Arabinofuranosyluracil: A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.Anemia, Megaloblastic: A disorder characterized by the presence of ANEMIA, abnormally large red blood cells (megalocytes or macrocytes), and MEGALOBLASTS.Deoxyuridine: 2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.Anemia, Macrocytic: Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH).Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Deoxyuracil Nucleotides: Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis: An angiocentric and angiodestructive lymphoproliferative disorder primarily involving the lungs. It is caused by an Epstein-Barr virus-induced transformation of the B-cells, in a T-cell rich environment. Clinically and pathologically it resembles EXTRANODAL NK-T-CELL LYMPHOMA.Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone: Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.Mycosis Fungoides: A chronic, malignant T-cell lymphoma of the skin. In the late stages, the LYMPH NODES and viscera are affected.Sezary Syndrome: A form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma manifested by generalized exfoliative ERYTHRODERMA; PRURITUS; peripheral lymphadenopathy, and abnormal hyperchromatic mononuclear (cerebriform) cells in the skin, LYMPH NODES, and peripheral blood (Sezary cells).Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Lymphoma, T-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Arsenite Transporting ATPases: Efflux pumps that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump arsenite across a membrane. They are primarily found in prokaryotic organisms, where they play a role in protection against excess intracellular levels of arsenite ions.Chorda Tympani Nerve: A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.Receptors, Autocrine Motility Factor: Cell surface receptors for AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR, which is the secreted form of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE. The receptor has an unusual composition in that it shares some structural similarities with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS and functions as an ubiquitin protein ligase when internalized.Taste Buds: Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.Dysgerminoma: A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Peritoneal Lavage: Washing out of the peritoneal cavity. The procedure is a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic technique following abdominal trauma or inflammation.Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Sodium Iodide: A compound forming white, odorless deliquescent crystals and used as iodine supplement, expectorant or in its radioactive (I-131) form as an diagnostic aid, particularly for thyroid function tests.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Iodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Perchlorates: Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Gum Arabic: Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.Medicine, Arabic: Traditional Arabic methods used in medicine in the ARAB WORLD.Arab World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the administrative, intellectual, social, and cultural domination of the Arab empire. The Arab world, under the impetus of Islam, by the eighth century A.D., extended from Arabia in the Middle East to all of northern Africa, southern Spain, Sardinia, and Sicily. Close contact was maintained with Greek and Jewish culture. While the principal service of the Arabs to medicine was the preservation of Greek culture, the Arabs themselves were the originators of algebra, chemistry, geology, and many of the refinements of civilization. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, p260; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p126)Arabs: Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Suicide prodrugs activated by thymidylate synthase: rationale for treatment and noninvasive imaging of tumors with deoxyuridine analogues. (1/171)

Most tumors are resistant to therapy by thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitors due to their high levels of TS. Instead of inhibiting TS, we hypothesized that it was possible to use this enzyme to activate suicide prodrugs (deoxyuridine analogues) to more toxic species (thymidine analogues). Tumors with high levels of TS could be particularly sensitive to deoxyuridine analogues because they would be more efficient in producing the toxic methylated species. Furthermore, the accumulation of methylated species within tumors could be visualized externally if a tracer dose of the deoxyuridine analogue was tagged with an isotope, preferably a positron emitter, such as 18F. Higher accumulation of isotope indicates higher activity of TS and lower sensitivity of the tumor to TS inhibitors, but perhaps more sensitivity to therapy with deoxyuridine analogues as suicide prodrugs. 2'-F-ara-deoxyuridine (FAU) was used as a prototype to demonstrate these concepts experimentally. FAU readily entered cells and was phosphorylated, methylated, and subsequently incorporated into cellular DNA. Among different cell lines, FAU produced varying degrees of growth inhibition. Greater DNA incorporation (e.g., for CEM and U-937 cells) was reflected as increased toxicity. FAU produced less DNA incorporation in Raji or L1210 cells, and growth rate was minimally decreased. As the first demonstration that cells with high levels of TS activity can be more vulnerable to therapy than cells with low TS activity, this preliminary work suggests a new therapeutic approach for common human tumors that were previously resistant. Furthermore, it appears that the TS activity of tumors could be noninvasively imaged in situ by tracer doses of [18F]FAU and that this phenotypic information could guide patient therapy.  (+info)

Imaging adenoviral-mediated herpes virus thymidine kinase gene transfer and expression in vivo. (2/171)

