Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Permethrin: A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.Eritrea: A country of eastern Africa, west of the Red Sea, bordered west and northwest by SUDAN, and south by ETHIOPIA. Its capital is Asmara.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Pesticide Synergists: Chemicals that, while not possessing inherent pesticidal activity, nonetheless promote or enhance the effectiveness of other pesticides when combined.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Insecticide-Treated Bednets: Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Reunion: One of the Indian Ocean Islands, east of Madagascar. Its capital is Saint-Denis. It was discovered in 1507 by the Portuguese and claimed by France in 1638. It was first colonized in 1662 as Isle de Bourbon but renamed Reunion in 1793. In 1946 it was made an overseas department of France. The name commemorates the reunion of the revolutionaries from Marseilles with the National Guard in Paris in 1792. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1011; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p454; French Embassy)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Larva Migrans: Infections caused by nematode larvae which never develop into the adult stage and migrate through various body tissues. They commonly infect the skin, eyes, and viscera in man. Ancylostoma brasiliensis causes cutaneous larva migrans. Toxocara causes visceral larva migrans.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Allethrin: Synthetic analogs of the naturally occurring insecticides cinerin, jasmolin, and pyrethrin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Dieldrin: An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)Sporozoites: The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Melia azedarach: A plant species of the genus MELIA, family MELIACEAE, which is toxic to insects. The name is very similar to Melia azadirachta (AZADIRACHTA).Piperonyl Butoxide: An insecticide synergist, especially for pyrethroids and ROTENONE.Organothiophosphates: Carbon-containing thiophosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either SULFUR atom, or the OXYGEN atom of the SPO3 core structure.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.AfricaHousing: Living facilities for humans.Feeding Methods: Methods of giving food to humans or animals.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Mosquito Nets: Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane: An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Chenopodium: A plant genus in the CHENOPODIACEAE family.Bites and StingsPlasmodium berghei: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.ColombiaGenetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 22.214.171.124.Fenitrothion: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Malaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genotyping Techniques: Methods used to determine individuals' specific ALLELES or SNPS (single nucleotide polymorphisms).Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.LaunderingAfrica, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Phenylcarbamates: Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Propoxur: A carbamate insecticide.EsterasesLepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.DEET: A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Chironomidae: A family of nonbiting midges, in the order DIPTERA. Salivary glands of the genus Chironomus are used in studies of cellular genetics and biochemistry.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Malathion: A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.BrazilMelanesia: The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
nov., isolated from the larvae of Anopheles arabiensis as members of the family Thorselliaceae fam. nov". Int J Syst Evol ... It was isolated from the midgut of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis from Kenya. This new bacterium was given its name ... isolated from larvae of Anopheles darlingi". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 66 (12): 5211- ... Thorsellia has besides in Anopheles also been found to dominate the gut flora in the mosquito species Culex tarsalis, which is ...
"Physiology of desiccation resistance in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis". American Journal of Tropical Medicine and ... The larvae of P. vanderplanki inhabit rock pools that commonly dry out completely. In response, P. vanderplanki larvae enter an ... This increase in development time is likely a response to the environment, allowing larvae more time to accumulate glycogen, ... Due to its capacity for water replacement and vitrification, the accumulation of trehalose prevents the death of the larvae ...
Anopheles arabiensis Anopheles bwambae Anopheles melas Anopheles merus Anopheles quadriannulatus Anopheles gambiae sensu ... although it is possible for larvae and adult females. The species exhibit different behavioural traits. For example, Anopheles ... The Anopheles gambiae complex or Anopheles gambiae sensu lato was recognized as a species complex only in the 1960s. The A. ... "Anopheles gambiae". VectorBase. "Anopheles gambiae". MetaPathogen. View the anoGam1 genome assembly in the UCSC Genome Browser ...
Taxonomy of Anopheles
Anopheles arabiensis* Patton 1905 Anopheles bwambae White 1985 Anopheles comorensis Brunhes le Goff & Geoffroy 1997 Anopheles ... Kerteszia is a small subgenus found in South America whose larvae have specific ecological requirements; these can only develop ... Anopheles lewisi Ludlow 1920 is a synonym of Anopheles thomasi Shannon 1933. Anopheles lineata Lutz is a synonym of Anopheles ... 2004) Anopheles aruni Sobti 1968 Anopheles confusus Evans & Leeson 1935 Anopheles funestus* Giles 1900 Anopheles funestus-like ...
Sterile insect technique
... example Anopheles arabiensis. Tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) - vector of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock. ... The larvae of these flies invade open wounds and eat into animal flesh, killing infected cattle within 10 days. In the 1950s, ... The onion fly (Delia antiqua) managed in onion production areas in The Netherlands Anopheles mosquito - malaria vector, ...
List of sequenced animal genomes
Anopheles stephensii Anopheles arabiensis (2015) Anopheles quadriannulatus (2015) Anopheles merus (2015) Anopheles melas (2015 ... entomopathogenic nematode that invades larvae of various mosquito species (2013) Trichuris suis, pig-infecting whipworm (2014) ... Anopheles minimus (2015) Anopheles funestus (2015) Anopheles dirus (2015) Anopheles farauti (2015) Anopheles atroparvus (2015) ... Anopheles christyi (2015) Anopheles epiroticus (2015) Anopheles maculatus (2015) Anopheles culicifacies (2015) ...
Hargreaves K, Hunt RH, Brooke BD, Mthembu J, Weeto MM, Awolola TS, Coetzee M (December 2003). "Anopheles arabiensis and An. ... ecological controls such as draining mosquito breeding grounds or introducing fish to eat larvae and indoor residual spraying ( ... arabiensis, close to the area where we previously reported pyrethroid-resistance in the vector An. funestus Giles, indicates an ... Thus far, pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles has not been a major problem. DDT in Australia DDT in New Zealand DDT in the ...
