely proud of our involvement in the development of this orphan drug for such a rare disease, ...
In previous studies, DNA excision repair initiated by UV or 4-HC in quiescent normal lymphocytes allowed the nucleoside analogue F-ara-A to be incorporated into the repair patch (15 , 40) , an action that was associated with the inhibition of the repair processes. In both, such mechanism-based interactions enhanced cytotoxicity. The present study extended this approach to CLL lymphocytes. Although the magnitude of the repair response was heterogeneous in these primary tumor cells, DNA repair was initiated promptly and completed rapidly in most cases. Treating cells with F-ara-A or Cl-F-ara-A before the addition of 4-HC maximized the repair inhibition with the greatest effect at their intracellular triphosphate concentrations at 50 or 5 μm, respectively. The combinations produced more than additive apoptotic cell death than the sum of each agent alone. This increase in cytotoxicity was proportional to the extent of repair inhibition by these nucleoside analogues or to the initial tail-moment ...
Brack, W., Altenburger, R., Schüürmann, G., Krauss, M., López Herráez, D., van Gils, J., Slobodnik, J., Munthe, J., Gawlik, B.M., van Wezel, A., Schriks, M., Hollender, J., Tollefsen, K.E., Mekenyan, O., Dimitrov, S., Bunke, D., Cousins, I., Posthuma, L., van den Brink, P.J., López de Alda, M., Barceló, D., Faust, M., Kortenkamp, A., Scrimshaw, M., Ignatova, S.N., Engelen, G., Massmann, G., Lemkine, G., Teodorovic, I., Walz, K.-H., Dulio, V., Jonker, M.T.O., Jäger, F., Chipman, K., Falciani, F., Liska, I., Rooke, D., Zhang, X., Hollert, H., Vrana, B., Hilscherova, K., Kramer, K., Neumann, S., Hammerbacher, R., Backhaus, T., Mack, J., Segner, H., Escher, B., De Aragão Umbuzeiro, G., (2015 ...
Ernesto Cobos González, José Arturo Aragón López, Danny Rolando Soria Céspedes, Marco Antonio de la Rosa Abaroa, Andrea Martínez de la Vega Celorio, Martín Granados Gracia, Enrique Bargalló Rocha ...
Find information about Clofarabine including usage and side effects. Browse our Drug Dictionary for generic drug names and brand names.
Deoxyguanosine kinase (ATP: deoxyguanosine 5-phosphotransferase) activity has been identified in neonatal mouse skin tissue. This activity which has a molecular weight of 44 000 was shown to be highly specific for deoxyguanosine as a substrate. Unique to deoxynucleoside kinases was the observation that this enzyme possessed a pH optimum of 5.2. In dilute solutions catalytic activity is lost, however the enzymatic activity can be stabilized by the addition of 20 micrometer MgATP or ATP. Kinetic analysis gave an apparent Km for deoxyguanosine of 7 micrometer. Double-reciprocal plots of activity vs. MgATP concentration produced a broken line with the break occurring at 0.5 mM MgATP. Below this concentration an apparent Km for MgATP of 23 micrometer was measured; above 0.5 mM MgATP an apparent Km of 265 micrometer was calculated. Mouse skin deoxyguanosine kinase was strongly inhibited by dGTP, dGDP and UDp. dGTP was a competitive inhibitor of deoxyguanisine with an apparent Ki of 1.9 micrometer. UPD (K1
This drug may make you feel generally unwell. This is not uncommon, as chemotherapy can affect healthy cells as well as cancer cells. Report any side effects. Continue your course of treatment even though you feel ill unless your doctor tells you to stop.. This medicine may cause serious skin reactions. They can happen weeks to months after starting the medicine. Contact your health care provider right away if you notice fevers or flu-like symptoms with a rash. The rash may be red or purple and then turn into blisters or peeling of the skin. Or, you might notice a red rash with swelling of the face, lips or lymph nodes in your neck or under your arms.. You may need blood work done while you are taking this medicine.. In some cases, you may be given additional medicines to help with side effects. Follow all directions for their use.. Call your doctor or health care provider for advice if you get a fever, chills or sore throat, or other symptoms of a cold or flu. Do not treat yourself. This drug ...
Street prednisolone lilly 20mg preisvergleich in zu. Product is fine and arrived quickly, all the way to the UK! «Developing the Purine Nucleoside Analogue Acyclovir: the Work of Gertrude B? These studies have all been completed, generic cialis vs brand cialis reviews but results are pending? Made to be worn over the hoop, enrico prandin commercialista adding graceful fullness and keeping the bones of the hoop skirt from showing through? In sometimes dostinex online uk case of adults with initial episodes of genital herpes, the dosage will be 1 gram to be taken two times daily for about 10 days. Further, cialis usa the fact that a veniremember would hold the State to a higher burden of proof is a race-neutral reason for striking that veniremember! Bei entsprechender Behandlung überleben vier von fünf Patienten diese Komplikation! Now jazzily kytril cost its fall, I take 450mg, by winter Ill be at 600mg! Far the easier but psychological support is equally important for successful outcome. ...