The feasibility of noninvasive imaging of adenoviral-mediated herpes virus type one thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene transfer and expression was assessed in a well-studied animal model of metastatic colon carcinoma of the liver. Tumors were produced in syngeneic BALB/c mice by intrahepatic injection of colon carcinoma cells (MCA-26). Seven days later, three different doses (3 x 10(8), 1 x 10(8), and 3 x 10(7) plaque-forming units (pfu) of the recombinant adenoviral vector ADV. Rous sarcoma virus (RSV)-tk bearing the HSV1-tk gene were administered by intratumoral injection in separate groups of mice. Two control groups of tumor-bearing mice received intratumoral injections of the control adenoviral vector dl-312 or buffer alone, respectively. T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of mice were obtained before administering the virus and provided an anatomical reference of hepatic tumor localization. Eighteen h after the virus injection, one group of animals was given i.v. injections of 300 microCi of no-carrier-added 5-[131I]-2'-fluoro-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (FIAU) and imaged 24 h later with a gamma camera. In some animals, the tumors were sampled and processed for histology and quantitative autoradiography (QAR). The gamma camera images demonstrated highly specific localization of [131I]FIAU-derived radioactivity to the area of ADV.RSV-tk-injected tumors in the liver, which was confirmed by coregistering the gamma camera and T2-weighted MR images. There was no accumulation of [131I]FIAU-derived radioactivity in tumors that were injected with the control vector or injection solution alone. A more precise distribution of radioactivity in the area of transfected tumor was obtained by histological and QAR comparisons. A heterogeneous pattern of radioactivity distribution in transfected tumors was observed. A punctate pattern of radioactivity distribution was observed in peritumoral liver tissue in animals given injections of 3 x 10(8) and 1 x 10(8) pfu of ADV.RSV-tk but not in animals given injections of 3 x 10(7) pfu nor in control animals. A QAR-microscopic comparison showed that the punctate areas of radioactivity colocalized with cholangial ducts. The level of [131I]FIAU-derived radioactivity accumulation (HSV1-tk expression) in the transfected tumors was viral dose-dependent. The viral dose-dependency of radioactivity accumulation was more pronounced in peritumoral liver, which was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR analysis. A separate group of tumor-bearing animals received different doses of ADV.RSV-tk vector followed by treatment with ganciclovir (GCV), 10 mg/kg i.p. b.i.d. for 6 days. The ADV.RSV-tk transfected tumors significantly regressed with GCV treatment; the control tumors continued to grow. During the GCV treatment, the levels of liver transaminases (ALT and AST) were significantly increased in animals that received injections of 3 x 10(8) and 1 x 10(8) pfu of ADV.RSV-tk but not in animals that received injections of 3 x 10(7) pfu and in control animals. The observed liver toxicity confirms the results of gamma camera and QAR imaging, which demonstrated an unwanted spread of ADV.RSV-tk vector and HSV1-tk expression in peritumoral and remote liver tissue at higher doses. These and our previous results indicate that noninvasive imaging of adenoviral-mediated HSV1-tk gene expression is feasible for monitoring cancer gene therapy in patients.  (+info)

Brca1 controls homology-directed DNA repair. (3/171)

Germline mutations in BRCA1 confer a high risk of breast and ovarian tumors. The role of BRCA1 in tumor suppression is not yet understood, but both transcription and repair functions have been ascribed. Evidence that BRCA1 is involved in DNA repair stems from its association with RAD51, a homolog of the yeast protein involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination. We report here that Brca1-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells have impaired repair of chromosomal DSBs by homologous recombination. The relative frequencies of homologous and nonhomologous DNA integration and DSB repair were also altered. The results demonstrate a caretaker role for BRCA1 in preserving genomic integrity by promoting homologous recombination and limiting mutagenic nonhomologous repair processes.  (+info)

Comparative in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activity of (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU) and its arabinosyl derivative, (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (BVaraU), against tumor cells expressing either the Varicella zoster or the Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase. (4/171)

The inhibitory effects of (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU) and its arabinosyl derivative (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (BVaraU) on the growth of both MDA-MB-435 human breast carcinoma and 9L rat gliosarcoma cells expressing the thymidine kinase (tk)-encoding gene of the Varicella zoster virus (VZV) or the Herpes simplex virus (HSV) were evaluated. In vitro, BVDU and BVaraU effectively killed both cell types expressing VZVtk, with 50% inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.06 to 0.4 microM, whereas ganciclovir (GCV) lacked activity. On HSVtk+ cells, BVDU had high cytotoxic activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration values that were similar to those of GCV, whereas BVaraU was inactive. In vivo, BVDU applied intraperitoneally caused a 50% tumor growth inhibition in nude mice inoculated subcutaneously with VZVtk+ as well as HSVtk+ mammary tumor cells. In mice and at variance with the in vitro results, BVaraU had very little activity against the VZVtk+ mammary cells; GCV had the highest activity on the HSVtk+ cells, resulting in a 50% eradication of the tumors. With the 9L rat gliosarcoma model, the VZVtk/BVDU system completely failed to inhibit the development of VZVtk+ glioma tumors induced subcutaneously in syngeneic rats, although BVDU had a similar 45-minute half-life in both rats and mice. Factors other than degradation of the prodrug and related to the mode of action of these analogs are possibly involved in the observed discrepancies between the in vitro and in vivo results.  (+info)

Functional coexpression of HSV-1 thymidine kinase and green fluorescent protein: implications for noninvasive imaging of transgene expression. (5/171)

Current gene therapy technology is limited by the paucity of methodology for determining the location and magnitude of therapeutic transgene expression in vivo. We describe and validate a paradigm for monitoring therapeutic transgene expression by noninvasive imaging of the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1-tk) marker gene expression. To test proportional coexpression of therapeutic and marker genes, a model fusion gene comprising green fluorescent protein (gfp) and HSV-1-tk genes was generated (tkgfp gene) and assessed for the functional coexpression of the gene product, TKGFP fusion protein, in rat 9L gliosarcoma, RG2 glioma, and W256 carcinoma cells. Analysis of the TKGFP protein demonstrated that it can serve as a therapeutic gene by rendering tkgfp transduced cells sensitive to ganciclovir or as a screening marker useful for identifying transduced cells by fluorescence microscopy or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). TK and GFP activities in the TKGFP fusion protein were similar to corresponding wild-type proteins and accumulation of the HSV-1-tk-specific radiolabeled substrate, 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodo-uracil (FIAU), in stability transduced clones correlated with gfp-fluorescence intensity over a wide range of expression levels. The tkgfp fusion gene itself may be useful in developing novel cancer gene therapy approaches. Valuable information about the efficiency of gene transfer and expression could be obtained by non-invasive imaging of tkgfp expression with FIAU and clinical imaging devices (gamma camera, positron-emission tomography [PET], single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]), and/or direct visualization of gfp expression in situ by fluorescence microscopy or endoscopy.  (+info)

Uptake of radiolabeled 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-iodo-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil in cardiac cells after adenoviral transfer of the herpesvirus thymidine kinase gene: the cellular basis for cardiac gene imaging. (6/171)