Anopheles - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure
Com tots els mosquits, els Anopheles travessen quatre fases: ou, larva, pupa i adult. Les primeres 3 etapes transcorren en medi ... Anopheles antunesi. *Anopheles apicimacula. *Anopheles apoci. *Anopheles aquasalis. *Anopheles arabiensis. *Anopheles ... Anopheles gambiae és una de les més conegudes a causa del seu paper important en la transmissió del Plasmodium falciparum. ... Anopheles és un gènere de dípters nematòcers de la família Cuculidae. N'hi ha aproximadament 400 espècies, de les quals 30-40 ...
Sterile insect technique
Anopheles mosquito - malaria vector, example Anopheles arabiensis.. *Tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) - vector of sleeping ... The larvae of these flies invade open wounds and eat into animal flesh, killing infected cattle within 10 days. In the 1950s, ... "Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae powder as a larval diet ingredient for mass-rearing Aedes mosquitoes". Parasite ...
Hargreaves K, Hunt RH, Brooke BD, Mthembu J, Weeto MM, Awolola TS, Coetzee M (December 2003). "Anopheles arabiensis and An. ... ecological controls such as draining mosquito breeding grounds or introducing fish to eat larvae and indoor residual spraying ( ... arabiensis, close to the area where we previously reported pyrethroid-resistance in the vector An. funestus Giles, indicates an ... Killeen GF, Fillinger U, Kiche I, Gouagna LC, Knols BG (October 2002). "Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: lessons ...
DDT, a enciclopedia libre
Os autores do estudo concluíron que o feito de "atopar resistencia ao DDT no vector Anopheles arabiensis, preto da área na que ... como a drenaxe das zonas húmidas onde se desenvolven as larvas do mosquito ou introducindo peixes para que coman as larvas e a ... Hargreaves K, Hunt RH, Brooke BD, Mthembu J, Weeto MM, Awolola TS, Coetzee M (December 2003). "Anopheles arabiensis and An. ... Polo de agora, a resistencia aos piretroides en Anopheles non supón un problema de importancia. ...
Effects of global warming on human health
Afrane, Y.A., Zhou, G., Lawson B.W. (October 2007). "Life-table analysis of Anopheles arabiensis in western Kenya highlands: ... When temperature rises, the larvae take a shorter time to mature and, consequently, there is a greater capacity to produce more ... Anopheles mosquitoes in highland areas are to experience a larger shift in their metabolic rate due to the climate change. This ... Anopheles mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of diseases in the world, such as, malaria, lymphatic ...
Variation in metabolic rate of Anopheles gambiae and A. arabiensis in a Sahelian village | Journal of Experimental Biology
Featured article - Xenopus larvae swivel reflex depends on image contrast. Many animals stabilize their vision by swivelling ... 2006). Water quality and immature of the M and S forms of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis in a Malian village. ... 2005). Physiology of desiccation resistance in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73, 553-559. ... In the Sahel, the Anopheles gambiae complex consists of Anopheles arabiensis and the M and S molecular forms of A. gambiae ...
Isolation and characterization of a temperature-sensitive lethal strain of Anopheles arabiensis for SIT-based application |...
arabiensis were pooled and reared in the insectary. Larvae were reared at 29 ± 1°C and about 70±10% relative humidity and fed ... Anopheles arabiensis mosquito colony. Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes were collected in Mayo-Oulo (9°46N; 13°44E), a locality ... arabiensis, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae are the major vectors . Anopheles arabiensis is a temporary pool breeding mosquito ... Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles amharicus, new members of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Zootaxa. 2013;3619:246-74.CrossRef ...
The Effect of Various Plant Products on Mosquitoes Larvae Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) ...
The Effect of Various Plant Products on Mosquitoes Larvae Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) ... A. KEHAIL, Mutaman A.; ABDALLA, Abdalla I.. The Effect of Various Plant Products on Mosquitoes Larvae Anopheles arabiensis and ... The results revealed that, for Anopheles larvae, and according to the LD50 values, the products can be ranked from the more ... Asclepiadaceae) in controlling Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Saudi J. Biol. Sci., 16(2): 95-100. ...
Thorselliaceae - Wikipedia
nov., isolated from the larvae of Anopheles arabiensis as members of the family Thorselliaceae fam. nov". Int J Syst Evol ... It was isolated from the midgut of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis from Kenya. This new bacterium was given its name ... isolated from larvae of Anopheles darlingi". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 66 (12): 5211- ... Thorsellia has besides in Anopheles also been found to dominate the gut flora in the mosquito species Culex tarsalis, which is ...
Walborg Thorsell - Wikipedia
Desiccation tolerance as a function of age, sex, humidity and temperature in adults of the African malaria vectors Anopheles...
2005). Physiology of desiccation resistance in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73, 553-559. ... 2009). 2La chromosomal inversion enhances thermal tolerance of Anopheles gambiae larvae. Malar. J. 8, 147. ... For these reasons, the desiccation tolerance of Anopheles arabiensis Patton and Anopheles funestus Giles males and females of ... 2012). Thermal limits of wild and laboratory strains of two African malaria vector species, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles ...
Science Clips - Volume 10, Issue 8, March 6, 2018
Anopheles squamosus Theobald, Anopheles rufipes (Gough), and Anopheles ardensis (Theobald). Larvae of An. funestus were ... were Anopheles arabiensis Patton, sampled from hoofprint zones in the rainy season. Other species collected were Anopheles ... coustani Laveran, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles, Anopheles funestus Giles, and Anopheles rivulorum Leeson, Anopheles pharoensis ... To study this association, the perimeters of 31 microdam impoundments in western Kenya were sampled for Anopheles larvae in ...