Interventions: Drug: Busulfan; Drug: Fludarabine; Drug: Clofarabine; Radiation: Total Body Irradiation (TBI); Drug: Thymoglobulin; Biological: Stem Cell Infusion; Drug: Cyclophosphamide; Drug: Tacrolimus; Drug: Mycophenolate mofetil; Drug: Decitabine; Drug: Cytarabine; Drug: ...
TREATMENT WITH LOW-DOSE CYTARABINE IN ELDERLY PATIENTS (AGE 70 YEARS OR OLDER) WITH ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA: A SINGLE INSTITUTION EXPERIENCE
Gibson, M H. and Bertalanffy, F D., "In vivo synchrony of solid b16 melanoma by 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl- -cytosine (ara-c). Abstr." (1971). Subject Strain Bibliography 1971. 68 ...
(x2)Iti arat ca porcIti arat ca porc, iti arat ca porcIti arat ca porc Povestea mea incepe intr-o iarnaNe-am intalnit langa bloc, el musca din jumaraE...
Deoxyribonucleoside kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of deoxyribonucleosides to the corresponding deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates (dNMPs). They are the key enzymes in the salvage of deoxyribonucleosides originating from extra‐ or intracellular breakdown of DNA. Subsequently, dNMPs are phosphorylated into diphosphates (dNDPs) and triphosphates (dNTPs), which are the precursors of DNA. Deoxyribonucleoside kinases play a key role in the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer and viral diseases, as they catalyze the first, and often rate‐limiting step of nucleoside analog activation by phosphorylation (Arnér and Eriksson, 1995). Native and genetically engineered deoxyribonucleoside kinases from different organisms are also attractive candidates for use in cancer gene therapy as suicide enzymes (Christians et al., 1999; Kokoris et al., 1999; Knecht et al., 2000a; Zheng et al., 2000). The basic concept here is to transduce cancer or virus‐infected cells with a gene encoding a ...
On September 13, the Food and Drug Administration approved moxetumomab pasudotox-tdfk (Lumoxiti, AstraZeneca) injection for intravenous use for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory hairy cell leukemia (HCL) who have received at least two prior systemic therapies, including treatment with a purine nucleoside analog. Lumoxiti is a CD22-directed cytotoxin and is the first of this type of treatment for patients with HCL ...
Looking for Affonso? Find out information about Affonso. In medieval Spanish kingdoms: Alfonso I the Battler. Died in September 1134. King of Aragón and Navarre from 1104. He took Saragossa in 1118 from the Moors... Explanation of Affonso
Has anyone heard of this ms drug "Cladribine"? It is an oral therapy, particularly one that has no short term side effects. It is suggested that it is easy to use and that oral Cladribine, will have a major impact on the treatment of MS ...
Mavenclad (cladribine) is a disease modifying drug treatment for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Read more about Mavenclad in this A-Z entry.
Vociflon is a purine nucleoside analogue with antiviral activity. Vociflon is indicated for the treatment of recurrent herpes simplex infections of skin and mucous membranes and for the
According to the ministry, over 80,000 applications for asylum have been filed in Brazil. The absolute majority (64,941) of applications is made by men, equivalent to 80.8% of the total. The age groups who most sought refuge in the country are those who are economically active. There were 40,369 requests (48.7% of the total) from people ranging from 18 to 29 years; and 39,081 requests from people ranging from 30 to 59 years (47.1% of the total). Asylum-seekers are mainly from Haiti, Senegal, Syria, Bangladesh and Nigeria.. From 2010 to 2016, the total of refugees resettled in Brazil increased 127%. Justice Minister Eugênio Aragão said that if Brazil wants to become one of the worlds protagonists on the refugees issue, it needs to develop initiatives to receive more refugees. We expect to reinforce [this tendency] as a state policy, opening Brazil to the worlds refugees. We expect it to move forward. If Brazil wants to become protagonist of strategic issues, it needs to fully contribute to ...
Fago is a town and municipality located in the province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain. Its Postal Code is 22729 On 13 January 2007, the mayor of Fago town, Miguel José Grima Masiá, was murdered. CAI Aragón-Fago www.valledeanso.com/fago News on Fago Coordinates: 42°44′07″N 0°51′56″W / 42.73528°N 0.86556°W / 42.73528; - ...
Dinis, M.T., Aragão, C., Engrola, S. 2016. Revolução azul: preparar o setor aquícola para o futuro In: Universidade do Algarve (Eds.), A Europa e o mar: Inovação e investigação cientifica em Portugal. Portugal, pp. 73-80 ...
Dinis, M.T., Aragão, C., Engrola, S. 2016. Revolução azul: preparar o setor aquícola para o futuro In: Universidade do Algarve (Eds.), A Europa e o mar: Inovação e investigação cientifica em Portugal. Portugal, pp. 73-80 ...