BACKGROUND: Gene therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of cardiac diseases. Coexpression of therapeutic genes with a suitable marker gene would allow for the noninvasive imaging of successful gene transfer and expression via radiolabeled marker substrates. In the present study, such an approach was first applied to cardiac tissue. METHODS AND RESULTS: The combination of the herpesvirus thymidine kinase reporter gene (HSV1-tk) and radiolabeled 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-iodo-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (FIAU) was evaluated. H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts were infected in vitro with a replication-defective HSV1-tk-containing adenovirus and a negative control virus. The intracellular uptake of [(14)C]FIAU increased with increasing multiplicity of infection and with time after infection. Uptake in negative controls remained <15% of positive controls. Additionally, vectors were applied intramyocardially in Wistar rats. The marker substrate [(125)I]FIAU was injected intravenously 3 days later, and animals were killed after 24 hours. Autoradiographically, regional transgene expression was clearly identified in animals receiving the adenovirus containing HSV1-tk (3. 4+/-2.2-fold increase of radioactivity at vector administration site compared with remote myocardium), whereas nonspecific uptake in negative controls was low (<10% of positive controls). CONCLUSIONS: Using an adenoviral vector, HSV1-tk can be successfully expressed in cardiac cells in vitro and in vivo, yielding high uptake of radiolabeled FIAU. The results suggest that imaging transgene expression in the heart is feasible and may be used to monitor gene therapy noninvasively.  (+info)

A transgenic mouse model for inducible and reversible dysmyelination. (7/171)

Oligodendrocytes are glial cells devoted to the production of myelin sheaths. Myelination of the CNS occurs essentially after birth. To delineate both the times of oligodendrocyte proliferation and myelination, as well as to study the consequence of dysmyelination in vivo, a model of inducible dysmyelination was developed. To achieve oligodendrocyte ablation, transgenic animals were generated that express the herpes virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) gene under the control of the myelin basic protein (MBP) gene promoter. The expression of the MBP-TK transgene in oligodendrocytes is not toxic on its own; however, toxicity can be selectively induced by the systemic injection of animals with nucleoside analogs, such as FIAU [1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-delta-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil]. This system allows us to control the precise duration of the toxic insult and the degree of ablation of oligodendrocytes in vivo. We show that chronic treatment of MBP-TK mice with FIAU during the first 3 postnatal weeks triggers almost a total depletion of oligodendrocytes in the CNS. These effects are accompanied by a behavioral phenotype characterized by tremors, seizures, retarded growth, and premature animal death. We identify the period of highest oligodendrocytes division in the first 9 postnatal days. Delaying the beginning of FIAU treatments results in different degrees of dysmyelination. Dysmyelination in MBP-TK mice is always accompanied by astrocytosis. Thus, this transgenic line provides a model to study the events occurring during dysmyelination of various intensities. It also represents an invaluable tool to investigate remyelination in vivo.  (+info)

Kinetics of hepadnavirus loss from the liver during inhibition of viral DNA synthesis. (8/171)

Hepadnaviruses replicate by reverse transcription, which takes place in the cytoplasm of the infected hepatocyte. Viral RNAs, including the pregenome, are transcribed from a covalently closed circular (ccc) viral DNA that is found in the nucleus. Inhibitors of the viral reverse transcriptase can block new DNA synthesis but have no direct effect on the up to 50 or more copies of cccDNA that maintain the infected state. Thus, during antiviral therapy, the rates of loss of cccDNA, infected hepatocytes (1 or more molecules of cccDNA), and replicating DNAs may be quite different. In the present study, we asked how these losses compared when woodchucks chronically infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus were treated with L-FMAU [1-(2-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyl) uracil], an inhibitor of viral DNA synthesis. Viremia was suppressed for at least 8 months, after which drug-resistant virus began replicating to high titers. In addition, replicating viral DNAs were virtually absent from the liver after 6 weeks of treatment. In contrast, cccDNA declined more slowly, consistent with a half-life of approximately 33 to 50 days. The loss of cccDNA was comparable to that expected from the estimated death rate of hepatocytes in these woodchucks, suggesting that death of infected cells was one of the major routes for elimination of cccDNA. However, the decline in the actual number of infected hepatocytes lagged behind the decline in cccDNA, so that the average cccDNA copy number in infected cells dropped during the early phase of therapy. This observation was consistent with the possibility that some fraction of cccDNA was distributed to daughter cells in those infected hepatocytes that passed through mitosis.  (+info)