Evaluation of active ingredients and larvicidal activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against Anopheles gambiae (sensu...
arabiensis larvae. The standard WHO guideline for larvicides evaluation was used, and the GC-MS machine was used for active ... The mortality at different concentrations of cinnamon and clove post-exposure for wild and laboratory-reared larvae were dosage ... Mortality effect of clove and cinnamon essential oils against wild and laboratory-reared larvae had variations indicated by ... The essential oils showed a larvicidal effect which was concentration-dependent for both laboratory and wild collected larvae. ...
Common Epidemiology of Rickettsia felis Infection and Malaria, Africa - Volume 19, Number 11-November 2013 - Emerging...
The Anopheles arabiensis mosquito larvae were collected from breeding sites in Mariste, Dakar. The pooled larvae were ... The vectors for malaria are mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles that breed in warm and humid areas (15). Malaria is particularly ... arabiensis mosquitoes collected were positive for R. felis, including 1 male, suggesting transovarian transmission. One Aedes ... These findings support the hypothesis of the role of Anopheles in the transmission of R. felis; this hypothesis should be ...
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | OVIPOSITION BEHAVIOR OF FEMALE ANOPHELES GAMBIAE IN WESTERN KENYA...
Among 42 aquatic habitats, 16 had A. gambiae larvae. Two hundred fifty larvae and 58 adults were genotyped using nine ... From a likelihood analysis, it was estimated that 56.6% of females had larvae in multiple habitats. These results substantiate ... The pairwise genetic relatedness of A. gambiae larvae per habitat ranged from −0.4112 to 0.9375, indicating that full siblings ... microsatellite markers to infer sibling relationship between the larvae and maternity between the females and larvae. ...
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | VECTOR ABUNDANCE AND MALARIA TRANSMISSION IN RICE-GROWING VILLAGES IN...
This may partly explain why malaria prevalence is low in irrigated villages with high Anopheles density. ... Interspecific competition between sibling species larvae of Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae. Med Vet Entomol 14 : 165-170. ... Density-dependent development of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in artificial habitats. J Med Entomol 39 : 162- ... The relationship between female body size and survival rate of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Ethiopia. Med Vet ...
Abundance and dynamics of anopheline larvae in a highland malarious area of south-central Ethiopia
These were: Anopheles cinereus (32.5%), An. arabiensis (31.4%), An. chrysti (23%), An. demeilloni (12.2%), An. pretoriensis ( ... arabiensis and An. pharoensis), along streams in Butajira. Larvae of An. arabiensis were found in streams at 2200m.a.s.l. This ... arabiensis larvae was correlated positively with larval habitat temperature (r = 0.33, p,0.05) and negatively with depth of ... Methods: A study of the abundance and dynamics of Anopheles larvae was undertaken at different sites and altitudes in Butajira ...
WHO EMRO | Role of some environmental factors on the breeding activity of Anopheles arabiensis in New Halfa town, eastern Sudan...
Role of some environmental factors on the breeding activity of Anopheles arabiensis in New Halfa town, eastern Sudan ... ABSTRACT: Anopheles arabiensis breeding was studied during March 1999-June 2000 in New Halfa town. Of 3642 anopheline larvae ... 30.45 larvae/10 dips). For the 2 dry seasons mean larvae density was low (13.10 larvae/10 dips) (Table 1 and Figure 1). ... Role of some environmental factors on the breeding activity of Anopheles arabiensis in New Halfa town, eastern Sudan ...
Larval Habitat Diversity and Ecology of Anopheline Larvae in Eritrea | RTI
Eight anopheline species were identified with Anopheles arabiensis predominating ... Studies on the spatial distribution of anopheline mosquito larvae were conducted in 302 villages over two transmission seasons ... arabiensis was found in five of the six aquatic habitats found positive for anopheline larvae during the survey. Anopheles ... Eight anopheline species were identified with Anopheles arabiensis predominating in most of the habitats. Other species ...
Volume 31 Issue 2 | Journal of Vector Ecology
Overall, 21,325 Anopheles larvae were collected, of which 91.9% were 1st and 2nd instars and 8.1% were 3rd and 4th instars. An ... arabiensis, the predominant species, was most abundant over a three-week period after transplanting. Low densities of larvae ... Anopheles larvae were present in 50.7% and 42.4% of the sites investigated during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. ... Anopheles larvae live in pools of stagnant water and adult fitness may be correlated with the nutritional conditions under ...
WHO EMRO | Insecticide susceptibility status of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Khartoum city, Sudan: differences...
Insecticide susceptibility status of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Khartoum city, Sudan: differences between urban ... Mosquito specimens were collected from the field as larvae and pupae using scoops, pipettes and collection nets . These were ... arabiensis for deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion.. Sensibilité du vecteur du paludisme Anopheles arabiensis aux ... Cytogenetics of the Anopheles gambiae complex in Sudan, with special reference to An. arabiensis: relationships with East and ...
The clinical burden of malaria in Nairobi: a historical review and contemporary audit | Malaria Journal | Full Text
Anopheles arabiensis larvae have been identified extensively across the city [Noboru Mikanawa, personal communication; 28, 56 ... Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Geospatial Health. 2009, 3: 189-210.View ArticlePubMed ... representing sub-optimal conditions for sporogony in the Anopheles . The cold seasonal temperature in Nairobi is thought to ...
Advanced Catalog Search
World Mosquito Day 2020: The Spread of Anopheles stephensi and the Fight Against the World's Deadliest Animal
arabiensis, prefer rural habitats.. In Djibouti, since the discovery of An. stephensi, there has been a startling increase in ... arabiensis means that public health workers may need to carry out more intensive mosquito control in urban areas. ... The worrying spread of Anopheles stephensi to Africa. There are more than 3,000 types of mosquitoes-not all created equal. Some ... In 2012, routine public health tracking activities first detected that a mosquito species called Anopheles stephensi (An. ...