U.S. FDA Grants Fast Track Designation to Astellas for Development of Gilteritinib in Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia PR Newswire TOKYO, Oct. 10, 2017
TREATMENT WITH LOW-DOSE CYTARABINE IN ELDERLY PATIENTS (AGE 70 YEARS OR OLDER) WITH ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA: A SINGLE INSTITUTION EXPERIENCE
Jelsema, C L., "Arabinosyl cytosine and 5-azacytidine-induced inhibition of uptake and incorporation of radiolabeled lipid and nucleic acid precurors in p388 leukemia cells. Abstr." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 1479 ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. cladribine ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Approval of LUMOXITI, a first-in-class medicine for hairy cell leukemia, marks first new treatment option for patients in over 20 years. AstraZeneca and MedImmune, its global biologics research and development arm, announced today that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved LUMOXITI™ (moxetumomab pasudotox-tdfk) for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory hairy cell leukemia (HCL) who have received at least two prior systemic therapies, including treatment with a purine nucleoside analog. LUMOXITI is not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCl ≤ 29 mL/min). The Phase III trial results demonstrated 75% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 64, 84) of patients receiving LUMOXITI achieved an overall response; 30% (95% CI: 20, 41) had a durable complete response.. Dave Fredrickson, Executive Vice-President, Global Head Oncology Business Unit, said: "Todays FDA approval of LUMOXITI represents a significant milestone for people living with hairy ...
Through his focus on research-driven patient care, Dr. Kantarjian has helped vastly improve survival and quality of life for leukemia patients everywhere. This award is recognition of his deep impact in the field," Thomas Buchholz, MD, MD Anderson Executive Vice President and Physician-in-Chief, said in a news release.. Kantarjians work has focused on developing several therapies including: clofarabine for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), the hypomethylating agent decitabine for myelodysplastic syndromes, liposomal vincristine for ALL, and ruxolitinib for myelofibrosis. He has also helped develop several targeted therapies for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) including imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, ponatinib, bosutinib, and omacetaxine. He is currently developing monoclonal antibodies in adult ALL.. Kantarjian has been at MD Anderson since 1983, and also holds the Kelcie Margaret Kana Research Chair and serves as Associate Vice President of MD Andersons Global Academic Programs. He was also ...
Purpose. Understanding the presentation of spinal cord injury (SCI) due to tumours considering population distribution and temporal trends is key to managing SCI health services. This study quantified incidence rates, function scores, and trends of SCI due to tumour or metastasis over an 18-year time period in a defined region in Spain. Methods. A retrospective cohort study included in-and outpatients with nontraumatic SCI due to tumour or metastasis admitted to a metropolitan hospital in Spain between 1991 and 2008. Main outcome measures were crude and age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates, tumour location and type, distribution by spinal level, neurological level of injury, and impairment ASIA scores. Results. Primary tumour or metastasis accounted for 32.5% of nontraumatic SCI with an incidence rate of 4.1 per million population. Increasing rates with age and over time were observed. Major pathology groups were intradural-extramedullary masses from which meningiomas and neurinomas accounted ...
Mitchard, E. T. A., Feldpausch, T. R., Brienen, R. J. W., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., Monteagudo, G., Baker, T. R., Lewis, S. L., Lloyd, J., Quesada, C. A., Gloor, M., Steege, H., Meir, P., Alvarez, E., Araujo-Murakami, A., Aragão, L. E. O. C., Arroyo, L., Aymard, G., Banki, O., Bonal, D., Brown, S., Brown, F. I., Cerón, C. E., Chama Moscoso, V., Chave, J., Comiskey, J. A., Cornejo, F., Corrales Medina, M., Da Costa, L., Costa, F. R. C., Di Fiore, A., Domingues, T. F., Erwin, T. L., Frederickson, T., Higuchi, N., Honorio Coronado, E. N., Killeen, T. J., Laurance, W. F., Levis, C., Magnusson, W. E., Marimon, B. S., Marimon Junior, B. H., Mendoza Polo, I., Mishra, P., Nascimento, M. T., Neill, D., Núñez Vargas, M. P., Palacios, W. A., Parada, A., Pardo Molina, G., Peña-Claros, M., Pitman, N., Peres, C. A., Poorter, L., Prieto, A., Ramirez-Angulo, H., Restrepo Correa, Z., Roopsind, A., Roucoux, K. H., Rudas, A., Salomão, R. P., Schietti, J., Silveira, M., Souza, P. F., Steininger, M. K., Stropp, J., ...