Fialuridine, or 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-1-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil (FIAU), is a nucleoside analogue that was investigated as a potential therapy for hepatitis B virus infection. In a 1993 clinical study at the NIH, unexpected toxicity led to the death of 5 out of 15 patients from liver failure associated with lactic acidosis; two further participants required liver transplantation. This toxicity was unusual in that it was not predicted by animal studies. It is suspected that the drugs toxicity was due to its damaging mitochondria. Tujios S, Fontana RJ. Mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury: from bedside to bench. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011 Apr;8(4):202-11. Review. PMID 21386809 McKenzie R, Fried MW, Sallie R, et al. (1995). "Hepatic failure and lactic acidosis due to fialuridine (FIAU), an investigational nucleoside analogue for chronic hepatitis B". N. Engl. J. Med. 333 (17): 1099-1105. doi:10.1056/NEJM199510263331702. PMID 7565947. Thomson, Larry (1 March 1994). "The Cure that ...
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Subjects will be dosed with [124I]FIAU at Time 0 on Day 0, and a PET-CT scan will be conducted immediately after the injection. Imaging will be repeated at 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after dosing.. All images generated will be reviewed for biodistribution and dosimetry. ...
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The objectives of this study are to compare in nucleoside treatment-naïve subjects, the efficacy and safety of clevudine 30 mg once daily versus adefovir 10 mg once daily, each as monotherapy, for 48 weeks, 72 weeks, and 96 weeks.. ...
The 42nd Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver Pharmasset announced today that presentations of preclinical studies of Clevudine
Many antibiotics like tetracyclines, erythromycin, and the fluoroquinolones (eg, Cipro), and antivirals like acyclovir, fialuridine, AZT, and ddC also inhibit mitochondrial functions when used chronically (usually for more than about 3 weeks). Because mitochondria are descendants of free-living bacteria, their machinery for protein synthesis, RNA synthesis, and DNA replication are susceptible to many antibiotics, and for reasons unique to mitochondrial DNA synthesis, they are also sensitive to antivirals. Chronic use of these drugs can do more harm than good if there is no longer good evidence for an active infection ...
... - Clinical trials, Fialuridine, TGN This page was last edited on 20 May , at In addition, no signs of toxicity were observed in any of the physiological
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BioAssay record AID 18848 submitted by ChEMBL: Tested for in vitro percent of 3-fluoro-3-deoxythymidine(FLT) formed upon incubation with glutathione.
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A team of FAU scientists has uncovered a brain-signaling pathway that can be pharmacologically manipulated in genetically engineered mice to reverse an autism-related pathway.
I was just wondering on what the estimated attendance might be at this con, based on past numbers, and given the new location. I just went to Fur the...
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 1190307-88-0(L-Alanine, N-[[P(S),2R]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-2-methyl-P-phenyl-5-uridylyl]-, 1-methylethyl ester) for price inquiry. where to buy 1190307-88-0(L-Alanine, N-[[P(S),2R]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-2-methyl-P-phenyl-5-uridylyl]-, 1-methylethyl ester).Also offer free database of 1190307-88-0(L-Alanine, N-[[P(S),2R]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-2-methyl-P-phenyl-5-uridylyl]-, 1-methylethyl ester) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
The first enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-stachyflin, a potential anti-influenza A virus agent, was achieved; the method features a BF3·Et2O-induced domino epoxide-opening/rearrangement/cyclization reaction to stereoselectively form the requisite pentacyclic ring system in one step.
TOKYO, March 13, 2009-HI-Eisai Pharmaceutical Inc. (Headquarters Makati City, the Philippines, President Lourdes Magno), a subsidiary in the Philippines of Eisa
Gibson, M H. and Bertalanffy, F D., "In vivo synchrony of solid b16 melanoma by 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl- -cytosine (ara-c). Abstr." (1971). Subject Strain Bibliography 1971. 68 ...
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on N2-Isobutyryl-2-Fluoro-2-deoxyguanosine Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
16S rRNA (uracil1498-N3)-methyltransferaseS-adenosyl-L-methionine + uracil1498 in 16S rRNA = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N3-methyluracil1498 in 16S rRNA ...
A variety of different methods for the evaluation of antiviral agents in cell culture systems are briefly reviewed. It has been repeatedly noted that many test conditions such as the cell culture system, virus strain, virus challenge dose, virus input multiplicity of infection, and time of harvesting, etc., can substantially affect or even alter the test results, thus making comparative studies and unambiguous evaluations very difficult. Attempts are made to discuss previous test methods together with our recent studies with the aim to simplify test procedures and assay methods. Suggestions are proposed for in vitro evaluation of new antiviral agents. It is hoped that this review will alarm investigators to the problems of assaying new antiviral agents. If the suggestions made in this review can be followed, the screening of the enormous number of promising antiviral compounds may be made more efficiently in the near future.
Monoklonale und polyklonale FAU Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für FAU Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
... (CHB) treatment can exert adverse effects about overall prognosis. renal practical decrease. A total of 4178 individuals were adopted up for a median 23 weeks. Antiviral providers included lamivudine (17.0%), adefovir (3.7%), entecavir (70.4%), telbivudine (0.6%), tenofovir (4.0%), or clevudine (4.3%). Renal practical decrease occurred in 706 (16.9%) individuals. Based on multivariate Cox regression analysis, age, hypertension, diabetes, history of liver or kidney transplantation, underlying underlying CKD, and simultaneous administration of diuretics improved the hazard percentage for renal practical decrease; however, clevudine reduced risk. The eGFR significantly improved over time in individuals receiving telbivudine or clevudine compared with lamivudine. Among the 3175 individuals adopted up for more than 1 year, 407 (12.8%) individuals experienced quick CKD progression. Individuals with quick CKD progression showed ...