Diptera - Trip Database
As members of the Anopheles gambiae complex, which contains several major malaria vector species including An. arabiensis, are ... Moreover, as BSF larvae accumulate high quantities of nutrients during their growth, they are valued because of their potential ... Mitochondrial variation in subpopulations of Anopheles balabacensis Baisas in Sabah, Malaysia (Diptera: Culicidae). Anopheles ... It is the dominant Anopheles species found in Kudat Division where it is responsible for all the cases of P. knowlesi. However ...
Evaluation of Halogenated Coumarins for Antimosquito Properties
Anopheles arabiensis,/i,, a zoophilic mosquito that is one of the dominant vectors of malaria in Africa. Five compounds exerted ... Mortality of Anopheles arabiensis larvae exposed to coumarins and halogenated coumarins at 4 g/mL and their negative (acetone) ... The Anopheles arabiensis used were from a colonized strain from Zimbabwe which had been reared according to the WHO (1975) ... thiazole analogues against Anopheles arabiensis," European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 65, pp. 295-303, 2013. View at ...
Daily temperature profiles in and around Western Kenyan larval habitats of Anopheles gambiae as related to egg mortality |...
Thus, eggs can experience temperatures more wide-ranging and lethal than those experienced by larvae or pupae confined within ... Anopheles gambiae eggs are more frequently found on soil around puddle habitats of the larvae, than on the water surface itself ... gambiae s. s., two were Anopheles arabiensis, and two were unknown. Therefore, eggs used in this study were overwhelmingly An. ... Anopheles gambiae eggs are more frequently found on soil around puddle habitats of the larvae, than on the water surface itself ...
DiVA - Sökresultat
Results: Anopheles arabiensis comprised 54.0% of larvae and 25.6% of adults collected in 2010, but was absent in all previous ... Finding the natural source of this compound might help to elucidate why Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis prefer to ... Methods: Data were used from a dip-sampling study for Anopheles larvae in Ethiopia to evaluate the effect of six factors ... First report of an exophilic Anopheles arabiensis population in Bissau City, Guinea-Bissau: recent introduction or sampling ...
The larvicidal effects of black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.) and piperine against insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of...
Anopheles larvae drawn from several laboratory-reared insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of Anopheles arabiensis, An ... Larvae were fed with mixtures of standard larval food and either ground black pepper or piperine in different proportions. ... a Anopheles arabiensis strains. b Anopheles gambiae (GAH& TONGS) and An. coluzzii (SUA) strains. c Anopheles quadriannulatus. d ... Mean mortalities of laboratory-reared Anopheles larvae 48 h after being fed powdered piperine. The dose value represents the ...
Urban Health Bulletin, January 2010 (11 studies) | Urban Health Updates
Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were found breeding in polluted water and 95% of the larvae were identified as An. arabiensis ... Anopheles arabiensis is predominantly preferring humans as blood meal source, thus, showing ecological flexibility within the ... INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Anopheles gambiae s.l., malaria vector is present in Nairobi and it breeds in polluted water. ... Out of this, 176,910 were Culex fatigans and 83 were Anopheles gambiae s.l. Mosquito population peaked during the long rains in ...
Effect of Aristolochia bracteolate Retz on the anopheles larvae - Alhussein Abdalrhman - 9786134905312 - Schweitzer Online
Pods of Aristolochia bracteolate had the greatest larvicidal effect against Anopheles arabiensis larvae with (100%) mortality ... mortality in larvae , seeds with (78.6%) mortality in larvae and stems with (72%) mortality in larvae. Leafs of Aristolochia ... of the plant Aristolochia bracteolate species should be considered as promising larvicides against Anopheles arabiensis larvae. ... emergence of adults and sex ratio of the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Food material chosen were ...
Pyrethroid resistance in a major African malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis from Mamfene, northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Larvae from each family were reared through to adults, and the wild parental specimens preserved on silica gel for further ... Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector in southern Africa, second only to Anopheles funestus. Historically, it has been ... 1. Hargreaves K., Hunt R.H., Brooke B.D., Mthembu J., Weeto M.M., Awolola T.S. and Coetzee M. (2003). Anopheles arabiensis and ... Anopheles arabiensis showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin based on the WHO11 recommendation which states that a 98 100 ...
In vivo antimalarial activity of the crude leaf extract and solvent fractions of Croton macrostachyus Hocsht. (Euphorbiaceae)...
Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors | BMC Genomics | Full Text
Proteomic and immunoblot analyses performed on salivary gland extracts from four Anopheles species (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis ... arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. funestus) and Nyssorhynchus subgenus (An. albimanus and An. darlingi) displayed a higher ... This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the ... The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined. In silico analysis of ...
A maleness gene in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae | Science
... coding potential of Yob by comparing its sequence to PCR-isolated orthologous sequences from Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles ... 2D). Transfection experiments in larvae suggest that Yob exerts the same effect on dsx in vivo (fig. S5). This confirms that ... oskar gene expression in the vector mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti. Insect Mol. Biol. 15, 363-372 (2006). doi: ... Identification of sex-specific transcripts of the Anopheles gambiae doublesex gene. J. Exp. Biol. 208, 3701-3709 (2005). doi: ...