El 2015, investigadors de lIRB -amb la participació de científics del Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research de Munic i del Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón- varen publicat els seus treballs sobre el desenvolupament duna petita proteïna (un pèptid de 12 aminoàcids) capaç de travessar la barrera i resistir les proteases (enzims que trenquen les proteïnes quan intenten creuar la barrera). Van modificar el pèptid -ja conegut- i el van unir a la transferrina, una proteïna que transporta el ferro que el cervell necessita i que travessa la barrera gràcies a receptors específics. Per verificar els seus experiments, fets en ratolins, van unir la molècula "llançadora" a una nanopartícula fluorescent, comprobant per mitjà de tècniques de neuroimatge que creuava la barrera hematoencefàlica. Aquest descobriment obre la porta a afegir eficaçment a dita "llançadora" diferents substàncies adients per tractar malalties neurodegeneratives o tumors. Per exemple, sestà treballant a ...
1OT3: Structural Basis for Feedback Inhibition of the Deoxyribonucleoside Salvage Pathway: Studies of the Drosophila Deoxyribonucleoside Kinase.
Complete information for DCK gene (Protein Coding), Deoxycytidine Kinase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Chemical Synthesis of Nucleoside Analogues covers all the major classes of nucleosides, including pronucleotides, C-nucleosides, carbanucleosides, and PNA monomers which have shown great promise as starting points for the synthesis of nucleoside analogues. The book also includes experimental procedures for key reactions related to the synthesis of nucleoside analogues, providing a valuable tool for the preparation of a number of different compounds.. Throughout the book, chemical schemes and figures help readers better understand the chemical structures of nucleoside analogues and the methods used to synthesize them. Extensive references serve as a gateway to the growing body of original research studies and reviews in the field.. Synthetically modified nucleosides have proven their value as therapeutic drugs, in particular as antiviral and antitumor agents. However, many of these nucleoside analogues have undesirable side effects. With Chemical Synthesis of Nucleoside Analogues as their guide, ...
The aim of this thesis was to determine the role of nucleoside analog activating and deactivating enzymes in nucleoside analog metabolism and resistance development. Nucleoside analogs are anti-cancer drogs and are often used to treat different leukemias, attributably to presence of high levels of nucleoside analog activating enzymes in hematopoietic cells. More recently some of the newer analogs have been used successfully to treat solid tumors as well.. We have used human leukemic cell lines, and isolated cells from patients with leukemia, to investigate the nucleoside analog activating enzymes deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) and some of the deactivating enzymes called 5nucleotidases (5-NTs). We have measured mRNA expressions and enzymatic activities and correlated them with the cytotoxic response to nuc1eoside analogs and changes in cell cycle progression. We optimized and evaluated a siRNA-transfection method and decreased the activities of dCK and dGK in two ...
This Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope works either in TEM or in STEM mode at voltages between 60 kV and 300 kV. It then can be used at low voltage to analyse electron irradiation sensitive materials. It is fitted with the last generation of a high brightness Schotky emitter developed by FEI (the so called "X-FEG" gun) a monochromator and a Gatan 2k x 2k CCD camera.. STEM: As this microscope is devoted for STEM and EELS experiments, it is equipped with a CETCOR Cs-probe corrector from CEOS Company allowing for the formation of an electron probe of 0.08 nm mean size. The TEM is equipped with all the STEM facilities (BF, DF, ADF and HAADF detectors) and 0.08 nm spatial resolution has indeed been achieved in STEM-HAADF mode.. EELS and EDS: For EELS experiments, the microscope is fitted with a Gatan Energy Filter Tridiem 866 ERS and a monochromator. An energy resolution of 0.14 eV has been recently achieved with this setup. In addition, an EDS (EDAX) detector allows performing EDX ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of deoxycytidine kinase by inhibition of DNA synthesis in human lymphocytes. AU - Csapó, Z.. AU - Sasvári, M.. AU - Spasokoukotskaja, T.. AU - Talianidis, Iannis. AU - Eriksson, Staffan. AU - Staub, M.. PY - 2001/1/15. Y1 - 2001/1/15. N2 - Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK, EC.2.7.1.74) is a key enzyme in the intracellular metabolism of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine, 1β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, difluorodeoxycytidine, and other drugs used in chemotherapy of different leukaemias and solid tumours. Recently, stimulation of dCK activity was shown by these analogues and by other genotoxic agents such as etoposide and NaF, all of which cause severe inhibition of DNA synthesis in cell cultures. Here we describe that direct inhibition of DNA polymerases by aphidicolin stimulated dCK activity in normal lymphocytes and acute myeloid leukaemic cells, as well as in HL 60 promyelocytic cell cultures. Increased dCK activity was not due to new protein synthesis under our conditions, as ...