Article Assessment of burden of virus agents in an urban sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sewage discharge is considered to be the main source of virus contamination in aquatic environments. There is no correlation between the presen...
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Activity of Pt supported on zeolites and metal-exchanged zeolites as a function of composition, structure, and preparative method. Aging NH3 NH3 N2 Zeolite washct Temp/ conv. N2 conv. sel. structure Pt Pt Cu loading time/ %, sele. % %, %, Ex. typea SARb method ppmc %d g/in3 H2Oe 250° C. 250° C. 400° C. 400° C. 1A FAU 5.2 EXf 1925 2.02 1.493 fresh 98 73 98 69 1B FAU 5.2 EX 1925 2.02 1.493 750/25/10 98 71 98 48 1C FAU 5.2 EX 1925 2.02 1.479 750/25/0 94 74 98 62 1D FAU 5.2 EX 2239 0 1.441 750/5/10 94 57 98 23 1E FAU 5.2 EX 2107 1.12 1.525 750/5/10 95 62 99 40 1F FAU 5.2 EX 1916 2.12 1.424 750/5/10 93 78 97 53 1G FAU 5.2 EX 2003 3.19 1.483 750/5/10 94 81 98 50 1H FAU 5.2 EX 2107 1.12 1.525 fresh 95 60 98 53 1I FAU 5.2 EX 2328 1.19 1.398 fresh 0 -- 19 95 1J FAU 30 EX 1799 0.54 1.61 fresh 58 80 98 46 1K FAU 30 EX 1799 0.54 1.61 750/5/10 7 91 97 58 1L BEA 30 IMg 2000 -- 1.487 fresh 64 66 98 42 1M BEA 30 IM 2000 -- 1.449 750/25/10 7 74 96 48 1N BEA 30 EX 2340 -- 1.695 fresh 93 ...
Nucleic acid components and their analogues. CXLVI. Preparation of some nucleotide derivatives of 6-methyluridine, 3-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)uracil, and 3-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)-6-methyluracil. Investigations of their template activity and behaviour towards some nucleolytic enzymes ...
When infectious disease pandemics emerge, viruses tend to be the most lethal. Experts are working on ways to find new antiviral drug treatments, as well as to prevent epidemics from emerging in the first place.
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-Lauren Mercado, of Boca Raton, writes a message on a square piece of cloth that will be part of an education and prevention AIDS quilt . Duing World AIDS day at FAU in Boca Raton. Florida Atlantic Universityís Student Health Services and the LGBTQA Resource Center hosted the event which provided...
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The structure was refined using the REFMAC program. The R value is 0.19806 for 42600 reflections in the resolution range 48.88 to 2.87 Ångstroms with Fobs , 0.0 sigma(Fobs) and with I , 0.0 sigma(I) ...
US EPA PC Code ); 012303 (US EPA PC Code Text ); 5-Bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methyluracil, sodium salt; 5-Bromo-6-methyl-3-(1-methylpropyl)-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione, sodium salt; 69484-12-4 (CAS number); 69484124; 69484124 (CAS number without hyphens); 842 (CA DPR Chem Code) ); Bromacil, sodium salt; BROMACIL, SODIUM SALT (CA DPR Chem Code Text ); Bromacilsodiumsalt; Uracil, 5-bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methyl-, sodium ...
FAU - FAU (untagged)-Human Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus (FBR-MuSV) ubiquitously expressed (FAU) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Ah, Game Week II is in full gear. Players will be back at practice this afternoon, and South Carolina (home of Joe ?You Lie? Wilson) on the not-so-distant horizon.FAU is thin on its defensive line,
PMID- 29303721 OWN - NLM STAT- MEDLINE DCOM- 20180110 LR - 20180110 IS - 1474-547X (Electronic) IS - 0140-6736 (Linking) VI - 390 IP - 10114 DP - 2018 Dec 23 TI - Concerns about cardiotoxicity in the HERA trial. PG - 2767 LID - S0140-6736(17)31954-2 [pii] LID - 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31954-2 [doi] FAU - Levy, Antonin AU - Levy A AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif 94800, France; Faculte de Medecine, Universite Paris-Saclay, Kremlin Bicetre, France; INSERM U1030, Molecular Radiotherapy, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. Electronic address: [email protected] FAU - Chargari, Cyrus AU - Chargari C AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif 94800, France; Faculte de Medecine, Universite Paris-Saclay, Kremlin Bicetre, France; INSERM U1030, Molecular Radiotherapy, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France; Institut de Recherche Biomedicale des Armees, Bretigny sur Orge, France. FAU - Deutsch, Eric AU - ...
Nagina immissiun dals suandants pollens:. ambrosia, assens, badugn, chastagner cultivà, dent-liun, fains, fau, fau coller, fegliascha, fraissen, furment, ierdi, nitscholer, ogn, papla, plantagen, platana, ruver, salesch, seghel, tigl, ulm. gievgia, ils 18 da schaner 2018, 06:00 , MeteoNews ...
Nagina immissiun dals suandants pollens:. ambrosia, assens, badugn, chastagner cultivà, dent-liun, fains, fau, fau coller, fegliascha, fraissen, furment, ierdi, nitscholer, ogn, papla, plantagen, platana, ruver, salesch, seghel, tigl, ulm. gievgia, ils 18 da schaner 2018, 06:00 , MeteoNews ...
There are certain points in your life when words simply dont do justice to a situation. This is one of those times, thanks to new Florida Atlantic head coach Lane Kiffin and this (ahem) hype video. Commit to the Owls! Coach @Lane_Kiffin is bringing in the best recruits.
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 1158728-82-5, 4-C-Azido-2-deoxy-2,2-difluorouridine, molecular formula: C9H9F2N5O5.
In his first radio interview since being fired, Pelini threatens legal action against affiants, alleges FAU AD Pat Chun had an agenda against him.
A signal amplification method for detecting a target nucleic acid analyte having a homopolymeric region and a target sequence includes steps of: contacting an analyte under hybridizing conditions with a multiplicity of reporter probes, each reporter probe including a signal region and an oligonucleotide sequence which is complementary to and capable of forming a stable hybrid with the analyte homopolymeric region to form an analyte:reporter probe hybrid; and forming an analyte:capture probe hybrid by contacting the analyte target sequence with a capture probe under hybridizing conditions. The analyte:reporter probe hybrid may formed prior to contacting the analyte target sequence with the capture probe, so the result of contacting the analyte target sequence with the capture probe results in formation of an analyte:reporter probe:capture probe complex. The analyte:capture probe hybrid may be immobilized on a solid generally planar surface in an array format. Multiple reporter probes may form triple