Mosquito larvaeCulicidaeCulexFunestusInstarPopulationsSpeciesColuzziiSusceptibility status of Anopheles arabiensisMethodsAdultPlasmodiumPositive for anopheline larvaePattonAdultsInsecticidesMalaria mosquito Anopheles gambiaeStephensiEggsLaboratory-rearedAbstractD'Anopheles arabiensisHabitatDeltamethrinSusceptibleMajor malariaOvipositionVector of malariaAedes AegyptiLarvicidalStrainsMortalityPharoensisStrainBendiocarbSeasonsAfricaKhartoumDifferencesDensityKenya
- Some properties of Thorsellia suggest that they are adapted to the mosquito guts, they can accept an alkaline pH, which is found in mosquito larvae and they grow faster in blood culture. (wikipedia.org)
- Spatial distribution and habitat characterization of anopheline mosquito larvae in western Kenya. (ajtmh.org)
- Studies on the spatial distribution of anopheline mosquito larvae were conducted in 302 villages over two transmission seasons in Eritrea. (rti.org)
- Methods: Mosquito larvae were collected in 20 sites of Tanzania mainland in 2015. (rti.org)
- These experiments provide insight into the efficiency of specific natural predators against mosquito larvae. (beds.ac.uk)
- Anopheline mosquito larvae and pupae were collected from possible larval habitats in nine sentinel sites using standard collection methods and reared to adult in the insectary to conduct WHO-bioassays. (sustech.edu)
- methods Mosquito larvae were collected in 2005 before (mid June), during (mid August) and at the end (early October) of the cotton spraying programme. (cirad.fr)
- Results: Small size (15-20 cm) C. gariepinus fish consumed greater number of mosquito larvae than the large size fish (25-40 cm) in the multivariate regression model (β = 13.36, 95 % CI = 4.57, 22.15). (nebraska.edu)
- Amount of supplementary fish food did not cause significant differences in the number of mosquito larvae consumed by the fish among different groups. (nebraska.edu)
- C. gariepinus was observed to feed on mosquito larvae under laboratory and semi-field conditions. (nebraska.edu)
- A total of two thousand, three hundred and nineteen (2319) mosquito larvae were collected and subsequently reared to adults. (wordpress.com)
- israelensis serotype h-14 against mosquito larvae with particular reference to aedes aegypti. (liverpool.ac.uk)
- Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). (edu.sd)
- ABSTRACT: Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of quality and quantity of certain food materials on the development of larvae, emergence of adults and sex ratio of the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Say (Diptera: Culicidae). (schweitzer-online.de)
- According to WHO, populations of Anopheles arabiensis Paton (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Gezira state, central Sudan, produced strains showing resistance to a wide range of insecticides. (dipterajournal.com)
- A user friendly method to assess Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) vector fitness: fecundity. (unicam.it)
- Anopheles is a genus of mosquito ( Culicidae ). (infonet-biovision.org)
- Amer A, Mehlhorn H (2006a) Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culicidae). (springer.com)
- Amerasan D, Nataraj T, Murugan K, Madhiyazhagan P, Panneerselvam C, Nicoletti M, Benelli G (2015) Myco-synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Metarhizium anisopliae against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). (springer.com)
- Balkew M, Ibrahim M, Koekemoer LL, Brooke BD, Engers H (2010) Insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) from villages in central, northern and south west Ethiopia and detection of kdr mutation. (springer.com)
- Larvicidal potentialities of 20 different plants from Wad Medani against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. (edu.sd)
- Thorsellia has besides in Anopheles also been found to dominate the gut flora in the mosquito species Culex tarsalis, which is a vector of among other things, West Nile virus and encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
- The coumarin derivative pachyrrhizine, a compound from tubers of Neorautanenia mitis , showed larvicidal and adulticidal activities against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus Say that were comparable to deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin, two standard mosquitocides [ 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Among the three mosquito genera, namely Anopheles , Aedes, and Culex , a well-established chromosome-based mapping technique has been developed only for Anopheles , whose members possess readable polytene chromosomes 1 . (jove.com)
- From the results, we estimated the degree of sensibility of the larva populations of Culex pipiens which have proved heterogeneous in partial tolerance in Bacillus thuringiensis for the populations of the sensitive artificial and homogeneous the deposits sites for those stemming from the breeding. (scirp.org)
- For these reasons, the desiccation tolerance of Anopheles arabiensis Patton and Anopheles funestus Giles males and females of three different ages was assessed under three combinations of temperature and humidity. (biologists.org)
- Although A. arabiensis is often considered to be the more arid-adapted of the two species, it showed lower survival times and higher WLR than A. funestus . (biologists.org)
- 1 Following a major upsurge of malaria cases in 1999/2000 and the detection of pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus, 2 DDT was re-introduced in 2001 and a marked reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality was recorded. (scielo.org.za)
- In total, 1,751 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 2,784 Anopheles funestus Giles were identified. (ac.ke)
- Anopheles funestus larvae were associated with larger, semipermanent bodies of water containing aquatic vegetation and algae. (ac.ke)
- Other important Anopheles vectors in sub Saharan Africa are Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis . (infonet-biovision.org)
- A total of 3,957 third and fourth instar larvae were collected from the three localities, and they represented ten species of anophelines. (uib.no)
- When each larval instar was subjected to predation, third instar larvae were predated at the highest rate. (beds.ac.uk)
- The LC50 values calculated were 403.65, 445.66 and 498.88ppm against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of An. (uofk.edu)
- 50% of adult emergence inhibition (EI50) were 374.97 and 1180.32ppm against 3rd instar larvae of An. (uofk.edu)
- Eggs hatchability was monitored twice daily until no more first instar larvae emerged. (biomedcentral.com)
- arabiensis instar larvae (mean 50, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 29-85) as the ponds that had aged 4 days (mean = 24, 95% CI = 14-42) and 17 days (mean = 20, 95% CI: 12-34). (diva-portal.org)