Ras proteins belong to a family of proto-oncogens that encode small GTPases, found to be involved in many cellular processes like cell division, apoptosis and differentiation. Remarkably, 20-30% of all human tumours contain activating mutations in the RAS genes. A retrospective study of a part of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia treated within CALGB 8525 revealed a correlation between RAS-mutations and chemotherapeutic treatment (cytarabine). AML patients harbouring oncogenic RAS showed significantly less cumulative incidence of relapse upon treatment with highdose cytarabine in the post-induction chemotherapy, when compared to AML patients with oncogenic RAS treated with low-dose cytarabine. In contrast, dose escalation had a much weaker effect on the response to cytarabine in patients that harbour wildtype RAS. This study showed that an oncogenic mutation can mediate a beneficial effect towards chemotherapeutic treatment. However, the molecular basis of this observation was not ...
The enzyme from the Acholeplasma class of Mollicutes catalyses the conversion of adenosine, guanosine and inosine to AMP, GMP and IMP. ATP cannot substitute for diphospha
Only a minority of breast cancer patients responds to chemotherapy and we lack predictive biomarkers that help to select a patient-tailored therapy that takes into consideration the molecular heteroge
I should think the same principle would apply with nucleoside analogs. They apply the treatment only to the tumor cells, selectively stopping them from dividing by disrupting DNA replication only in those cells. But of course the big problem with curing cancer has always been that any treatment for cancer will cause damage to the patients normal cells as well, which is why so much cancer research is focused on trying to find differences between cancer cells and normal cells that might be exploited to develop more precisely targeted therapies ...
Gene target information for DCK - deoxycytidine kinase (human). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interspecies differences in the kinetic properties of deoxycytidine kinase elucidate the poor utility of a phase I pharmacologically directed dose-escalation concept for 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine. AU - Reichelová, Viera. AU - Juliusson, Gunnar. AU - Spasokoukotskaja, T.. AU - Eriksson, Staffan. AU - Liliemark, Jan. PY - 1995/11. Y1 - 1995/11. N2 - 2-Chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine (CdA, Cladribine), is a purine antimetabolite currently under investigation in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies. Significant differences in CdA toxicity between mice and humans were observed during phase I clinical evaluation. For the elucidation of interspecies differences in drug toxicity the pharmacokinetics of CdA after subcutaneous injection and the kinetic properties of the CdA-phosphorylating enzyme, deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), were compared in mice and humans. The ratio of the dose lethal to 10% of mice (LD10) to the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in humans was 50 ...
Dinis MT, Ribeiro L, Conceição LEC, Aragão C. Larvae digestion and new weaning experiments in Solea senegalensis. In: Recent Advances In Mediterranean Aquaculture Finfish Species Diversification. Vol. 47. Recent advances in Mediterranean aquaculture finfish species diversification. Zaragoza : CIHEAM; 2000:193-204. http://om.ciheam.org/om/pdf/c47/00600619.pdf. ...
Distribution of 2-chloro-2 -deoxyadenosine, 2-chloro-2 -arabino-fluoro-2 -deoxyadenosine, Fludarabine and Cytarabine in mice: a whole-body autoradiography study ...
clipe. clipe ce schimba vise, dorinte, ganduri si apoi vieti. vorbe. vorbe ce schimba dureri in zambete, zambete in lacrimi.taceri. taceri ce sunt atat de necesare uneori si dureroase mai mereu.temeri. la asta se ajunge.dor. dor mereu traim o urma de dor.de multe ori am invatat sa arat opusul sentimentului trait. am invatat sa imbratisez dorintele…
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adult acute non lymphocytic leukemia in remission 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineadult acute non lymphocytic leukemia in remission 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Arabinonucleosides / administration & dosage. Arabinonucleosides / adverse effects. Connective Tissue Growth Factor / blood. ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenine Nucleotides; 0 / Arabinonucleosides; 0 / CTGF protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=adult+acute+non+lymphocytic+leukemia+in+remission+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