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Thymine is one of the five bases that form nucleic acids, along with adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. The formula of thymine is C5H6N2O2. Thymine is always paired up with adenine through two hydrogen bonds only in DNA to stabilize the nucleic acid structure. Thymine is not present in RNA. Instead, uracil takes place of thymine and binds with adenine. It is a derivative of pyrimidine and can be derived by methylation of uracil at the 5th carbon, hence the other name of thymine, 5-methyluracil. Uracil takes its place in RNA, which also binds to adenine. Thymine is a single ring planar molecule. Thymine combined with deoxyribose yields deoxythymidine while Thymine with ribose makes thymidine.. Thymine binds with deoxyribose to form the nucleoside deoxythymidine, which is the same thing as thymidine. This compound can be phosphorylated with one, two, or three phosphoric acid groups creating thymidine mono-, di-, or triphosphate, respectively.. ...
23] At time it absolutely was thought that all infectious brokers could be retained by filters and developed with a nutrient medium - this was Portion of the germ idea of disease.[2] In 1898, the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck recurring the experiments and became certain that the filtered Resolution contained a whole new method of infectious agent.[24] He observed that the agent multiplied only in cells that were dividing, but as his experiments did not exhibit that it absolutely was manufactured from particles, he identified as it a contagium vivum fluidum (soluble residing germ) and re-released the word virus. Beijerinck taken care of that viruses were being liquid in character, a idea later discredited by Wendell Stanley, who proved they were particulate.[23] In the same yr Friedrich Loeffler and Paul Frosch handed the first animal virus - agent of foot-and-mouth condition (aphthovirus) - by an identical filter.[twenty five ...
Oku fakaaongai lahi a e polokalama Hielscher Ultrasonics i he ngaue fakafaitoo ke synthesise lelei ai a e molecules pea ke ne fau ha misini ke fakasiisii e ngaahi mea fakafaitoo nanoparticles mo liposomes ha ngaahi mea fakafaitoo, vaitamini, antioxidants, peptides mo ha bioactive e mea koeni. Ke feau e ngaahi fie mau a e kau fakatau, oku ultrasonicators a e ngaahi naunau o e Hielscher mei he fale kumi paanga, kae puke hono nima mo e sea i he homogenizer i ha ngaahi founga maolunga o e ngaahi mea fakafaitoo mo e ultrasonic. Oku i ai ha ultrasonic sonotrodes mo ha kau faiva kehekehe oku nau mau ke fakapapaui oku tokolahi lelei ha fokotuutuu ki hoo ngaohi fakafaitoo. Oku fakaata e he robustness o Hielscher e meangaue ultrasonic a e 24/7 ke ngaue mamafa i he fatongia mo e ngaahi atakai oku femouekina ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 4-{2-amino-6-[(1r)-2,2,2-trifluoro-1-(3-fluoro-4-biphenylyl)ethoxy]-4-pyrimidinyl}-l-phenylalanine (C27H22F4N4O3) from the PQR.
A process for separating a feed gas into at least one product gas includes: (a) providing a gas separation apparatus with at least one adsorption layer including a lithium-exchanged FAU adsorbent having water desorption characteristics, defined by drying curves, similar to those for the corresponding fully sodium-exchanged FAU, a heat of adsorption for carbon dioxide equal to or lower than that for the corresponding fully sodium-exchanged FAU at high loadings of carbon dioxide, and onto which the adsorption layer water and/or carbon dioxide adsorb; (b) feeding into the gas separation apparatus a feed gas including nitrogen, oxygen, and at least one of water and carbon dioxide; and (c) collecting from a product end of the gas separation apparatus at least one product gas containing oxygen.
A locality in the district of Tlalpan, Mexico City, was selected in order to identify the viral agents in children younger than 5 years of age with acute respiratory infection (ARI). A total of 300 children were randomly selected and were included in this study for a period of 13 months. During this period nasopharyngeal exudates were collected for the isolation of viral agents. Monoclonal fluorescent antibodies were used for viral identification after cell culture. Viral infection was detected in 65% of the specimens. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most common virus agent detected. Children required an average of two consultations during the study period. Two high incidence peaks were observed, one during the summer and the other during winter; the most frequent viruses during these seasons were influenza A and RSV, respectively. The largest number of viruses was isolated in the group of children between 1 and 2 years of age and in the group between 4 and 5 years of age. This ...
Learn more about mitochondrial toxicity service using glucose and galactose medium - high quality robust data with rapid turnaround - assay protocol, data and your questions answered.
In the stab-injured spinal cord of GFAP-TK mice not given GCV, we found that all TK-expressing cells also expressed GFAP, and that ,98%, but not all, of GFAP-expressing reactive astrocytes also expressed detectable levels of transgene-derived TK (Fig. 2A-D,G). The inability to detect TK in all GFAP-expressing cells may be attributable to the discontinuous activity of the GFAP gene and differences in the intracellular half-life of the GFAP and TK proteins, as discussed elsewhere (Bush et al., 1999; Imura et al., 2003). We found no evidence for TK expression by cells that did not express GFAP.. To evaluate the degree of astrocyte cell division induced by SCI, we administered BrdU during the first 4 d after injury (Fig. 1A). At 14 d after injury, control mice exhibited many BrdU-labeled cells in tissue immediately adjacent to the stab wound (Fig. 2E,F); most of these BrdU-labeled cells expressed GFAP (Fig. 2H) and TK.. There was no qualitatively detectable difference in the response to SCI in all ...
Siemens Medical Solutions of Malvern, Penn., reported that it has beengranted an Investigational New Drug (IND) exemption to conduct a PhaseI clinical trail of [F-18] 3-fluoro-3-deoxythymidine (FLT) by theU.S. Food and Drug Administration.
eBiochemicals provides information on the 2-[3-[[[3-Cyano-5-(3-fluorophenyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]-2,4-difluorophenoxy]acetic acid(2-(3-(((5-cyano-3-fluoro-[1,1-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl)amino)-2,4-difluorophenoxy)acetic acid): structure, NMR,MS,IR,spectral data, msds, molecular formula, cas, physical and chemical properties, and suppliers.