- The expression of trypsin-3 and phosrestin II was higher in the first and second instar larvae as compared with that in adults. (geneticsmr.org)
- Probit regression analysis was used for LC 50 and LC 95 calculations while a t-test was used to test for significant differences between laboratory-reared and wild larvae populations in each concentration of plant extract. (biomedcentral.com)
- Blaustein and Chase [ 7 ] found that predator and larvae associations are likely to reduce the mosquito populations and thus could be an effective management tool for their control. (beds.ac.uk)
- arabiensis from Khartoum North area was resistant to most insecticides used more than populations from Khartoum and Omdurman areas. (sustech.edu)
- arabiensis populations in Khartoum. (sustech.edu)
- Forest populations of the afro-tropical malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae have been shown to adapt to historically unsuitable larval habitats polluted with decaying organic matter that are found in densely populated urban agglomerates of Cameroon. (biomedcentral.com)
- Objective To explore temporal variation in insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations to the four chemical groups of insecticides used in public health and agriculture, in close match with the large-scale cotton spraying programme implemented in the cotton-growing area of North Cameroon. (cirad.fr)
- Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) consists of several morphologically cryptic species throughout sub-Saharan Africa. (biologists.org)
- Eight anopheline species were identified with Anopheles arabiensis predominating in most of the habitats. (rti.org)
- This study suggests that, the pods of the plant Aristolochia bracteolate species should be considered as promising larvicides against Anopheles arabiensis larvae. (schweitzer-online.de)
- In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes) from several Anopheles species were compared using in silico analysis and proteomics. (biomedcentral.com)
- The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined. (biomedcentral.com)
- displayed a higher degree of similarity compared to salivary proteins from closely related Anopheles species. (biomedcentral.com)
- This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. (biomedcentral.com)
- The involvement of these proteins as antigenic candidates for genus-, subgenus- or species-specific immunological evaluation of individual exposure to Anopheles bites is discussed. (biomedcentral.com)
- Several mosquito species of the Anopheles genus are vectors of Plasmodium parasites, the causal agents of malaria. (biomedcentral.com)
- Molecular assay were used to determine distribution of Anopheles gambiae sub-species. (rti.org)
- Results: Anopheles arabiensis was the dominant malaria specie in the country, accounting for 52% of the sibling species identified, while An. (rti.org)
- arabiensis was also a dominant species in Kilombero and Kondoa sites, both were resistant to permethrin and deltamethrin with significant activity levels of oxidase enzymes. (rti.org)
- We estimate the impact of the products on the vectorial capacity of the given Anopheles species using an existing mathematical model. (bvsalud.org)
- These experiments were designed to evaluate the eggs hatchability in habitats with late larvae instars of the same species (experimental) or no larvae at all (control). (biomedcentral.com)
- Anopheles gambiae is one of the best known, because of its predominant role in the transmission of the deadly species - Plasmodium falciparum . (infonet-biovision.org)
- Some species of Anopheles also can serve as the vectors for canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis , the Filariidae Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi , and viruses like the one that is the cause of O'nyong'nyong fever. (infonet-biovision.org)
- World wide several hundred species assigned to the genus Anopheles have been identified. (infonet-biovision.org)
- arabiensis was clear for insecticides used in different sentinel sites, the seasonal variation for the susceptibility status in this species did not follow a clear pattern. (sustech.edu)
- arabiensis collected from three out of four sites, no kdr or G119S mutations were detected in concomitance with malaria parasites infections in this species. (sustech.edu)
- About 500 different species of Anopheles exist, up to 60 of which transmit the disease. (biomedcentral.com)
- The speciation model of suppressed recombination has recently been tested by gene and DNA sequence comparisons between humans and chimpanzees, between Drosophila species, and between species related to Anopheles gambiae , the vector of malignant malaria in Africa. (pnas.org)
- Anopheles darlingi transmits the Plasmodium species of human malaria across South America, but the species is especially important as vector of malaria in the Amazonian countries. (geneticsmr.org)
- They were identified up to species level, including Anopheles gambiae (14.78%), An. (wordpress.com)
- The mosquito Anopheles arabiensis (a member of the Anopheles gambiae species complex) is an efficient vector of malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. (matende.org)
- After rearing larvae to adults, and comparing the number of males and females produced by infected and non-infected females, they determined that there is no sex ratio distortion caused by this species. (matende.org)
- The two CTLMA2 haplotypes, which are distinguished by fixed amino acid differences near the predicted peptide cleavage site, are also segregating in the sister species A. gambiae ("S form") and A. arabiensis . (g3journal.org)
- Genes encoding the Imd pathway exhibit high rates of amino acid divergence between Anopheles species but also display elevated amino acid diversity that is consistent with relaxed purifying selection. (g3journal.org)
- Both belong to the Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) species complex, namely A. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles arabiensis. (ac.ke)
- Adults of A. gambiae s.l. were sampled from inside houses along the transect from 2003 to 2009, as were larvae from nearby aquatic habitats, providing data over a nearly 40 year period of the relative abundance of the two species. (ac.ke)
- Relative proportions of A. gambiae s.s. and A. arabiensis were determined for each stage by identifying species by the polymerase chain reaction method. (ac.ke)
- Parity and malaria infection rates were lower in both species in Asembo (high bed net use) compared to Seme (low bed net use), but host choice did not vary within species in both communities (predominantly cattle for A. arabiensis, humans for A. gambiae s.s. (ac.ke)