adult acute myeloid leukemia cellular diagnosis 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineadult acute myeloid leukemia cellular diagnosis 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Arabinonucleosides / therapeutic use. Leukemia / drug therapy. *[MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenine Nucleotides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arabinonucleosides; 762RDY0Y2H / clofarabine ...
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VidarabineVidarabine

... and arabinonucleosides. J Org Chem. 2000, 65(19), 5969-85. ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Vidarabine.html

Center-Authored Papers | Shared Resources | Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterCenter-Authored Papers | Shared Resources | Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

Arabinonucleosides. Advani AS, Gundacker HM, Sala-Torra O, Radich JP, Lai R, Slovak ML, Lancet JE, Coutre SE, Stuart RK, Mims ...
more infohttps://sharedresources.fredhutch.org/publications/search/author/5165?sort=keyword

Author: Kumar, Rajesh - PubAg Search ResultsAuthor: 'Kumar, Rajesh' - PubAg Search Results

Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of 3′-O,4′-C-methylene-linked α-l-arabinonucleosides ...
more infohttps://pubag.nal.usda.gov/?page=5&q=%22Kumar%2C+Rajesh%22&search_field=author

Antisense Oligonucleotides: Basic Concepts and Mechanisms | Molecular Cancer TherapeuticsAntisense Oligonucleotides: Basic Concepts and Mechanisms | Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

Wilds, C. J., and Damha, M. J. 2′-Deoxy-2′-fluoro-β-D-arabinonucleosides and oligonucleotides (2′F- ANA): synthesis and ...
more infohttps://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/1/5/347.full

Browse by Faculty & DepartmentsBrowse by Faculty & Departments

Gas-phase structures of protonated arabino nucleosides  Hamlow, L.A.; He, C.C.; Devereaux, Zachary J.; Roy, H.A.; Cunningham, ...
more infohttps://repository.ubn.ru.nl/browse?authority=21100300&

Antisense oligonucleotide constructs based on beta-arabinofuranose and its analogues - Patent applicationAntisense oligonucleotide constructs based on beta-arabinofuranose and its analogues - Patent application

Arabinonucleosides and Arabinonucleic Acids (ANA) [0011]Arabinonucleosides are stereoisomers of ribonucleosides, differing only ... 0013]DNA strands containing arabinonucleosides have also been a subject of a number of structural studies. In the crystal, DNA ... 0025]Also provided are oligonucleotides based on 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-β-D-arabinonucleosides (i.e., 2F-ANA oligomers) that bind ... fluoro-β-D-arabinonucleosides (i.e., 2F-ANA oligomers). ##STR00005## [0024]Prior to this invention, only the natural DNA ( ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20090105467

Kudos - helping increase the reach and impact of researchKudos - helping increase the reach and impact of research

Sugar-modified derivatives of cytostatic 6-(het)aryl-7-deazapurine nucleosides: 2′-C-methylribonucleosides, arabinonucleosides ...
more infohttps://www.growkudos.com/profiles/70846

US Patent # 9,884,885. Synthesis of labile base protected-modified deoxy and modified ribo
     nucleosides, corresponding...US Patent # 9,884,885. Synthesis of labile base protected-modified deoxy and modified ribo nucleosides, corresponding...

xiii) The sugar modification of modified nucleosides could consist of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro arabino nucleosides (2-F-ANAs) such ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-9884885.html

Application # 2016/0312225. IMMUNE REGULATORY OLIGONUCLEOTIDE (IRO) COMPOUNDS TO MODULATE TOLL-LIKE
     RECEPTOR BASED IMMUNE...Application # 2016/0312225. IMMUNE REGULATORY OLIGONUCLEOTIDE (IRO) COMPOUNDS TO MODULATE TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR BASED IMMUNE...