Lucky Whitehead, who was the best offensive player for FAU last season, said he expects to sign a deal with the Cowboys in the next couple of days.. ...
Learn more about 4-Amino-5-iodo-2-methoxybenzenecarboxylic acid. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
The health seeking behaviour of tuberculosis TB patients, and their beliefs and attitudes with regard to the disease, was studied in 212 Batswana with smear-positive pulmonary TB during 1993/94. There is an apparent resemblance between traditional ideas of disease being caused by pollution breaking of taboos and modern theories of spread via...
9-(4-(18)F-Fluoro-3-[hydroxymethyl]butyl)guanine ((18)F-FHBG) is a sensitive and specific PET reporter probe for imaging the PET reporter genes, herpes simplex 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and its mutant HSV1-sr39tk. (18)F-FHBG has suitable pharmacok
Global academic rankings of FAU can be seen in the table on the right. Measured by the number of top managers in the German economy, FAU ranked 25th in 2019.[36]. In 2017, ARWU ranked FAU 4th in Germany in Engineering/Technology and Computer Sciences, 6th in Germany in Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy and 7th in Germany in Natural Sciences and Mathematics.[37]. QS World University Rankings 2018 ranked FAU as the academic institution that has produced the most widely cited publications in Germany (global 21st).[38] 2017, Reuters ranked FAU as the 50th most innovative university globally (2nd Germany, 6th in Europe).[39] In the Reuters ranking report published in 2019, FAU has been rated as the most innovative university in Germany and as the 2nd in Europe. [40]. In Academic Ranking of World Universities for year 2014, FAU ranked second among German universities in Engineering/Technology and Computer Sciences group for all four ranking parameters TOP, FUN, HiCi and PUB.[41][42][43][44]. ...
cytosolic small ribosomal subunit, extracellular space, intracellular, small ribosomal subunit, RNA binding, structural constituent of ribosome, antibacterial humoral response, antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide, defense response to Gram-positive bacterium, innate immune response in mucosa
Aqueous-phase Heck coupling methodology was developed for direct attachment of butyl acrylate to 5-iodoracil, 5-iodocytosine, 7-iodo-7-deazaadenine, and 7-iodo-7-deazaguanine 2-deoxyribonncleoside 5-O-monophosphates (dNMPs). and 5-O-triphosphates (dNTPs) and compared with the classical approach of phosphorylation of the corresponding modified nucleosides. The 7-substituted 7-deazapurine nucleotides (dA(BA)MP, dA(BA)TP, dG(BA)MP, and dG(BA)TP) were prepared by the direct Heck coupling of nucleotides in good yields (35-55%), whereas the pyrimidine nucleotides reacted. poorly and the corresponding BA-Modified dNTPs were prepared by triphosphorylation of the Modified nucleosides. The. acrylate-modified dN(BA)TPs (N = A, C, and U) were good substrates for DNA polymerases and were used for enzymatic synthesis of acrylate-modified DNA by primer extension, whereas dG(BA)TP was an inhibitor of polymerases. The butyl acrylate group was found to be a useful redox label giving a strong reduction peak at ...
A small group of researchers at Florida Atlantic University is developing a small device that could help detect the Zika virus within just a few minutes
Carl Pelinis surprising departure from Florida Atlantic took another turn Friday, when school officials released sworn affidavits from two people - including a member of Pelinis staff - alleging that...
By the time theyre two, most children have had respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and suffered symptoms no worse than a bad cold. But for some children, especially premature babies and those with underlying health conditions, RSV can lead to pneumonia and bronchitis - which can require hospitalization and have long-term consequences.. A new technique for studying the structure of the RSV virion and the activity of RSV in living cells could help researchers unlock the secrets of the virus, including how it enters cells, how it replicates, how many genomes it inserts into its hosts - and perhaps why certain lung cells escape the infection relatively unscathed. That could provide scientists information they need to develop new antiviral drugs and perhaps even a vaccine to prevent severe RSV infections.. "We want to develop tools that would allow us to get at how the virus really works," said Philip Santangelo, an associate professor in the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at ...
PMID- 29303722 OWN - NLM STAT- MEDLINE DCOM- 20180110 LR - 20180111 IS - 1474-547X (Electronic) IS - 0140-6736 (Linking) VI - 390 IP - 10114 DP - 2018 Dec 23 TI - Concerns about cardiotoxicity in the HERA trial - Authors reply. PG - 2767-2768 LID - S0140-6736(17)31940-2 [pii] LID - 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31940-2 [doi] FAU - Cameron, David A AU - Cameron DA AD - Edinburgh Cancer Centre, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. Electronic address: [email protected] FAU - Gelber, Richard D AU - Gelber RD AD - Edinburgh Cancer Centre, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. FAU - Procter, Marion AU - Procter M AD - Edinburgh Cancer Centre, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. FAU - Suter, Thomas AU - Suter T AD - Edinburgh Cancer Centre, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. LA - eng PT - Letter PT - Comment PL - England TA - Lancet JT - Lancet (London, England) JID - 2985213R RN - 0 (Antineoplastic Agents) RN - P188ANX8CK (Trastuzumab) SB - AIM SB - IM CON - ...
Using a special 3-D printing technique, researchers at FAU will develop the tissue-engineered stent for esophageal cancer using biodegradable elastomeric polymer materials that will make it sufficiently rigid yet flexible enough to expand and contract with the esophagus. This new stent, which will mechanically open the esophagus, also will release the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel to locally treat esophageal cancer.
BACKGROUND: Hypertension in pregnancy is one of the causes of maternal morbidity and mortality is high in addition to cases of bleeding and infection. In Indonesia hypertension in pregnancy is the cause of 30-40% of perinatal deaths. Hemokonsentrasi state is related to blood viscosity and hematocrit is an important determinant of the blood viscosity. Blood viscosity and peripheral vascular resistance affect the blood flow resistance, which has increased in primary hypertension. Careful observation of the several indicators prediction of preeclampsia, such as hematocrit levels can prevent from unwanted circumstances. METHODS: This research is to design interventions penelitiaan pre test - post to determine the relationship between hematocrit levels in preeclampsia before and after childbirth. All data collected old and new patients were evaluated. Pre and post test data is performed using the t test (t-test) and the test data to find the relationship of hematocrit levels with the degree of ...