- The increased bed net coverage likely caused a mass effect on the composition of the A. gambiae s.l. species complex, resulting in the observed proportionate increase in A. arabiensis compared to its closely related sibling species, A. gambiae s.s. (ac.ke)
- arabiensis in Antula, a suburb of Bissau city, the capital of Guinea Bissau, where high levels of hybridization between Anopheles coluzzii and An. (jove.com)
- The malaria vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles coluzzii are widely distributed in sub- Saharan Africa, the region with the highest malaria burden in the tropics. (edu.et)
- Hidalgo K, Montazeau C, Siaussat D, Braman V, Trabalon M, Simard F, Renault D, Dabire RK, Mouline K (2018) Distinct physiological, biochemical and morphometric adjustments in the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and A. coluzzii as means to survive dry season conditions in Burkina Faso. (ird.fr)
Susceptibility status of Anopheles arabiensis2
- A baseline survey was carried out in Khartoum city, Sudan, during September-November 2007, to map the insecticide susceptibility status of Anopheles arabiensis and to examine the correlation with insecticide usage in urban agriculture. (who.int)
- This study was conducted in Khartoum state during March 2011 to February 2014 to assess the susceptibility status of Anopheles arabiensis the malaria vector to different classes of insecticides in Khartoum state. (sustech.edu)
- Methods: A study of the abundance and dynamics of Anopheles larvae was undertaken at different sites and altitudes in Butajira from July 2008 to June 2010. (uib.no)
- The malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis exhibits greater behavioural and ecological plasticity than the other major vectors of the Anopheles gambiae complex, which presents challenges for major control methods. (jove.com)
- Methods Data of the relative abundance of adult A. gambiae s.s. and A. arabiensis sampled from inside houses were obtained from the literature from 1970 to 2002 for sites west of Kisumu, Kenya, to the region of Asembo ca. 50 km from the city. (ac.ke)
- The adult stage is when the female Anopheles mosquito acts as malaria vector. (infonet-biovision.org)
- Anopheline larvae and pupae were collected from open water bodies in December 2013 and April 2014 and reared until adult emergence. (springer.com)
- Figure 4: The main morphological features of an adult female Anopheles mosquito. (gii.co.jp)
- We analyzed the expression of trypsin-3 and phosrestin II genes implicated to feeding and resistance to insecticides, immune response and sensory antenna mechanisms, respectively, of larvae and adult of A. darlingi, through quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). (geneticsmr.org)
- ou , larva , pupa i adult. (wikipedia.org)
- Anopheles arabiensis adult female. (matende.org)
- Therefore, new and innovative tools to reduce Plasmodium transmission are in need and this situation raised considerable interest in using sterile insect technique (SIT) against human pest insects, particularly Anopheles malaria vectors. (springer.com)
- Anopheles darlingi is the most anthropophilic mosquito related to Plasmodium infection of malaria, causing significant morbidity and mortality in South America. (geneticsmr.org)
- N'hi ha aproximadament 400 espècies , de les quals 30-40 transmeten cinc espècies diferents de paràsits del gènere Plasmodium , que causen la malària que afecta els humans en àrees endèmiques. (wikipedia.org)
- Anopheles gambiae és una de les més conegudes a causa del seu paper important en la transmissió del Plasmodium falciparum . (wikipedia.org)
- Data of blood host choice, parity rate, and infection rate for Plasmodium falciparum in A. gambiae s.s. and A. arabiensis were obtained for a sample from Asembo and Seme from 2005. (ac.ke)
Positive for anopheline larvae1
- Two hundred fifty larvae and 58 adults were genotyped using nine microsatellite markers to infer sibling relationship between the larvae and maternity between the females and larvae. (ajtmh.org)
- Out of 500 adults subjected to PCR analysis 358 (71.6%) were Anopheles gambiae s.s., 127 (25.4%) An. (ac.ke)
- Adults emerging from wild-collected larvae were exposed to 0.05% lambda-cyhalothrin, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 4% DDT, 4% dieldrin, 0.1% bendiocarb, 0.1% propoxur, 0.25% pirimiphos-methyl and 5% malathion. (eprints.org)
- The collection sites of larvae and wild adults were marked using Global Positioning System (GPS). (sustech.edu)
- Au début de l'étude, une enquête a été menée dans la ville de Khartoum (Soudan), de septembre à novembre 2007, pour cartographier la sensibilité d'Anopheles arabiensis aux insecticides et examiner la corrélation de cette sensibilité avec l'utilisation des insecticides dans l'agriculture urbaine. (who.int)
- Furthermore, insecticides resistance genes (kdr, AChE) in concomitance with infection of Anopheles arabiensis the vector of malaria were studied. (sustech.edu)
- arabiensis were exposed to insecticides. (sustech.edu)
- arabiensis the main malaria vector in different sentinel sites which categorized as urban and periurban areas in the three administrative areas in Khartoum showed multiple resistance to most insecticides used. (sustech.edu)
- In accordance with World Health becoming a major obstacle to malaria arabiensis to 8 different insecticides. (who.int)
Malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae1
- Thus, eggs can experience temperatures more wide-ranging and lethal than those experienced by larvae or pupae confined within puddles. (biomedcentral.com)
- Secondly, the eggs of ANO IPCL1 require treatment with dieldrin to allow complete elimination of female L1 larvae from the production line. (beds.ac.uk)
- We investigated the hatchability rates of freshly laid Anopheles gambiae s.s. eggs in presence of third instars larvae. (biomedcentral.com)
- These experiments were conducted using 30 eggs in larval densities of 20, 60 and 100 larvae in microcosms. (biomedcentral.com)
- Freshly laid eggs of An.gambiae s.s. were washed in microcosms containing larvae of third instars in different three densities (20, 60 and 100) and likewise in control microcosms (without larvae). (biomedcentral.com)
- The numbers of first instars larvae were recorded daily and lost eggs were considered preyed upon by third instars. (biomedcentral.com)
- Eggs hatchability in this study was larvae density dependent. (biomedcentral.com)
- The present study explored the relative attractiveness of similar artificial ponds (0.8 m(2)) aged at varying lengths prior to opening in such a way that wild Anopheles arabiensis could choose between ponds that were freshly set up, or were aged 4 or 17 days old, to lay eggs. (diva-portal.org)
- Larvae hatch from the eggs, and pass through 4 stages. (infonet-biovision.org)
- So called larvae hatch from the eggs, start to take up nutrients and pass through four larval stages before undergoing transformation to the pupal stage. (infonet-biovision.org)