... generally includes ribonucleosides or arabinonucleosides in which the hydroxyl group at the 2 position of the pentose moiety ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-20160312225.html

NAVER Academic > Search...NAVER Academic > Search...

Adult, Aged, Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols, adverse effects, therapeutic use, Arabinonucleosides, ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Hematology%2FOncology+Clinics+of+North+America+14%EA%B6%8C+6%ED%98%B8

PublicationsPublications

169 T. Théophanides, S. Hanessian, M. Manfait et M. Berjot, "Raman spectra of the Arabinonucleosides Ara-A and Ara-C", J. of ...
more infohttp://www.hanessiangroup.com/publications.html

BH-AC-AMP protocol
     Summary Report | CureHunterBH-AC-AMP protocol Summary Report | CureHunter

Arabinonucleosides*Cytarabine: 4912*BH-AC-AMP protocol: 1. *Polycyclic Compounds: 56*Steroids: 18537*Pregnanes: 3*Pregnadienes* ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC045192-BH-AC-AMP-protocol.do

NEW MODALITIES FOR TREATMENT OF DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS AND OTHER DISEASES - Patent applicationNEW MODALITIES FOR TREATMENT OF DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS AND OTHER DISEASES - Patent application

... or arabinonucleosides in which the hydroxyl group at the 2 position of the pentose moiety is substituted to produce a 2- ... also includes ribonucleosides or arabinonucleosides in which the 2-hydroxyl group is replaced with a lower alkyl group ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100204310

Long-Term Outcomes after Treatment with Clofarabine ± Fludarabine with Once-Daily Intravenous Busulfan as Pretransplant...Long-Term Outcomes after Treatment with Clofarabine ± Fludarabine with Once-Daily Intravenous Busulfan as Pretransplant...

Long-Term Outcomes after Treatment with Clofarabine ± Fludarabine with Once-Daily Intravenous Busulfan as Pretransplant Conditioning Therapy for Advanced Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome.
more infohttps://scholars.duke.edu/display/pub1351290

Clofarabine Plus Busulfan is an Effective Conditioning Regimen for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in...Clofarabine Plus Busulfan is an Effective Conditioning Regimen for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in...

Clofarabine Plus Busulfan is an Effective Conditioning Regimen for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Long-Term Study Results.
more infohttps://scholars.duke.edu/display/pub1351287

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

Arabinonucleosides - administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols - therapeutic use , Aged, 80 and ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:Azacitidine%20-%20administration%20&%20dosage

List of MeSH codes (D13) - Thư viện Khoa học VLOSList of MeSH codes (D13) - Thư viện Khoa học VLOS

MeSH D13.570.065 --- arabinonucleosides. * MeSH D13.570.065.090 --- arabinofuranosyluracil * MeSH D13.570.065.300 --- ...
more infohttps://tusach.thuvienkhoahoc.com/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_

The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionn - laserpast funThe Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionn - laserpast fun

http://freiheit.antibiotika365.com/the-formation-of-arabino-nucleosides-from-3-acetamido-12-di/. http://bet.gabapentin600mg.com ...
more infohttp://laserpast.fun/the-copenhagen-psychosocial-questionn/

An open label randomised controlled study in elderly subjects with previously untreated acute myelogenous leukaemia [acute...An open label randomised controlled study in elderly subjects with previously untreated acute myelogenous leukaemia [acute...

An open label randomised controlled study in elderly subjects with previously untreated acute myelogenous leukaemia [acute myeloid leukaemia], comparing treatment groups randomised to receive daunorubicin and cytarabine or daunorubicin, cytarabine and PSC-833 [valspodar ...
more infohttps://adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700011948?error=cookies_not_supported&code=ef43c896-c04d-4f84-8149-63dfd8fcb3a0

2-F-G-ANA-CE Phosphoramidite2'-F-G-ANA-CE Phosphoramidite

Arabinonucleosides are epimers of ribonucleosides with the chiral switch being at the 2 position of the sugar residue. 2-F- ...
more infohttps://www.glenresearch.com/2-f-g-ana-ce-phosphoramidite-1.html