based on unique biological properties of 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (ara-U). More specifically some of its important ... O-anhydro-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (anhydro-ara-U); and acid-hydrolysis of anhydro-ara-U giving ara-U; and subsequent ...
... deoxy-5-iodo-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil in cardiac cells after adenoviral transfer of the herpesvirus thymidine kinase ...
... arabinofuranosyluracil MeSH D13.570.685.852.176 --- azauridine MeSH D13.570.685.852.250 --- 3-deazauridine MeSH D13.570.685.852 ... arabinofuranosyluracil MeSH D13.570.065.300 --- cytarabine MeSH D13.570.065.300.050 --- ancitabine MeSH D13.570.065.950 --- ...
A Phase I Study of Intravenously Administered FAU (1-(2-Deoxy-2-Fluoro-B-D-arabinofuranosyl) Uracil, NSC#678515) in Patients ...
Arabinofuranosyluracil - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. ... Substance Name: Arabinofuranosyluracil. RN: 3083-77-0. InChIKey: DRTQHJPVMGBUCF-CCXZUQQUSA-N. Note. *. A pyrimidine nucleoside ...
Arabinofuranosyluracil (Ara U) 8. Ganciclovir (Cytovene) 9. Interleukin-3 (Interleukin 3) 10. Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine ...
The design, synthesis and antiviral evaluation of a series of 5-trimethylsilyl-1-β-D-(arabinofuranosyl)uracil phosphoramidate ... The design, synthesis and antiviral evaluation of a series of 5-trimethylsilyl-1-β-D-(arabinofuranosyl)uracil phosphoramidate ...
D-arabinofuranosyluracil-5-stearylphosphate sodium salt was formed as a decomposition product.. Furthermore, in the case where ...
E 55 22halogenovinyl arabinofuranosyluracil and its preparation GB1451299A (en) 1976-09-29. Alkoxycarbonyl-phenylureas their ...
19F NMR Study of the Uptake of 2′-Fluoro-5-methyl-β-l-arabinofuranosyluracil in Erythrocytes: Evidence of Transport by ... 19F NMR Study of the Uptake of 2′-Fluoro-5-methyl-β-l-arabinofuranosyluracil in Erythrocytes: Evidence of Transport by ...
5 -phosphoramidates and 5 -diphosphates of 2 -O-allyl-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil, -cytosine, and -adenine: Inhibition of ...
... d-arabinofuranosyl)uracil (FAU), or 9-(β-d-arabinofuranosyl)-2-fluoroadenine (F-ara-A) into DNA resulted in subsequent ...
Journey of 2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-5-methyl-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (FMAU): from Antiviral Drug to PET Imaging Agent ...
A764000-250mg 3083-77-0 1-β-D-阿糖呋喃脲嘧啶 1-β-D-Arabinofuranosyluracil 250mg ...
Synthesis of 2-fluoro-5-[11C]-methyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil ([11C]-FMAU): a potential nucleoside analog for in vivo ...
... anhydro-1β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (IV). The reaction of a compound of formula IV with a nucleophile will produce a 2- ...
Uptake of radiolabeled 2′-fluoro-2′-deoxy-5-iodo-1-β-d-arabinofuranosyluracil in cardiac cells after adenoviral transfer of the ...
F-fluoro-5-methyl-β-l-arabinofuranosyluracil (l-(18)F-FMAU), and 2-deoxy-2-(18)F-fluoro-5-ethyl-β-d-arabinofuranosyluracil (d-( ...
... more than 80 percent of plasma radioactivity can be accounted for by the inactive metabolite 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (ara- ...
MeSH-major] Arabinofuranosyluracil / analogs & derivatives. Arabinofuranosyluracil / pharmacokinetics. Colorectal Neoplasms / ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-5-fluoro-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 10028-17-8 / ... Title] Distribution of 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl) uracil in mice bearing colorectal cancer xenografts: ... 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl) uracil in mice bearing colorectal cancer xenografts: rationale for therapeutic use ...
... d-arabinofuranosyluracil in the CSF was observed when ara-C was given in the presence of THU (either i.t. or i.v.). No acute ...
... fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl) uracil ((18)F-FAU) in patients with advanced cancer.. METHODS: Fifteen patients were imaged, five ...
based on unique biological properties of 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (ara-U). More specifically some of its important ... O-anhydro-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (anhydro-ara-U); and acid-hydrolysis of anhydro-ara-U giving ara-U; and subsequent ...
... deoxy-5-iodo-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil in cardiac cells after adenoviral transfer of the herpesvirus thymidine kinase ...
... arabinofuranosyluracil MeSH D13.570.685.852.176 --- azauridine MeSH D13.570.685.852.250 --- 3-deazauridine MeSH D13.570.685.852 ... arabinofuranosyluracil MeSH D13.570.065.300 --- cytarabine MeSH D13.570.065.300.050 --- ancitabine MeSH D13.570.065.950 --- ...
β-L-arabinofuranosyluracil (L-18F-FMAU) as the PRP. We identified L-18F-FMAU as a candidate PRP and determined its ...
... fluoro-5-iodo-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil ((18)F-FIAU) and 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-5-ethyl-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil((18) ... This study demonstrated that 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-β-d-arabinofuranosyluracil ([(18)F]FMAU) is a promising PET probe for ...
  • After the distributive phase, more than 80 percent of plasma radioactivity can be accounted for by the inactive metabolite 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (ara-U). Within 24 hours about 80 percent of the administered radioactivity can be recovered in the urine, approximately 90 percent of which is excreted as ara-U. (nih.gov)
  • Bengel FM, Anton M, Avril N, Brill T, Nguyen N, Haubner R, Gleiter E, Gansbacher B, Schwaiger M. Uptake of radiolabeled 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-iodo-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil in cardiac cells after adenoviral transfer of the herpesvirus thymidine kinase gene: the cellular basis for cardiac gene imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • 269. Uptake of radiolabeled 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-iodo-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil in cardiac cells after adenoviral transfer of the herpesvirus thymidine kinase gene: the cellular basis for cardiac gene imaging. (imi-muenchen.de)