- Mortality effect of clove and cinnamon essential oils against wild and laboratory-reared larvae had variations indicated by their LC 50 and LC 95 values. (biomedcentral.com)
- The mortality at different concentrations of cinnamon and clove post-exposure for wild and laboratory-reared larvae were dosage-dependent and were higher for cinnamon than for clove essential oils. (biomedcentral.com)
- Mean mortalities of laboratory-reared Anopheles larvae 48 h after being fed powdered piperine. (biomedcentral.com)
- Habitat characteristics of Anopheles gambiae s.s. larvae in a Kenyan highland. (ajtmh.org)
- This study describes the distribution, breeding habitat and monthly dynamics of anopheline larvae in Butajira, a highland area in south-central Ethiopia. (uib.no)
- Anopheles larvae were sampled predominantly from stream edges and streambed pools, with samples from this habitat type representing 91.2% (n = 9481) of the total anopheline larval collection in the spatial distribution survey. (rti.org)
- For each habitat, eight environmental variables were recorded and a sample of anopheline larvae was collected for identification. (ac.ke)
- Anopheles arabiensis oviposition site selection in response to habitat persistence and associated physicochemical parameters, bacteria and volatile profiles. (diva-portal.org)
- arabiensis for deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion. (who.int)
- arabiensis, which was resistant to both pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin), and pirimiphos-methyl, and had significant elevated levels of GSTs, non-specific esterases, and oxidase enzymes. (rti.org)
- arabiensis due to DDT 4%, permethrin 0.75% and deltamethrin 0.05% were observed between the sentinel sites. (sustech.edu)
Vector of malaria1
- The essential oils showed a larvicidal effect which was concentration-dependent for both laboratory and wild collected larvae. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the present study halogenated coumarins (3-mono/dibromo acetyl, 6-halogenated coumarin analogues) were screened for larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent properties against Anopheles arabiensis , a zoophilic mosquito that is one of the dominant vectors of malaria in Africa. (hindawi.com)
- Pods of Aristolochia bracteolate had the greatest larvicidal effect against Anopheles arabiensis larvae with (100%) mortality in larvae, followed by roots with (90.6%) mortality in larvae , seeds with (78.6%) mortality in larvae and stems with (72%) mortality in larvae. (schweitzer-online.de)
- In this paper, we report the development and evaluation of an Anopheles arabiensis temperature-sensitive lethal (tsl) strain towards its potential use for the development of a genetic sexing strain (GSS). (springer.com)
- From F4 to F8, a tsl strain was isolated and established by screening L1 larvae at 41°C for 3 hours. (springer.com)
- To study this association, the perimeters of 31 microdam impoundments in western Kenya were sampled for Anopheles larvae in three zones (patches of floating and emergent vegetation, shorelines of open water, and aggregations of cattle hoofprints) across dry and rainy seasons. (cdc.gov)
- This study reports small-scale variations of insecticide susceptibility in Anopheles arabiensis between three neighbouring villages across two seasons in Tanzania, where insecticidal bed nets are extensively used, but malaria transmission persists. (eprints.org)
- arabiensis from three proximal villages, Minepa, Lupiro, and Mavimba, during dry (June-December 2015) and wet (January-May 2016) seasons. (eprints.org)
- arabiensis and showed small-scale differences in resistance levels between the villages, and between seasons. (eprints.org)
- Anopheles gambiae had the highest sporozoite rate in both seasons, with infection rates of 13.9% and 20% in June/July and November/December, respectively. (springer.com)
- More than 90% of malarial cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa, where Anopheles gambiae is the principal vector. (biomedcentral.com)
- The present study was conducted from the direct causes of the disease with to elucidate the factors affecting the breed- almost 90% currently concentrated in sub- ing activity of the vector A. arabiensis in Saharan Africa [ 1 ]. (who.int)
- Anopheles gambiae is one of the most significant malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
- The Organization (WHO) recommen- prevention measures especially in pe- results were examined with respect to dations , susceptibility tests were riurban ecosystems in the main cities potential pressure of insecticide usage conducted on F1 generations of larvae of Africa . (who.int)
- The results revealed that the LD50 for bitter apple fruit powder was 144.2 mg/L, for pepper fruit 165.3 mg/, for orange seeds powder 255.9 mg/L, for pomegranate seeds powder 718.7 mg/L, for orange pericarp powder (980.7 mg/L and, lastly for pomegranate pericarp powder was 1266.9 mg/L. The effects of the treatments on the larvae showed significant differences in their persistence in water. (dipterajournal.com)
- Examination of chromatograms of karyotyped larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis has revealed that there are differences in the profile of their epicuticular hydrocarbons. (core.ac.uk)
- This may partly explain why malaria prevalence is low in irrigated villages with high Anopheles density. (ajtmh.org)
- The density of anopheline larvae was highest during the dry months. (uib.no)
- arabiensis was widely distributed, and its density decreased from the lowest elevation in Hobe to the highest in Wurib. (uib.no)
- The overall mean density was 24.34 larvae/10 dips: 40.73 during the rainy season, 30.45 during irrigation and 13.10 in the dry season. (who.int)
- In the Brazilian Amazon region, the variation in the population density of Anopheles darlingi and records of malaria cases are correlated with the annual hydrological cycle (periods of rains and flooding) and various anthropic activities (deforestation, road construction, agriculture, and mining). (geneticsmr.org)
- It was isolated from the midgut of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis from Kenya. (wikipedia.org)
- With this methodology, we analysed data from recent semi-field studies in Kenya and Tanzania on the impact of transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons, the odour-baited Suna trap and their combination (push-pull system) on HLC of Anopheles arabiensis in the peridomestic area. (bvsalud.org)
- On estime que, d ici 2050, la température du Sahara et des zones semi-arides d Afrique australe risque d augmenter en moyenne de 1,6 °C, alors que des pays équatoriaux comme le Cameroun, le Kenya et l Ouganda pourraient enregistrer une augmentation moyenne de 1,4 °C. (scielosp.org)